WorldWideScience

Sample records for early stages development

  1. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  2. Stage-specific proteome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Beck, Andrea; Habermann, Felix A; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2014-10-03

    Development of early embryonic stages before activation of the embryonic genome depends on sufficiently stored products of the maternal genome, adequate recruitment and degradation of mRNAs, as well as activation, deactivation, and relocation of proteins. By application of an isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based approach, the proteomes of bovine embryos at the zygote and 2-cell and 4-cell stage with MII oocytes as a reference were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1072 quantified proteins, 87 differed significantly in abundance between the four stages. The proteomes of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos differed most from the reference MII oocyte, and a considerable fraction of proteins continuously increased in abundance during the stages analyzed, despite a strongly attenuated rate of translation reported for this period. Bioinformatic analysis revealed particularly interesting proteins involved in the p53 pathway, lipid metabolism, and mitosis. Verification of iTRAQ results by targeted SRM (selected reaction monitoring) analysis revealed excellent agreement for all five proteins analyzed. By principal component analysis, SRM quantifications comprising a panel of only five proteins were shown to discriminate between all four developmental stages analyzed here. For future experiments, an expanded SRM protein panel will provide the potential to detect developmental disturbances with high sensitivity and enable first insights into the underlying molecular pathways.

  3. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  5. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  6. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  7. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Lühmann, Dagmar; Neumann, Ulrike; Bartelmes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-acc...

  8. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  9. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  10. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic hepatitis C on the early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zhevnerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – to assess the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC on the early stages of development and their comparison with the level of galectin3. The study included 78 patients with oligosymptomatic course of the disease and minimal liver fibrosis in the most cases. In the most patients with stages of the disease exceeding 8 years, viral load was over a million copies/ml. In 10 % of patients on the early stages of the disease, changes corresponding to severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis F3 and F4 were detected. Moderate correlation of ALT activity, viral load and low severity with the duration of the disease was identified. There is a trend towards a higher level of galectin3 in a long course of CHC in comparison with earlier stages of its development, with significantly higher average level of galectin-3 in patients with minimal liver fibrosis (F0–F1 as compared to advanced stages, suggesting its importance in the launching and initial mechanisms of fibrogenesis.

  11. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  12. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  13. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  14. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  15. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....... of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  16. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  17. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  18. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  19. Involvement of insulin in early development of mouse one-cell stage embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that growth factors and hormones play important roles in cell prolif-eration and differentiation during early embryonic development. In the present study, we examined the expression and localization of insulin in the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos by quantitative ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. In the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage em-bryos, expression of insulin was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. We also examined the expres-sion, activity and localization of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and p70S6K. The expression of mTOR and p70S6K was not significantly different at the cell cycle of mouse one-cell stage embryos. mTOR and S6K were distributed evenly in the cytoplasm at G1, G2 and M phase phase, but at S phase, the distribution of mTOR and S6K was around the pronucleus. At different phases, the activity of mTOR fluctuated. We also used the PI3K specific inhibitor-Wortmannin to investigate the cleavage rate of eggs. The result showed that the rate obviously decreased. When the mTOR specific inhibitor Rapa-mycin was used, the first mitotic division of the mouse one-cell stage embryo was delayed. These re-sults suggested that insulin was expressed both in mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos, and may play functional roles in regulation of mouse early embryogenesis by activating the signal pathway of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K.

  20. [GABA--the basic mediator of excitation in the early stages of hippocampal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazipov, R N; Zefirov, A L; Ben-Ari, E

    1998-01-01

    GABA is the principal neurotransmitter of inhibition in the adult mammalian brain. However, at early stages of development, including embryonic period and first week of postnatal life, GABA plays the role of main neurotransmitter of excitation. The paradoxical excitatory effect of GABA is due to an inversed chloride gradient and therefore a depolarizing direction of GABA-A receptor mediated responses. In addition, another type of GABAergic inhibition mediated by postsynaptic GABA-B receptors is not functional at early stage of life. In the neonatal rat hippocampus, GABA, acting via GABA-A receptors, activates voltage gated sodium and calcium channels and potentiates the activity of NMDA receptors by reducing their voltage dependent Mg2+ block. The temporal window when GABA exerts excitatory actions coincides with a particular pattern of activity of hippocampal neuronal network that is characterized by periodical giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) reminiscent of interictal-like epileptiform discharges. Recent studies have shown that GDPs result from the synchronous discharge of GABAergic interneurons and principal glutamatergic pyramidal cells and are mediated by the synergistic excitatory actions of GABA-A and glutamate receptors. GDPs provide synchronous intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and may therefore be implicated in hebbian modulation of developing synapses and activity-dependent formation of the hippocampal network.

  1. A spectrum of genes expressed during early stages of rice panicle and flower development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumuda M. Kushalappa; Autar K. Mattoo; Usha Vijayraghavan

    2000-08-01

    To unravel gene expression patterns during rice inflorescence development, particularly at early stages of panicle and floral organ specification, we have characterized random cloned cDNAs from developmental-stage-specific libraries. cDNA libraries were constructed from rice panicles at the stage of branching and flower primordia specification or from panicles undergoing floral organogenesis. Partial sequence analysis and expression patterns of some of these random cDNA clones from these two rice panicle libraries are presented. Sequence comparisons with known DNA sequences in databases reveal that approximately sixtyeight per cent of these expressed rice genes show varying degrees of similarity to genes in other species with assigned functions. In contrast, thirtytwo per cent represent uncharacterized genes. cDNAs reported here code for potential rice homologues of housekeeping molecules, regulators of gene expression, and signal transduction molecules. They comprise both single-copy and multicopy genes, and genes expressed differentially, both spatially and temporally, during rice plant development. New rice cDNAs requiring specific mention are those with similarity to COP1, a regulator of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis; sequence-specific DNA binding plant proteins like AP2-domain-containing factors; genes that specify positional information in shoot meristems like leucine-rich-repeat-containing receptor kinases; regulators of chromatin structure like Polycomb domain protein; and also proteins induced by abiotic stresses.

  2. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  3. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  4. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  5. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  6. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  7. Ontogeny of immune organs during early development stage of P. crocea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A histological and ultrastructural study was performed on the development of the head kidney, thymus, and spleen in Pseudosciaena crocea aging in range from just hatching to the 60th day after hatching (DAH). Head kidney was first present on the 3rd DAH. Primordial haemopoietic stem cells were first observed in the head kidney which rapidly differentiate into different cellular types. Progenitor spleen was present on the 4th DAH, located close to the gut, which soon became rich in blood capillaries, red blood cells and thrombocytes. The thymus was obvious on the 4th DAH, and was located on either side of the upper corner of the opercular cavity, closely under the membrance of the opercuhr cavity. The thymus was the last lymphoid organ to appear but showed a quick development. This organ seemed to originate from haemopoietic stem cells migrating from the head region of the kidney. The thymus consisted of outer thymocytic and inner epithelioid zones. There was no obvious demarcation between them, but both zones were visible. Small lymphocytes appeared, or lymphoid organs become lymphoid, in the sequence thymus, head kidney and spleen. Only a small number of lymphocytes appeared in the later stages. Non-specific systems may play an important role in the immunocompetence mechanisms of P. crocea during its early development stage.

  8. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 expression in zebrafish during the early stages of neuronal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihong Li; Yong Sun; Changming Dou; Jixian Chen; Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is associated with transcriptional coregulation via the modulation of histone methylation. The expression pattern and function of zebrafish Lsd1 has not, however, been studied. Here, we describe the pattern of zebrafish Lsd1 expression during different development stages. In the zebrafish embryo, lsd1 mRNA was present during the early cleavage stage, indicating that maternally derived Lsd1 protein is involved in embryonic patterning. During embryogenesis from 0 to 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf), the expression of lsd1 mRNA in the embryo was ubiquitous before 12 hpf and then became restricted to the anterior of the embryo (particularly in the brain) from 24 hpf to 72 hpf. Inhibition of Lsd1 activity (by exposure to tranylcypromine) or knockdown of lsd1 expression (by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection) led to the loss of cells in the brain and to a dramatic downregulation of neural genes, including gad65, gad75, and reelin, but not hey1. These findings indicate an important role of Lsd1 during nervous system development in zebrafish.

  9. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. Aims: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. Method: A comprehensive search...... seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. Conclusions: Many studies......: Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders...

  10. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-10-16

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ectomycorrhizin Synthesis and Polypeptide Changes during the Early Stage of Eucalypt Mycorrhiza Development 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Costa, Guy; Martin, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In functioning eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, biochemical alterations are accompanied by a differential accumulation of polypeptides including the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins (JL Hilbert, Martin FM [1988] New Phytol 110: 339-346). In the present study, protein biosynthesis in the early stages of ectomycorrhiza formation on Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata Kirkp. was examined using compatible and incompatible isolates of the basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker & Couch). Changes in polypeptide composition were observed within hours following contact of the compatible mycelium with the roots, well before the differentiation of typical symbiotic tissues. At this stage, at least seven symbiosis-related proteins (ectomycorrhizins) accumulated in root tissues. In vivo incorporation of [35S]methionine by ectomycorrhizas followed by electrophoresis of the labeled proteins revealed that most of these differences in polypeptide concentrations, including the ectomycorrhizin accumulation, are the result of differential protein biosynthesis rather than posttranslational modifications of the polypeptides. The initial development of eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, therefore, coincides with the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins and the data presented here provide essential evidence to ascribe a functional developmental role to these proteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668539

  12. Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: A critical review of methods and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available, th

  13. Rethinking the Food and Drug Administration's 2013 guidance on developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lon S

    2014-03-01

    The February 2013 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) creates certain challenges as they guide toward the use of one cognitive outcome to gain accelerated marketing approval for preclinical AD drugs, and a composite clinical scale - the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in particular - for the primary outcome for prodromal AD clinical trials. In light of the developing knowledge regarding early stage diagnoses and clinical trials outcomes, we recommend that FDA describe its requirements for validating preclinical AD diagnoses for drug development purposes, maintain the principle for requiring coprimary outcomes, and encourage the advancement of outcomes for early stage AD trials. The principles for drug development for early stage AD should not differ from those for clinical AD, especially as the diagnoses of prodromal and early AD impinge on each other. The FDA should not recommend that a composite scale be used as a sole primary efficacy outcome to support a marketing claim unless it requires that the cognitive and functional components of such a scale are demonstrated to be individually meaningful. The current draft guidelines may inadvertently constrain efforts to better assess the clinical effects of new drugs and inhibit innovation in an area where evidence-based clinical research practices are still evolving.

  14. Non-destructive Phenotyping of Lettuce Plants in Early Stages of Development with Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Hayes, Ryan J.; Furbank, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, non-destructive evaluations of plants can provide valuable information to breeders and growers. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of using non-destructive phenotyping with optical sensors for the evaluations of lettuce plants in early stages of development. We performed the series of experiments to determine if hyperspectral imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can determine phenotypic changes manifested on lettuce plants subjected to the extreme temperature and salinity stress treatments. Our results indicate that top view optical sensors alone can accurately determine plant size to approximately 7 g fresh weight. Hyperspectral imaging analysis was able to detect changes in the total chlorophyll (RCC) and anthocyanin (RAC) content, while chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed photoinhibition and reduction of plant growth caused by the extreme growing temperatures (3 and 39°C) and salinity (100 mM NaCl). Though no significant correlation was found between Fv/Fm and decrease in plant growth due to stress when comparisons were made across multiple accessions, our results indicate that lettuce plants have a high adaptability to both low (3°C) and high (39°C) temperatures, with no permanent damage to photosynthetic apparatus and fast recovery of plants after moving them to the optimal (21°C) temperature. We have also detected a strong relationship between visual rating of the green- and red-leaf color intensity and RCC and RAC, respectively. Differences in RAC among accessions suggest that the selection for intense red color may be easier to perform at somewhat lower than the optimal temperature. This study serves as a proof of

  15. Challenges and developments in research of the early stages of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Brietzke

    Full Text Available Recently, attention in the field of bipolar disorder (BD has focused on prevention, including early detection and intervention, as these strategies have the potential to delay, lessen the severity, or even prevent full-blown episodes of BD. Although knowledge of the neurobiology of BD has advanced substantially in the last two decades, most research was conducted with chronic patients. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the early stages of BD, to explore recent discoveries on the neurobiology of these stages, and to discuss implications for research and clinical care. The following databases were searched: PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SciELO. Articles published in English from inception to December 2015 were retrieved. Several research approaches were used, including examination of offspring studies, retrospective studies, prospective studies of clinical high-risk populations, and exploration of the progression after the first manic episode. Investigations with neuroimaging, cognition assessments, and biomarkers provide promising (although not definitive evidence of alterations in the neural substrate during the at-risk stage. Research on BD should be expanded to encompass at-risk states and aligned with recent methodological progress in neuroscience.

  16. Challenges and developments in research of the early stages of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Elisa; Rosa, Adriane R; Pedrini, Mariana; Noto, Mariane N; Kapczinski, Flavio; Scott, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, attention in the field of bipolar disorder (BD) has focused on prevention, including early detection and intervention, as these strategies have the potential to delay, lessen the severity, or even prevent full-blown episodes of BD. Although knowledge of the neurobiology of BD has advanced substantially in the last two decades, most research was conducted with chronic patients. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the early stages of BD, to explore recent discoveries on the neurobiology of these stages, and to discuss implications for research and clinical care. The following databases were searched: PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SciELO. Articles published in English from inception to December 2015 were retrieved. Several research approaches were used, including examination of offspring studies, retrospective studies, prospective studies of clinical high-risk populations, and exploration of the progression after the first manic episode. Investigations with neuroimaging, cognition assessments, and biomarkers provide promising (although not definitive) evidence of alterations in the neural substrate during the at-risk stage. Research on BD should be expanded to encompass at-risk states and aligned with recent methodological progress in neuroscience.

  17. Development of Forms and Functions of Negation in the Early Stages of Language Acquisition: A Study in Tamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of forms and functions of negation in parent-child interactions in the early stages of language acquisition is discussed with illustrative examples from field data relating to two Tamil-speaking children and their parents. An attempt is made to provide a scheme for analyzing the negatives in children's speech. (18 references) (JL)

  18. Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.

    2006-01-01

    New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the

  19. Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.

    2006-01-01

    New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the pro

  20. A nodule-specific gene encoding a subtilisin-like protease is expressed in early stages of actinorhizal nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    To identify genes specifically expressed during early stages of actinorhizal nodule development, a cDNA library made from poly(A) RNA from root nodules of Alnus glutinosa was screened differentially with nodule and root cDNA, respectively. Seven nodule-enhanced and four nodule-specific cDNA clones

  1. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  2. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  3. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  4. The Notch Ligand Delta-Like 4 Regulates Multiple Stages of Early Hemato-Vascular Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Hélia; Gomes, Andreia C.; Saavedra, Pedro; Carvalho, Catarina C.; Duarte, António; Cidadão, António; Parreira, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Background In mouse embryos, homozygous or heterozygous deletions of the gene encoding the Notch ligand Dll4 result in early embryonic death due to major defects in endothelial remodeling in the yolk sac and embryo. Considering the close developmental relationship between endothelial and hematopoietic cell lineages, which share a common mesoderm-derived precursor, the hemangioblast, and many key regulatory molecules, we investigated whether Dll4 is also involved in the regulation of early embryonic hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Embryoid Bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells harboring hetero- or homozygous Dll4 deletions, we observed that EBs from both genotypes exhibit an abnormal endothelial remodeling in the vascular sprouts that arise late during EB differentiation, indicating that this in vitro system recapitulates the angiogenic phenotype of Dll4 mutant embryos. However, analysis of EB development at early time points revealed that the absence of Dll4 delays the emergence of mesoderm and severely reduces the number of blast-colony forming cells (BL-CFCs), the in vitro counterpart of the hemangioblast, and of endothelial cells. Analysis of colony forming units (CFU) in EBs and yolk sacs from Dll4+/− and Dll4−/− embryos, showed that primitive erythropoiesis is specifically affected by Dll4 insufficiency. In Dll4 mutant EBs, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seemingly unaffected and cardiomyocyte differentiation was increased, indicating that SMC specification is Dll4-independent while a normal dose of this Notch ligand is essential for the quantitative regulation of cardiomyogenesis. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights a previously unnoticed role for Dll4 in the quantitative regulation of early hemato-vascular precursors, further indicating that it is also involved on the timely emergence of mesoderm in early embryogenesis. PMID:22514637

  5. Expression analysis of Shh signaling members in early stages of chick lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rute Silva; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Lung organogenesis is guided by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that coordinate cellular events responsible for the formation of the respiratory system. Several signaling pathways have been implicated in this process; among them, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has emerged as a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Canonical Shh signaling requires the presence of patched (Ptch) and smoothened (Smo) transmembrane receptors in order to induce the activation of glioblastoma (Gli) zinc finger transcription factors that are the true effectors of the pathway. Signal transduction is finely regulated by Ptch1, Gli, and Hhip (hedgehog-interacting protein). The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of shh, ptch1, smo, gli1, and hhip in early stages of the embryonic chick lung. In situ hybridization studies revealed that these genes are expressed in the same cellular compartments as their mammalian counterparts, although their proximo-distal distribution is slightly changed. Moreover, the molecular interactions between fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Shh signaling pathway were assessed, in vitro, by grafting beads soaked in SU5402 (an FGF receptor inhibitor). In the chick lung, Shh signaling seems to have some features that are species specific since shh is not a downstream target of FGF signaling. Nonetheless and despite the observed differences, these findings suggest a role for Shh signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control chick lung morphogenesis.

  6. Development of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy at Early Stages Using Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwa Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a common microvascular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM and is a leading cause of vision impairment and loss among adults. Here, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis to discover biomarkers for DR. First, to identify biomarker candidates that are specifically expressed in human vitreous, we performed data-mining on both previously published DR-related studies and our experimental data; 96 proteins were then selected. To confirm and validate the selected biomarker candidates, candidates were selected, confirmed, and validated using plasma from diabetic patients without DR (No DR and diabetics with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Mi or Mo NPDR using semiquantitative multiple reaction monitoring (SQ-MRM and stable-isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring (SID-MRM. Additionally, we performed a multiplex assay using 15 biomarker candidates identified in the SID-MRM analysis, which resulted in merged AUC values of 0.99 (No DR versus Mo NPDR and 0.93 (No DR versus Mi and Mo NPDR. Although further validation with a larger sample size is needed, the 4-protein marker panel (APO4, C7, CLU, and ITIH2 could represent a useful multibiomarker model for detecting the early stages of DR.

  7. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car......, products and possibilities to test methods. Three empirical studies were carried out within the industry of external-ear body worn products for commercial use. Key findings included the identification of associations between human dimensions and product dimensions by providing an extended matrix of human...

  8. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, IRSN, Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: stephanie.bourrachot@irsn.fr; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, IRSN, Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2008-10-20

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 {mu}g L{sup -1} of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} of {sup 233}U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 {mu}g L{sup -1} of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 {mu}g L{sup -1} upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for {sup 233}U than DU exposure, while the presence of {sup 233}U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments.

  9. Setting the stage for child health and development: prevention of iron deficiency in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2008-12-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is particularly persistent among infants and children. The high prevalence of anemia in 6- to 9-mo-old children raises the concern that birth iron stores in some infants are inadequate to sustain growth and development through the first 6 mo of life, and postnatal factors are contributing to early depletion of iron stores and development of anemia. At the same time, there are concerns about negative effects of excess iron in infants. Maternal iron status, infant birth weight and gestational age, as well as the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth all contribute to the establishment of adequate total body iron at birth. Postnatally, feeding practices and growth rate are factors that will affect how quickly birth iron is depleted during the first 6 mo of life. Under conditions in which maternal iron status, birth weight, gestational age, and umbilical cord clamping time are optimal, and exclusive breast-feeding is practiced, infants should have adequate iron stores for the first 6-8 mo of life. Under suboptimal conditions, infants may not reach this goal and may need to be targeted for iron supplementation before 6 mo of age.

  10. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  11. AP2γ regulates neural and epidermal development downstream of the BMP pathway at early stages of ectodermal patterning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbo Qiao; Yue Zhu; Nengyin Sheng; Jun Chen; Ran Tao; Qingqing Zhu; Ting Zhang; Cheng Qian; Naihe Jing

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits neural specification and induces epidermal differentiation during ectodermal patterning.However,the mechanism of this process is not well understood.Here we show that AP2γ,a transcription factor activator protein (AP)-2 family member,is upregulated by BMP4 during neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Knockdown of AP2γ facilitates mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural fate determination and impairs epidermal differentiation,whereas AP2γ overexpression inhibits neural conversion and promotes epidermal commitment.In the early chick embryo,AP2γ is expressed in the entire epiblast before HH stage 3 and gradually shifts to the putative epidermal ectoderm during HH stage 4.In the future neural plate AP2γ inhibits excessive neural expansion and it also promotes epidermal development in the surface ectoderm.Moreover,AP2γ knockdown in ESCs and chick embryos partially rescued the neural inhibition and epidermal induction effects of BMP4.Mechanistic studies showed that BMP4 directly regulates AP2γ expression through Smad1 binding to the AP2γ promoter.Taken together,we propose that during the early stages of ectodermal patterning in the chick embryo,AP2γ acts downstream of the BMP pathway to restrict precocious neural expansion in the prospective neural plate and initiates epidermal differentiation in the future epidermal ectoderm.

  12. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases 15 and 19 are stromal regulators of colorectal cancer development from the early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Paola; Mariani, Francesco; Marzona, Laura; Benincasa, Marta; Ponz de Leon, Maurizio; Palumbo, Carla; Roncucci, Luca

    2012-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been well characterized for their ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins and, thus, they have been studied to elucidate their involvement in both tumor development and progression. In the present study, attention was focused on MMP-15 and MMP-19, two less known members of the MMP family. The expression profile of MMP-15 and -19 was assayed in samples of normal colorectal mucosa, microadenomas and cancer using confocal analysis, western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that MMP-15 and MMP-19 appeared to be upregulated during colorectal tumorigenesis, with different expression patterns: MMP-15 expression level increases from normal mucosa to microadenomas, with a reduced level in cancer with respect to microadenomas; the semiquantitative immunofluorescence analysis showed a stromal localization of this protein in the early phases of neoplastic transformation. Increasing amount of MMP-19 mRNA and protein levels were observed in the progression of colonic lesions; MMP-19 staining increased in the normal mucosa-microadenoma-carcinoma sequence. Such different expression patterns, are probably due to the different roles played in colorectal tumorigenesis by these two molecules. Conflicting data on the role of these proteins in tumor progression have been reported, thus, an improved understanding of the biological roles of MMPs, in particular the lesser known members such as MMP-15 and 19, in colorectal cancer may lead to a re-evaluation of the use of MMP inhibitors and suggests the need of integrated translational studies on MMP expression patterns.

  14. Impacts of anthropogenic stresses on the early development stages of seaweeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Brown, M.

    2000-01-01

    Seaweeds are important primary producers, and as such contribute significantly to nearshore ecosystems. Studies on the effects of anthropogenic stresses on these organisms have largely been concerned with the vegetative adult stages of the life cycle. Here we review the limited information on the

  15. Impacts of anthropogenic stresses on the early development stages of seaweeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Brown, M.

    2000-01-01

    Seaweeds are important primary producers, and as such contribute significantly to nearshore ecosystems. Studies on the effects of anthropogenic stresses on these organisms have largely been concerned with the vegetative adult stages of the life cycle. Here we review the limited information on the se

  16. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  17. Conrad Deep, Northern Red Sea: Development of an early stage ocean deep within the axial depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Hübscher, C.; Gajewski, D.

    2005-12-01

    The northern Red Sea represents a continental rift in its final stage and close to the following stage of seafloor spreading. Ocean deeps within the evaporites of the northern Red Sea seem to accompany this process and are thought to be surface expressions of first seafloor spreading cells. In 1999 during R/V Meteor cruise M44/3 a dense multichannel seismic and hydroacoustic survey was conducted in order to investigate the initial formation process of the Conrad Deep, a young northern Red Sea deep. Three seismic units were differentiated in the uppermost part of the Miocene evaporites and the Plio-Quaternary sediments. A weakness zone within the evaporites, oblique to the main extension direction of the Red Sea, led to a transtension process within the evaporites that opened the deep. Its formation is directly related to the emplacement of magmatic bodies in its vicinity and the focusing of the Red Sea extension to the axial depression. The Conrad Deep is an intra-evaporite basin that cannot be regarded as surficial expression of a basement structure as the low shear strength of the evaporites decouple the sediments from the basement. However, its position and shape in combination with the accompanying geophysical anomalies point to a strong correlation with the Red Sea rifting process.

  18. Ectopic expression of OsMADS45 activates the upstream genes Hd3a and RFT1 at an early development stage causing early flowering in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiun-Da; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Li, Yan-Suan; Chen, Po-Ju; Lin, Shih-Yun; Ho, Teh-Yuan; Lin, Jenq-Horng; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2013-12-01

    The rice gene, OsMADS45, which belongs to the MADS-box E class gene, participates in the regulation of floral development. Previous studies have revealed that ectopic expression of OsMADS45 induces early flowering and influences reduced plant height under short-day (SD) conditions. However, the regulation mechanism of OsMADS45 overexpression remains unknown. We introduce an OsMADS45 overexpression construct Ubi:OsMADS45 into TNG67 plants (an Hd1 (Heading date 1) and Ehd1 (Early heading date 1) defective rice cultivar grown in Taiwan), and we analyzed the expression patterns of various floral regulators to understand the regulation pathways affected by OsMADS45 expression. The transgenic rice exhibit a heading date approximately 40 days earlier than that observed in TNG67 plants, and transgenic rice display small plant size and low grain yield. OsMADS45 overexpression did not alter the oscillating rhythm of the examined floral regulatory genes but advanced (by approximately 20 days) the up-regulate of two florigens, Hd3a (Heading Date 3a) and RFT1 (RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1) and suppressed the expression of Hd1 at the juvenile stage. The expression levels of OsMADS14 and OsMADS18, which are two well-known reproductive phase transition markers, were also increased at early developmental stages and are believed to be the major regulators responsible for early flowering in OsMADS45-overexpressing transgenic rice. OsMADS45 overexpression did not influence other floral regulator genes upstream of Hd1 and Ehd1, such as OsGI (OsGIGANTEA), Ehd2/Osld1/RID1 and OsMADS50. These results indicate that in transgenic rice, OsMADS45 overexpressing ectopically activates the upstream genes Hd3a and RFT1 at early development stage and up-regulates the expression of OsMADS14 and OsMADS18, which induces early flowering.

  19. Bringing in health technology assessment and cost-effectiveness considerations at an early stage of drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews the issues involved in undertaking HTA studies early in the development of new cancer therapies, and discusses the data and methods for estimating the cost-effectiveness of new diagnostics and treatments. The value for patients of new cancer therapies is based on access to the treatment and optimal use. Realising potential value depends on successful completion of a series of steps, from the initial economic evaluations based on clinical trial data, to the reimbursement decisions based on the evaluations and the implementation of these decisions in clinical practice. Considerable resources have been devoted to the study of the cost-effectiveness of new cancer drugs as a basis for decisions about payment and use. Such resources could be used much more effectively if industry and HTA agencies were to collaborate at an early stage in the development process. The traditional clinical trial approach of using progression-free survival and cross-overs has serious shortcomings, producing data that cannot be used to determine outcomes and, so, cost-effectiveness. A new standard is needed; both regulatory and HTA authorities should be involved in its development.

  20. The effect of growth-mimicking continuous strain on the early stages of skeletal development in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Darinka D; Smit, Theo H; Mooney, David J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic skeletogenesis involves proliferation, condensation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells, and the strains and stresses inherent to these processes have been hypothesized to influence skeletal development. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth-mimicking strain on the process of early skeletal development in vitro. To this end, we applied continuous uniaxial strain to embryonic skeletal precursor cells in micromass culture. Strain was applied at different times of culture to specifically address the effect of mechanical loading on the sequential stages of cellular proliferation, condensation and differentiation. We found that growth-mimicking strain at all three times did not affect proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation under the tested conditions. However, the timing of the applied strain did play a role in the density of mesenchymal condensations. This finding suggests that a mechanically dynamic environment, and specifically strain, can influence skeletal patterning. The growth-mimicking micromass model presented here may be a useful tool for further studies into the role of mechanical loading in early skeletal development.

  1. Life cycle assessment as decision support tool in early stage development of a new technology for wastewater resource recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater....... The environmental performance of the system has been evaluated through life cycle assessment using EASETECH software. For the chosen scenarios, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the TRENS system’s lower aeration......-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. We present the environmental impact...

  2. Low-Resolution Screening of Early Stage Acquisition Simulation Scenario Development Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    28 Figure 9. COMBATXXI preprocessor view of ACV Phase 0. .......................................32 Figure 10. Unit...Analysis of Alternatives ACV Amphibious Combat Vehicle CAS Close Air Support COA Course of Action COMBATXXI Combined Arms Analysis Tool for the...MCCDC) on the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) cost an estimate of $1,281,000 (part of which was the cost of COMBATXXI development and analysis

  3. Development of a Diagnostic Tool to Detect DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chongli Yuan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 REPORT DATE: February...DNA methylation with high spatial resolution. Task 2.1 Design a library of DNA constructs in which the location of the single methylated CpG site is...the impact on the development of the principal discipline of the project? This proposal aims to design and demonstrate proof-of-concept for these

  4. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles;

    1999-01-01

    This paper will report on the results of a three year UK government funded research project entitled Design for the Environment Decision Support (DEEDS). As part of this project a survey of the Electronic and Electrical Industry was carried out in order to understand the way in which industry...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  5. Implementation of quality management in early stages of research and development projects at a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehe, Sandra; Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Rosefort, Christiane; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Knipp, Peter; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate objective of university research and development projects is usually to create knowledge, but also to successfully transfer results to industry for subsequent marketing. We hypothesized that the university technology transfer requires efficient measures to improve this important step. Besides good scientific practice, foresighted and industry-specific adapted documentation of research processes in terms of a quality management system might improve the technology transfer. In order to bridge the gap between research institute and cooperating industry, a model project has been accompanied by a project specific amount of quality management. However, such a system had to remain manageable and must not constrain the researchers' creativity. Moreover, topics and research team are strongly interdisciplinary, which entails difficulties regarding communication because of different perspectives and terminology. In parallel to the technical work of the model project, an adaptable quality management system with a quality manual, defined procedures, and forms and documents accompanying the research, development and validation was implemented. After process acquisition and analysis the appropriate amount of management for the model project was identified by a self-developed rating system considering project characteristics like size, innovation, stakeholders, interdisciplinarity, etc. Employees were trained according to their needs. The management was supported and the technical documentation was optimized. Finally, the quality management system has been transferred successfully to further projects.

  6. Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS), which is a technology that is currently being promoted by industries, scientists and governments, among others, in order to mitigate climate change despite a continued use of fossil fuels. Because of the complex nature of CCS and the risks it entails, it is controversial. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how the technology may be further developed in a responsible manner. In the first part of the thesis different ...

  7. Mixture design approach for early stage formulation development of a transdermal delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M; Leopold, C S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal delivery systems (TDS) consisting of mixtures of adhesives also named multiple polymer adhesive systems are rarely found in the market and research has only been performed on a few of them. Following the principles of ICH Q8, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was selected for the formulation development. For evaluation of the statistical method of "mixture design", blends of silicon adhesive, acrylic adhesive, oleyl alcohol as a surfactant and ibuprofen as a model drug were considered to be combined at different concentrations. A randomized design of 16 runs with five replicates and five runs to estimate the lack of fit (LOF) was generated. Samples were tested for adhesion properties, stability of the wet mixes, solubility of the API in the matrix and appearance of the matrix. After performing an ANOVA with the results, response surfaces of tack, shear adhesion, extent of creaming, crystallization behavior, droplet size and droplet size range were derived as contour plots. It could be shown that crystal growth of ibuprofen correlates well with droplet size and droplet size range, where lowest values for crystallization were found with mixtures containing small droplets. However, it was observed that oleyl alcohol showed no positive effect on the miscibility of the polymers and no improvement of the solubility of ibuprofen in the mixtures. With a reasonable number of experiments, the development of a design space for a TDS via mixture design gave valuable information on the product as well as on the interactions of the components.

  8. Deletion of IFT20 in early stage T lymphocyte differentiation inhibits the development of collagen-induced arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Lee Ann Garrett-Sinha; Debanjan Sarkar; Shuying Yang

    2014-01-01

    IFT20 is the smallest member of the intraflagellar transport protein (IFT) complex B. It is involved in cilia formation. Studies of IFT20 have been confined to ciliated cells. Recently, IFT20 was found to be also expressed in non-ciliated T cells and have functions in immune synapse formation and signaling in vitro. However, how IFT20 regulates T-cell development and activation in vivo is still unknown. We deleted the IFT20 gene in early and later stages of T-cell development by crossing IFT20flox/flox (IFT20f/f) mice with Lck-Cre and CD4-Cre transgenic mice, and investigated the role of IFT20 in T-cell maturation and in the development of T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that both Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f and CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates in body size, as well as in the morphology and weight of the spleen and thymus. However, the number of CD4-and CD8-positive cells was significantly lower in thymus and spleen in Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice. Meanwhile, the incidence and severity of CIA symptoms were significantly decreased, and inflammation in the paw was significantly inhibited in Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice compared to Lck-Cre/IFT201/1 littermates. Deletion IFT20 in more mature T cells of CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice had only mild effects on the development of T cells and CIA. The expression of IL-1b, IL-6 and TGF-b1 were significantly downregulated in the paw of Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice, but just slight decreased in CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice. These results demonstrate that deletion of IFT20 in the early stage of T-cell development inhibited CIA development through regulating T-cell development and the expression of critical cytokines.

  9. Extended longevity and robust early-stage development of Caenorhabditis elegans by a soil microbe, Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Junhyeok; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, originally isolated from soil, is a nematode used in various fields of biological research including host–microbe interaction. While bacterial pathogens responsible for human infections have been actively studied in C. elegans, very few bacterial species that provide beneficial effects on C. elegans have been reported. Here, we tested several bacterial soil isolates and then characterized the effects of Lysinibacillus sphaericus on C. elegans growth-related phenotypes. Worms fed with L. sphaericus lived significantly longer than those growing with typical Escherichia coli OP50. Early- and juvenile-stage growth was also highly stimulated by L. sphaericus; body size at 28 h post-hatching was > 2 times larger than OP50-fed worms and L. sphaericus-fed worms moved through the larval stage development more rapidly than control worms. In addition, significantly elevated fertilization was observed in worms fed with L. sphaericus (∼ 8 h faster than the control group). Furthermore, growth with L. sphaericus resulted in the production of larger numbers of progeny than the control growth with OP50. Worms grown with L. sphaericus were highly resistant to oxidative, osmotic and infection stresses. Together, our results reveal a novel mode of growth that involves healthy ageing of nematodes.

  10. Feed supplementation with avian Propionibacterium acidipropionici contributes to mucosa development in early stages of rearing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, E Argañaraz; Babot, J D; Lorenzo-Pisarello, M J; Apella, M C; Chaia, A Perez

    2016-11-30

    Different studies in animal rearing claim the probiotic potential of species of the genus Propionibacterium. The effects of strains of Propionibacterium acidipropionici isolated from poultry intestine on microbiota activity and intestinal mucosa development were investigated in the early stage of rearing chicks and the safety of the dose used was investigated. The strains P. acidipropionici LET105 and LET107, administered as monoculture to chicks from the 1(st) to 14(th) day of life in a daily dose of 106 cfu/ml administered in the drinking water resulted harmless. The animals arrived at the expected weight for age and no differences were observed with respect to the food intake and water consumption related to control without bacteria administration. The analysis of microbiota composition revealed the presence of propionibacteria at the middle and end of the trial only in treated groups. Normal development of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, and slow colonisation by Bacteroides at the 7(th) day of the study was observed in the same groups. Analysis of the organic acids concentrations in the caecal content of birds revealed higher lactic acid and lower butyric acid production. Lower short chain fatty acids total concentration than expected during treatment was related to a better development of the gut mucosa. Increase in length of villus-crypt units, goblet cells counts and neutral mucins production were evidenced. Higher mucus secretion produced by dietary supplementation with propionibacteria could provide increased protection against pathogens.

  11. The Relationship Among Photoinhibition, Photooxidation and Early Aging at a Late Development Stage in Different Varieties with High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO De-mao; LI Xia; HUANG Xue-qing; JI Ben-hua

    2002-01-01

    Using six high yield varieties from different ecological districts in China the parameters of Chl fluorescence, the performance of membrane lipid peroxidation and the reduction of Chl content in flag leaf under natural condition at the later developmental stages (from heading stage to mature stage). The results showed that Fv/Fm, decreased gradually, the excessive light energy led to the accumulation of active oxygen O2-, H2O2 and the product of membrane-lipid peroxidation, MDA, which resulted in the reduction of Chl content and early aging due to photooxidation during the course of senescence of flag leaf. This phenomenon varied obviously in rice varieties. When comparina japonica tolerant to photooxidation, Fv/Fm in indica shanyou 63 susceptible to photoxidation decreased significantly. An increase of active oxygen and a sharp drop of Chl content, resulted in "yellowish" early aging and influenced filling and setting of rice grain. The mechanism on early aging in indica was related to light and temperature conditions in filling stages. On a fine day (above 25℃ ), PS Ⅱ reaction center exhibited a dynamic change on revisable inactivation. Under strong midday light, PS Ⅱ function in indica exhibited obvious down-regulation and photoinhibition; Under strong light with low temperature, PS Ⅱ resulted in photodamage, showing early aging, which were related to the degradation of PS Ⅱ - D1 Protein and the inhibition of the endogenous protecting system such as Xanthophyll cycle and the enzymes of scavenging active oxygen. The results suggested that for a view of high-yield breeding, on the basis of a good type-plant, giving consideration to the utilization of heterosis and resistance to early aging, selecting japonica or a sterile line with japonice genotype as maternal was a breeding strategy worthy of being paid more attention.

  12. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-10-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases.

  13. Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Wang, Yi; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Planktonic lactobacilli induced a significant reduction (p  0.05), but significantly reduced the early stages of Candida biofilm formation (p Candida hyphal differentiation, leading to a predominance of budding growth. All lactobacilli negatively impacted C. albicans yeast-to-hyphae differentiation and biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus on C. albicans entailed both cell-cell interactions and secretion of exometabolites that may impact on pathogenic attributes associated with C. albicans colonization on host surfaces and yeast filamentation. This study clarifies, for the first time, the mechanics of how Lactobacillus species may antagonize C. albicans host colonization. Our data elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms that define the probiotic candicidal activity of lactobacilli, thus supporting their utility as an adjunctive therapeutic mode against mucosal candidal infections.

  14. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  15. Early Stage HIV Management and Reduction of Stavudine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats by Experimentally Developed Biodegradable Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat; Mondal, Laboni; Chakraborty, Samrat; Mukherjee, Biswajit

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this research work were to develop optimized nanoparticulate formulations of poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (85:15) with an anti-AIDS drug stavudine and to evaluate their in-vitro uptake by the macrophages and hepatotoxicity in-vivo. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method based on a factorial design with varying parameters such as the amounts of polymer and stabilizer used. Physicochemical characterizations such as drug-excipient interaction, surface morphology, particle size, and zeta potential measurements were carried out. The best formulation was selected and tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for cellular uptake study of the formulation. In-vitro uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages was carried out. Formulation-induced hepatotoxicity was assessed by analyzing some serum hepatotoxic parameters and hepatic histology following 10-day treatment in comparison with the free drug. Nanoparticles exhibited smooth surface with particle size 84-238 nm, high entrapment efficiency (approx 85%), and negative surface charge. Formulations showed a sustained drug release pattern over the study period. In-vitro uptake study by macrophages exhibited a time-dependent profile. In-vivo studies on rats showed improvement in the serum parameters and maintenance of the integrity of the hepatic architecture indicating decreased hepatotoxicity with the formulations as compared to the free drug. The experimental results showed a positive outcome in the development of antiretroviral drug carrier exhibiting sustained drug release, macrophage-targeted delivery characteristics, and having reduced hepatoxicity. This could be beneficial for the management of early stage of HIV infection besides reducing the drug load for effective treatment, thereby offering an attractive option in AIDS therapy.

  16. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  17. Copper tolerance of three Crotalaria species from southeastern D.R. Congo at the early development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boisson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Microevolutionary processes in metallophytes established on copper enriched soils can lead to a diversity of plant species showing distinct tolerance capacities among genus. Researches about the relationship between these endangered plants and soil copper concentrations are critical in order to improve ex situ conservation methods in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Katangan Copperbelt. Objectives. The aim of the study was to test the effect of copper on the germination and root elongation of three Crotalaria species naturally occurring along a natural copper gradient. The hypothesis is that copper concentrations have different effects on germination and root elongation according to the species of Crotalaria genus. Method. Three species were selected: Crotalaria cobalticola, Crotalaria peschiana and Crotalaria cornetii, occurring on soils with the highest to the lowest copper concentrations respectively. Germination and root elongation tests were performed in vitro (MS vitamin-enriched medium in six copper mediums ranging from 0 to 125 µM Cu2+. Results. No significant differences in germination percentage were observed according to the copper concentrations. Crotalaria cornetii had the lowest germination percentage. Root elongation of C. peschiana did not differ with copper concentration, but root elongation of C. cobalticola was higher at the greatest copper concentration (125 µM Cu2+. Conclusions. Even if C. cobalticola presented better growth at highest Cu concentrations, it appeared that C. cobalticola and C. peschiana do not require copper for their early stages of development and could thus be conserved in non-contaminated substrate. Crotalaria cornetii seemed to present a physical seed dormancy.

  18. A Plan for Developing Performance Materials in the Contemporary Idion for the Early Stages of String Instruction. Appendices A-F. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Margaret K.; Rolland, Paul

    A project to develop a plan for adding contemporary music to the repertory of elementary students of stringed instruments found virtually no contemporary music published in the United States suitable for early stages of instruction. Since much contemporary music literature exists for beginning piano students, it was assumed that the dearth of…

  19. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  20. Influence of timing of two-stage palate closure on early phonological and lexical development in children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    . However, both groups of children with cleft palate had a smaller productive vocabulary than the control children, but the late group produced a smaller number of word tokens than the early group. This difference between the two cleft palate groups is hypothesized to be caused by reduced intelligibility......  BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Numerous studies have indicated that early closure of the palatal cleft has a positive influence on the phonological development in children with cleft palate. So far, however, substantial evidence for this assumption has been lacking due to a variety of weaknesses...... of the studies conducted, including the lack of randomized clinical trials (RCT) (Peterson-Falzone 1996). A  prospective RCT was conducted to add to the knowledge of the influence of timing of hard palate closure on early phonological and lexical development from 1 to 3 years. METHODS Fourty-one children...

  1. Stress Development and Relaxation in Al2O3 during Early StageOxidation of beta-NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2005-04-20

    Using a glancing synchrotron X-ray beam (Advanced Photon Source, Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from thermally grown oxides on NiAl samples were recorded during oxidation at 1000 or 1100 C in air. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strain and phase changes in the oxide scale as it developed and evolved. Strain was obtained from measurements of the elliptical distortion of the Debye-Scherrer rings, where data from several rings of a single phase were used. Results were obtained from {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as from the transition alumina, in this case {theta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which formed during the early stage. Compressive stress was found in the first-formed transition alumina, but the initial stress in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was tensile, with a magnitude high enough to cause Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fracture. New {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} patches nucleated at the scale/alloy interface and spread laterally and upward. This transformation not only puts the alpha alumina in tension, but can also cause the transition alumina to be in tension. After a complete {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer formed at the interface, the strain level in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} became compressive, reaching a steady state level around -75 MPa at 1100 C. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, samples with different thickness, after several hours of oxidation at 1100 C, were quickly cooled to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. The rate of stress relaxation was the same for 1 and 3.5 mm thick samples, having a strain rate of {approx} 1 x 10{sup -8}/s. This behavior indicates that oxide creep is the major stress relaxation mechanism.

  2. Application of a Plug-and-Play Immunogenicity Assay in Cynomolgus Monkey Serum for ADCs at Early Stages of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Carrasco-Triguero; Helen Davis; Yuda Zhu; Daniel Coleman; Denise Nazzal; Paul Vu; Surinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenicity assessment during early stages of nonclinical biotherapeutic development is not always warranted. It is rarely predictive for clinical studies and evidence for the presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) may be inferred from the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. However, collecting and banking samples during the course of the study are prudent for confirmation and a deeper understanding of the impact on PK and safety. Biotherapeutic-specific ADA assays commonly developed can requir...

  3. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out testing chemotherapy alone. The results of these trials are however conflicting. In order not to jeopardize the good results achieved with the standard treatments developed over the last three decades, newer treatment approaches should...... be carefully tested in large randomized trials before being implemented for general clinical use....

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography and steady-state recycling: phase appropriate technologies for the resolutions of pharmaceutical intermediates in the early drug development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tony Q; Orihuela, Carlos; Preston, Jay P; Xia, Fang

    2010-11-01

    The use of phase appropriate technologies is critical for efficiently moving drug candidates forward in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Phase appropriate purification technology develops the analytical method and subsequently scales up the method and turns the sample around quickly (Kennedy et al., J Chromatogr A 2004; 1046:55). In this article, separation results and conditions from supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and steady-state recycling (SSR) for the resolutions of three pharmaceutical intermediates in the early stage of the drug development are discussed. The first study used SFC and SSR to separate an impurity for a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) campaign. The analytical method development and scale-up conditions are discussed. Productivity, solvent usage, and sample solubility under SFC and SSR conditions are also compared. The second study compared SFC to batch HPLC in separating a diastereomer. Due to higher separation efficiency, SFC was able to resolute multiple peaks. The third study involved the addition of dichloromethane as a co-solvent in SFC purification--improving sample selectivity and solubility. From the separation results of these purifications, SFC and SSR are clearly phase appropriate technologies in the early drug development stage.

  5. Live-cell imaging of the early stages of colony development in Fusarium oxysporum in vitro and ex vivo during infection of a human corneal model

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Smija Mariam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe University of ManchesterName: Smija Mariam KurianDegree title: Doctor of PhilosophyResearch title: Live-cell imaging of the early stages of colony development in Fusarium oxysporum in vitro and ex vivo during infection of a human corneal modelDate: May 2016Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum is a major fungal plant pathogen and emerging human pathogen. It has been hypothesised that conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) fusion may facilitate horizontal gene/chromosome transfer that could result...

  6. Proteomics Reveals that Proteins Expressed During the Early Stage of Bacillus anthracis Infection Are Potential Targets for the Development of Vaccines and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Huang; Craig A. Elmets; De-chu C. Tang; Fuming Li; Nabiha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we advance a new concept in developing vaccines and/or drugs to target specific proteins expressed during the early stage of Bacillus anthracis (an thrax) infection and address existing challenges to this concept. Three proteins (immune inhibitor A, GPR-like spore protease, and alanine racemase) initially identified by proteomics in our laboratory were found to have differential expres sions during anthrax spore germination and early outgrowth. Other studies of different bacillus strains indicate that these three proteins are involved in either germination or cytotoxicity of spores, suggesting that they may serve as potential targets for the design of anti-anthrax vaccines and drugs.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  8. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  9. Role models and professional development in dentistry: an important resource: The views of early career stage dentists at one academic health science centre in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E

    2017-02-08

    The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. RUSVISK: DOMESTICALLY DEVELOPED PRODUCT OF HYALURONIC ACID: ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY IN EARLY STAGES OF THE KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vas'kova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular therapy with Rusvisk (hyaluronic acid product and Ostenil in early stages of knee osteoarthritis.Subjects and methods. 50 patients with II–III stage of the knee osteoarthritis were included in the randomized double blinded controlled study. They had pain at movement of more than 40 mm by visual analogue scale (VAS and Lequesne index of 4–12. All patients received a course of three intra-articular injections with products of hyaluronic acid at the interval of 7 days. Rusvisk (molecular weight 3500 kDa was administered to 25 patients, whereas other 25 received Ostenil (molecular weight 1200–1400 kDa. In 1, 2, 3 weeks after the first injection following criteria were registered: changes of WOMAC index, pain at movement and at rest by VAS, general assessment of therapy efficacy by doctor and patient, assessment of efficacy according to OMERACTOARSI.Results. In three weeks after the first injection a significant decrease of pain at movement (by 69% in Rusvisk group and by 55% in Ostenil group and of WOMAC index (by 63% in Rusvsik group and by 60% in Ostenil group was achieved in both groups without any differences between them. Significant decrease of pain at rest was observed at all visits only in Rusvisk group. When assessing the general efficacy, patients found more advantagesin the  domestic product, whereas the therapist did not see the differences between groups. Response to the therapy by OMERACT-OARSI criteria was observed in 88% of patients in Rusvisk group and in 64% in Ostenil group. Short-term pain in the site of injection was mentioned by 64% of patients from Rusvisk group and by 72% from Ostenil group.Conclusion. Intra-articular therapy with the products of hyaluronic acid «Rusvisk», «Ostenil» provides comparable decrease of pain and improvement of functional parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development, and growth of early life stage sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Gas, Lindsay M; Ross, Peter S; Walker, Janessa; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of 2 currently used commercial pesticide formulations on Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), from fertilization to emergence, were evaluated in a gravel-bed flume incubator that simulated a natural streambed. Embryos were exposed to atrazine at 25 µg/L (low atrazine) or atrazine at 250 µg/L (high atrazine) active ingredient (a.i.), and chlorothalonil at 0.5 µg/L (low chlorothalonil) or chlorothalonil at 5 µg/L a.i. (high chlorothalonil) and examined for effects on developmental success and timing, as well as physical and biochemical growth parameters. Survival to hatch was reduced in the high chlorothalonil group (55% compared with 83% in controls), accompanied by a 24% increase in finfold deformity incidence. Reduced alevin condition factor (2.9-5.4%) at emergence and elevated triglyceride levels were seen in chlorothalonil-exposed fish. Atrazine exposure caused premature hatch (average high atrazine time to 50% hatch [H50] = 100 d postfertilization [dpf]), and chlorothalonil exposure caused delayed hatch (high chlorothalonil H50 = 108 dpf; controls H50 = 102 dpf). All treatments caused premature emergence (average time to 50% emergence [E50]: control E50 = 181 dpf, low chlorothalonil E50 = 175 dpf, high chlorothalonil E50 = 174 dpf, high atrazine E50 = 175 dpf, low atrazine E50 = 174 dpf), highlighting the importance of using a gravel-bed incubator to examine this subtle, but critical endpoint. These alterations indicate that atrazine and chlorothalonil could affect survival of early life stages of sockeye salmon in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1354-1364. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Mutations in a plastid-localized elongation factor G alter early stages of plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangarter Roger P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper development of plastids in embryo and seedling tissues is critical for plant development. During germination, plastids develop to perform many critical functions that are necessary to establish the seedling for further growth. A growing body of work has demonstrated that components of the plastid transcription and translation machinery must be present and functional to establish the organelle upon germination. Results We have identified Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in a gene that encodes a plastid-targeted elongation factor G (SCO1 that is essential for plastid development during embryogenesis since two T-DNA insertion mutations in the coding sequence (sco1-2 and sco1-3 result in an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, a point mutation allele (sco1-1 and an allele with a T-DNA insertion in the promoter (sco1-4 of SCO1 display conditional seedling-lethal phenotypes. Seedlings of these alleles exhibit cotyledon and hypocotyl albinism due to improper chloroplast development, and normally die shortly after germination. However, when germinated on media supplemented with sucrose, the mutant plants can produce photosynthetically-active green leaves from the apical meristem. Conclusion The developmental stage-specific phenotype of the conditional-lethal sco1 alleles reveals differences in chloroplast formation during seedling germination compared to chloroplast differentiation in cells derived from the shoot apical meristem. Our identification of embryo-lethal mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis elongation factor G indicates that SCO1 is essential for plant growth, consistent with its predicted role in chloroplast protein translation.

  13. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage devel......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...... a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1...

  14. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Mediterranean Diet in the Early and Late Stages of Atheroma Plaque Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Casas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet intervention on the plasma concentrations of inflammatory and plaque stability-related molecules in elderly people at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Design and Setting. 66 participants from primary care centers affiliated with the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were randomized into 3 groups: MeDiet plus extra virgin olive oil (EVOO or nuts and a low-fat diet (LFD. At baseline and at 3 and 5 years, we evaluated the changes in the plasma concentrations of 24 inflammatory biomarkers related to the different stages of the atherosclerotic process by Luminex®. Results. At 3 and 5 years, both MeDiet groups showed a significant reduction of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1β (P<0.05; all compared to LFD. IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, GCSF, GMCSF, and ENA78 (P<0.05; all only decreased in the MeDiet+EVOO group and E-selectin and sVCAM-1 (P<0.05; both in the MeDiet+nuts group. Conclusions. Long-term adherence to MeDiet decreases the plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers related to different steps of atheroma plaque development in elderly persons at high cardiovascular risk.

  16. A new robot for flexible ureteroscopy: development and early clinical results (IDEAL stage 1-2b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Remzi; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Tokatlı, Zafer; Caşkurlu, Turhan; Sarica, Kemal; Taşçi, Ali İhsan; Erkurt, Bülent; Süer, Evren; Kabakci, Ahmet Sinan; Preminger, Glenn; Traxer, Olivier; Rassweiler, Jens J

    2014-12-01

    An improved armamentarium has had a significant impact on the emerging role of flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) for the management of nephrolithiasis; however, FURS still represents a challenging technique. To examine a robotic device designed for FURS for its impact on ergonomics and outcome of the procedure based on the IDEAL (idea, development, evaluation, assessment, long-term study) framework. Roboflex Avicenna consists of a surgeon's console and a manipulator for the flexible ureterorenoscope. Following experimental evaluation of the prototype (IDEAL stage 1) and receipt of ethical approval, seven surgeons treated 81 patients (mean age: 42 yr [range: 6-68]) with renal calculi (mean volume: 1296±544 mm(3) [range: 432-3100 mm3]) in an observational study (IDEAL stage 2). Robotic FURS was performed with the Roboflex Avicenna robotic device. Numerical data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney test, and categorical variables were analysed using the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mean robot docking time was 59.6±45 s. Mean operative time was 74min (range: 40-182). Mean fragmentation speed was 29.1±6.1 mm3/min. Ergonomics based on a validated questionnaire showed significant advantage for robotic FURS (total score: 5.6 vs 31.3; p<0.01). A 10/12F-access sheath was used in 72 patients. Two cases required secondary FURS, one because of malfunction of the flexible digital ureteroscope and another because of larger residual fragments. In the remaining 79 cases, complete stone disintegration was accomplished. Roboflex Avicenna provides a suitable and safe platform for robotic FURS with significant improvement of ergonomics. Future studies should evaluate its impact on the clinical outcome of FURS. Robotic flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) was performed with the Roboflex Avicenna robotic device. Results showed that Roboflex Avicenna provides a suitable and safe platform for robotic FURS with significant improvement

  17. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  18. The reg4 gene, amplified in the early stages of pancreatic cancer development, is a promising therapeutic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Legoffic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our work was to identify the genes specifically altered in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially those that are altered early in cancer development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene copy number was systematically assessed with an ultra-high resolution CGH oligonucleotide microarray in DNA from samples of pancreatic cancer. Several new cancer-associated variations were observed. In this work we focused on one of them, involving the reg4 gene. Gene copy number gain of the reg4 gene was confirmed by qPCR in 14 cancer samples. It was also found with increased copy number in most PanIN3 samples. The relationship betweena gain in reg4 gene copy number and cancer development was investigated on the human pancreatic cancer cell line Mia-PaCa2 xenografted under the skin of nude mice. When cells were transfected with a vector allowing reg4 expression, they generated tumors almost twice larger in size. In addition, these tumors were more resistant to gemcitabine treatment than control tumors. Interestingly, weekly intraperitoneal administration of a monoclonal antibody to reg4 halved the size of tumors generated by Mia-PaCa2 cells, suggesting that the antibody interfered with a paracrine/autocrine mechanism involving reg4 and stimulating cancer progression. The addition of gemcitabine resulted in further reduction, tumors becoming 5 times smaller than control. Exposure to reg4 antibody resulted in a significant decrease in intra-tumor levels of pAkt, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin and cyclin D1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that adjuvant therapies targeting reg4 could improve the standard treatment of pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine.

  19. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment is still an unresolved issue. Twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out world-wide. The preliminary results of a global meta-analysis of these trials...

  20. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  1. Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, C; Bergami, E; Salvati, A; Faleri, C; Cirino, P; Dawson, K A; Corsi, I

    2014-10-21

    Nanoplastic debris, resulted from runoff and weathering breakdown of macro- and microplastics, represents an emerging concern for marine ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate disposition and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) in early development of sea urchin embryos (Paracentrotus lividus). NPs with two different surface charges where chosen, carboxylated (PS-COOH) and amine (PS-NH2) polystyrene, the latter being a less common variant, known to induce cell death in several in vitro cell systems. NPs stability in natural seawater (NSW) was measured while disposition and embryotoxicity were monitored within 48 h of postfertilization (hpf). Modulation of genes involved in cellular stress response (cas8, 14-3-3ε, p-38 MAPK, Abcb1, Abcc5) was investigated. PS-COOH forms microaggregates (PDI > 0.4) in NSW, whereas PS-NH2 results are better dispersed (89 ± 2 nm) initially, though they also aggregated partially with time. Their respectively anionic and cationic nature was confirmed by ζ-potential measurements. No embryotoxicity was observed for PS-COOH up to 50 μg mL(-1) whereas PS-NH2 caused severe developmental defects (EC50 3.85 μg mL(-1) 24 hpf and EC50 2.61 μg mL(-1) 48 hpf). PS-COOH accumulated inside embryo's digestive tract while PS-NH2 were more dispersed. Abcb1 gene resulted up-regulated at 48 hpf by PS-COOH whereas PS-NH2 induced cas8 gene at 24 hpf, suggesting an apoptotic pathway. In line with the results obtained with the same PS NPs in several human cell lines, also in sea urchin embryos, differences in surface charges and aggregation in seawater strongly affect their embryotoxicity.

  2. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  3. Superovulation and Development of Early-Stage Embryo in Rabbits%家兔超数排卵与早期胚胎发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 孙克宁; 陈玉霞; 杨婷; 高汉婷; 高腾云

    2011-01-01

    为了提高家兔繁殖力,使用不同剂量的FSH对家兔进行了超数排卵研究,结果表明:采用高剂量FSH处理母兔的平均排卵点数与平均卵泡发育数显著(P<0.05)高于低剂量FSH组,两种处理方法的平均卵泡囊肿数与平均卵泡数则差异不显著(P>0.05).家兔早期胚胎发育观察结果表明:母兔交配后24 h采胚所获取的胚胎大多处于1细胞期,交配后30 h胚胎多处于2细胞期,交配后35 h胚胎多处于4细胞期.采用52IU FSH进行超数排卵处理,对家兔的胚胎发育无影响.%The method of superovulation in rabbits was studied by using different dosages of FSH in order to improve their reproductive ability. The results showed that the average number of the ovulation points and the developed follicles on the ovaries of the does used the high dosage of FSH was obviously higher (F0. 05). The observating results of early-stage embryos' development also indicated that most of the collected embryos were in 1-cell stage during 24 hours after the does were accepted mating, and in 2-cell stage during 30 hours after mating and in 4-cell stage during 35 hours after mating. The dosage of 52IU FSH didn't influence the embryos' development of the rabbits when it was applied to conduct their superovulation treatment.

  4. The development of the orbital fasciae and cellular tissue spaces at an early stage of human ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkrobanets A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the orbital fasciae and cellular tissue spaces during the embryonic and prefetal periods of ontogenesis has been studied by means of the morphological research methods. It has been established that the said structures develop from the mesenchyme, surrounding the eyeballs germ and optic nerve. The forming of the cellular tissue spaces proceed simultaneously with the development of the orbital walls and the musculo-fascial complex of the oculomotor muscles and roughly takes shape by the end of the 10-th week. In the course of this period certain contents of the spaces and a topographical arrangement of their components were formed.

  5. An early-stage personal development & planning course to engender effective self-management in PhDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grumløse, Sine Penthin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2011-01-01

    residential, Inclusiveness – sense of belonging, Managing relationship with and reducing distance to supervisors. The study confirms that viewing research education in terms of situated learning, using a pedagogy which mobilizes the resources of the research (learning) environment, can support the development......This study seeks to examine the lasting benefits of an induction course developed to support new postgraduate students in becoming ’self organising agents’ and managers of their own personal and professional development. A cohort of course participants were interviewed 18 months after...

  6. Differential gene expression between cross-fertilized and self-fertilized kernels during the early stages of seed development in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FanrongMeng; ZhongfuNi; LiminWu; QixinSun

    2005-01-01

    In maize, cross-fertilization advantage was observed during the early stage of embryo development and grain filling. In this study, we performed screening of differentially expressed genes between maize cross-fertilized and self-fertilized kernels at 5, 10, and 15 days after pollination (DAP) by differential display technique. The results indicated that the patterns of gene expression altered obviously in crossfertilized kernels as compared to self-fertilized kernels. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were observed. Four differentially expressed cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, their expression patterns were confirmed by reverse-Northern blot. Sequence analysis and database search revealed that two of them were new sequences; the other two were methyl-binding domain protein (MBD) andphos phoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), respectively, and it is concluded that the altered gene expression may be responsible for theobserved maize heterosis.

  7. An early-stage personal development & planning course to engender effective self-management in PhDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grumløse, Sine Penthin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2011-01-01

    they participated in the course, and the study shows that 50% of respondents continue to use tools and methods provided at the induction course, and that the course had supported them significantly to take charge and manage their own learning environment. This paper describes the rationale behind the course design...... based on a theoretical grounding in situated learning in communities of practice, and concludes with suggesting seven essential elements of the course: Self perception, Meeting PhD students as whole persons, Personal Development Planning – working with them, Intercultural, Safe haven - 5 days off campus...... residential, Inclusiveness – sense of belonging, Managing relationship with and reducing distance to supervisors. The study confirms that viewing research education in terms of situated learning, using a pedagogy which mobilizes the resources of the research (learning) environment, can support the development...

  8. INFLUENCE OF STATIONARY MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE EARLY STAGES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOBACCO SEEDS (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a stationary magnetic field with induction of 0,15 Т at expositions 10 min, 20 min и 30 min, on tobacco seeds (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Harmanly 11 has been investigated. The germination energy GE and the germination G have been determined with the aim of establishing the effect of the magnetic field on seed vitality. It has been found out that the magnetic field stimulates the development of the germ and leads to increasing the germination energy and germination. A hypothesis about the explanation of the results obtained has been proposed, especially about the stimulating effect of the magnetic field treatment.

  9. Challenges of small and medium sized companies at early stage of development: Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Petković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discover and understand factors that lead to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs shutdown in transitional economies, such as the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The paper provides some findings about main influencing factors that lead to SMEs shut down in the first years of operation from entrepreneurs’ and managers’ perspective and suggests certain measures that should be taken to secure their survival, development and growth. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted, using stratified sampling of 110 SMEs from Republic of Srpska (49% of B&H territory. The section on methodology explains the entry criteria for the study population and methods of data analysis. Respondents from the research sample identified the following factors as the main obstacles to successful development of their businesses: difficulties in the collection of receivables from debtors, complicated legal procedures that regulate the work and business operations of enterprises, high rates of taxes and contributions on wages, the negative impact of the global economic crisis and expensive and complicated procedures for obtaining loans from commercial banks. Respondents didn’t evaluate their personal traits, level of formal and informal knowledge from business management field or lack of entrepreneurial spirit and readiness for being proactive, innovative or risk acceptance as potential causes of business failure. With its limitation, the paper contains novel information and insights about SMEs business obstacles and challenges in economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a solid base for more comprehensive future research.

  10. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant.

  11. Early Stage of Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 潘垣; 刘克富; 刘明海; 张寒虹

    2001-01-01

    The bubble radius at the early stage of discharge in water is investigated using high-speed photography. Some simulation results on the bubble radius are presented, which are in agreement with the experimental results, with a maximum difference of about 10%. The reasons why the peak pressure of the first shock wave is only related to the energy released in the bubble during the first half period are addressed. The energy released in the bubble after the first half period increases the bubble pulsation period, but it produces no more than 10% under the peak pressure of the second shock wave.

  12. Dupuytren contracture. Radiotherapy of early stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Regler, G.

    1985-03-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for the early stages of theDupuytren contracture. The conventional semi-deep therapy is more favorable than the soft ray technique and the moulage technique. 62 patients have been treated at Erlangen; 33 out of them (46 irradiated hands) with a minimum observation time of 18 months have been evaluated. The pathologic process was stopped in 98% of the cases. 85% of the patients showed an improvement of troubles by regression of tubercules and cords, pains and sensation of pressure. A recurrence was obseved only in one patient at the edge of the irradiated volume.

  13. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system.

  14. Early Stage Software Reliability Estimation with Stochastic Reward Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; LIU Hong-wei; CUI Gang; YANG Xiao-zong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents software reliability modeling issues at the early stage of a software development for fault tolerant software management system. Based on Stochastic Reward Nets, an effective model of hierarchical view for a fault tolerant software management system is put forward, and an approach that consists of system transient performance analysis is adopted. A quantitative approach for software reliability analysis is given. The results show its usefulness for the design and evaluation of the early-stage software reliability modeling when failure data is not available.

  15. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic ev...

  16. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic e...

  17. Mitochondria-targeted DsRed2 protein expression during the early stage of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Min, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hoonsung; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-09-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used as an efficient tool in biomedical research for the generation of transgenic animals from somatic cells with genetic modifications. Although remarkable advances in SCNT techniques have been reported in a variety of mammals, the cloning efficiency in domestic animals is still low due to the developmental defects of SCNT embryos. In particular, recent evidence has revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction is detected during the early development of SCNT embryos. However, there have been relatively few or no studies regarding the development of a system for evaluating mitochondrial behavior or dynamics. For the first time, in mitochondria of bovine SCNT embryos, we developed a method for the visualization of mitochondria and expression of fluorescence proteins. To express red fluorescence in mitochondria of cloned embryos, bovine ear skin fibroblasts, nuclear donor, were stably transfected with a vector carrying mitochondria-targeting DsRed2 gene tagged with V5 epitope (mito-DsRed2-V5 tag) using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer because of its ability to integrate in the cell genome and the potential for long-term transgene expression in the transduced cells and their dividing cells. From western blotting analysis of V5 tag protein using mitochondrial fraction and confocal microscopy of red fluorescence using SCNT embryos, we found that the mitochondrial expression of the mito-DsRed2 protein was detected until the blastocyst stage. In addition, according to image analysis, it may be suggested possible use of the system for visualization of mitochondrial localization and evaluation of mitochondrial behaviors or dynamics in early development of bovine SCNT embryos.

  18. Phagosomal Acidification Prevents Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Production to Malaria, and Dendritic Cells Are the Major Source at the Early Stages of Infection: IMPLICATION FOR MALARIA PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianzhu; Gowda, Nagaraj M; Gowda, D Channe

    2015-09-18

    Inflammatory cytokines produced at the early stages of malaria infection contribute to shaping protective immunity and pathophysiology. To gain mechanistic insight into these processes, it is important to understand the cellular origin of cytokines because both cytokine input and cytokine-producing cells play key roles. Here, we determined cytokine responses by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) to purified Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and by spleen macrophages and DCs from Plasmodium yoelii 17NXL-infected and P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. The results demonstrate that monocytes and macrophages do not produce inflammatory cytokines to malaria parasites and that DCs are the primary source early in infection, and DC subsets differentially produce cytokines. Importantly, blocking of phagosomal acidification by inhibiting vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase enabled macrophages to elicit cytokine responses. Because cytokine responses to malaria parasites are mediated primarily through endosomal Toll-like receptors, our data indicate that the inability of macrophages to produce cytokines is due to the phagosomal acidification that disrupts endosomal ligand-receptor engagement. Macrophages efficiently produced cytokines to LPS upon simultaneously internalizing parasites and to heat-killed Escherichia coli, demonstrating that phagosomal acidification affects endosomal receptor-mediated, but not cell surface receptor-mediated, recognition of Toll-like receptor agonists. Enabling monocytes/macrophages to elicit immune responses to parasites by blocking endosomal acidification can be a novel strategy for the effective development of protective immunity to malaria. The results have important implications for enhancing the efficacy of a whole parasite-based malaria vaccine and for designing strategies for the development of protective immunity to pathogens that induce immune responses primarily through endosomal receptors.

  19. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  20. 卵形鲳鲹免疫器官的早期发育%Development of immune organs at early stages of Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文超; 区又君; 李加儿; 孙鹏

    2012-01-01

    对卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)仔、稚鱼期间3种免疫器官的发生和发育过程进行了研究.结果表明,3种免疫器官原基出现的先后顺序是头肾、脾脏和胸腺,出现时间分别为2日龄、3 日龄和3 日龄.其中,头肾的早期发育过程可分为原基形成期、造血功能发展期和泌尿功能退化期.进入稚鱼期后头肾的肾小管分布相对减少,表明头肾已不是主要的泌尿功能区.6~8日龄仔鱼脾脏中造血干细胞向红血细胞分化并产生大量未成熟红细胞.22日龄时脾脏组织体积进一步增大,内部血细胞参与血液循环.胸腺原基出现后胸腺细胞增多、体积增大,细胞嗜碱性不强.10 - 13日龄时胸腺细胞的嗜碱性增强,淋巴细胞开始增多,胸腺开始分区.20~ 22日龄稚鱼期结束时胸腺的内区和外区进一步分化,分区更为明显,表明胸腺进一步成熟.未发现胸腺和头肾之间淋巴细胞迁移的现象.%A histological examination was conducted to study the ontogenetic development of 3 immune organs of Trachinotus ovatus at early developmental stages. The anlage of head kidney was the first organ to he observed at 2 day-post-hatch (dph) , and then followed by spleen (3 dph) and thymus (3 dph). The developmental process for head kidney includes 3 stages which are anlage forming stage, developmental stage of hematopoiesis and degraded stage of urinary function. When the fish became postlarva (18~22 dph) , the distribution of renal tubules became less and its urinary function degraded. At 6 ~ 8 dph, the hematopoietic stem cells began to differentiate into large amount of immature red cells. At 22 dph, the spleen became larger and more mature, and the inner blood cells were involved in blood circulation. The number and size of thymus cells with weak basophilia grew after anlage of thymus appeared. At 10 ~ 13 dph, the basophilia of thymus cells and the number of lymphocyte grew, and the thymus began to differentiate

  1. Urinary biomarkers at early ADPKD disease stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petzold

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course.ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1, and Uromodulin (UMOD were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16 was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results.In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2 the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found.UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable

  2. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  3. Management of Early-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herst, J; Crump, M; Baldassarre, F G; MacEachern, J; Sussman, J; Hodgson, D; Cheung, M C

    2017-01-01

    In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality. The document underwent internal and external review by content, methodology experts, a patient representative and clinicians in Ontario. We have issued recommendations for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; with favourable and unfavourable prognosis; and for the use of positron emission tomography to direct treatment. We have provided our interpretation of the evidence and considerations for implementation. Examples of recommendations are: 'Patients with early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma should not be treated with radiotherapy alone'; 'chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone are recommended treatment options for patients with early-stage non-bulky Hodgkin lymphoma'; 'The Working Group does not recommend the use of a negative interim positron emission tomography scan alone to identify patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for whom radiotherapy can be omitted without a reduction in progression-free survival'. Through the use of GRADE, recommendations were geared towards patient important outcomes and their strength reflected the available evidence and its interpretation from the patients' point of view. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  6. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...... suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  7. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mokhles, Sahar [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Takkenberg, Johanna J.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Maat, Alex P.W.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Woody, Neil M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.

  8. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  9. Influence of timing of hard palate repair in a two-stage procedure on early language development in Danish children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the influence of timing of hard palate closure on early language development from 18 months to 3 years of age. Design: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Participants: thirty-four children with UCLP with velum closure at 4 months of age, and hard palate closure...... were transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet. At 36 months a single word naming test was administered. Results: at 18 months, the LateHPU group produced fewer labial stops and more velar stops than the Early HPR group. Unlike the Early HPR group, the LateHPU group produced fewer...

  10. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.

  11. Influence of timing of hard palate repair in a two-stage procedure on early language development in Danish children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the influence of timing of hard palate closure on early language development from 18 months to 3 years of age. Design: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Participants: thirty-four children with UCLP with velum closure at 4 months of age, and hard palate closure...... vocalizations, consonants, and consonants permissible in word-initial position than the Early HPR group. In addition, both cleft palate groups had a smaller productive vocabulary than the Control group, but unlike the EarlyHPR group, the LateHPU group produced a smaller number of word tokens in social...... language development in cleft palate children. Key words: cleft palate, phonological development, lexical development, surgical timing....

  12. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2015-05-01

    Interpretation: Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC.

  13. Very early stages of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the initial conditions and the early phases of the formation of high-mass stars by means of dedicated observational studies. We consider two object classes: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and a subsequent stage characterized by the presence of young embedded (proto-)stellar clusters. First, we estimate masses and column densities for a completely new sample of southern IRDCs, utilizing our own millimeter continuum emission maps as well as Spitzer satellite data. The parameters we derive show that IRDCs from our sample have the potential to form not only low- and intermediate-mass stars, but can also be the birth places of massive stars. In particular, the comparison of our results with previously obtained data for low-mass starless cores shows a clear trend for IRDCs to have systematically higher column densities. The interpolated IRDC peak column densities exceed the threshold for the onset of massive star formation previously advocated by theoretical studies. We also critically evaluate the limitations of the applied emission and extinction methods. Second, we investigate the physical conditions and the chemical composition of the dense gas within the IRDCs of our sample by means of a multi-line molecular spectroscopy analysis. All the clouds have complex HCO+ line pro les, and we detect SiO emission in some clouds. These ndings mark the presence of infall and out ow motions in at least some parts of the IRDCs, and hence, ongoing star formation. In comparison with low-mass starless cores, the IRDCs have broader and more intense lines. Thus, they may be characterised by more turbulent conditions. Nevertheless, we nd a tendency for the IRDCs to have molecular abundances similar to the case of low-mass starless cores. This indicates similar chemical initial conditions for low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Finally, we study the stellar composition and environmental conditions in the young embedded cluster IRAS

  14. Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Tsuji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

  15. Requirement Defect Mitigation Technique: An Early Stage Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rizwan Beg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirement defect identification and mitigation at early stage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC is very cost effective than to later stages. The requirements analysis in requirement engineering process is critical and major foundation of requirement defect identification. A poor requirement analysis process may lead to software requirement specification (SRS full of defects akin to misplaced, ambiguous, incompatible, misinterpreted, and incomplete requirements. In this paper, requirement defects are being identified and properly mitigated as per its severity in the requirement phase to get rid of major rework by spending extra cost and effort at the later stages. Here, a Defect Mitigation Technique (DMT is proposed for mitigating the identified requirement defect and also the reliability of requirement is being assessed to deliver Reliable Requirement. The proposed algorithm is helping the DMT for its proper processing, defect mitigation and reliability assessment. The prime motive of this study is an effort to put off requirements stage defects from entering into later stages of SDLC.

  16. Development of a Compact Wide-Slot Antenna for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Featuring Circular Array Full-View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar type antenna printed on a high permittivity Rogers’ substrate is proposed for early stage microwave breast cancer detection. The design is based on a p-shaped wide-slot structure with 50 Ω microstrip feeding circuit to eliminate losses of transmission. The design parameters are optimized resulting in a good reflection coefficient at −10 dB from 4.5 to 10.9 GHz. Imaging result using inhomogeneous breast phantom indicates that the proposed antenna is capable of detecting a 5 mm size cancerous tumor embedded inside the fibroglandular region with dielectric contrast between the target and the surrounding materials ranging from 1.7 : 1 to 3.6 : 1.

  17. Early Developments, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  18. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  19. [Ophthalmologic manifestations in early and late stages of AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaudigel, O E; Gümbel, H; Richter, R; Subklew, R; Garweg, T

    1994-10-01

    In a prospective study of 101 patients with HIV infection and a medium CD4 lymphocyte cell count of 350 x 10(6)/l and a retrospective study of the records of 79 AIDS patients, we compared the first ocular symptoms in HIV-infected patients to the CD4 count. In Walter-Reed stages 2-4 (n = 101) we found sicca syndrome in 9.2%, in 52% lens opacities in the cortex and only in less than 1% HIV-related angiopathy of the retina. In Walter Reed stages 5-6 (n = 79), 26% of the AIDS patients developed CMV retinitis, 33% HIV angiopathy of the retina and only 1% retinal toxoplasmosis. The average CD4 lymphocyte cell count was never better than 100 x 10(6). Lens opacities in HIV-infected patients could be an early ophthalmological symptom of HIV infection.

  20. INCREASED NUTRIENT SOLUTION CONCENTRATION DURING EARLY FRUIT DEVELOPMENT STAGES ENHANCES PUNGENCY AND PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE ACTIVITY IN HOT CHILI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Dittakit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased nutrient concentration during different fruit development stages on the yield, pun-gency and PAL enzyme activity in hot chili cv. ‘Super hot’ was studied during August 2009-January 2010. The seedlings were planted in plastic containers containing 20 L of coconut-coir-dust substrate placed inside a plastic-roofed net house and received Resh’s Tropical Dry Summer nutrient solution at a constant concentration (measured by Electrical Conductivity, EC of 1.2 mS cm-1 during the vegetative stage and 2.4 mS cm-1 during the first week of blooming. Then, they were divided into treatments: Treatment 1 (control, plants continuously received nutrient solution at a constant concentration of 2.4 mS cm-1 until end of harvest, while treatments 2-6 received nutrient solution with a change in concentration from EC 2.4 to 3.6 mS cm-1 at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after the week of first bloom, respectively. The results showed that the increase in nutrient concentration at different fruit development stages did not significantly influence chili fruit characteristics and yield. However, the oleoresin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and capsaicinoid contents increased significantly when hot chili plants received the nutrient concentration increase at the 1st and 2nd week after first bloom. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in the full-ripening fruits increased significantly when the nutrient solution concentration increase occurred at 1st and 2nd weeks after first bloom. The highest PAL activity of 827.48 mmole mg-1 protein was recorded in full-ripened fruits, when the nutrient concentration increase occurred at the 2nd week after bloom."

  1. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  2. Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a ...

  3. A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Kameno, Kouki; Anai, Shigeo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Ando, Yukio; Seto, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor of the posterior fossa in children and is considered an embryonal tumor. It has been suggested that medulloblastomas be categorized into 4 distinct molecular subgroups- WNT (DKK1), SHH (SFRP1), Group 3 (NPR3), or Group 4 (KCNA1)-since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap. The authors report on a 13-year-old boy with medulloblastoma. He presented with sudden-onset nausea and vomiting due to intratumoral hemorrhage. The medulloblastoma was thought to be in an early developmental stage because the tumor volume was extremely small. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was mainly composed of DKK1- and NPR3-positive areas. The individual areas of the tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3, with no overlap-that is, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. Samples obtained by laser microdissection of individual areas and subjected to mass spectrometry confirmed that the expression patterns of proteins were different. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6 showed there were 2 distinct types of cells that exhibited monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated that distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma may be present within a single tumor, an observation that has not been previously reported. Our findings in this case indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may include more than 1 distinct subtype and hint at factors involved in the origin and development of medulloblastomas.

  4. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  5. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most toxic pesticides in aquatic ecosystem, but its toxicity mechanisms to fish are still not fully understood. This study examined the toxicity targets of CPF in early life stage of zebrafish on the endpoints at developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Firstly, CPF exposure decreased the body length, inhibited the hatchability and heart rate, and resulted in a number of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and pericardial edema (PE), in larval zebrafish. Secondly, the free swimming activities and the swimming behaviors of the larvae in response to the stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition were significantly influenced by the exposure to 100 and 300 μg/L CPF. In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure. Thirdly, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the larval zebrafish. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after the exposure to CPF for 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). CPF affected not only the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also the transcriptional levels of their respective genes. Finally, the mRNA levels of the main cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), interferon (Ifn), interleukin-1 beta (Il-1β), interleukin 6 (Il6), complement factor 4 (C4) in the larvae increased significantly after the exposure to 100 or 300 μg/L CPF for 96 hpf, suggesting that the innate immune system disturbed by CPF in larvae. Taken together, our results suggested that CPF had the potential to cause developmental toxicity, behavior alterations, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the larval zebrafish.

  6. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  7. Early-Stage Bioprocess Analysis (ESBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seita, Catarina Sanches; Rehdorf, Jessica; Woodley, John

    and operate under mild conditions of pH and temperature. These characteristics make them cost-effective and sustainable catalysts for a wide range of chemical transformations. Modern tools of protein discovery and engineering as well as advances in molecular biology and protein structure aid the development...

  8. Electrochemical Biosensors for Early Stage Zika Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Tiwari, Sneham; Jayant, Rahul D; Vashist, Arti; Nikkhah-Moshaie, Roozbeh; El-Hage, Nazira; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-04-01

    Health agencies have declared the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection an epidemic and a public health emergency of global concern due to its association with microcephaly and serious neurological disorders. The unavailability of effective drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tools increases the demand for efficient analytical devices to detect ZIKV infection. However, high costs, longer diagnostic times, and stringent expertise requirements limit the utility of reverse transcriptase-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics. Therefore, developing portable, sensitive, selective, and cost-effective sensing systems to detect ZIKV at picomolar concentrations in biofluids would be a breakthrough in diagnostics and therapeutics. This paper highlights the advancements in developing smart sensing strategies to monitor ZIKV progression, with rapid point-of-care diagnostics as the ultimate aim.

  9. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Johannes; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT-when performed by a trained and experienced team-should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option.

  10. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-03-07

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages.

  11. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Modeling mechanical signals on the surface of µCT and CAD based rapid prototype scaffold models to predict (early stage) tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, W J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Verdonschot, N; Moroni, L; Rouwkema, J

    2014-09-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, mechano-regulation theories have been applied to help predict tissue development in tissue engineering scaffolds in the past. For this, finite element models (FEMs) were used to predict the distribution of strains within a scaffold. However, the strains reported in these studies are volumetric strains of the material or strains developed in the extracellular matrix occupying the pore space. The initial phase of cell attachment and growth on the biomaterial surface has thus far been neglected. In this study, we present a model that determines the magnitude of biomechanical signals on the biomaterial surface, enabling us to predict cell differentiation stimulus values at this initial stage. Results showed that magnitudes of the 2D strain--termed surface strain--were lower when compared to the 3D volumetric strain or the conventional octahedral shear strain as used in current mechano-regulation theories. Results of both µCT and CAD derived FEMs from the same scaffold were compared. Strain and fluid shear stress distributions, and subsequently the cell differentiation stimulus, were highly dependent on the pore shape. CAD models were not able to capture the distributions seen in the µCT FEM. The calculated mechanical stimuli could be combined with current mechanobiological models resulting in a tool to predict cell differentiation in the initial phase of tissue engineering. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly link mechanical signals to cell behavior in this specific setting, this model is an important step towards optimizing scaffold architecture and/or stimulation regimes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Fitotoxicidade causada por herbicidas na fase inicial de desenvolvimento da cultura do sorgo Phytotoxicity caused by herbicides to sorghum crop at early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Magalhães

    2000-01-01

    ículas e de grãos. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram os mais altos rendimentos foram: paraquat + espalhante adesivo, ametryn + óleo mineral, retirada mecânica de folhas e cyanazine + simazine aplicados no estádio de 6 folhas. À exceção do tratamento cyanazine + simazine aplicado no estádio de 4 folhas, o uso de herbicidas em pós-emergência inicial e área total na cultura do sorgo mostrou-se seletiva . Mesmo quando houve injúrias, decorrentes da ação dos herbicidas, elas não foram suficientes para prejudicar a produção. O bom controle das plantas daninhas proveniente do uso dos herbicidas possibilitou ao sorgo expressar melhor seu potencial produtivo.The application of herbicides in early broadcast postemergence and band directed of herbicides in sorghum has raised considerably with increasing planting acreage in Brazil. However, these products can cause phytoxicity since they are not completely selective to the crop. Since these herbicides basically block metabolic processes in the plants, one questions what effects these injuries will have on grain yield. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the phytotoxic effect caused by the application of herbicides on the crop, at the initial phase and at late postemergence in directed spray, as well as on sorghum grain yield. This study was carried out during the growing season of 1994/95 and 1995/96, using the hybrid BR 700, in a complete randomized block design, with 12 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of the following herbicides at several rates: cyanazine + simazine with or without mineral oil, applied at the 4-and-6 leaf growth stages; paraquat + adjuvant and ametryn + mineral oil, applied as directed spray at the 12-leaf growth stage. The control treatments were weed free and weeded plus mechanical defoliation of the first, second and third pair of sorghum leaves at the 12-leaf stage. Leaf area, plant dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, plant

  15. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Sixth Stage of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    This assessment of L. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is a dialectical critique focusing on his claim that the sixth stage of moral development is morally adequate, specifically, that it is both comprehensive and fully equilibrated. Includes a brief account of B. J. Lonergan's dialectical method and an analysis of the sixth stage of…

  17. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  18. Stages of educational development? Beeby revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    1980-12-01

    Beeby's model of stages of educational change in developing countries has been accepted into the educational literature with remarkably little critical analysis. Though valuable for a large number of experiential insights, the author argues that the model has certain weaknesses which should restrict its application. The stages have a teleological bias and are not sufficiently distinct, nor do the labels used for them meet the formal requirements of measuring scales. Furthermore, the model overgeneralizes from the experience of British-tradition South Pacific school systems, and the equation of western teaching with good teaching is an unsupported view which may not be valid in many countries. The most fundamental problem is the lack of clear distinction between empirical issues and the ethical judgements implicit in the formulation. However, the model has a number of positive features well worth building upon, such as its focus on the qualitative aspects of teaching and on qualitative change, the realistic emphasis on the gradualism of such change in practice, and the identification of the teacher as the key change agent in the classroom — a fundamental point often overlooked by innovators. The continua of general and professional education which underlie the teaching styles provide useful hypotheses for empirical analysis of the relationship between teacher education and classroom teaching style, but the association of this education with certain types of teaching style needs careful examination. Stripped of its evaluative connotations, Beeby's interest in qualitative change was a valuable early attempt to move attention in developing countries from linear, quantitative expansion of existing systems to a consideration of what was actually being taught and how. The real lesson to be learned from his work is that education should be paying closer attention to its theoretical propositions.

  19. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...

  20. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  1. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  2. [Surgical treatment of breast neoplasms in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshuk, Ie V; Drozdov, V M; Neĭman, A M; Zotov, O S; Zakhartseva, L M; Anikus'ko, M F; Zaĭchuk, V V; Sydorchuk, O I

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of literary data and own investigation results for the modern surgical methods of treatment of mammary gland cancer in early stages was performed. Indexes of patients survival after surgical removal of mammary gland (MG) and quadranthectomy did not differ. Preservation of MG constitutes great social and psycho-emotional significance for women-patients.

  3. Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Jensen, Mary Ann C.

    1977-01-01

    This review examines published research on small-group development done in the last ten years that would constitute an empirical test of Tuckman's hypothesis that groups go through the stages of "forming,""storming,""norming," and "performing." A fifth stage, "adjourning," was added to the…

  4. Development of a cDNA microarray of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) foot and its use in understanding the early stage of underwater adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2009-05-01

    The underwater adhesion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to substrates is a complex process that is controlled by a delicate apparatus, the byssus. As a critical activity of the byssus glands embedded in the zebra mussel feet, byssogenesis is highly active to produce numerous byssal threads from the settled juvenile stage through the adult stage in its life cycle. This lifelong activity helps the zebra mussel to firmly attach to substrata underwater, thereby causing severe economic and ecologic impacts. In an attempt to better understand the zebra mussel's byssus activity, a cDNA microarray (ZMB) including 716 genes, generated from a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, was printed and used for the comparison of gene expression during zebra mussel adhesion and non-adhesion. To better understand the byssogenesis mechanism, RNA samples from the zebra mussel feet with byssogenesis and without byssogenesis were used in a two-color hybridization to reveal the gene differential expression in the two states. Based on the P values (Pbyssus cDNA microarray is an efficient tool for the studies of differential gene expression in different byssogenesis states, thereby revealing important details of the underwater adhesion.

  5. Occurrence, Control and Research Development of the Apple Early Stage Leaf-cast%苹果早期落叶病的发生·防治及相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿园园; 李春敏; 赵永波; 陈东玫; 张新忠; 杨国慧

    2009-01-01

    近年来苹果早期落叶病在我国苹果主产区普遍发生,特别是褐斑病和斑点落叶病危害严重,已成为影响苹果生产的主要病害.简要介绍了苹果早期落叶病的发病症状、病原菌的生物学特征、生活史及发病条件、防治方法以及国内外研究进展.%In recenty years apple early stage leaf-cast universal occurred in our country apple main production area, especially the brown patch and cork spot of apple seriously harmed which had became a major impact on the apple production. The paper briefly introduced the disease symptom of early stage leaf-cast, the biology characteristic, life history and morbidity condition of pathogens , prevention methods and research development at home and abroad.

  6. CT perfusion at early stage of hepatic diffuse disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Guan; Wei-Dong Zhao; Kang-Rong Zhou; Wei-Jun Peng; Jian Mao; Feng Tang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the validity of the non-invasive method of CT perfusion (CTP) in rat model of hepatic diffuse disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Liver diffuse lesions were induced by dietthylnitrosamine in 14 rats of test group. Rats in control groupwere bred with pure water. From the 1st to 12th wk after the test group was intervened, both groups were studied every week with CTP. CTP parameters of liver parenchymain different periods and pathologic changes in two groups were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: The process of hepatic diffuse lesions in test groups was dassified into three stages or periods according to the pathologic alterations, namely hepattitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. During this period, hepatic artery flow (HAF)of control group declined slightly, mean transit time (MTT),blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) increased, but there wereno significant differences between different periods. Tntest group, HAF tended to increase gradually, MTT prolonged obviously, BV and BF decreased at the same time. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the difference in the HAF ratio of test group to control group was significant.The ratio of BV and BF in test group to control group in stageof hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The main pathological changes in stage of hepatitis were swelling of hepatic cells, while sinusoid capillarization and deposition of collagen aggravated gradually in the extravascular Disse's spaces in stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: The technique could reflect some early changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rat with liver diffuse disease and is valuable for their early diagnosis.

  7. Development in self-reported arm-lymphedema in Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer in 2005 and 2006 – A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this nationwide follow-up study was to examine the development of self-reported lymphedema in the population of women with early-stage breast cancer in Denmark. In 2008 and 2012 two identical questionnaires were sent to the women aged 18-70 years treated for unilateral primary...... breast cancer in 2005 and 2006. 2293 women (87%) reported on lymphedema in 2008 and 2012. Overall 37% reported lymphedema in 2008 while 31% reported lymphedema in 2012 and severity of symptoms decreased. 50% of women treated with SLNB and reporting lymphedema in 2008 did not report symptoms by 2012...... in contrast to 30% treated with ALND. However, 19% of women treated with ALND and not reporting lymphedema in 2008 had developed lymphedema by 2012. In conclusion lymphedema remains a frequent problem, years after treatment for breast cancer, though, number of women reporting lymphedema and overall severity...

  8. Computer simulation of early embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezem, J.J.; Raven, Chr.P.

    1975-01-01

    A simple model, formulated in terms of elementary geometry, is presented, describing the early development of Lymnaea stagnalis. It includes the main morphogenetic processes active at this stage: cell division, cell flattening and differentiation. Though the model has been designed primarily to fit

  9. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  10. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  11. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  12. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine‑induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woori; Yu, Eun-Sil; Chang, Minsun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Jang, Ja-June; Son, Woo-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma‑specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S‑transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK‑dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high‑risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

  13. Studying the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 using the structure of the Deep Impact ejecta cloud at the early stages of its development

    CERN Document Server

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; A`Hearn, Michael; King, Ashley; Wolff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present an attempt to extract information about the comet 9P/Tempel 1 nucleus from the characteristics of the ejecta cloud produced by the impactor of the Deep Impact mission. For this purpose we use two techniques. We first study the shadow cast on the nucleus surface by the ejecta cloud and investigate how areas of different brightness are related to the varying optical thickness or albedo of the ejecta cloud. The shadow was seen during the first 2.0 seconds after the impact (afterward it became obscured by the ejecta cloud). We have found that all brightness variations in the shadow are the result of the surface inhomogeneities, indicating that during first 2.0 seconds the ejecta cloud was homogeneous within the MRI spatial resolution. Our second technique is to study the obscuration of the nucleus limb by the ejecta. This study covers the period 0.76- 68.8 seconds after impact and is based on comparison of the ejecta cloud brightness on the limb and just beyond the limb. At this stage we do see inhomog...

  14. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... bilateral simultaneous and staged TKA procedures from 2010 to 2011. The staged procedures were defined as two separate procedures done within 0-6 months or within 7-18 months. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients had bilateral simultaneous TKA, 346 patients had bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months and 292...... simultaneous TKA versus three deaths (0.9 and 1.0 %) in each of the bilateral staged groups within 90 days of surgery (n.s.). The total readmission rate within 30 days of surgery was lower after bilateral simultaneous TKA (7 %, CI 4.0-12.0) and bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months (9 %, CI 6.4-12.4) compared...

  15. The early stages in the oxidation of Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shek, M.L. (25 Old Saddle Road, Ridge, New York 11961 (USA)); Hrbek, J. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA)); Sham, T.K. (Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, NA6 5B7, Canada (CA)); Xu, G. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We report soft x-ray photoemission results on the early stages of the oxidation of Na at {similar to}80 K. The first stage (up to {approx gt}0.5 L exposure) is characterized by a narrow O 2{ital p} level and a Na 2{ital p} surface core level shifted by {minus}0.55 eV with respect to the bulk core level. The Na 2{ital p} surface plasmon loss intensity shifts toward smaller energies, consistent with a decrease in surface conduction electron density. The second stage (starting from {similar to}1 L) is characterized by the emergence of di-oxygen'' valence levels and a Na 2{ital p} component shifted by {similar to}0.8 eV with respect to the bulk binding energy. The oxidation is strongly nonuniform, as suggested by the small oxygen doses needed for the onset of the second oxidation stage, and the continued presence of the bulk plasmon loss from metallic Na. The two new Na 2{ital p} binding energies are tentatively attributed to different final-state screening of metallic Na adjacent to dispersed oxygen atoms in the first stage, and of the Na atoms with mostly oxygen nearest neighbors in the second stage. Observations regarding large negative core level shifts upon large oxygen exposures are also summarized.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  17. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  18. Awareness of memory deficits in early stage Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Cleret de Langavant

    Full Text Available Patients with Huntington's disease (HD are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1 were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2 misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction.

  19. Early Contact Stage of Apoptosis: Its Morphological Features and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheri Mikadze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been a biological phenomenon of intense interest for 20 years, but the earlier morphological features of apoptosis have not been determined hitherto. Using the methods of semi- and ultrathin sections, the livers of intact embryos and young rats have been studied under the effect of cycloheximide to determine morphological features of an early stage of apoptosis. It is discovered that both in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, apoptosis, besides the well-known stages, also includes an early contact stage, distinguishing features of which are agglutination of bound ribosomes (breaking of translation, elimination of the nucleolus, reduction of free polysomes (and in hepatocytes, reduction of cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, formation of cytoplasmic excrescences, and cell shape changes. The early stage of apoptosis is characterized by close contact with neighboring cells. At a certain phase of the contact stage of apoptosis, the nucleolus reappears in the nucleus and the number of free polysomes in the cytoplasm increases, which suggests the renewal of synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Close contact of differentiating and mitotic hepatoblasts with apoptotic cells indicates a certain functional relationship between these cells that is realized not only by micropinocytosis, but through gap junctions as well. We assume that the apoptotic cell, besides proteolytic products, can contain newly synthesized, low-molecular substances, the relocation of which from apoptotic to neighboring cells may contribute to both functional activity and proliferation of adjacent hepatoblasts and, therefore, the function of apoptosis may not be limited only to the elimination of harmful, damaged, and unwanted cells.

  20. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2012-09-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  1. Efficiency of teaching patients with early-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education programs are an important part of the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to develop a unified model of an education program for RA patients and to evaluate its efficiency at the early stage of the disease.Material and methods. A group education program was worked out with the support of the All-Russian public organization of the disabled “The Russian rheumatology organization “Nadezhda” (Hope” and encompassed 4 daily classes lasting 90 min. All information was presented by a multidisciplinary team of specialists (rheumatologists, a cardiologist, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, and a physical trainer. The study included 55 patients with early RA (89.1% of women aged 18 to 62 years; the duration of the disease was 2 to 22 months; of them 25 were taught using the education program (a study group; 30 received drug therapy only (a control group. Following 3 and 6 months, the number of tender and swollen joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and pain were determined applying a 100-ml VAS, DAS28, HAQ, and RAPID3. Adherence to non-drug treatments was assessed employing a special patient questionnaire.Results. Three and six months after being taught, two patient groups showed increases in adherence to joint protection methods by 13 and 10 times (p<0.01, regular physical training by 4 and 3.25 times (p<0.01, uses of orthoses for the wrist joint by 2 times and 75% (p<0.01 and knee orthoses by 33.3 and 50.0% (p<0.01, and orthopedic insoles by 71.4 and 57.1% (p<0.01, respectively. Following 6 months, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in most parameters (p<0.05, except for ESR, CRP, and DAS28 (p>0.05. Further more, a good response to treatment was significantly more common in these periods, as shown by the EULAR response criteria (DAS28: 56.3% versus 40% in the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion. The education program decreases the intensity

  2. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  3. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  4. Development of a genetic algorithm optimisation tool for the early stage design of low and net-Zero Energy Solar Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Remi

    Homes that utilise solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies to generate as much energy as they consume in a year are referred to as net-Zero Energy Solar Homes (ZESH). This thesis presents the methodology used to develop a Genetic Algorithm (GA) Optimisation Tool that finds optimal configurations of low and net-zero energy solar homes taking into consideration effects from the use of different technologies, local climate, economics, and other factors. The tool links a low energy solar home model developed in TRNSYS with a GA optimisation program that automates the search for cost-effective building designs. The tool varies a predefined set of parameters including building width to length ratio, heating system type, solar thermal collector type and size, and more. The results from the TRNSYS model are compared with monitored data of an energy efficient house to verify that the model was correctly implemented. A total of 40 test cases were evaluated with the tool in order to verify the effects of climate, energy consumption target, control strategy, utility price structures, and other factors, to examine their impact on the resulting optimal design configurations. The GA program was capable of finding designs that were on average within 0.5% of the best known solution with the evaluation of only 0.00012% of the solution space. Results indicated that homes could be built with near equivalent monthly costs of conventional homes, while reducing the annual net-energy consumption by an order of magnitude. A reduction in PV system costs or the introduction of appropriate feed-in-tariffs had significant impacts on the overall cost-effectiveness of ZESH. The thesis clearly demonstrated the extent to which local climate, economic factors, and specific design constraints can have a major impact on the optimal design configuration, which limits the usefulness of generic design guidelines. The methodology developed was also a novel way of using TRNSYS for the

  5. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  6. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  7. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  9. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 (e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  10. Early Stage of Hypertensive Retinopathy; Is It Really Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KARAMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between early stage hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP and endothelial dysfunction (ED in atherogenesis. MATERIAL and METHODS: A total of 99 subjects consisting of 73 patients diagnosed with Essential Hypertension (HT and 26 healthy subjects were included to the study. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD was performed to detect ED. Asymmetric dimethylarginine-ADMA was measured as a marker of ED and the hsCRP and sTWEAK levels were measured for microvascular inflammation. All patients were screened for retinopathy. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure of the hypertensive patients and the control subjects was 140.1±13.7/86.1±10.7 and 107.12±10.0/65.38±10.2 respectively. HTRP was positive in 60.3% (n=44 and negative in 39.7% (n=29 of the patients with hypertension. There was grade 1 retinopathy in 52.1% and grade 2 retinopathy in 8.2% of hypertensive patients. The hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in the control group (respectively, p=0,011, p=0,001, p=0,001. FMD levels were lower in the hypertensive group, as expected. FMD levels were lower in the retinopathy group when the hypertensive group with and without retinopathy and the control group compared. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were also significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy (p=0.039, p=0.001, p=0.001. CONCLUSION: ED is thought to play a role in HT etiology and is also important in the development of HT complications. It would be appropriate to evaluate hypertensive patients more carefully and perform the necessary laboratory tests to detect ED so that the proper treatment can be started (ACEI, exercise, lifestyle changes.

  11. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  12. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... biorefinery concept for a lignocellulosic biorefinery. More specifically we highlight the required information management (management of various sources of data), the superstructure which is needed to represent the design space, generic but simple models covering all the processing steps of biorefineries...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials...

  13. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-κB and TNF-α expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing.

  14. USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellmann, D; Banhart, J

    2002-01-01

    Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 mu m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy. (orig.)

  15. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  16. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  17. The studies of nodular graphite cast iron early stages austempering

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krzyńska; M. Kaczorowski

    2008-01-01

    The results of early stage of ductile cast iron austempering are presented. The aim of the investigations was to look closer into the structure – mechanical properties relationships of this very attractive cast material. The experiment was carried out with enriched with Cu EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile iron. The specimens were first solution heat treated 1 hour in 910oC and then isothermally quenched for different time in molten tin at the temperature 275oC. The mechanical properties of as cast ...

  18. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E A

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior, insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process, the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, formation of cantori and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the fact that even the occurrence or not of inflation in a given Universe is dependent upon them.

  19. Emerging Literature on Cognitive Intervention Techniques for Early Stage Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Den Boer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-represented phenomena, with (underestimate ranging from 15-25% of the general population. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.

  20. China's Macroeconomic Development: Stages and Nonlinear Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingyao Lai

    2006-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is that China's macroeconomic development can be divided into three distinct stages with significant trend changes. Market-oriented reform and opening to the outside world provide main driving forces for the convergence. However, the gradual reform and some inappropriate policies have caused serious ups and downs in China's macroeconomic performance.

  1. Charcot stage 0: A review and consideratons for making the correct diagnosis early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Crystal; Schmidt, Brian; Munson, Michael; Wrobel, James S

    2015-01-01

    Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CN) is a rare disease (NIDDK, NIH Summary Report Charcot Workshop, 2008) that causes significant morbidity and mortality for affected patients. The disease can result in severe deformities of the foot and ankle that contribute to the development of ulcerations and amputations. Medical advances have failed to find ways to stop the progression of the disease. However, it is known that early detection of the CN has a substantial impact on patient outcomes. CN in the earliest stage is very difficult to recognize and differentiate from other similar presenting diseases. We intend to outline clinical considerations practitioners can use when evaluating a patient with early stage suspected CN.

  2. A quantification model for apoptosis in mouse embryos in the early stage of fetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PengFei; FU JianHua; MA WanYun; CHEN DieYan; Lü DanYu; BAI WenJia

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is the most important inducement and modulator for embryos in the early stage of fetation, i.e. after the 8-cell stage, mostly the morula and blastula stage, to proceed to the stage of nonlinear development. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system, we obtained 3-dimensional (3D) fluorescent images of preimplantation mouse embryos. A model for quantification was established. The statistical results for the spatial location of apoptosis bodies in embryos was obtained following image processing, as well as investigation of the kinetics of apoptosis. It was found that most (70%) apoptosis occurred in the trophectoderm, and the departure between the centroid and geometric center of embryos had a step transition when embryos developed into the 32-cell stage,which was consistent with the theoretical prediction that the blastocele would induce a symmetry break of the distribution of cells in embryos.

  3. A quantification model for apoptosis in mouse embryos in the early stage of fetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is the most important inducement and modulator for embryos in the early stage of fetation, i.e. after the 8-cell stage, mostly the morula and blastula stage, to proceed to the stage of nonlinear development. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system, we obtained 3-dimensional (3D) fluorescent images of preimplantation mouse embryos. A model for quantification was established. The statistical results for the spatial location of apoptosis bodies in embryos was obtained following image processing, as well as investigation of the kinetics of apoptosis. It was found that most (70%) apoptosis occurred in the trophectoderm, and the departure between the centroid and geometric center of embryos had a step transition when embryos developed into the 32-cell stage, which was consistent with the theoretical prediction that the blastocele would induce a symmetry break of the distribution of cells in embryos.

  4. Early developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides featured by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Miné, Júlio César; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is responsible for a highly disseminated helminth parasitic disease, ascariosis, a relevant parasitosis that responds for great financial burden on the public health system of developing countries. In this work, metabolic fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed to identify marker molecules from A. lumbricoides in different development stages. We have identified nine biomarkers, such as pheromones and steroidal prohormones in early stages, among other molecules in late development stages, making up four molecules for fertilized eggs, four marker molecules for first larvae (L1) and one marker molecule for third larvae (L3). Therefore, our findings indicate that this approach is suitable for biochemical characterization of A. lumbricoides development stages. Moreover, the straightforward analytical method employed, with almost no sample preparation from a complex matrix (feces) using high-resolution mass spectrometry, suggests that it is possible to seek for an easier and faster way to study animal molding processes.

  5. Cognitive impairment in early-stage non-demented Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Helle Cecilie Viekilde; Løkkegaard, A; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are common. PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing PDD. Knowledge of cognition in early-stages PD is essential in understanding and predicting the dementia process....

  6. Patient Preferences for Minimally Invasive and Open Locoregional Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuttel, Floor; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Young-Afat, Danny A.; Emaus, Marleen J.; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G; Witkamp, Arjen J.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    Background: Noninvasive or minimally invasive treatments are being developed as alternatives to surgery for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients' preferences with regard to these new treatments have not been investigated. Objectives: To assess preferences of patients with breast cancer

  7. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  8. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  9. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  10. The effects of blocking angiotensin receptors on early stages of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Gheissari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce VCAM-1 and microalbuminuria and may increase NO levels in early stages of DN. Thus administration of ARBs might be considered even in early stages of DN.

  11. The surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicrú, Sabina R; de la Torre, Javier F V; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The main objective is to update the literature data in the last year which may support a surgical approach to early cervical cancer [ECC; Stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IA-IB1-IIA1]. Radical hysterectomy remains the gold standard by most international guidelines because surgical treatment has hardly changed in recent decades, except for stage IA1. Trends in clinical research in the past 12-18 months involve minimal invasive surgery (with laparoscopic surgery or robotic-assisted surgery), fertility preservation (in the initial stages and in the absence of bad prognostic factors), nerve-sparing and sentinel node techniques. Some institutions have published studies in specific groups such as older, obese or pregnant women. There is a growing trend to practice less aggressive surgery in order to preserve fertility in young women and avoid an excess of treatment in some selected patients. Therefore, nerve-sparing techniques can help to improve the quality of life. More studies are needed to demonstrate oncologic results of the sentinel node technique. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery can substitute open surgical treatment.

  12. Use of dual section mRNA in situ hybridisation/immunohistochemistry to clarify gene expression patterns during the early stages of nephron development in the embryo and in the mature nephron of the adult mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Wilkinson, Lorine; Chiu, Han Sheng; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Thierry; Little, Melissa H

    2008-11-01

    The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.

  13. Conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, B L; Orel, S G; Jardines, L

    1993-07-01

    In selected patients with early-stage breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation represent an alternative equal to mastectomy in terms of local recurrence, distant metastasis, survival, and long-term complications. Patients with early-stage breast cancer who are candidates for conservative surgery and radiation include those whose primary tumor is less than 4 to 5 cm in size without evidence of gross multicentricity or diffuse microcalcifications. Patients with an extensive intraductal component may be appropriate candidates provided that margins of resection are negative. Young age is not a contraindication to the conservative treatment. A preexisting history of collagen vascular disease or prior mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a contraindication to conservative surgery and radiation because of the potential for severe complications. An additional contraindication is the pregnant woman in whom delivery cannot be accomplished before the initiation of radiation. Mammography is essential in the pretreatment evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of the conservatively treated patient. The goal of the pretreatment mammogram is to assess the extent of disease in the ipsilateral breast as well as to evaluate the contralateral breast. In patients who present with microcalcifications, a postbiopsy mammogram before radiation is essential to document complete removal of all malignant-appearing microcalcifications. Mammography is an essential part of the follow-up program in order to detect a recurrence in the treated breast as well as a cancer in the contralateral breast cancer. The optimal interval for follow-up mammography has not been determined, although programs employing mammography on a yearly basis after treatment have been associated with the detection of early recurrences and excellent survival after salvage mastectomy for these recurrences.

  14. A role for E2-2 at the DN3 stage of early thymopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Ingela; Forssell, Johan; Penha-Goncalves, Mario N;

    2008-01-01

    proteins, Id2 displayed a prominent expression exclusively in DN1, whereas Id3 showed some expression in DN1, followed by a down regulation and then a prominent induction, peaking in the DP stage. E2-2 was expressed during the DN stages, as well as in the DP stage, suggesting that E2-2 operates in concert...... with the other E-proteins during early thymocyte development. We found that E2-2 null thymocytes displayed a partial block at the DN3 stage of development, as well as a reduced expression of pre-T alpha, known to be regulated also by E2A and HEB. The fact that E2-2 deficient thymocytes develop without gross...

  15. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  16. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  17. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  18. Expression of nebulette during early cardiac development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esham, Michael; Bryan, Kourtney; Milnes, Jennifer; Holmes, William B; Moncman, Carole L

    2007-04-01

    Nebulette, a cardiac homologue of nebulin, colocalizes with alpha-actinin in the pre-myofibrils of spreading cardiomyocytes and has been hypothesized to play a critical role in the formation of the thin-filament-Z-line complex early during myofibrillogenesis. Data from mesodermal explants or whole tissue mounts of developing hearts suggest that the pattern of myofibrillogenesis in situ may differ from observations of spreading cardiomyocytes. To evaluate the role of nebulette in myofibrillogenesis, we have analyzed the expression of nebulette in chicken heart rudiments by immunoblots and immunofluorescence. We detect the 110 kDa nebulette in heart rudiments derived from stage 9-10 using the anti-nebulin mAb, N114, or polyclonal anti-nebulette Abs by immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence analysis of explants stained with anti-nebulette and anti-alpha-actinin Abs demonstrates that both proteins localize along actin filaments in punctate to continuous manner at early stages of cardiac development and later give rise to striations. In both cases, the punctate staining had a periodicity of approximately 1.0 microm indicating a pre-myofibrils distribution at the earliest time points examined. We demonstrate that nebulette is indeed associated with premyofibrils in very early stages of myofibrillogenesis and suggest that nebulette may play an important role in the formation of these structures.

  19. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  20. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  1. Locomotor function in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Crenna, Paolo; Calabrese, Elena; Rabuffetti, Marco; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Nemni, Raffaello; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    The cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been widely investigated with particular reference to abnormalities of steady-state walking. The great majority of studies, however are related to severe forms of PD patients (phases > = 3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), where locomotor abnormalities are clearly manifested. Goal of the present study was to quantitatively describe locomotor symptoms in subjects with mild PD. Accordingly, a multitask protocol involving instrumental analysis of steady-state linear walking, initiation of gait, and turning while walking was applied to a group of patients with idiopathic PD in their early clinical stage (phases 1 and 2 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), as well as in age-matched elderly controls. Kinematic, kinetic, and myoelectric measures were obtained by optoelectronic motion analysis, force platform, and telemetric electromyography. Results in PD patients showed a tendency to bradykinetic gait, with reduction of walking speed and cadence. Impairments of gait initiation consisted in reduction of the backward shift of the center of pressure (CoP) and prolongation of the stepping phase. Alterations of the turning task were more consistent and included delayed reorientation of the head toward the new direction, altered head-upper trunk rotational strategy, and adoption of a greater number of steps to complete the turning. It is concluded that patients in the early stage of PD reveal mild alterations of steady-state linear walking and more significant anomalies in the transitional conditions, especially during changes in the travel direction. Quantitative analysis of nonstationary locomotor tasks might be a potentially useful starting point for further studies on the pathophysiology of PD.

  2. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  3. 杨19油藏东部初期注水开发效果分析%Analyses on the Effect of Early-Stage Water-flood Development in the East of Yang 19 Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永康; 王辉; 郭春竹; 孔鹏

    2012-01-01

    The east area of Yan 9 reservoir in Yang19 block in Sui Jing oilfield is the lithology-tectonic oil reservoir based on the structure,with characteristics of shallow bury,thick layer of sand,single rock,and the limited water at the edge of bottom.At the early stage,natural energy was used in the development,but the energy of formation dropped rapidly.In order to realize the stable and high production of oilfield,and enhance the final oil recovery of oilfields,water-flooding development for oil reservoir has been carried out since Sept.2009.With the process being explored continuously and the precise water injection production being adjusted constantly,the better effect has been achieved now.Meanwhile,some experiences are summarized in the adjustment,which provides theoretical basis for western oil reservoir development.%绥靖油田杨19区块延9油藏东部具有埋藏浅,砂层厚,岩性单一,边底水有限的特征,是以构造为主的岩性—构造油藏。前期利用自然能量开发,地层能量下降迅速,为了实现油田稳产、高产,提高油田最终采收率,自2009年9月起对油藏进行注水开发,开发过程不断探索、不断精细注采调整,目前已取得良好效果,并在调整过程总结了一些经验,对西部油藏开发提供了理论上的依据。

  4. Longitudinal trajectories of awareness in early-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that awareness decreases as dementia severity increases, there is limited evidence regarding changes in awareness over time. We examined awareness in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia (PwD) and their carers; 66 were reassessed after 12 months and 51 were seen again at 20 months. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, everyday activities, and socio-emotional functioning using discrepancies between PwD and carer ratings on parallel questionnaires. PwD completed neuropsychological tests and measures of mood and quality of life. Carers completed measures of mood and stress. At initial assessment, discrepancies were greatest for activities of daily living, moderate for memory, and least pronounced for socio-emotional functioning. Discrepancy scores did not change over time. PwD self-ratings indicated perceived poorer functioning in everyday activities over time, but no change for memory and socio-emotional functioning. Carer ratings indicated perceived decline in everyday activities and socio-emotional functioning, but no change for memory. PwD declined in neuropsychological functioning, but self-ratings of depression, anxiety, and quality of life remained stable over time. Carer mood and stress levels also remained stable. At least in the earlier stages of dementia, it should not be assumed that awareness will inevitably decrease as dementia progresses.

  5. ROCK inhibition prevents early mouse embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-08-01

    ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is important for actin assembly and is involved in various cellular functions, including cell contraction, migration, motility, and tumor cell invasion. In this study, we investigated ROCK expression and function during early mouse embryo development. Inhibiting ROCK by Y-27632 treatment at the zygote stage resulted in first cleavage failure, and most embryos failed to develop to the 8-cell stage. When adding Y-27632 at the 8-cell stage, embryos failed to undergo compaction and could not develop into blastocysts. In addition, fluorescence staining intensity analysis indicated that actin expression at blastomere membranes was significantly reduced. After ROCK inhibition, two or more nuclei were observed in a cell, which indicated possible cytokinesis failure. Moreover, after ROCK inhibition with Y-27632, the phosphorylation levels of LIMK1/2, a downstream molecule of ROCK, were decreased at blastomere membranes. Thus, our results showed conserved roles for ROCK in this mammalian embryo model and indicated that a ROCK-LIMK1/2-actin pathway might regulate cleavage and blastocyst formation during early mouse embryo development.

  6. Gene expression-based biomarkers for discriminating early and late stage of clear cell renal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Sherry; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Sehgal, Manika; Kaur, Harpreet; Sharma, Suresh; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to identify expression-based gene biomarkers that can discriminate early and late stage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. We have analyzed the gene expression of 523 samples to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the early and late stage of ccRCC. First, a threshold-based method has been developed, which attained a maximum accuracy of 71.12% with ROC 0.67 using single gene NR3C2. To improve the performance of threshold-based method, we combined two or more genes and achieved maximum accuracy of 70.19% with ROC of 0.74 using eight genes on the validation dataset. These eight genes include four underexpressed (NR3C2, ENAM, DNASE1L3, FRMPD2) and four overexpressed (PLEKHA9, MAP6D1, SMPD4, C11orf73) genes in the late stage of ccRCC. Second, models were developed using state-of-art techniques and achieved maximum accuracy of 72.64% and 0.81 ROC using 64 genes on validation dataset. Similar accuracy was obtained on 38 genes selected from subset of genes, involved in cancer hallmark biological processes. Our analysis further implied a need to develop gender-specific models for stage classification. A web server, CancerCSP, has been developed to predict stage of ccRCC using gene expression data derived from RNAseq experiments. PMID:28349958

  7. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed.

  8. Ariane-5 solid-propellant stage development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigou, Jacques

    1992-03-01

    The development status of the solid propellant engine (P230) of the Ariane-5 launcher is described. Large new industrial plants were built in Europe and Guiana for the development and manufacture of the solid-booster stage and are now operational. A product assurance policy, specific and common to the companies that are involved in the engine's development, was defined and will be implemented. The paper describes the production cycles for the charged segments, the igniter, and the nozzle for P230 engine, as well as the process of engine integration and testing. Consideration is also given to the engine thrust capability, the launcher flight control, and the interfaces. The the major engine development tests are described.

  9. Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2014-01-01

    A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood.

  10. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid

    2013-01-01

    Research on the barriers for building renovation in Denmark has revealed that an important obstacle is a lack of simple and holistic tools that can assist stakeholders in decision-making during the early stages of projects (pre-project phases). The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary...... research results and ideas for the development of a tool, which can be used as decision support for renovation projects in early stages. The research is part of the Eracobuild project ACES – “A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early stages” with participants from Denmark......, Sweden and Cyprus. This paper is mainly based on a work package concerning benefits of restoration. The approach has been - after a literature review - to start by conducting a needs and stakeholder analysis with 10 interviews. Based on this initial analysis a requirement specification for the decision...

  11. [Application of peloidotherapy at the early stage of rehabilitation after cerebral ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, F E; Penionzhkevich, D Iu; Kotenko, E P

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical efficiency of peloidotherapy in the early reconvalescence period following cerebral ischemic stroke. A rationale for the application of peloidotherapy is presented based on the results of follow-up of 60 patients (26 men and 34 women) aged from 43 to 70 years at the early stage of recovery (within 10 weeks and more after stroke). Special attention was given to clinical dynamics of the post-stroke condition and the influence of peloidotherapy on the mechanisms underlying formation of cerebral hemodynamic effects, adaptive changes in the functional systems of hemostasis and microcirculation, and development of pathophysiological cascade of metabolic processes in the brain. All therapeutic procedures were fairly well tolerated by the patients. Neither allergic reactions nor other adverse effects of the treatment were documented which testifies to the safety of peloidotherapy at the early stage of rehabilitation after cerebral ischemic stroke.

  12. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  13. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season? Qual o melhor ambiente para o desenvolvimento das fases jovens de peixes durante a estação seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a qualidade dos habitats para as primeiras fases de vida dos peixes no Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, durante a estação seca; MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a qualidade dos hábitats para o desenvolvimento das primeiras fases, o fator de condição relativo foi aplicado aos juvenis de cinco espécies de peixes, capturados em quatro habitats diferentes (reservatório, lago de planície de inundação, canal principal e tributário. Os juvenis foram coletados em macrófitas litorâneas com uma peneira retangular, na estação seca de 2008 e 2009; RESULTADOS: Somente Astyanax

  14. Development and Initial Evaluation of the Web-Based Self-Management Program “Partner in Balance” for Family Caregivers of People With Early Stage Dementia: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vugt, Marjolein E; Withagen, Hanneke EJ; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Verhey, Frans RJ

    2016-01-01

    Background People with dementia increasingly depend on informal caregivers. Internet-based self-management interventions hold considerable promise for meeting the educational and support needs of early stage dementia caregivers (EDCs) at a reduced cost. Objective This study aimed to (1) develop an online self-management program for EDC to increase self-efficacy and goal attainment, and (2) evaluate the program’s feasibility and report preliminary data on effectiveness. Methods Based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, a stepwise approach was adopted to explore potential user needs and develop and validate the content by means of (1) focus group discussions with dementia caregivers (N=28), (2) interviews with dementia care professionals (N=11), and (3) individual think-aloud usability tests with EDC (N=2) and experts (N=2). A pilot evaluation was conducted with EDC (N=17) to test the feasibility and establish preliminary effects. Self-report measures of feasibility were completed after the completion of intervention. Self-efficacy and goal attainment were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results The different steps provided useful information about the needs of potential users regarding the content and delivery of the program. This resulted in the newly developed “Partner in Balance” program. At the start, system failures resulted in a high noncompleter rate (7/17, 41%), but at the end, an acceptable feasibility score of 209 (range 54-234) was found. The convenience of completing the program at home, the tailored content, and the guidance (face-to-face and online) were appraised positively. Preliminary effects on caregiver self-efficacy (P50) were promising. Conclusions Adaptations were made to the program to limit the amount of system failures and prevent high noncompleter rates. As recommended by the MRC framework, confirming the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness is

  15. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae,Rhodophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1 h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  16. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guhyun; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  17. Morphological development and growth pattern of Verasper variegatus,Temminck et Schlegel in early life stages%圆斑星鲽的早期生长发育特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁鑫; 柳学周; 孙中之; 徐永江; 王妍妍

    2011-01-01

    Morphological and quantitative characteristics of Verasper variegatus in early life stages including embryonic development, yolk sac larva, pre-flexion larva, post-flexion larva, and juveniles were recorded. The eggs are 1.75mm 0. 08mm in diameter, without oil globule and spherical in shape when they are suspended in sea water. There is negative a relationship between the temperature and the hatching time, and the calculated lower threshold temperature for hatching of embryos is 5.14 ℃. The larvae hatched out 159h post fertilization at temperatures of 11±0.5 C, salinity of 31-32, and DO≥Smg/L. The newly hatched larvae is transparent and 4.95±0. 15mm in total length. Larval development and growth completely depended on the energy from the yolk sac and oil globe till 7 DAH (days after hatching). Meantime, mouth and anus opened, larvae entered the mixed feeding stage. Larvae entered the complete exogenous feeding stage after the yolk was completely absorbed at 11DAH. The first feeding food was L type rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. Larvae began to feed rotifers at 7 DAH. At 11 DAH, larvae were fed nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia salina at densities of 0.5 1.5 ind./mi till 46 DAH. Weaning to commercial diet started at 31 DAH and larvae fed mainly commercial diet after 40 DAH. There is no swim bladder present all through the early life history. The flexion of notochord started at 17 DAH at a total length of 7.32 0.23 mm (n=30), and finished at 33DAH when the total length reached 11.2 0.33 mm (n=30). Meanwhile, metamorphosis began at 33 DAH and completed at 50 DAH with the left eye moved completely to the right side, and the juveniles entered the bottom life stage. At 70 DAH, lateral line formed and the juveniles entered the young stage with the total length up to 25.3 3.23 mm (n=30), with similar appearance as the adults. The dorsal fin, pectoral fin, pelvic fin, caudal fin, and anal fin reached their full numbers at 70DAH. There were 4-5 black spots on the dorsal

  18. 东北林蛙发育早期TLR2的表达及免疫应答特征%The Expression and Immune Response Characteristics of TLR2 at the Early Development Stage ofRana chensinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽; 赫天一; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    旨在研究东北林蛙发育早期TLR2的表达特征及其针对不同PAMPs的免疫应答特征。免疫组化染色及RT-PCR对11期至42期东北林蛙TLR2进行定位和定量检测;29期蝌蚪0.5μg/mL的LTA,LPS,ZymoA,Poly I∶C急性腹腔注射,RT-PCR检测24 h内TLR2 mRNA相对表达量变化。结果显示,TLR2在东北林蛙发育早期的组织中分布广泛,11期TLR2 mRNA相对表达量0.187±0.021,25期升至0.373±0.031后,42期降至0.170±0.020。24 h内未检测到LPS组和Zymo A组TLR2 mRNA相对表达量显著性变化(P>0.05),LTA组在4 h与12 h出现两次极显著性升高(P0.05). TLR2 mRNA of the LTE group peaked twice at 4 h与12 h after antigen injection(P<0.01);and the PolyI:C group peaked at 8 h(P<0.01). The expression character of TLR2 matches with its living environment at the early development stage ofRana chensinensis.TLR2 did not responses to the challenge of LPS and ZymoA timely at the stage 29, on the other hand, TLR2 recognized and responsed to LTA and PolyI∶C group effectively. TLR2 ofRana chensinensis possesses the recognition and response characteristics to PAMPs both of fish and mammals.

  19. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus [Central Inst. of Radiology, Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Herkstroeter, Markus [Radiotherapeutic Practice at the Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  20. Detection of early-stage research fronts——An example of complex networks research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua; ZHANG; Zhiqiang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study aims to detect research fronts of a scientific field in its early development stage using bibliometric indicators developed based on the features of research fronts.Design/methodology/approach:We first focused on conceptualization of"research fronts"and outlined 4 indicators to measure different aspects of the concept:Innovation,timeliness,stability and interdisciplinarity.Then research specialties obtained based on direct citation networks were evaluated with the 4 indicators and research fronts were identified.Finally,methodology was illustrated and verified in the research domain of complex networks.Findings:The results indicate that the proposed method is useful in detecting research fronts in a specific field which is at an early development stage.Research limitations:The quality of clustering results was not assessed.It needs to be further studied whether the method can be applicable to the fields that evolve slowly such as mathematics or are highly specialized like entomology and zoology.Practical implications:This study helps researchers keep abreast of emerging trends and policy-makers formulate science and technology policies and strategic plans.Originality/value:This research provides insights into a quantitative assessment method to detect research fronts of a scientific field in its early development stage.

  1. Early-stage tumor detection using photoacoustic microscopy: a pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Wang, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Song; Sohn, Rebecca E.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    We report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of arteriovenous (AV) shunts in early stage tumors in vivo, and develop a pattern recognition framework for computerized tumor detection. Here, using a high-resolution photoacoustic microscope, we implement a new blood oxygenation (sO2)-based disease marker induced by the AV shunt effect in tumor angiogenesis. We discovered a striking biological phenomenon: There can be two dramatically different sO2 values in bloodstreams flowing side-by-side in a single vessel. By tracing abnormal sO2 values in the blood vessels, we can identify a tumor region at an early stage. To further automate tumor detection based on our findings, we adopt widely used pattern recognition methods and develop an efficient computerized classification framework. The test result shows over 80% averaged detection accuracy with false positive contributing 18.52% of error test samples on a 50 PAM image dataset.

  2. Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidaršič, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2011-04-01

    Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface.

  3. Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; So, Nina; Galloway, Laura F

    2016-12-01

    Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI was primarily due to germination and survival, with moderate RI for pollen viability. RI for survival was asymmetric and caused by cytonuclear incompatibility, with the strength of incompatibility linearly related to chloroplast genetic distance. This cytonuclear incompatibility may be the result of a rapidly evolving plastid genome. Substantial asymmetric RI was also found for germination, but was not associated with cytonuclear incompatibility, indicating endosperm or maternal-zygote incompatibilities. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to RI within species, suggesting that initial rates of speciation could be influenced by rates of organelle evolution. However, other genetic incompatibilities are equally important, indicating that even at early stages, speciation can be a complex process involving multiple genes and incompatibilities.

  4. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early stages of diamond BEN-HFCVD on iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, J.C.; Faerber, J. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, Institut de Physique et Chimie de Strasbourg, IPCMS-GSI, UMR 7504, BP 43, 23, rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Vonau, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Spectroscopie Electronique, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Arabski, J.; Schmerber, G. [Groupe des Materiaux Metalliques, IPCMS-GEMM, 91404 Orsay (France); Wyczisk, F.; Legagneux, P. [Thales R and T, Domaine de Corbeville, 91404 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-09-01

    This study attempts to better understand the BEN effects on diamond nucleation on iridium buffer layers investigated by in situ electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES). The surface morphology is further characterised by AFM and SEM FEG. Nano-Auger experiments provide information about the chemical nature of the crystals. During the early stages of BEN, nano-Auger observations revealed a significant carbon sp{sup 3} contribution within the bright crystals whereas the surrounding areas are mainly sp{sup 2}. This emphasizes the BEN effect on the diamond nucleation. Moreover, AES experiments reveal the formation of graphite. The equivalent thickness of the graphite layer is estimated from XPS data, it is close to a monolayer. The graphite formation is not a proper effect of BEN because it is also obtained under CVD environment according to our study. Anisotrope crystals arranged along left angle 110 right angle directions have been characterized by HR-SEM and AFM. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. The studies of nodular graphite cast iron early stages austempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of early stage of ductile cast iron austempering are presented. The aim of the investigations was to look closer into the structure – mechanical properties relationships of this very attractive cast material. The experiment was carried out with enriched with Cu EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile iron. The specimens were first solution heat treated 1 hour in 910oC and then isothermally quenched for different time in molten tin at the temperature 275oC. The mechanical properties of as cast and heat treated specimens were tested to evaluate tensile Rm and yield strength R p, 0.2 and elongation A5. Additionally hardness measurements were carried out using Brinell-Rockwell method. Structure of the specimens both as cast and after austempering was studied using conventional light microscopy. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was applied for fracture surface observations. It was concluded that short time low temperature austempering lead to formation martensitic microstructure characterized by very high hardness with almost zero ductility. The lack of ductility make the material very sensitive to any structure defects which work as a stress concentrators which strongly influence the strength of heat treated ductile iron specimens.

  7. Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Buettner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P<.001 and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P<.001. While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P=.02 than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P<.001. Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life.

  8. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Designing with building performance simulation feedback in the early design stage has existed since the early days of computational modeling. However, as a consequence of a fragmented building industry building performance simulations (BPSs) in the early design stage are closely related to who is...

  9. Choreography of early thalamocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Zoltán; Higashi, Shuji; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2003-06-01

    Thalamic axons, which carry most of the information from the sensory environment, are amongst the first projections to reach the cerebral cortex during embryonic development. It has been proposed that the scaffold of early generated cells in the ventral thalamus, internal capsule and preplate play a pivotal role in their deployment through sharp gene expression boundaries. These ideas were recently evaluated in various strains of mutant mice. In Tbr1, Gbx2, Pax6 KO both thalamic and corticofugal projections fail to traverse the striatocortical junction. In both Emx2 and Pax6 KO brains, the misrouted thalamic afferents are accompanied by displacements of the pioneering projections from the internal capsule. Regardless of their altered route, thalamic afferents in the reeler and L1 KO mice seem to be able to redistribute themselves on the cortical sheet and establish normal periphery-related representation in the somatosensory cortex. Early neural activity delivered through the thalamic projections is thought to be involved in the realignment process of thalamic axons at the time of their accumulation in the subplate layer. However, axonal growth and the early topographic arrangement of thalamocortical fiber pathways appear normal in the Snap25 KO, where action potential mediated synaptic vesicle release is disrupted. We therefore suggest that intercellular communication mediated by constitutive secretion of transmitters or growth factors might play a dominant role during early thalamocortical development.

  10. Plausibility in Early Stages of Architectural Design: A New Tool for High-Rise Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Donath; Danny Lobos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of the design of envelopes for high-rise isolated residential build-ings. The phenomenon of envelope creation appears in the early stages of the architectural design. Vari-ables that influence the final shape and size of such envelopes are then identified. This paper presents the state-of-the-art tools for the current solutions at the commercial and academic/scientific level. The variables identified in this research are the client's needs, the urban code and architectural practice, and their specific components for the final creation of a new decision support system tool based on the building information modeling (BIM) software platform, to facilitate the work in the project development and drawing production stages. This tool generates several options for building envelopes according to the parameters required by the city Zoning Planning Commission. These options then lead to deliver reliable data and a geometry that can be analyzed in a timely fashion by the engineers, builders, architects, government, and clients in the early stages of the building's design. The results show that use of specific information and communication technologies (ICT) tools in the early stages of a building design helps reduce the working time, increases confidence in the generated solution, and contributes to the exploration of altematives in a short period of time.

  11. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production at commercial hatchery. T-RFLP results indicated that the bacterial community associated with early stages of shrimp development might be transferred vertically from broodstock via egg. There was no significant difference between bacterial communities investigated, except the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community of egg had the highest diversity and evenness, meanwhile the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii had the lowest diversity. Nine phylotypes were found at all stages with high abundance. Those TRFs were identified as γ- proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, and bacteroidetes group.

  12. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  13. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Early Discontinuation in Aromatase Inhibitor-Treated Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Kunal C.; Snyder, Claire F.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Seewald, Nicholas J.; Flockhart, David A.; Skaar, Todd C.; Desta, Zereunesay; Rae, James M.; Otte, Julie L.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Storniolo, Anna M.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Stearns, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early discontinuation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and leads to poor outcomes but is challenging to predict. In the Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics trial, a high rate of early discontinuation due to intolerance was observed. We hypothesized that early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) predict AI discontinuation and that biochemical factors are associated with changes in PROs. Patients and Methods. Postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole completed questionnaires at baseline and serially over 24 months to assess overall quality of life (EuroQOL Visual Analog Scale [VAS]); mood; and multiple symptoms, including a musculoskeletal symptom cluster. A joint mixed-effects/survival model was used to estimate the effect of the change in PROs on AI discontinuation. Associations between biochemical factors and change in PROs were examined. Results. A total of 490 patients were analyzed. Worsening of EuroQOL VAS and the musculoskeletal cluster were associated with the highest risk for early discontinuation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72–2.81; p = .015]; HR, 4.39 [95% CI, 2.40–8.02; p < .0001], respectively). Pharmacokinetics and estrogen metabolism were not consistently associated with change in PRO measures. No clinically significant differences in any PRO between AIs were observed. Conclusion. Changes in PROs early during AI therapy were associated with treatment discontinuation. Identification of these changes could be used to target interventions in patients at high risk for early discontinuation. Implications for Practice: Early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can predict nonpersistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy. If used in clinical practice, PROs might identify women at highest risk for early discontinuation and allow for interventions to improve tolerance before significant toxicities develop

  14. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  15. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  16. Next stages in HDR technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1993-03-01

    Twenty years of research and development have brought HDR heat mining technology from the purely conceptual stage to the establishment of an engineering-scale heat mine at Fenton Hill, NM. In April 1992, a long-term flow test (LTFT) of the HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill was begun. The test was carried out under steady-state conditions on a continuous basis for four months, but a major equipment failure in late July forced a temporary suspension of operations. Even this short test provided valuable information and extremely encouraging results as summarized below: There was no indication of thermal drawdown of the reservoir. There was evidence of increasing access to hot rock with time. Water consumption was in the rangki of 10--12%. Measured pumping costs were $0.003 per kilowatt of energy produced. Temperature logs conducted in the reservoir production zone during and after the flow test confirmed the fact that there was no decline in the average temperature of the fluid being produced from the reservoir. In fact, tracer testing showed that the fluid was taking more indirect pathways and thus contacting a greater amount of hot rock as the test progressed. Water usage quickly dropped to a level of 10--15 gallons per minute, an amount equivalent to about 10--12% of the injected fluid volume. At a conversion rate of 10--15%, these would translate to effective ``fuel costs`` of 2--3{cents} per kilowatt hour of electricity production potential. The completion of the LTFT will set the stage for commercialization of HDR but will not bring HDR technology to maturity. Relatively samples extensions of the current technology may bring significant improvements in efficiency, and these should be rapidly investigated. In the longer run, advanced operational concepts could further improve the efficiency of HDR energy extraction and may even offer the possibility of cogeneration schemes which solve both energy and water problems throughout the world.

  17. Early prosocial development across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Tara; Corbit, John

    2017-08-17

    Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CdiGMP signaling at early stages of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Xian, Wujing; Utada, Andrew; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm communities on surfaces constitute an important physiological state of bacteria. CdiGMP is a secondary messenger that has recently emerged as a master regulator of biofilm behavior. It has been shown that cdiGMP can affect bacterial adhesion, motility and exopolysaccharides production, which are important in regulating biofilm formation. However, at a single cell level, the details of how cdiGMP regulate bacterial behavior are largely unknown. Here we examine the dynamics of intracellular cdiGMP levels at early stages of biofilm in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, by using cell tracking techniques. We show that cells with different cdiGMP levels play different roles in the microcolony development at early stages of biofilm. The correlation between Psl and cdiGMP levels is also investigated.

  19. Building energy optimization in the early design stages: A simplified method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of multi-objective genetic algorithms for holistic building design that considers multiple criteria; building energy use, capital cost, daylight distribution and thermal indoor environment. The optimization focus is related to building envelope parameters....... To obtain relevant feedback from multi-objective optimizations in early design stages, evaluation speed is a key concern. The paper presents a fast evaluation method fit for the early design stages. It uses a combination of two different quasi-steady-state methods for energy and indoor environment...... evaluations, a Radiance implementation for daylight simulations and a scripted algorithm for capital cost evaluations. The application of the method is developed around an integrated dynamic model which allows visual design feedback from all evaluations to be an integrated part of the design tool experience...

  20. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  1. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  2. [Ways to improve efficiency of patient clinical examinations during early stage of cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlacheva, N A; Suchkova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work was to improve the organization and conduct of clinical examination of patients with gallstone disease (GSD). An integrated study of 396 patients with different pathologies of the hepatobiliary system and the medical check-up for three years for 101 patients. Built logistic model to predict the likelihood of developing gallstone disease and developed a predictive scoring table it possible to distinguish patients at risk of developing gall stones. The result of follow-up of the proposed method was prevented economic losses due to the lack of need for a cholecystectomy, which is made up of one patient 6766.22 rubles., The entire group of 1,004,966.63 rubles. Obtained to diagnose cholelithiasis at an early stage dokamennoy. Developed a screening questionnaire, predictive scoring table, the scheme of follow-up also improves clinical examination of patients with cholelithiasis dokamennoy stage.

  3. Cognitive development: no stages please--we're British.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, U

    2001-02-01

    British cognitive developmental psychology is characterized by its interest in philosophical questions, its preference for linking basic research to applied issues in education and cognitive disorders, and its willingness to learn both methodologically and theoretically from work in animal psychology and in physiology more generally. It has also been influenced profoundly by Jean Piaget's cognitive stage theory although in general British work has focused on demonstrating early strengths, rather than early deficits, in infant and child cognition. Following an overview of British work that encompasses past and present interests, issues and challenges for the future are highlighted. While the perspectives of the founding members of the British Psychological Society (BPS), as outlined by Edgell (1947), are still apparent in British research in cognitive developmental psychology today, it is argued that future cognitive work must become even more interdisciplinary and that the symbiotic relationship between research in adult cognition and in cognitive development needs greater recognition.

  4. Photobiomodulation of early mouse embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridova-Chailakhyan, T. A.; Fakhranurova, L. I.; Simonova, N. B.; Khramov, R. N.; Manokhin, A. A.; Paskevich, S. I.; Chailakhyan, L. M.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of artificial sunlight (AS) from a xenon source and of converted AS with an additional orange-red luminescent (λ MAX=626 nm) component (AS+L) on the development of mouse zygotes was investigated. A plastic screen with a photoluminophore layer was used for production of this orange-red luminescent (L) component. A single short-term (15 min) exposure produced a long-term stable positive effect on early embryo development of mice, which persisted during several days. After exposure to AS+L, a stimulating influence on preimplantation development was observed, in comparison with the control group without AS exposure. The positive effects were as follows: increase in percent of embryos (P <= 0.05) developed to the blastocyst stage (96.2 %) with hatching from the zona pellucida (80.8 %) within 82-96 hours in vitro compared to the control (67.1 % and 28.8 %, respectively).

  5. Analyses of the early stages of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Christopher John

    This thesis presents a study of the physical and chemical properties of star forming regions, both in the Milky Way and in the distant Universe, building on the existing astrochem- ical models developed by the group at UCL. Observations of the nearby star-forming region, L134A, which were carried out with the James Clark Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawai'i are compared to the predictions of a model of star formation from gas rich in atomic (rather than molecular) hydrogen. A similar model is used to investigate the effect of non-equilibrium chemistry on the derivation of the cosmic-ray ionization rate, an important parameter in controlling both the chemistry and the physics of star forming clumps. A collapse faster than free-fall is proposed as an explanation for differences be tween the distribution of CS and N2H+ in such regions. Moving beyond the Milky Way, JCMT observations of sulphur-bearing species in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82, are presented and compared with existing molecular observations of similar systems. M82 is a local anlogue for star forming systems in the early Universe, many of which have star formation rates several thousand times that of the Milky Way. A model which treats the molecular gas in such systems as an assembly of 'hot cores' (protostellar cores which have a distinctive chemical signature) has been developed, and is used to predict the abundance of many species. An application of this model is used to explain the observed deviation in the early Universe from the otherwise tight relation between infrared and HCN luminosity via relatively recent star formation from near-primordial gas. Many of the stars formed in the early Universe must now be in massive elliptical systems, and work on the structure of these systems is presented. Data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is analysed to show that such galaxies have cores dominated by baryons rather than dark matter, and the dark matter profile is constrained by adiabatic contraction.

  6. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Barlow, William E.; Gralow, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

  8. MACC1 as a prognostic biomarker for early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 gene (MACC1 has been found to be associated with cancer development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MACC1 in early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: mRNA and protein levels of MACC1 expression in one normal liver epithelial cells THLE3 and 15 HCC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. MACC1 expression was also comparatively studied in 6 paired HCC lesions and the adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze MACC1 expression in 308 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. Statistical analyses were applied to derive association between MACC1 expression scores and clinical staging as well as patient survival. RESULTS: Levels of MACC1 mRNA and protein were higher in HCC cell lines and HCC lesions than in normal liver epithelial cells and the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Significant difference in MACC1 expression was found in patients of different TNM stages (P<0.001. Overall survival analysis showed that high MACC1 expression level correlated with lower survival rate (P = 0.001. Importantly, an inverse correlation between MACC1 level and patient survival remained significant in subjects with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP level. CONCLUSIONS: MACC1 protein may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including in early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

  9. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  10. [Early Stages of Skull Embryogenesis in the Grass Snake, Natrix natrix (Serpentes, Colubridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, M F; Sheverdyukova, H V

    2015-01-01

    Studies of previous authors on snake skull embryogenesis have been performed on embryos obtained from eggs after oviposition. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stages of chondrocranium development in Grass-snake Natrixnatrix Linnaeus, 1758, embryos before oviposition. Natrix natrix embryos at early developmental stages (24-27 according to the table of normal development by D. Zehr (1962)) were obtained by means of caesarean section. At developmental stages 25-27, previously undescribed structures were found in the region of future skull formation. These structures exist during one or two stages and then disappear. Therefore, we call them "temporary structures." The assumption about the nature of these structures is based on their topography and comparison with the structures of developing or fully formed chondrocranium in other vertebrates. It is hypothesized that the temporary structures in Natrix natrix chondrocranium are vestiges ofprimary chondrocranium of ancestral vertebrate forms, and they indicate the existence of several variants in the formation of chondrocranium in the historical vertebrates.' development.

  11. Diagnosis of Late Stage, Early Onset, Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    additionally discovered SFPN that affects adolescents and adults [2]. This early-onset SFPN usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood but can...promote early diagnosis. What was the impact on other disciplines? Nothing to report. What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to report...What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ? As described above, Veterans’ health and, by extension, public health will be

  12. Genomic alterations associated with early stages of breast tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Patney, Heather L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-07-01

    Molecular studies suggest that acquisition of metastatic potential occurs early in the development of breast cancer; mechanisms by which cells disseminate from the primary carcinomas and successfully colonize foreign tissues are, however, largely unknown. Thus, we examined levels and patterns of chromosomal alterations in primary breast tumors from node-negative (n = 114) and node-positive (n = 115) patients to determine whether specific genomic changes are associated with tumor metastasis. Fifty-two genetic markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly altered in breast cancer were examined in laser microdissected tumor samples to assess levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI). Real time-PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression levels of candidate genes. Data was analyzed using exact unconditional and Student's t-tests with significance values of P .05 and P .002 used for the clinicopathological and genomic analyses, respectively. Overall levels of AI in primary breast tumors from node-negative (20.8%) and node-positive (21.9%) patients did not differ significantly (P = 0.291). When data were examined by chromosomal region, only chromosome 8q24 showed significantly higher levels (P .0005) of AI in node-positive primary tumors (23%) versus node-negative samples (6%). c-MYC showed significantly higher levels of gene expression in primary breast tumors from patients with lymph node metastasis. Higher frequencies of AI at chromosome 8q24 in patients with positive lymph nodes suggest that genetic changes in this region are important to the process of metastasis. Because overexpression of c-MYC has been associated with cellular dissemination as well as development of the premetastatic niche, alterations of the 8q24 region, including c-MYC, may be key determinants in the development of lymph node metastasis.

  13. Psycholinguistics discovers the operant: a review of Roger Brown's A first language: the early stages1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Evalyn F.

    1975-01-01

    Brown's book is selectively reviewed with the aim of noting points of similarity between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of language acquisition and a functional analysis of verbal behavior. Brown divides early language acquisition into five stages, based on mean length of utterance in samples of child speech. His book concentrates on Stage I, when mean length of utterance first rises above 1.0, indicating that children are beginning to speak in multi-morphemic utterances, and Stage II, when mean length of utterance in morphemes is about 2.25. Multi-morphemic utterances in Stage I consist mainly of ordered sequences of uninflected nouns and verbs, the order being that of the simple declarative sentence (agent-action-indirect object-direct object-locative). The review attempts a theoretical analysis of the functional stimulus control of Stage I syntactic order, concluding that the control must originate partly in relations among events in the environment and partly in covert autoclitic verbal behavior. Increases in mean length of utterance in Stage II are mainly due to the appearance of several “grammatical morphemes” such as the progressive -ing inflection on verbs and the plural -s inflection on nouns. The review attempts a behavioral paraphrase, again in terms of tacts and autoclitics, of Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical morphemes, concluding that Stage II displays the further development, building on Stage I, of the combined control of verbal behavior by relations in the environment and covert self-generated verbal stimuli. Similarities between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis and a functional analysis of language acquisition suggest that the two viewpoints are converging on a common concern with the stimulus control of verbal behavior.

  14. Approaches to the Treatment of Early Stage of Gallstone Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions. Diagnosis and treatment of GSD at the early stage make it possible to increase the efficacy of therapy in whole. It was noted that ursodeoxycholic acid (Ukrliv suspension possesses high efficiency and safety in the treatment of early GSD stage in children.

  15. Targeted labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid in chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Liu; J.A. Holz; Y. Ding; X. Liu; Y. Zhang; L. Tu; X. Kong; B. Priem; A. Nadort; S.A.G. Lambrechts; M.C.G. Aalders; W.J. Buma; Y. Liu; H. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at early-​stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid (∼500 μm) is realized for the first time in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconv

  16. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... comments, identified by RIN 3245-AG32, by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http..., particularly those without the necessary assets or cash flow for traditional bank funding. Although the venture... the ``Early Stage SBIC'' definition. Third, an Early Stage SBIC must invest at least 50 percent of its...

  17. Myelopoiesis during Zebrafish Early Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xu; Linsen Du; Zilong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Myelopoiesis is the process of producing all types of myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes.Myeloid cells are known to manifest a wide spectrum of activities such as immune surveillance and tissue remodeling.Irregularities in myeloid cell development and their function are known to associate with the onset and the progression of a variety of human disorders such as leukemia.In the past decades,extensive studies have been carried out in various model organisms to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myelopoiesis with the hope that these efforts will yield knowledge translatable into therapies for related diseases.Zebrafish has recently emerged as a prominent animal model for studying myelopoiesis,especially during early embryogenesis,largely owing to its unique properties such as transparent embryonic body and external development.This review introduces the methodologies used in zebrafish research and focuses on the recent research progresses of zebrafish myelopoiesis.

  18. COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED UMBILICAL CORD CLAMPING IN THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord clamping in the third stage of labour is still controversial. Early cord clamping is defined as clamping at 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds after delivery and delayed as clamping after 60 seconds or at 2-5 minutes after delivery, when the cord stops pulsating or when the placenta is visible within the birth canal. Early clamping is one of the three components of active management of the third stage of labour, which has been used widely in modern obstetrics during the last century. However, in some northern European countries, various parts of the USA and Canada and in developing countries physiological management is preferred.Conclusions: After publication of several trials describing advantages of delayed clamping, this has recently been progressively replacing early clamping. The most important advantages of delayed cord clamping are higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels, higher iron stores, lower incidence of iron deficiency anaemia, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome, and longer duration of early breastfeeding in term neonates, while there is no increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. Delayed clamping seems to bring some advantages for preterm neonates as well. However, caution is still advised because of the potential adverse effects, especially polycythaemia with hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinaemia and respiratory distress.

  19. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  20. Prognostic Gene-Expression Signature for Patients with Hepatitis C-Related Early-Stage Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Sole, Manel; Hur, Chin; Andersson, Karin L.; Chung, Raymond T; Gould, Joshua; Kojima, Kensuke; Gupta, Supriya; Taylor, Bradley; Crenshaw, Andrew; Gabriel, Stacey; Minguez, Beatriz; Iavarone, Massimo; Friedman, Scott L.; Colombo, Massimo; Llovet, Josep M.; Golub, Todd R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver cirrhosis affects 1%–2% of population and is the major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C cirrhosis-related HCC is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer death in the US. Non-invasive methods have been developed to identify patients with asymptomatic, early-stage cirrhosis, increasing the burden of HCC surveillance, but biomarkers are needed to identify patients with cirrhosis who are most in need of surveillance. We investigated whether a liver-derived 186-gene signature previously associated with outcomes of patients with HCC is prognostic for patients newly diagnosed with cirrhosis but without HCC. Methods We performed gene expression profile analysis of formalin-fixed needle biopsies from the livers of 216 patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage (Child-Pugh class A) cirrhosis who were prospectively followed for a median of 10 years at an Italian center. We evaluated whether the 186-gene signature was associated with death, progression of cirrhosis, and development of HCC. Results Fifty-five (25%), 101 (47%), and 60 (28%) patients were classified as having poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression modeling, the poor-prognosis signature was significantly associated with death (P=.004), progression to advanced cirrhosis (P<.001), and development of HCC (P=.009). The 10-year rates of survival were 63%, 74%, and 85% and the annual incidences of HCC were 5.8%, 2.2%, and 1.5% for patients with poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. Conclusions A 186-gene signature used to predict outcomes of patients with HCC is also associated with outcomes of patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage cirrhosis. This signature might be used to identify patients with cirrhosis in most need of surveillance and strategies to prevent their development of HCC. PMID:23333348

  1. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  2. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anni; Maraldo, M.; Brodin, Nils Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study inv...... investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments....

  3. Circulating micro-RNAs as potential blood-based markers for early stage breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Schrauder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718. RESULTS: Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to

  4. Original Paper Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in ... members of the T. brucei sub group, human infective, T. brucei ..... trypanosome antigens to the bone marrow and generation of ...

  5. Educational Gymnastics--Stages of Content Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilges, Lynda M.

    1997-01-01

    Educational gymnastics uses a problem-solving approach to accommodate multiple correct solutions to open-ended movement problems in gymnastics. A four-stage framework is outlined to help teachers systematically increase and decrease task difficulty in educational gymnastics. Answers to common questions about educational gymnastics are provided.…

  6. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  7. Educational Gymnastics--Stages of Content Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilges, Lynda M.

    1997-01-01

    Educational gymnastics uses a problem-solving approach to accommodate multiple correct solutions to open-ended movement problems in gymnastics. A four-stage framework is outlined to help teachers systematically increase and decrease task difficulty in educational gymnastics. Answers to common questions about educational gymnastics are provided.…

  8. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  9. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students w...

  10. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  11. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  12. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  13. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    . The overall incidence of complications was 15%, also with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.32). The most frequent complications were urinary tract infections (6%) and port site/wound infections (3%). A total of 21% of the women who had lymphadenectomy developed lymphoedema within 12 months....... CONCLUSION: The types and frequency of complications observed in this study resemble those reported in similar studies of RALH for malignant gynaecologic conditions. Health-care professionals treating and caring for women with early-stage endometrial cancer should know of the types and frequency of post...

  14. Analysis Of Determinants Of EarlyStage Entrepreneurial Activity In Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawęta Elena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial activity is very important for the economic development of any country. The question often asked by researchers is: what causes growth in the level of entrepreneurial activity? In this paper we focused on the individual-level determinants of entrepreneurial activity − the attitudes and perceptions of entrepreneurship by individuals in the society. The objective of this research is to define how individual-level variables concerning opinions and beliefs in the society influence the early-stage entrepreneurship level in Russia.

  15. Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-06-07

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays.

  16. Usefulness of the recombinant liver stage antigen-3 for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ryu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lin, Khin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Chung, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2006-03-01

    In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection.

  17. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC.

  18. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS.

  19. Cross-stage immunity for malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-12-22

    A vaccine against malaria is urgently needed for control and eventual eradication. Different approaches are pursued to induce either sterile immunity directed against pre-erythrocytic parasites or to mimic naturally acquired immunity by controlling blood-stage parasite densities and disease severity. Pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines are often seen as opposing tactics, but it is likely that they have to be combined into a multi-stage malaria vaccine to be optimally safe and effective. Since many antigenic targets are shared between liver- and blood-stage parasites, malaria vaccines have the potential to elicit cross-stage protection with immune mechanisms against both stages complementing and enhancing each other. Here we discuss evidence from pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage subunit and whole parasite vaccination approaches that show that protection against malaria is not necessarily stage-specific. Parasites arresting at late liver-stages especially, can induce powerful blood-stage immunity, and similarly exposure to blood-stage parasites can afford pre-erythrocytic immunity. The incorporation of a blood-stage component into a multi-stage malaria vaccine would hence not only combat breakthrough infections in the blood should the pre-erythrocytic component fail to induce sterile protection, but would also actively enhance the pre-erythrocytic potency of this vaccine. We therefore advocate that future studies should concentrate on the identification of cross-stage protective malaria antigens, which can empower multi-stage malaria vaccine development.

  20. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yi; Wei, Jiankai; Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-01-01

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology...

  1. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  2. Discovery of piRNAs Pathway Associated with Early-Stage Spermatogenesis in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Qiu, Lingling; Chang, Guobin; Guo, Qixin; Liu, Xiangping; Bi, Yulin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaoming; Wan, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play a key role in spermatogenesis. Here, we describe the piRNAs profiling of primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and the spermatogonium (Sp) during early-stage spermatogenesis in chicken. We obtained 31,361,989 reads from PGCs, 31,757,666 reads from SSCs, and 46,448,327 reads from Sp cells. The length distribution of piRNAs in the three samples showed peaks at 33 nt. The resulting genes were subsequently annotated against the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Five genes (RPL7A, HSPA8, Pum1, CPXM2, and PRKCA) were found to be involved in cellular processes. Interactive pathway analysis (IPA) further revealed three important pathways in early-stage spermatogenesis including the FGF, Wnt, and EGF receptor signaling pathways. The gene Pum1 was found to promote germline stem cell proliferation, but it also plays a role in spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we revealed characteristics of piRNAs during early spermatogonial development in chicken and provided the basis for future research.

  3. Discovery of piRNAs Pathway Associated with Early-Stage Spermatogenesis in Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs play a key role in spermatogenesis. Here, we describe the piRNAs profiling of primordial germ cells (PGCs, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, and the spermatogonium (Sp during early-stage spermatogenesis in chicken. We obtained 31,361,989 reads from PGCs, 31,757,666 reads from SSCs, and 46,448,327 reads from Sp cells. The length distribution of piRNAs in the three samples showed peaks at 33 nt. The resulting genes were subsequently annotated against the Gene Ontology (GO database. Five genes (RPL7A, HSPA8, Pum1, CPXM2, and PRKCA were found to be involved in cellular processes. Interactive pathway analysis (IPA further revealed three important pathways in early-stage spermatogenesis including the FGF, Wnt, and EGF receptor signaling pathways. The gene Pum1 was found to promote germline stem cell proliferation, but it also plays a role in spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we revealed characteristics of piRNAs during early spermatogonial development in chicken and provided the basis for future research.

  4. Meaningful end points and outcomes in men on active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Carroll, Peter R

    2014-05-01

    Active surveillance is a management strategy for early-stage prostate cancer designed to balance early detection of aggressive disease and overtreatment of indolent disease. We evaluate recently reported outcomes and discuss the potentially most important endpoints for such an approach. The past 2 years have seen the publication of two trials of watchful waiting versus immediate treatment and updates of multiple active surveillance cohorts for men with early-stage prostate cancer. The watchful waiting trials demonstrated a small potential mortality benefit to immediate treatment when applied to all risk levels (6% absolute difference at 15 years), emphasizing the importance of a risk-adapted strategy. In reported active surveillance cohorts, prostate cancer death and metastasis remain rare events. Intermediate outcomes such as progression to treatment and upgrading/upstaging on final disease appear consistent among cohorts, but must be interpreted with caution when compared with historical controls of immediate treatment because of potential selection bias. The safety of active surveillance has been reinforced by recent reports. Accumulation of additional data on men with intermediate risk cancer and development and validation of new biomarkers of risk will allow refined and, likely, expanded use of this approach.

  5. Hematopoietic cytokines as therapeutic players in early stages Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle eFarmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a devastating age related neurodegenerative disease that is believed to have a lengthy prodromal state. It is critical to find methods of interfering with the progression of this early degenerative stage by inducing compensatory recovery processes to slow or prevent the eventual clinical symptoms. The current perspective article argues that immune system signalling molecules represent such a promising therapeutic approach. Two cytokines of interest are granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and erythropoietin (EPO. These hematopoietic cytokines have been protective in models of stroke, neuronal injury, and more recently PD. It is our belief that these trophic cytokines can be used not only for cell protection but also regeneration. However, success is likely dependent on early intervention. This paper will outline our perspective on the development of novel trophic recovery treatments for PD. In particular, we present new data from our lab suggesting that EPO and GM-CSF can foster neural re-innervation in a mild or partial lesion PD model that could be envisioned as reflecting the early stages of the disease.

  6. An Ordered Bipolar Outflow from a Massive Early-stage Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Zhang, Yichen; Fontani, Francesco; Caselli, Paola; Butler, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    We present ALMA follow-up observations of two massive, early-stage core candidates, C1-N and C1-S, in IRDC G028.37+00.07, that were previously identified by their {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) emission, and show high levels of deuteration of this species. The cores are also dark at far-infrared wavelengths up to ˜ 100 μ {{m}}. We detect 12CO(2-1) from a narrow, highly collimated bipolar outflow that is being launched from near the center of the C1-S core, which is also the location of the peak 1.3 mm dust continuum emission. This protostar, C1-Sa, has associated dense gas traced by {{{C}}}18{{O}}(2-1) and DCN(3-2), from which we estimate that it has a radial velocity that is near the center of the range exhibited by the C1-S massive core. A second outflow-driving source is also detected within the projected boundary of C1-S, but it appears to be at a different radial velocity. After considering the properties of the outflows, we conclude that C1-Sa is a promising candidate for an early-stage massive protostar and as such it shows that these early phases of massive star formation can involve highly ordered outflow, and thus accretion, processes, similar to models developed to explain low-mass protostars.

  7. Analysis of factors responsible for the image in early stage emphysema and research concerning the diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hirotaka [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    To clarify the utility of the CT image to a clinical diagnosis of the early stage emphysema, the relation of CT value to the level of the lung destruction, the change in the lung density and pulmonary function was examined. Experimental pulmonary emphysema model in canine was produced by inhalation of aerosolized papain solution. In this model, the relationship between the destruction in lung tissues and the analysis of CT images was investigated. Changes in the alveolar surface area per unit lung volume well reflected those in mean CT value in the lung parenchyma. Also, it was clarified that the degree of the lung destruction in this model corresponded to that in patients with the early stage emphysema. Mean CT value in the area that formed lowest 5th percentile of the CT value histogram (mCT (5%ile)) was developed to analyze CT images in emphysema. To develop this study, changes of the mCT (5%ile) at the respiratory level from 5% to 95% inspiratory vital capacity (mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC))) was examined. In experimental studies, there was statistical significance between control and emphysema model. In clinical study using 14 patients with emphysema, the mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)) reflected well the values of pulmonary function tests which indicated air flow limitation such as %pred. FEV 1.0 and MMF. The present studies demonstrated that it might be useful to detect the pathological and functional impairment in the early stage emphysema by using mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)). (author)

  8. Angel Investment and Kosovo’s Early-Stage Market: A Promising Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Braha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether Angel Investment (AI may serve as a suitable tool for the early-stage market of Kosovo. The activity of the Business Angel (BA has experienced significant development lately, and moreover, supplementary attention by policymakers all over Europe and beyond. As a result, the BA community in Europe has published the Start-up Investor Manifesto in May 2014 aiming to adopt policies and actions towards the rise of entrepreneurship and innovation through the creation of 1.5 million new jobs in Europe by 2017. In addition, the Manifesto foresees enlargement of cross-border activity of BAs, including the emerging markets lying outside EU borders. Based on its increasing capacity and attention paid to, and on the fact that over 98% of registered Kosovar businesses are micro enterprises, AI may appear an appropriate instrument in advancing country’s early-stage market. Therefore, this paper intends to answer this interrogation by simultaneously studying the scientific arguments as well as best practices regarding AI both in developed and emerging markets. Accordingly it aims to provide a model on how the AI market could be developed in Kosovo.

  9. [Implementation of the intestinal micro flora in the early stage and adequate immunity later on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhendries, J-P; Maton, P; François, A; Marguglio, A; Marion, W; Smeets, S; Philippet, P

    2010-09-01

    The pre and postnatal development of human immunity are remarkably continuous. The feto-placental unit builds up to promote a climate of immune tolerance specifically driven in this way by the maternal immunity. The process of birth triggers the development of the infant's postnatal immunity, in first place through the bacterial colonisation of a sterile intestinal mucosa. The progressive immune response stabilisation at the sub-mucosa level during the first year of life will arise from the interface between the host and its microflora. It will take place progressively and will occur thanks to a variety of successive and complementary very complex immune mechanisms, under the influence of a rich and diversified intestinal microbiotia. Solid scientific arguments allow hypothesising that immune deviances later in life could be the consequence of an inadequate bacterial pressure on the intestinal mucosa at the early stage. A variety of epigenetic modifications taking place in this early stage could account for the deviant programming of later immunity. Each health care provider should acknowledge that some therapeutic and nutritional interventions during the first year of life may interfere with this complex immune development, giving rise to a risk of increasing immune deviancies later on.

  10. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; Sun, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; Chen, Jia-Qi; Lin, Qing; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xu-dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 femal...

  11. Early stages of HIV replication: how to hijack cellular functions for a successful infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Saïb, Ali

    2004-01-01

    From the cell surface to the nucleus, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will face multiple obstacles, crossing the plasma and nuclear membranes, but also finding its path within the cytoplasm in which elements from the cytoskeleton, organelles, and high a protein concentration, limit intracellular movements. At the same time, HIV-1 has to counteract cellular defenses--known as restriction factors--interfering with early steps of the virus cycle. Although the general outcomes of these early stages have been identified since several decades, the stepwise interactions taking place between cellular and viral components during this early journey, which will transform the incoming viral-RNA genome into a double-strand DNA competent for integration, remain largely unknown. In that sense, the uncoating process and the molecular basis of intracellular trafficking of preintegration complexes (PICs) are still poorly defined. Additionally, other key stages, which have been the focus of many reports, still require some clarifications, as is the case for the precise determinants of nuclear import of PICs. Finally, whereas the molecular mechanisms of integration, the last event of the early phase of retroviral life cycle, are now well understood, the choice of the integration site remains mysterious. Fully elucidating the early steps of HIV-1 replication is therefore crucial, not only for developing new antiretroviral drugs, but also for improving the design of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy. Since the mechanisms of HIV-1 entry and innate cell defenses were recently the topic of excellent reviews, we will focus here on uncoating and intracellular trafficking of HIV-1.

  12. Systemic immune markers characterizing early stages of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalan, Paulina Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring in ~1% of the world population. The main feature of the disease is ongoing joint inflammation, caused by immune cells and their soluble factors, leading to irreversible bone erosions and cartilage damage. Early treatment can halt progres

  13. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  14. Analysis thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘心; 张梅; 刘陕西; 祈光裕; 刘亚民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity. Methods: The clinical data of 106 patients at the early stage of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities treated by thrombolysis with anticoagulation and dispersion drugs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The thrombolytic effect was significant. After treatment, the deep veins were recanalized without regurgitation in 75.3% of the patients. The total effective rate was 100%. Only three patients had hemorrhagic complication, but none of the patients died. Conclusion: Thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment is an effective and safe method for DVT at the early stage.

  15. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas.

  16. The yolk syncytial layer in early zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2010-10-01

    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) plays crucial roles in early zebrafish development. The YSL is a transient extra-embryonic syncytial tissue that forms during early cleavage stages and persists until larval stages. During gastrulation, the YSL undergoes highly dynamic movements, which are tightly coordinated with the movements of the overlying germ layer progenitor cells, and has critical functions in cell fate specification and morphogenesis of the early germ layers. Movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm cells is dependent on contact between these tissues, and is probably required for the patterning and morphogenetic function of the YSL. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the YSL morphogenesis and movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm during early development.

  17. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B.; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach. PMID:22928097

  19. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  20. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  1. STUDIES ON THE FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS OFEPINEPHELUS MOARA IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT STAGES%云纹石斑鱼(Epinephelus moara)早期发育阶段的摄食与生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丽君; 陈超; 马爱军; 翟介明; 王新安; 李伟业

    2011-01-01

    采用随机取样实验生态学方法,对人工培育的云纹石斑鱼的仔、稚、幼鱼各发育阶段的形态特征及摄食变化状况进行了观察和描述。结果表明,云纹石斑鱼仔、稚鱼生长期间,分别以牡蛎幼体、轮虫、卤虫为饵料,幼鱼摄食配合饲料。形态学数据测量结果表明,云纹石斑鱼仔、稚、幼鱼的全长、体重和日龄三者之间存在相关关系。全长与日龄的关系式为L=2.8058e0.0287D;体重与日龄的关系式为W=0.0004e0.0825D;全长与体重的关系式为W=0.001e0.103L,相关系数分别为0.8954、0.9054、0.7982。云纹石斑鱼摄食状况测量结果表明,在人工投喂条件下,5日龄仔鱼的摄食率为90%,18日龄仔鱼饱食率为100%。实验结果还表明,在全天光照条件下,仔鱼16:00—18:00达摄食高峰;自然昼夜条件下,仔鱼14:00达摄食高峰;在全天黑暗条件下,仔鱼没有明显的摄食高峰。说明仔鱼摄食具有明显的昼夜节律,均表现为白天摄食为主。%We used ecological method of simple random sampling to observe morphological features, growth changes and feeding conditions during larval development of Epinephelus moara. The results showed that, under hatching conditions at dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.2mg/L, temperature 20℃, salinity 30, pH 7.9, light 100 lx, it took 45 hours to hatch the larvae. The yolk of four day-old larvae almost disappeared and these lava started consuming oyster larvae. The 8--13 day-old larvae ate both the oyster larvae and S-rotifer; the 14--22 day-old larvae consumed L-rotifer; the 23--66 day-old larvae and juvenile can be fed with brine shrimp. At about 67 days, the larvae metamorphosis completed and began to eat compound feed. The results of morphological data show that, total length, body weight and the age larval, juvenile and young E. moara showed significant correlations. The relationship between total length and age (in days) can be expressed as L = 2.8058e0.0287D

  2. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  3. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  4. Altered Synapse Stability in the Early Stages of Tauopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna S. Jackson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synapse loss is a key feature of dementia, but it is unclear whether synaptic dysfunction precedes degenerative phases of the disease. Here, we show that even before any decrease in synapse density, there is abnormal turnover of cortical axonal boutons and dendritic spines in a mouse model of tauopathy-associated dementia. Strikingly, tauopathy drives a mismatch in synapse turnover; postsynaptic spines turn over more rapidly, whereas presynaptic boutons are stabilized. This imbalance between pre- and post-synaptic stability coincides with reduced synaptically driven neuronal activity in pre-degenerative stages of the disease.

  5. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  6. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  7. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. A decision-analytic model for early stage breast cancer: lumpectomy vs mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükdamgaci-Alogan, G; Elele, T; Hayran, M; Erman, M; Kiliçkap, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to construct a decision model that incorporated patient preferences over differing health state prospects and to analyze the decision context of early stage breast cancer patients in relation to two main surgical treatment options. A Markov chain was constructed to project the clinical history of breast carcinoma following surgery. A Multi Attribute Utility Model was developed for outcome evaluation. Transition probabilities were obtained by using subjective probability assessment. This study was performed on the sample population of female university students and utilities were elicited from these healthy volunteers. The results were validated by using Standard Gamble technique. Finally, Monte Carlo Simulation was utilized in Treeage-Pro 2006-Suit software program in order to calculate expected utility generated by each treatment option. The results showed that, if the subject had mastectomy, mean value for the quality adjusted life years gained was 6.42; on the other hand, if the preference was lumpectomy, it was 7.00 out of a possible 10 years. Sensitivity analysis on transition probabilities to local recurrence and salvaged states was performed and two threshold values were observed. Additionally, sensitivity analysis on utilities showed that the model was more sensitive to no evidence of disease state; however, was not sensitive to utilities of local recurrence and salvaged states. The decision model was developed with reasonable success for early stage breast cancer patients, and tested by using general public data. The results obtained from these data showed that lumpectomy was more favourable for these participants.

  9. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-08

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA development. Interleukins (IL represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ, control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p Conclusions Expression IL-7 and IL-15 genes in prostate tissues and corresponding serum titres are significantly increased in patients with early stage PCA as compared with patients with BPH.

  11. Evaluation of the enhanced permeability and retention effect in the early stages of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikada, Mamoru; Sukhbaatar, Ariunbuyan; Miura, Yoshinobu; Horie, Sachiko; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2017-02-17

    Most solid cancers spread to new sites via the lymphatics before hematogenous dissemination. However, only a small fraction of an intravenously administered anti-cancer drug enters the lymphatic system to reach metastatic lymph nodes (LNs). Here, we show that the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is not induced during the early stages of LN metastasis. Luciferase-expressing tumor cells were injected into the subiliac LN of the MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse to induce metastasis to the proper axillary LN (PALN). In vivo biofluorescence imaging was used to confirm metastasis induction and to quantify the EPR effect, measured as PALN accumulation of intravenously injected indocyanine green (ICG) liposomes. PALN blood vessel volume changes were measured by contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The volume and density of blood vessels in the PALN increased until day 29 after inoculation whereas the LN volume remained constant. ICG retention was first detected on day 29 post-inoculation. While CD31-positive cells increased up to day 29 post-inoculation, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were detected on day 29 post-inoculation for the first time. These results suggest that the EPR effect was not induced in the early stages of LN metastasis; therefore, systemic chemotherapy would likely not be beneficial during the early stages of LN metastasis. The development of an alternative drug delivery system, independent of the EPR effect, is required for the treatment of LN metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  13. Effectiveness of the blended care self-management program “Partner in Balance” for early-stage dementia caregivers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Boots, Lizzy M. M.; De Vugt, Marjolein E; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Verhey, Frans R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of e-health support for dementia caregivers are becoming increasingly recognized. Reaching early-stage dementia caregivers could prevent high levels of burden and psychological problems in them in the later stages of dementia. An iterative step-wise approach was employed to develop the blended care self-management program “Partner in Balance” for early-stage dementia caregivers. The design of a study evaluating the process characteristics and effects is presented. Meth...

  14. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clemmesen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.. Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  15. Assessing the environmental sustainability of early stage design for bioprocesses under uncertainties: An analysis of glycerol bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a bio-based economy is seen as a key strategy towards a sustainable society in a world facing climate change, energy security and social distress. However, since substantial uncertainty is involved in early-stage design analyses, the ranking and identification of potential...

  16. Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.; Mutsaerds, E.; Druke, J.; Roode, de D.F.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study incorporated specific endpoints for estrogenic activity in the early life-stage (ELS) test, as described in Guideline 210 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and traditionally used for toxicity screening of chemicals. A transgenic zebrafish model expressing an est

  17. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  18. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  19. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going through ...

  20. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish Heterobranchus ... carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted from the two oils in separate 30litre ...

  1. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  2. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma with respect...

  3. Is surgery still the best management option for early stage NSCLC?

    OpenAIRE

    Ottlakan, Aurel; Martucci, Nicola; Rocco, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Under the formidable thrust of alternative management options for early stage lung cancer, the role of surgery in this disease subset has been questioned. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been advocated as an ideal substitute for surgery not only in high risk patients or for the ones who refuse surgery but also in lieu of sublobar resection in otherwise fit patients. The therapeutic modalities for early stage NSCLC were compared as to warranting local control, enabling adequate tissu...

  4. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  5. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer...... in a health care system with free, equal access to health services, disadvantaged groups are less likely to receive surgery for lung cancer....... was associated with greater odds for no surgery in stage I and stage II patients as was living alone for stage I patients. Comorbidity, a short diagnostic interval and small diagnostic volume were all associated with higher odds for not undergoing surgery; but these factors did not appear to explain...

  6. Effect of Early Intervention Applied to Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD includes health education, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and enhancing immunity (administration of influenza vaccine and polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG-PSN]. The effect of early intervention was investigated systematically in patients with COPD at different stages. Methods: We enrolled 422 patients with COPD at different stages without symptoms and then randomly assigned them to intervention and control groups. The intervention group was provided with early intervention and usual care while the control group was only provided with usual care. One year of follow-up was performed to observe forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, and the ratio of patients with acute exacerbation (number of patients with acute exacerbation/total of patients. Results: The values of decline in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly lower in the intervention groups of stage I and II than control groups (all p 0.05. The ratios of patients with acute exacerbation were lower in the intervention groups of all the stages than the control groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Early intervention could slow the decline of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in patients with COPD in stages I and II, but not in stages III and IV. Early intervention could also prevent patients with COPD from getting acute exacerbation and improve their quality of life in all the stages of the disease.

  7. The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Biskup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD, and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation.

  8. Faculty Development: A Stage Model Matched to Blended Learning Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael L.; Duby, Tova Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Faculty development programs are critical to the implementation and support of curriculum innovation. In this case study, the authors present lessons learned from ten years of experience in faculty development programs created to support innovation in technology enhanced learning. Stages of curriculum innovation are matched to stages of faculty…

  9. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  10. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  11. Hydrogenation of iron in the early stage of Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka-Oku, Riko; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okuchi, Takuo; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2017-01-01

    Density of the Earth's core is lower than that of pure iron and the light element(s) in the core is a long-standing problem. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system and thus one of the important candidates. However, the dissolution process of hydrogen into iron remained unclear. Here we carry out high-pressure and high-temperature in situ neutron diffraction experiments and clarify that when the mixture of iron and hydrous minerals are heated, iron is hydrogenized soon after the hydrous mineral is dehydrated. This implies that early in the Earth's evolution, as the accumulated primordial material became hotter, the dissolution of hydrogen into iron occurred before any other materials melted. This suggests that hydrogen is likely the first light element dissolved into iron during the Earth's evolution and it may affect the behaviour of the other light elements in the later processes.

  12. Investigating the early stages of mineral precipitation by potentiometric titration and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut; Gebauer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of crystallization for various areas of research, our understanding of the early stages of the mineral precipitation from solution and of the actual mechanism of nucleation is still rather limited. Indeed, detailed insights into the processes underlying nucleation may enable a systematic development of novel strategies for controlling mineralization, which is highly relevant for fields ranging from materials chemistry to medicine. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of a quantitative assay, which relies on pH titrations combined with in situ metal ion potentiometry and conductivity measurements. The assay has originally been designed to study the crystallization of calcium carbonate, one of the most abundant biominerals. However, the developed procedures can also be readily applied to any compound containing cations for which ion-selective electrodes are available. Besides the possibility to quantitatively assess ion association prior to nucleation and to directly determine thermodynamic solubility products of precipitated phases, the main advantage of the crystallization assay is the unambiguous identification of the different stages of precipitation (i.e., prenucleation, nucleation, and early postnucleation) and the characterization of the multiple effects of additives. Furthermore, the experiments permit targeted access to distinct precursor species and intermediate stages, which thus can be analyzed by additional methods such as cryo-electron microscopy or analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Regarding ion association in solution, AUC detects entities significantly larger than simple ion pairs, so-called prenucleation clusters. Sedimentation coefficient values and distributions obtained for the calcium carbonate system are discussed in light of recent insights into the structural nature of prenucleation clusters.

  13. Early-Stage Design and Analysis of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; L. Gargalo, Carina;

    2016-01-01

    The limited resources of fossil fuel as well as other important driving forces (e.g., environmental,social, and sustainability concerns) are expected to shape the future development of the chemical processing industries. These challenges motivate the development of new and sustainable technologie...

  14. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  15. Healing of Early Stage Fatigue Damage in Ionomer/Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Post

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the healing of early stage fatigue damage in ionomer/nano-particulate composites. A series of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid zinc ionomer/Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites with varying amounts of ionic clusters were developed and subjected to different levels of fatigue loading. The initiated damage was healed upon localized inductive heating of the embedded nanoparticles by exposure of the particulate composite to an alternating magnetic field. It is here demonstrated that healing of this early stage damage in ionomer particulate composites occurs in two different steps. First, the deformation is restored by the free-shrinkage of the polymer at temperatures below the melt temperature. At these temperatures, the polymer network is recovered thereby resetting the fatigue induced strain hardening. Then, at temperatures above the melting point of the polymer phase, fatigue-induced microcracks are sealed, hereby preventing crack propagation upon further loading. It is shown that the thermally induced free-shrinkage of these polymers does not depend on the presence of ionic clusters, but that the ability to heal cracks by localized melting while maintaining sufficient mechanical integrity is reserved for ionomers that contain a sufficient amount of ionic clusters guaranteeing an acceptable level of mechanical stability during healing.

  16. Raman spectroscopy based investigation of molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Maria; Bilal, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Shahzada, Shaista; Ullah Khan, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy based investigations of the molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection (DENV) using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is presented. This study is based on non-structural protein 1 (NS1) which appears after three days of DENV infection. In total, 39 blood sera samples were collected and divided into two groups. The control group contained samples which were the negative for NS1 and antibodies and the positive group contained those samples in which NS1 is positive and antibodies were negative. Out of 39 samples, 29 Raman spectra were used for the model development while the remaining 10 were kept hidden for blind testing of the model. PLS regression yielded a vector of regression coefficients as a function of Raman shift, which were analyzed. Cytokines in the region 775–875 cm‑1, lectins at 1003, 1238, 1340, 1449 and 1672 cm‑1, DNA in the region 1040–1140 cm‑1 and alpha and beta structures of proteins in the region 933–967 cm‑1 have been identified in the regression vector for their role in an early stage of DENV infection. Validity of the model was established by its R-square value of 0.891. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100% each and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was found to be 1.

  17. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish.

  18. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  19. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum.

  20. Recognition events in AM symbiosis: analysis of fungal gene expression at the early appressorium stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuninger, Magadalene; Requena, Natalia

    2004-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is induced upon a series of recognition events involving the reorganization of both plant and fungal cellular programs culminating in the formation of appressoria on the epidermal root cells. In this work we monitored for the first time the genetic changes occurring in the fungal partner during early appressorium development. We established an in vitro system of Glomus mosseae and Petroselinum crispum for studying appressorium formation and found that after 120 h first appressoria developed in the root epidermis. We have constructed a fungal subtractive suppressive library enriched in genes up-regulated at this stage. Our aim was to identify early signaling events during plant recognition leading to appressoria formation. The library contains 375 clones with an average size of 500 bp. From these, 200 clones were sequenced and most of them represent gene fragments with no known homologues (63%) and therefore putative new genes specific to the mycorrhiza symbiosis. Reverse-Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses confirmed that ca. 30% of the genes present in the library were up-regulated upon plant induction after 120 h. Among the genes with homologues in other organisms we found several genes common to other plant-microbe interactions including some genes related to Ca2+-dependent signaling. The up-regulation of these genes opens the possibility that Ca2+ plays a role in the early stages of mycorrhiza formation as it has been found in other plant-microbe interactions such as the Rhizobium symbiosis or the Magnaporthe grisea/rice pathogenic interaction.

  1. Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is a relatively young yet rapidly developing scientific field. Assessing the potential response(s of marine organisms to projected near-future OA scenarios has been at the forefront of scientific research, with a focus on ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs and processes (e.g., calcification that are deemed particularly vulnerable. Recently, a heightened emphasis has been placed on evaluating early life history stages as these stages are generally perceived to be more sensitive to environmental change. The number of acidification-related studies focused on early life stages has risen dramatically over the last several years. While early life history stages of corals have been understudied compared to other marine invertebrate taxa (e.g., echinoderms, mollusks, numerous studies exist to contribute to our status of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment dynamics. To synthesize this information, the present paper reviews the primary literature on the effects of acidification on sexual reproduction and early stages of corals, incorporating lessons learned from more thoroughly studied taxa to both assess our current understanding of the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment and to inform and guide future research in this area.

  2. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  3. Addressing Challenges in Future Surveillance After Surgery for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakaer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines surveillance after early-stage cervical cancer surgery. Since the 1980s, the value of surveillance has been discussed continuously. The main question explored is whether surveillance serves the purpose of ensuring early diagnosis of recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  4. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  5. [The stages of development of Ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotialov, M A; Sorokina, T S; Druzhinin, V Iu

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurveda medicine as one the three traditional systems of healing developed during millennia at the Hindustan subcontinent (the ancient India). Nowadays, Ayurveda medicine is widely used in many countries. The present day researchers mark out and analyze several periods in its history.

  6. Early-Stage Biotech Companies: Strategies for Survival and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wendy; Erickson, Stanford

    2006-01-01

    The promise of start-up biotechnology companies is enormous. So are the risks and the uncertainty of product development. The authors present a checklist for young biotech companies, covering environmental factors, alliances, and strategic planning. PMID:23424362

  7. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  8. [Small partial laryngectomy for early-stage glottic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xicheng; Pan, Xinliang; Luan, Xinyong; Xu, Fenglei; Lei, Dapeng; Zhang, Liqiang; Liu, Dayu; Zhang, Qingquan

    2004-06-01

    To explore the surgery way for T1, T2 glottic carcinoma. Small partial laryngectomy were performed to 112 patients with T1, T2 (T1 N0 M0, T2 N0 M0) glottic carcinoma. The surgery method, effect and treatment advantage was summarized and compared with laser therapy and radiotherapy, the dynamic follow-up of arytaenoidea cartilage movement, glottidis rimae conformation and voice change was analyzed. The preoperative and postoperative voice quality was compared with the software of Dr. speech system for windows. All incisions were healed one stage in 6 or 7 days, the mean time in hospital is 9.76 days; all patients took food with mouth after 2 or 3 days, all trachea cannula was removed successfully during in hospital, the mean time with cannula is 7.32 days and the rate of removing cannula 100%. Arytaenoidea cartilago movement of 47 cases 1 week after surgery weakened and gradually improved, glottidis rimae conformation is close to be normal after 2 months. There is no significant difference of Shimmer and NNE between preoperative and postoperative 1 week (P > 0.05), but there is a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative 2 months, half a year, and also is between postoperative 1 week and 2 months, half a year (P < 0.01). All 76 cases survive during 3 years' follow-up, 35 of 36 cases in 5 years' follow-up survive (1 case died without definite cause), and there is 2 cases for recurrence. Small partial laryngectomy can provide large operative view, resect the tumor completely, make diet and speech recover in shorter time and improve the voice quality, so the surgery is available.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Promoter Genotype as a Marker of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the DNA polymorphic genotype in MMP-2 promoter gene as a potential candidate region for the development of the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and/or its progression. A total of 89 Czech patients with CTCL (including 23 patients with large plaque parapsoriasis were compared to 198 controls of similar age and sex distribution, without personal or family history of chronic skin diseases and without personal history of malignancy. The three selected polymorphisms in the promoter of MMP-2 gene (−1575G/A, −1306C/T, and −790T/G were determined using the PCR-based methodology with RFLP. In our cohort, the associated GGCCTT MMP-2 promoter genotype was highly significantly more frequent in CTCL-Ia stage patients compared to patients with parapsoriasis, the tests having high sensitivity and specificity (78%, 83%, resp.. To conclude, use of associated MMP-2 promoter genotype as a DNA marker might make it possible to distinguish between the patients with parapsoriasis and those with CTCL stage Ia, which could substantially improve possibilities of clinical diagnostics, therapy design, and prognosis of this serious condition in the early stages.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 promoter genotype as a marker of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasku, Anna; Vasku, Julie Bienertova; Necas, Miroslav; Vasku, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the DNA polymorphic genotype in MMP-2 promoter gene as a potential candidate region for the development of the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and/or its progression. A total of 89 Czech patients with CTCL (including 23 patients with large plaque parapsoriasis) were compared to 198 controls of similar age and sex distribution, without personal or family history of chronic skin diseases and without personal history of malignancy. The three selected polymorphisms in the promoter of MMP-2 gene (-1575G/A, -1306C/T, and -790T/G) were determined using the PCR-based methodology with RFLP. In our cohort, the associated GGCCTT MMP-2 promoter genotype was highly significantly more frequent in CTCL-Ia stage patients compared to patients with parapsoriasis, the tests having high sensitivity and specificity (78%, 83%, resp.). To conclude, use of associated MMP-2 promoter genotype as a DNA marker might make it possible to distinguish between the patients with parapsoriasis and those with CTCL stage Ia, which could substantially improve possibilities of clinical diagnostics, therapy design, and prognosis of this serious condition in the early stages.

  11. What do we know about the initiation and early stages of brittle faulting in crystalline rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    The styles of initiation and subsequent growth of faults control fault length-slip scaling, the internal structure of fault zones, and fault-rock properties, influencing seismogenic behavior and fluid flow along the faults. Observations by many researchers over the last several decades have illustrated that faults in the upper crust initiate on pre-existing (inherited) or precursory (early-formed) structures and grow by the mechanical interaction and linkage of these structures. These pre-existing and precursory structures are typically mode I fractures (joints, veins, dikes) but may also be semi-brittle shear zones (such as deformation bands in porous sandstone). Research in the granitic outcrops of the central Sierra Nevada (California) has provided significant insight into the geometry and fundamental mechanics of the early stages of fault development. This work has shown that faults in plutonic rocks initiate on pre-existing or precursory joints or dikes and that the discontinuous nature of early mode I fractures has a strong influence on the subsequent development of the fault zone. In basalt, we have similarly observed the important influence of preexisting joints, and, at a broader scale, precursory, semi-brittle shear zones in the form of fault-tip monoclines. In metamorphic rocks, foliation appears to control the initial development of faults, influencing fault orientation, or enabling precursory structures such as kink bands. Kink bands, like deformation bands in porous sandstone, accommodate only small strains before locking, but then become strong inclusions in the material, serving to localize brittle fractures. The quasi-static mechanics of isotropic, isothermal linear-elastic materials in two and three dimensions provides first order understanding of controls on interaction and linkage of early structures, including the concentration of stresses and local stress reorientation. Fruitful research directions important to faulting in crystalline rock

  12. Early-Stage Design and Analysis of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2016-01-01

    for the production of fuel, chemicals, and materials from renewable feedstock instead of fossil fuel. An emerging technology in response to these challenges is the biorefinery concept. The biorefinery is defined as the set of processes converting a bio‐based feedstock into products such as fuels, chemicals......The limited resources of fossil fuel as well as other important driving forces (e.g., environmental,social, and sustainability concerns) are expected to shape the future development of the chemical processing industries. These challenges motivate the development of new and sustainable technologies...

  13. Weathering and vegetation effects in early stages of soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Alice V. Turkington; Daniel A. Marion

    2008-01-01

    Bedrock surfaces in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, exposed by spillway construction and which had not previously been subjected to surface weathering environments, developed 15?20 cm thick soil covers in less than three decades. All open bedrock joints showed evidence of weathering and biological activity. Rock surfaces and fragments also showed evidence of...

  14. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  15. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  16. Application and development of in vitro metabolism study at early drug discovery stage%体外代谢在新药早期评价中的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧; 彭英; 孙建国; 张雪媛; 仲云熙; 王广基

    2013-01-01

    药物代谢研究与新药研发中的诸多环节密不可分,包括候选化合物的设计与先导化合物的筛选等.药物代谢研究一般分为体内代谢研究与体外代谢研究.与体内代谢研究相比,体外代谢研究可直接观察候选化合物与受试靶点的选择性作用,不需要消耗大量的样品和实验动物,操作快速简便,适用于代谢信息不明确的候选化合物进行高通量筛选.目前,体外代谢研究已被广泛应用于新药的早期代谢评价中,主要涉及代谢稳定性、代谢酶亚型鉴定以及代谢性相互作用等.本文就体外代谢研究在上述三方面的具体应用进行归纳总结,为中国创新药物实施“早期评价、早期淘汰”的研究策略提供参考.%Drug metabolism studies,including in vivo and in vitro metabolism studies,are significant in the design of candidate compounds and screening of lead compounds at drug discovery/development stages.Compared with in vivo metabolism studies,in vitro metabolism studies have the advantages of rapidity,simplicity,without consumption of large amounts of samples and animals.Moreover,it is convenient for researchers to observe the selective interaction between compound and target.Therefore,in vitro metabolism studies are appropriate for high throughput screening of compounds which are lack of metabolism information and have been widely used during drug discovery stages.This article briefly introduced the application of in vitro drug metabolism studies based on the metabolic stability,reaction phenotyping and metabolic drug-drug interactions,aiming to raise valuable evaluation strategies for innovative drug discovery in China.

  17. The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penesova, Adela; Radikova, Zofia; Cizmarova, Eva; Kvetnanský, Richard; Blazicek, Pavel; Vlcek, Miroslav; Koska, Juraj; Vigas, Milan

    2008-12-01

    The interrelationship between activity of sympathetic nervous system and metabolic risk factors in youth with hypertension (HT) has been poorly studied. The aim of our present study was to assess the interrelationship between metabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and catecholamines in an early stage of HT onset. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 17 young males with early-diagnosed nontreated HT grade 1 and 16 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched normotensive controls. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PAI-1, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in venous plasma. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) proposed by Cederholm, Matsuda, and Gutt were calculated. HT had higher baseline levels of norepinephrine, insulin (P= 0.02), and PAI-1 (P= 0.04). ISIs were lower in HT subjects (P < 0.001). Baseline concentrations of epinephrine were negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.415, P= 0.02), ISI Matsuda (r=-0.361, P= 0.04), ISI Cederholm (r=-0.354, P= 0.04), and ISI Gutt (r=-0.429, P= 0.01), and positively with PRA (r= 0.609, P < 0.0001). Positive association was found between baseline concentrations of norepinephrine and PAI-1 (r= 0.418, P= 0.02). The sympathetic overactivity, which occurs in the early stage of HT may contribute to reduced insulin sensitivity even in young patients and intensify the undesirable development of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and progress of the disease.

  18. Distribution of LGR5+ cells and associated implications during the early stage of gastric tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Lgr5 was identified as a promising gastrointestinal tract stem cell marker in mice. Lineage tracing indicates that Lgr5(+ cells may not only be the cells responsible for the origin of tumors; they may also be the so-called cancer stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the presence of Lgr5(+ cells and their biological significance in normal human gastric mucosa and gastric tumors. RNAscope, a newly developed RNA in situ hybridization technique, specifically labeled Lgr5(+ cells at the basal glands of the gastric antrum. Notably, the number of Lgr5(+ cells was remarkably increased in intestinal metaplasia. In total, 76% of gastric adenomas and 43% of early gastric carcinomas were positive for LGR5. Lgr5(+ cells were found more frequently in low-grade tumors with active Wnt signaling and an intestinal gland type, suggesting that LGR5 is likely involved in the very early stages of Wnt-driven tumorigenesis in the stomach. Interestingly, similar to stem cells in normal tissues, Lgr5(+ cells were often restricted to the base of the tumor glands, and such Lgr5(+ restriction was associated with high levels of intestinal stem cell markers such as EPHB2, OLFM4, and ASCL2. Thus, our findings show that Lgr5(+ cells are present at the base of the antral glands in the human stomach and that this cell population significantly expands in intestinal metaplasias. Furthermore, Lgr5(+ cells are seen in a large number of gastric tumors ; their frequent basal arrangements and coexpression of ISC markers support the idea that Lgr5(+ cells act as stem cells during the early stage of intestinal-type gastric tumorigenesis.

  19. Eag1 channels as potential early-stage biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-López, María de Guadalupe; Zúñiga-García, Violeta; Pérez-Carreón, Julio Isael; Avalos-Fuentes, Arturo; Escobar, Yesenia; Camacho, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is usually asymptomatic at potential curative stages, and it has very poor prognosis if detected later. Thus, the identification of early biomarkers and novel therapies is essential to improve HCC patient survival. Ion channels have been proposed as potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several cancers including HCC. Especially, the ether à-go-go-1 (Eag1) voltage-gated potassium channel has been suggested as an early marker for HCC. Eag1 is overexpressed during HCC development from the cirrhotic and the preneoplastic lesions preceding HCC in a rat model. The channel is also overexpressed in human HCC. Astemizole has gained great interest as a potential anticancer drug because it targets several proteins involved in cancer including Eag1. Actually, in vivo studies have shown that astemizole may have clinical utility for HCC prevention and treatment. Here, we will review first some general aspects of HCC including the current biomarkers and therapies, and then we will focus on Eag1 channels as promising tools in the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27703327

  20. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of deep-seated joint sets in the early stage of mountain building and its role on subsequent micro faulting during thrust stacking: a case study in the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; CHU, H.; Angelier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Systematic joint sets are one of the most common and persistent features within a brittle deformation regime, usually found in intact rocks, such as massive sandstone. However, joint occurrence can take place under different circumstances from very shallow to rather deep crust, which pose challenges for understanding the mechanisms of its development and thus provokes debates in past decades. In this study, we characterize the deformation structures, including micro fault and joint, by comparing their geometric relation with stratigraphic bedding plane. We intend not only to differentiate the relative chronology of different structures but also to determine the chronological orders and stages during thrust stacking processes in which rocks exhume from depths to surface. We take the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan as our case study area. It is composed of Pleistocene to Oligocene, terrestrial to shallow marine sedimentary deposits, which was exhumed accompanied with a series of imbricate thrusts during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny of arc-continent collision between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. We study four cross sections from little deformed rock formations in the foreland to intense folded and even slightly metamorphosed terrains in the slate belt, in order to characterize and distinguish different brittle structures at different depths. Particular attention is paid to the development of the joint sets at different depths and their relationship with the bedding plane where joints happen to occur. We found that 1) the most predominant joint sets are deep-seated and tectonics related, in comparison with shallow released joints, although their relation with tectonic stress orientation remains inconclusive; 2) the onset depths of development of joint sets can be as shallow as 1-2 km and as deep as 10-15 km. As to whether the development occurs during burial or exhumation, it remains questionable; 3) micro faults with striated slip, mainly under NW

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is not associated with early stages of thyroid autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effraimidis, Grigoris; Badenhoop, Klaus; Tijssen, Jan G P; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a risk factor for a number of autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. We hypothesized that low levels of vitamin D are related to the early stages of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Two case-control studies were performed. In the cross-sectional study A, euthyroid subjects with genetic susceptibility for AITD but without thyroid antibodies were compared with controls. Cases were subjects from the Amsterdam AITD cohort (euthyroid women who had first- or second-degree relatives with overt AITD) who at baseline had normal TSH and no thyroid antibodies; controls were healthy women examined at the same period. In the longitudinal study B, subjects who developed de novo thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) were compared with those who did not. Cases and controls were subjects from the Amsterdam AITD cohort who at baseline had normal TSH and no thyroid antibodies and during follow-up developed TPO-Ab (cases) or remained without thyroid antibodies (controls). Controls in both studies were matched for age, BMI, smoking status, estrogen use, month of blood sampling, and in study B for the duration of follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D levels were as follows: study A: 21.0 ± 7.9 vs 18.0 ± 6.4 ng/ml (78 cases vs 78 controls, P=0.01); study B: baseline, 22.6 ± 10.3 vs 23.4 ± 9.1; follow-up 21.6 ± 9.2 vs 21.2 ± 9.3 ng/ml (67 cases vs 67 controls, NS). Early stages of thyroid autoimmunity (in study A genetic susceptibility and in study B development of TPO-Ab) are not associated with low vitamin D levels.

  3. Stages of Change in Relationship Status Questionnaire: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Handsel, Vanessa; Moore, Todd

    2016-01-01

    This study involved the development of the Stages of Change in Relationship Status (SOCRS) measure in 2 samples of college students. This scale is designed to measure how individuals progress through stages of change when terminating violent and nonviolent intimate relationships. Results indicated that the SOCRS is a reliable and valid tool to…

  4. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Is Your Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Understanding Early Sexual Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Early Sexual Development Print ...

  5. Development of two-stage grain grinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important task in the development of the diet of farm animals feeding is a selection of the most balanced in its composition and most nutritious feeds, which are safe and meet all the necessary requirements at the same time. To evaluate the productive value of feeds and their effectiveness the rate of food productive action η was proposed. This ratio reflects the productive part of the total value of the exchange energy of the daily feed ration and is an essential criterion of the feed quality indicators. In the feed rations of animals the most expensive, but energy-rich feed is a mixed fodder, a mixture of grinded seeds of agricultural crops and protein, mineral and vitamin additives. In the diet for its nutritional value, this feed product is for cattle – 50, pigs – 60… 100 and birds – 100%. The basic operation in the production of mixed fodder is seeds grinding, i.e. their destruction under the influence of external forces, exceeding the forces of molecular adhesion of the grains particles. To grind the grain different ways are used: chopping, grinding, impact «in flight», crushing, etc. In the production of mixed fodder on the existing production equipment, there is the problem of getting the grain mixed fodder the necessary degree of grinding and uniform in its particle size distribution at the same time. When receiving too coarse grinding there is a problem of difficult digestibility of mixed fodder by farm animals. Moreover grinding process is accompanied by a high energy consumption. Grain grinder, the principle of which is based on the implementation of two ways of grinding grain: splitting and impact «in flight» is proposed. The proposed constructive solutions allow to obtain a high-performance technical means for crushing seeds of crops, as well as reduce energy costs that arise during the course of the process of obtaining of mixed fodder. The methodology justification of degree of grain grinding by

  6. Guidance for industry of Alzheimer's Disease:Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Early Stage Disease%阿尔茨海默病药物研发指导原则:开发治疗疾病早期的药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅升辉(编译); 赵志刚(审校); 黄佳(审校)

    2013-01-01

    文中介绍了阿尔茨海默病的发病机制,目前的治疗方法以及存在的问题,并介绍了FDA关于开发治疗阿尔茨海默病的指导原则-开发治疗疾病早期的药物。%We briefly introduced the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, therapeutic methods and existing problems, and introduced guidance of FDA for industry developing medications of early stage Alzheimer's Disease.

  7. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  8. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort...... study of 235 women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia who had RALH. Surgeries were stratified into two groups: with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. RESULTS: A total of 6% developed a grade 3 or higher complication with no significant difference (p = 0.24) between the groups...

  9. Numerical Simulations of Early-Stage Dynamics of Electron Bunches Emitted from Plasmonic Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lueangaramwong, Anusorn; Andonian, Gerard; Piot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    High-brightness electron sources are a key ingredient to the development of compact accelerator-based light sources. The electron sources are commonly based on (linear) a photoemission process where a laser pulse with proper wavelength impinges on the surface of a metallic or semiconductor cathode. Very recently the use of plasmonic cathodes--cathodes with a nano-patterned surface--have demonstrated great enhancement in quantum efficiencies [1]. Alternatively, this cathode type could support the formation of structured beams composed of transversely separated beamlets. In this paper we discuss numerical simulations of the early-stage beam dynamics of the emission process from plasmonic cathodes using the Warp [2] framework. The model is used to investigate the properties of beams emitted from this type of cathode and combined with PIC simulation to explore the imaging of cathode pattern after acceleration in a radiofrequency gun.

  10. State of the art of diagnostic technology for early-stage melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitera, Pascale; Menzies, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    In the past few decades, rapid improvements in noninvasive optical technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. Current knowledge and limitations of these tools will be reviewed in this article. Dermoscopy has been recognized as the 'gold standard' in the screening phase. Digital dermoscopy monitoring and total-body photography are used to identify so-called 'featureless' melanoma only on the criteria of change over time. Automated instruments, as well as optical and nonmorphological methods, are still under development, and offer many opportunities to improve the speed and accuracy of the diagnosis of melanoma and/or to reduce the need for expertise. Despite a penetration depth limited to the upper dermis, the quasi-histological imaging achieved by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy has been demonstrated to significantly aid diagnostic accuracy for selected melanocytic lesions. Future perspectives on diagnostic instrumentation will also be explored.

  11. Polymeric composite devices for localized treatment of early-stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Soboyejo, Wole

    2017-01-01

    For early-stage breast cancers mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for new treatment strategies that can enhance the use of lumpectomy by eliminating residual cancer cells with limited side effects to reduce local recurrence. Although, various radiotherapy-based methods have been developed, residual cells are found in 20–55% of the time at the first operation. Furthermore, some current treatment methods result in poor cosmesis. For the last decade, the authors have been exploring the use of polymeric composite materials in single and multi-modal implantable biomedical devices for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, the concept and working principles of the devices, as well as selected results from experimental and numerical investigations, are presented. The results show the potential of the biomedical implants for cancer treatment. PMID:28245288

  12. Modulation of electron transfer kinetics by protein conformational fluctuations during early-stage photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Srabanti; Cherayil, Binny J

    2007-10-14

    The kinetics of electron transfer during the early stages of the photosynthetic reaction cycle has recently been shown in transient absorption experiments carried out by Wang et al. [Science 316, 747 (2007)] to be strongly influenced by fluctuations in the conformation of the surrounding protein. A model of electron transfer rates in polar solvents developed by Sumi and Marcus using a reaction-diffusion formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] was found to be successful in fitting the experimental absorption curves over a roughly 200 ps time interval. The fits were achieved using an empirically determined time-dependent function that described protein conformational relaxation. In the present paper, a microscopic model of this function is suggested, and it is shown that the function can be identified with the dynamic autocorrelation function of intersegment distance fluctuations that occur in a harmonic potential of mean force under the action of fractional Gaussian noise.

  13. Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: Aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Cropley, Vanessa L; Wannan, Cassandra; Di Biase, Maria; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-05-01

    This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model. In general, grey matter (and, to a lesser extent, white matter) declines across multiple frontal, temporal (especially superior regions), insular and parietal regions during the first episode of psychosis, which has a steeper trajectory than that of age-matched healthy counterparts. Although the ultra-high-risk of psychosis literature is considerably mixed, evidence indicates that certain volumetric structural aberrations predate psychotic illness onset (e.g. prefrontal cortex thinning), while other abnormalities present in ultra-high-risk of psychosis populations are potentially non-psychosis-specific (e.g. hippocampal volume reductions). We highlight the advantages of longitudinal designs, discuss the implications such studies have on clinical staging and provide directions for future research.

  14. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid axis plays a critical role in teleost fish development. The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4), to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder (SB), processes which we previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using iopanoic acid (IOP), a pharmaceutical used to treat hyperthyroidism, as a model deiodinase inhibitor. In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos (~1 day post-fertilization [dpf]) were exposed in a flow-through system to three concentrations of IOP (0.6, 1.9, 6.0 mg/L) or control water and sampled at 4 and 6 dpf. Whole body T4 and T3 concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. Abundance of deiodinase 1-3 (dio1-3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), and thyroperoxidase (tpo) transcripts was examined using quantitative polymerase-chain reaction. Posterior SB inflation was assessed at 6 dpf. To examine effects on anterior SB inflation, a second study was conducted in which 6 dpf larvae, whose posterior SB had already inflated, were exposed to the same IOP concentrations. Fish were sampled at 10, 14, 18, and 21 dpf for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior SBs were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dp

  15. An Anthropological Reinterpretation of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B.V.

    1984-01-01

    Compares and demonstrates a correspondence between L. Kohlberg's stages of moral development and M. Douglas's grid/group theory. Reinterprets Kohlberg's findings and discusses limitations of both theories. (BJD)

  16. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  17. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  18. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  19. Reading Skills of Students with Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…

  20. Blood Biomarkers Associated with Cognitive Decline in Early Stage and Drug-Naive Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Santiago

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD continues to be a major challenge in the field. The lack of a robust biomarker to detect early stage PD patients has considerably slowed the progress toward the development of potential therapeutic agents. We have previously evaluated several RNA biomarkers in whole blood from participants enrolled in two independent clinical studies. In these studies, PD patients were medicated, thus, expression of these biomarkers in de novo patients remains unknown. To this end, we tested ten RNA biomarkers in blood samples from 99 untreated PD patients and 101 HC nested in the cross-sectional Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative by quantitative real-time PCR. One biomarker out of ten, COPZ1 trended toward significance (nominal p = 0.009 when adjusting for age, sex, and educational level. Further, COPZ1, EFTUD2 and PTBP1 mRNAs correlated with clinical features in PD patients including the Hoehn and Yahr scale, Movement Disorder Society revision of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score. Levels of EFTUD2 and PTBP1 were significantly higher in cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN compared to cognitively impaired PD patients (PD-MCI. Interestingly, blood glucose levels were significantly higher in PD and PD-MCI patients (≥ 100 mg/dL, pre-diabetes compared to HC. Collectively, we report the association of three RNA biomarkers, COPZ1, EFTUD2 and PTBP1 with clinical features including cognitive decline in early drug-naïve PD patients. Further, our results show that drug-naïve PD and PD-MCI patients have glucose levels characteristic of pre-diabetes patients, suggesting that impaired glucose metabolism is an early event in PD. Evaluation of these potential biomarkers in a larger longitudinal study is warranted.

  1. Blood Biomarkers Associated with Cognitive Decline in Early Stage and Drug-Naive Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A; Potashkin, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) continues to be a major challenge in the field. The lack of a robust biomarker to detect early stage PD patients has considerably slowed the progress toward the development of potential therapeutic agents. We have previously evaluated several RNA biomarkers in whole blood from participants enrolled in two independent clinical studies. In these studies, PD patients were medicated, thus, expression of these biomarkers in de novo patients remains unknown. To this end, we tested ten RNA biomarkers in blood samples from 99 untreated PD patients and 101 HC nested in the cross-sectional Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative by quantitative real-time PCR. One biomarker out of ten, COPZ1 trended toward significance (nominal p = 0.009) when adjusting for age, sex, and educational level. Further, COPZ1, EFTUD2 and PTBP1 mRNAs correlated with clinical features in PD patients including the Hoehn and Yahr scale, Movement Disorder Society revision of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Levels of EFTUD2 and PTBP1 were significantly higher in cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN) compared to cognitively impaired PD patients (PD-MCI). Interestingly, blood glucose levels were significantly higher in PD and PD-MCI patients (≥ 100 mg/dL, pre-diabetes) compared to HC. Collectively, we report the association of three RNA biomarkers, COPZ1, EFTUD2 and PTBP1 with clinical features including cognitive decline in early drug-naïve PD patients. Further, our results show that drug-naïve PD and PD-MCI patients have glucose levels characteristic of pre-diabetes patients, suggesting that impaired glucose metabolism is an early event in PD. Evaluation of these potential biomarkers in a larger longitudinal study is warranted.

  2. [Development and the developmental disorders of human brain. I. Early development of the cerebrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Wesseling, P.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Renier, W.O.; Mullaart, R.A.; Thijssen, H.O.M.

    2001-01-01

    The recent discovery of many genes that regulate brain development is revolutionizing our knowledge of neuroembryology and, moreover, our understanding of how gene defects cause human birth defects. The first 8 weeks of the development of the cerebrum can be subdivided into 23 stages, with early

  3. Cancerous Tumour Model Analysis and Constructing schemes of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy at an Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mukhomorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an alternative and successfully employed method for treatment of cancerous tumour. However, this therapy isn't widely used in medicine because of expensive drugs. It leads naturally to elaboration of such treatment regimens which use minimum amount of drugs.The aim of the paper is to investigate the model of development of illness and elaborate appropriate treatment regimens in the case of early diagnosis of the disease. The given model reflects the therapy at an intermediate stage of the disease treatment. Further treatment is aimed to destroy cancer cells and may be continued by other means, which are not reflected in the model.Analysis of the main properties of the model was carried out with consideration of two types of auxiliary systems. In the first case, the system is considered without control, as a model of tumour development in the absence of medical treatment. The study of the equilibrium point and determination of its type allowed us to describe disease dynamics and to determine tumour size resulting in death. In the second case a model with a constant control was investigated. The study of its equilibrium point showed that continuous control is not sufficient to support satisfactory patient's condition, and it is necessary to elaborate more complex treatment regimens. For this purpose, we used the method of terminal problems consisting in the search for such program control which forces system to a given final state. Selecting the initial and final states is due to medical grounds.As a result, we found two treatment regimens | one-stage treatment regimen and multi-stage one. The properties of each treatment regimen are analyzed and compared. The total amount of used drugs was a criterion for comparing these two treatment regimens. The theoretical conclusions obtained in this work are supported by computer modeling in MATLAB environment.

  4. Building energy optimization in the early design stages: A simplified method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of multi-objective genetic algorithms for holistic building design that considers multiple criteria; building energy use, capital cost, daylight distribution and thermal indoor environment. The optimization focus is related to building envelope parameters....... It is concluded, that quasi-steady-state methods implemented as part of integrated dynamic models are fast and flexible enough to support building energy-, indoor environment- and cost-optimization the early design stages........ To obtain relevant feedback from multi-objective optimizations in early design stages, evaluation speed is a key concern. The paper presents a fast evaluation method fit for the early design stages. It uses a combination of two different quasi-steady-state methods for energy and indoor environment...

  5. Urticaria as the initial presentation of early stage Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-hui; YING Ke-jing; WU Xiao-hong; CHAI Ying

    2012-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a subtype of the lung adenocarcinoma.Early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is usually asymptomatic,especially in the peripheral lung.Rarely,urticaria has been described occurring with lung cancer,usually small-cell lung cancer,but no case has been reported of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma yet.We report here a unique and initial urticaria on a patient,lasting for 6 months,who finally was diagnosed as early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (T1aNOMo).After treatment of surgery,the symptom of urticaria disappeared and did not recur.Therefore,we consider that utricaria is a oossibly clinical manifestation in early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

  6. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Anni Y. S. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)], e-mail: an9dk@hotmail.com; Maraldo, Maja V.; Vogelius, Ivan R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brodin, Nils Patrik; Aznar, Marianne C; Af Rosenschoeld, Per Munck [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments. Material and methods: We included 46 patients {>=}15 years with supra diaphragmatic, clinical stage I-II HL, who received chemotherapy followed by involved node RT (INRT) to 30.6 Gy at our institution. INRT was planned with three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). For each patient a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), proton therapy (PT) and mantle field (MF) treatment plan was simulated. Mean, maximum and minimum dose to the esophagus were extracted from the treatment plans. Risk estimates were based on dose-response models from clinical series with long-term follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated measures ANOVA using Bonferroni corrections. Results: Mean dose to the esophagus was 16.4, 16.4, 14.7 and 34.2 Gy (p < 0.001) with 3DCRT, VMAT, PT and MF treatment, respectively. No differences were seen in the estimated risk of developing esophagitis, stricture or cancer with 3DCRT compared to VMAT (p = 1.000, p = 1.000, p = 0.356). PT performed significantly better with the lowest risk estimates on all parameters compared to the photon treatments, except compared to 3DCRT for stricture (p = 0.066). On all parameters the modern techniques were superior to MF treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The estimated dose to the esophagus and the corresponding estimated risks of esophageal complications are decreased significantly with highly conformal RT compared to MF treatment. The number of patients presenting with late esophageal side

  7. Exploring Parental Involvement in Early Years Education in China: Development and Validation of the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…

  8. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  9. Identification of Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Using Sulcal Morphology and Other Common Neuroimaging Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Xu, Hong; Guan, Hao; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Jicong; Liu, Tao; Wen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at its early stage is of major interest in AD research. Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in regional sulcal width and global sulcal index (g-SI) are characteristics of patients with early-stage AD. In this study, we investigated sulcal width and three other common neuroimaging morphological measures (cortical thickness, cortical volume, and subcortical volume) to identify early-stage AD. These measures were evaluated in 150 participants, including 75 normal controls (NC) and 75 patients with early-stage AD. The global sulcal index (g-SI) and the width of five individual sulci (the superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure) were extracted from 3D T1-weighted images. The discriminative performances of the other three traditional neuroimaging morphological measures were also examined. Information Gain (IG) was used to select a subset of features to provide significant information for separating NC and early-stage AD subjects. Based on the four modalities of the individual measures, i.e., sulcal measures, cortical thickness, cortical volume, subcortical volume, and combinations of these individual measures, three types of classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine) were applied to compare the classification performances. We observed that sulcal measures were either superior than or equal to the other measures used for classification. Specifically, the g-SI and the width of the Sylvian fissure were two of the most sensitive sulcal measures and could be useful neuroanatomical markers for detecting early-stage AD. There were no significant differences between the three classifiers that we tested when using the same neuroanatomical features. PMID:28129351

  10. Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Candas, Bernard; Desmartis, Marie; Gagnon, Johanne; Roche, Daniel La; Rhainds, Marc; Coulombe, Martin; Dipankui, Mylène Tantchou; Légaré, France

    2014-01-01

    Background Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. ...

  11. Assessment of early child development: what, why, and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Brajović

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor skills, language, social and personal development as well as cognitive abilities are often the focus of early child development assessment and monitoring. The article presents some of the developmental milestones in these areas of child development. At the same time the article demonstrates that early child development assessment surpasses merely the orientation acording to developmental milestones. As a part of primary health prevention in Slovenia, identification of children with potential developmental delays is performed with the Denver developmental screening test II and the Systematical psychological examination of the three-year-old procedure. The purpose of applying developmental screening tests is early identification of children with developmental problems, as well as preparation of effective early interventions. By applying an appropriate psychological test material, a psychologist is able to assess the type and the stage of child' s psychological problems and delays in different developmental domains. Only psychometrically sound, and standardized tests should be applied in the process of early child development assessment. The work presents some of the practical and theoretical difficulties which practitioners are facing in the process of early child development assessment. Some feasible solutions are provided as well.

  12. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  13. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heily [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Presbyterian Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  14. Predictors of recurrence in early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many histopathological parameters in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC have been identified as predictive factors. Certain tumor-related factors increase the risk of nodal metastasis, and many pathological factors affect survival. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify that tumor-related histopathological prognostic factors that can predict recurrence and potentially influence the decision for adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage OTSCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 patients who underwent surgery for early stage OTSCC (stage I, II from 2007 to 2013 were selected. Demographic and clinical details were retrieved. Histopathological reports were reviewed for the following parameters-Margin status (close <5 mm, positive - Invasive squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], carcinoma in situ, marked dysplasia, microscopic depth of invasion, skeletal muscle infiltration (SMI, tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictors of recurrence were identified using Univariate analysis. Results: Median follow-up was 22 months (range, 5-89 months, the overall survival and RFS were 88% and 81% respectively. The recurrence rate was 19.5% during this time period. The only significant predictor of recurrence in pathologically early stage OTSCC was SMI (P = 0.003 on univariate analysis. Eighty-seven percentage of the recurrences in our study occurred within the 1 st year, with a disease specific mortality rate of 12.5%. Conclusion: In early stage OTSCC, Failure occurred predominantly in patients who had SMI.

  15. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  16. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  17. Differential immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at early developmental stages (larvae and fry) against the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Kania, Per Walter;

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune factors play a crucial role in survival of young fish especially during early stages of life when adaptive immunity is not fully developed. In the present study, we investigated the immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae and fry at an early stage of development...... trout fry with Y. ruckeri, in contrast, induced a cumulative mortality of 74%. A high expression of cytokines (IL-1b, TNF-a, IL-22, IL-8 and IL- 10), acute phase proteins (SAA, hepcidin, transferrin and precerebellin), complement factors (C3, C5 and factor B), antimicrobial peptide (cathelicidin-2...... at early developmental stages. A dense covering of surfaces of gill filaments by IgT antibody in the young fish suggest a role of this antibody as innate immune factor at early developmental stages....

  18. Improving website accessibility for people with early-stage dementia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, E D; Clare, Linda; Savitch, Nada; Royan, Lindsay; Litherland, Rachael; Lindsay, Margot

    2005-09-01

    This study, conducted collaboratively with five men who have a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), is the first stage of a formative research project aimed at developing a new website for people with dementia. Recommendations derived from a literature review of the implications of dementia-related cognitive changes for website design were combined with general web accessibility guidelines to provide a basis for the initial design of a new website. This website was compared with an equivalent site, containing the same information but based on an existing design, in terms of accessibility, ease of use, and user satisfaction. Participants were very satisfied with both sites, but responses did indicate some specific areas where one site was preferred over another. Observational data highlighted significant strengths of the new site as well as some limitations, and resulted in clear recommendations for enhancing the design. In particular, the study suggested that limiting the size of web pages to the amount of information that can be displayed on a computer screen at any one time could reduce the level of difficulty encountered by the participants. The results also suggested the importance of reducing cognitive load through limiting the number of choices required at any one time, the very opposite of the ethos of much website design.

  19. [Changes in radiotherapy indication for early-stage operated endometrial cancer. Revised staging, predictive factors. Conclusions from our own results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póti, Zsuzsa; Katona, Csilla; Szalai, Tibor; Mayer, Árpád

    2016-07-03

    Optimal postoperative radiotherapy indications for early-stage operated endometrial cancers have drastically changed with the new imaging generation (magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and more detailed pathomorphology. The depth and growth of tumor invasion, presence or absence of the lymph node metastases, grading and lymphovascular invasion are the most important factors to predict the progression and to influence the prognosis. In 2016, on the basis of these, the European Gynecologist Oncology and Radiotherapy Society published a report in which they proposed unanimously indications for postoperative radio- and/or radiochemotherapy. The basis of their work was prospective multilevel randomized investigations which could avoid over- or undertreatment hazards. The results obtained by the authors of this article from 164 operated patients in early-stage endometrium carcinoma seem to be acceptable, in spite of the fact that their earlier radiotherapy indication was different and in the pathological description lymphovascular invasion was not included and the grading was not always applied.

  20. Illness representations and coping processes of Taiwanese patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Chen, Mei-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide with an increasing incidence and prevalence and high cost. The role of illness perceptions in understanding health-related behavior has received little attention in patients with early-stage CKD. This qualitative study aimed to describe the illness representation and coping process experience of patients with early-stage CKD in Taiwan. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to analyze semistructured, open-ended, one-on-one interviews with 15 patients with early-stage CKD. Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients diagnosed with early-stage CKD from the nephrology departments of two medical centers in Taiwan. Trustworthiness of the study was evaluated using four criteria suggested by Lincoln and Guba. Six themes emerged from the analysis: experiencing early symptoms, self-interpreting the causes of having CKD, realizing CKD as a long-term disease, believing CKD could be controlled by following doctors' orders, anticipating the consequences of having CKD, and adopting coping strategies to delay the progress of CKD. Findings from this study compared with previous studies reveal that education can effectively change patient illness representations as an approach to improve coping behavior. This finding offers healthcare professionals insight into the health education necessary to assess patient illness representation to provide culturally sensitive interventions.

  1. Modeling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and metabolism in time-variable early life-stage exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rooni; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2008-07-01

    Recent laboratory investigations into the bioaccumulation and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have focused on low-level, time-variable exposures to early life-stage fish. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body-burden residues reported in these studies were lower than critical body-burden residues predicted by the target lipid model (TLM). To understand this discrepancy, a time-variable uptake and depuration model of PAH bioaccumulation was developed. Kinetic constants were fit using measured exposure and tissue concentrations. The resulting lipid-water partition coefficients (K(LW)) were uncorrelated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW))--a qualitatively unrealistic finding considering that numerous studies have reported a positive correlation between the two. Because PAHs are known to be metabolized, the comparison of K(LW) with K(OW) suggests that metabolism may be occurring in early life-stage fish. Therefore, the uptake and depuration model was modified to include metabolism while assuming linearity of K(LW) with K(OW). Calculated metabolism rates were positively correlated with K(OW)--a finding qualitatively similar to those of other studies. The present study provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the TLM predictions and the measured toxic effect levels. Given the time-variable exposure concentrations, the maximum measured body burdens used to relate to toxic effects may be underestimated. In addition, the maximum body burden of parent PAH plus metabolites may be a better measure in relating tissue concentrations to toxic effects. Incorporating these refinements in relating body burdens to toxic effects may result in a better comparison between TLM predictions and measured effect levels.

  2. Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangaraju Rajashekhar

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. Early stage DR involves inflammation, vascular leakage, apoptosis of vascular cells and neurodegeneration. In this study, we hypothesized that cells derived from the stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ASC could therapeutically rescue early stage DR features. Streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic athymic nude rats received single intravitreal injection of human ASC into one eye and saline into the other eye. Two months post onset of diabetes, administration of ASC significantly improved "b" wave amplitude (as measured by electroretinogram within 1-3 weeks of injection compared to saline treated diabetic eyes. Subsequently, retinal histopathological evaluation revealed a significant decrease in vascular leakage and apoptotic cells around the retinal vessels in the diabetic eyes that received ASC compared to the eyes that received saline injection. In addition, molecular analyses have shown down-regulation in inflammatory gene expression in diabetic retina that received ASC compared to eyes that received saline. Interestingly, ASC were found to be localized near retinal vessels at higher densities than seen in age matched non-diabetic retina that received ASC. In vitro, ASC displayed sustained proliferation and decreased apoptosis under hyperglycemic stress. In addition, ASC in co-culture with retinal endothelial cells enhance endothelial survival and collaborate to form vascular networks. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASC are able to rescue the neural retina from hyperglycemia-induced degeneration, resulting in importantly improved visual function. Our pre-clinical studies support the translational development of adipose stem cell-based therapy for DR to address both retinal capillary and neurodegeneration.

  3. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  4. Modeling screening, prevention, and delaying of Alzheimer's disease: an early-stage decision analytic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemers Eric R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's Disease (AD affects a growing proportion of the population each year. Novel therapies on the horizon may slow the progress of AD symptoms and avoid cases altogether. Initiating treatment for the underlying pathology of AD would ideally be based on biomarker screening tools identifying pre-symptomatic individuals. Early-stage modeling provides estimates of potential outcomes and informs policy development. Methods A time-to-event (TTE simulation provided estimates of screening asymptomatic patients in the general population age ≥55 and treatment impact on the number of patients reaching AD. Patients were followed from AD screen until all-cause death. Baseline sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 and 0.78, with treatment on positive screen. Treatment slowed progression by 50%. Events were scheduled using literature-based age-dependent incidences of AD and death. Results The base case results indicated increased AD free years (AD-FYs through delays in onset and a reduction of 20 AD cases per 1000 screened individuals. Patients completely avoiding AD accounted for 61% of the incremental AD-FYs gained. Total years of treatment per 1000 screened patients was 2,611. The number-needed-to-screen was 51 and the number-needed-to-treat was 12 to avoid one case of AD. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that duration of screening sensitivity and rescreen interval impact AD-FYs the most. A two-way sensitivity analysis found that for a test with an extended duration of sensitivity (15 years the number of AD cases avoided was 6,000-7,000 cases for a test with higher sensitivity and specificity (0.90,0.90. Conclusions This study yielded valuable parameter range estimates at an early stage in the study of screening for AD. Analysis identified duration of screening sensitivity as a key variable that may be unavailable from clinical trials.

  5. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, Helmut; Tomek, Wolfgang; Kovárová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-12-01

    The binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mediated by the protein complex eIF4F in conjunction with eIF4B (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and 4B). EIF4F is a three subunit complex consisting of eIF4A (RNA helicase), eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein), and eIF4G (bridging protein). The crucial role is played by eIF4E, which directly binds the 5'-cap structure of the mRNA and facilitates the recruitment to the mRNA of other translation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF4E binding to mRNA and to other initiation factors is regulated on several levels, including its phosphorylation on Ser-209, and association with its regulatory protein 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). In this study we document that both the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its regulator 4E-BP1 become dephosphorylated in the early stage porcine zygotes already 8 hr post-activation. Similarly, the activities of ERK1/2 MAP and Mnk1 kinases, which are both involved in eIF4E phosphorylation, gradually decrease during this period with the timing similar to that of eIF4E dephosphorylation. The formation of an active eIF4F complex is also diminished after 9-15 hr post-activation, although substantial amounts of this complex have been detected also 24 hr post-activation (2-cell stage). The overall protein synthesis in the parthenotes decreases gradually from 12 hr post-activation reaching a minimum after 48 hr (4-cell stage). Although the translation is gradually decreasing during early preimplantation development, the eIF4F complex, which is temporarily formed, might be a premise for the translation of a small subset of mRNAs at this period of development.

  6. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA.

  7. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  8. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Stancova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca. Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1. Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1 used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  9. Reduced fractional anisotropy in early-stage cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Konishi, Junya; Mori, Susumu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Fujii, Masahiko; Kanda, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    In patients with the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C), reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in several brain areas. However, since previous studies have employed predetermined regions of interest (ROI), the brain areas showing the earliest alterations in FA are unknown. The sensitivity of detecting early-stage MSA-C and the time course of the FA reduction are also unknown. The purpose was to address these issues to determine the diagnostic value of FA for early diagnosis. Twenty-one patients with MSA-C were investigated. Voxel-based FA analysis and morphometry were used to detect the differences between early-stage MSA-C and normal controls. An ROI-based FA analysis was also used to clarify the temporal profile. From the early-stage, MSA-C patients exhibited reduced FA and white matter atrophy in the middle cerebellar peduncle, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, and the ventral pons. The FA of these areas decreased rapidly during the first few years after onset, after which a rather gradual reduction occurred. The receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating early MSA-C from normal controls. FA measurement could potentially be used to make an early diagnosis and monitor progression in MSA-C patients.

  10. Moral Development Interventions in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Strategies for promoting moral development in early adolescence reviewed include the "plus-one" model, Deliberate Psychological Education, didactic courses in social studies, and a high school Just Community on moral reasoning. (CJ)

  11. Effect of body mass index on the survival of patients with early-stage small cell lung cancer after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnik, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is an important medico-social problem. It is connected with high level of incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Nowadays we know that obesity has significant influence on cancer development, including lung cancer. Multivariate analysis confirmed that histological type of tumour, kind of operation and body mass index (BMI) influence on prognosis in patients with early stages of mall cell lung cancer. So, now we can use BMI along with other significant prognostic criteria for dete...

  12. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...... are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early...

  13. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Shengfa [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Oncology, GuiYang Medical College Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Han Fei; Zhao Chong; Chen Chunyan; Xiao Weiwei; Li Jiaxin [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang, E-mail: ssf2010@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reports of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been limited. The present study evaluated the long-term survival outcomes and toxicity of early-stage NPC patients treated with IMRT alone. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and January 2008, 198 early-stage (T1-T2bN0-N1M0) NPC patients had undergone IMRT alone. The data from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated to 68 Gy at 2.27 Gy/fraction prescribed to the planning target volume of the primary nasopharygeal gross tumor volume. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system was used to assess the toxicity. Results: At a median follow-up of 50.9 months (range, 12-104), the 5-year estimated disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rate was 97.3%, 97.7%, and 97.8%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 100% for those with Stage T1 and T2a and 94.2% for those with Stage T2b lesions (p = 0.252). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate for Stage T1N0, T2N0, T1N1, and T2N1 patients was 100%, 98.8%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively (p = .073). All local recurrence occurred in patients with T2b lesions. Five patients developed distant metastasis. Of these 5 patients, 4 had had Stage T2bN1 disease and 1 had had Stage T2bN0 disease with retropharyngeal lymph node involvement. The most common acute toxicities were mainly Grade 1 or 2. At 24 months after IMRT, no Grade 3 or 4 xerostomia had developed, and 62 (96.9%) of 64 evaluated patients were free of trismus; only 2 patients (3.1%) had Grade 1 trismus. Radiation encephalopathy and cranial nerve injury were not observed. Conclusions: IMRT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, T1N1, and T2N1 yielded satisfactory survival outcomes with acceptable toxicity, and no differences were found in survival outcomes among these four subgroups. Patients with Stage T2b lesions might have relatively

  15. [Phosphorus and calcium metabolism and the cardiovascular system status in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A V; Volkov, M M; Dobronravov, V A; Rafrafi, H

    2010-01-01

    To define the impact of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease (CRD) on the cardiovascular system. The levels of phosphate (P), calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH) vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, serum lipidogram, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and X-ray degree of abdominal artery calcification (AAC) were determined and echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure monitoring were made in 465 patients with Stages I-V CRD who did not receive renal replacement therapy (of them, 73.5% of the patients had early (I to III) stages). Blood 1,25(OH)2D was related inversely to left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and the degree of AAC and correlated directly to the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction and inversely to IMT, the presence of coronary heart disease and heart failure (HF). ACC, LV hypertrophy, and arterial hypertension (AH) were more significant in patients with higher serum levels PTH and P. In patients with early-stage CRD, phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances promote the development of AH, vascular and cardiac valvular calcification, myocardial hypertrophy, and HF.

  16. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero Romero, María; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angio...

  17. Early development of visual recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alessio; Domenella, Rosaria Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The most important ability of the human vision is object recognition, yet it is exactly the less understood aspect of the vision system. Computational models have been helpful in progressing towards an explanation of this obscure cognitive ability, and today it is possible to conceive more refined models, thanks to the new availability of neuroscientific data about the human visual cortex. This work proposes a model of the development of the object recognition capability, under a different perspective with respect to the most common approaches, with a precise theoretical epistemology. It is assumed that the main processing functions involved in recognition are not genetically determined and hardwired in the neural circuits, but are the result of interactions between epigenetic influences and the basic neural plasticity mechanisms. The model is organized in modules related with the main visual biological areas, and is implemented mainly using the LISSOM architecture, a recent self-organizing algorithm closely reflecting the essential behavior of cortical circuits.

  18. Patient Perspectives on Deep Brain Stimulation Clinical Research in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, Lauren; Hacker, Mallory; Turchan, Maxim; Bollig, Madelyn; Tamargo, Christina; Fisher, William; McLaughlin, Lauren; Martig, Adria; Charles, David

    2017-01-01

    The FDA has approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences among potentially eligible patients for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD compared to standard medical treatment. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Early PD patients are therefore likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients.

  19. 海胆早期多巴胺能神经系统的发育及功能研究进展%Progress on the Research of the Development and Function of the Dopaminergic Nervous System of Sea Urchin in the Early Developmental Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汝少国; 王翠翠

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin embryo and larvae in the early developmental stages is an important model for research on marine ecological toxicology. Sea urchin dopaminergic (DA) nervous system develops earlier than the cholinergic system, and it starts to regulate the morphogenesis and swimming behaviors much earlier than the serotonergic system. Here we used sea urchin in the early developmental stages as a model and reviewed the development and the functions of the dopaminergic nervous system. The synthesis of dopamine and the receptors precedes the development of the dopaminergic nervous system. The dopaminergic neuron precursor cell period starts after the synthesis of DA and the receptors. In this period DA and DA receptor 1 (DRD1) appears in the form of granules of which the diameter is 1-2 μm (DA/DRD1-Gs), and they are also expressed on the surface of the embryo and larvae from the rotational blastula stage to the metamorphosis stage. After the aggregation of DA/DRD1-Gs, dopaminergic cells with the axon contacts begin to develop in the labial ganglion and the base of the back oral arms in the early four-wrist larval stage. The number of dopaminergic cells reached the maximum in the eight-wrist larval stage. Then the dopaminergic nervous system continues to develop until the maturity. The morphogenesis in the early developmental stage is regulated by several neurotransmitter systems together, and the swimming behaviors in different early periods can be regulated by either the dopaminergic nervous system alone or together with other systems. In the end, we assessed the prospective studies on issues, such as the factors affecting the development of the dopaminergic nervous system in the early developmental stages of sea urchin, the functions and the signaling pathway of DA receptors, the primary-secondary relationship and the mechanisms of the up-/down-regulation of the three important neurotransmitter systems in early morphogenesis and swimming behaviors, and the influences of

  20. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers.

  1. Eag1 channels as potential early-stage biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-López MG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available María de Guadalupe Chávez-López,1 Violeta Zúñiga-García,1 Julio Isael Pérez-Carreón,2 Arturo Avalos-Fuentes,3 Yesenia Escobar,4 Javier Camacho1 1Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 2Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, 3Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 4Centro de Investigación Clínica Acelerada Sc, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is usually asymptomatic at potential curative stages, and it has very poor prognosis if detected later. Thus, the identification of early biomarkers and novel therapies is essential to improve HCC patient survival. Ion channels have been proposed as potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several cancers including HCC. Especially, the ether à-go-go-1 (Eag1 voltage-gated potassium channel has been suggested as an early marker for HCC. Eag1 is overexpressed during HCC development from the cirrhotic and the preneoplastic lesions preceding HCC in a rat model. The channel is also overexpressed in human HCC. Astemizole has gained great interest as a potential anticancer drug because it targets several proteins involved in cancer including Eag1. Actually, in vivo studies have shown that astemizole may have clinical utility for HCC prevention and treatment. Here, we will review first some general aspects of HCC including the current biomarkers and therapies, and then we will focus on Eag1 channels as promising tools in the early diagnosis of HCC. Keywords: ion channels, Eag1, hepatocellular carcinoma, astemizole, diethylnitrosamine

  2. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a "carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status", several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama's classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami's definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected.

  3. Characterization of rat apical tissues in different root development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Zhenhua; Jin, Fang; Duan, Yinzhong; Jin, Yan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we try to compare the histological characteristics and the odontogenic capability of apical tissues (AT) at different root development stages of rat molar teeth. AT of mandibular first molars from 8-day-old, 21-day-old, and 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected as being representative of root-initiating, root-forming, and root-completing stages, respectively. Cell counting, flow cytometry assays, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess the proliferation and mineralization potential of apical tissue cells at different stages of root development in vitro. In vivo transplantation of apical tissue cells combined with ceramic bovine bone was used to characterize the differentiation capacity. It was shown that there was a structurally and functionally dynamic change in the apical tissue of developing tooth root of rats, of which the unique developmental potential will reduce gradually with the ending up of root development. The AT of root-initiating and root-forming stage exhibited much higher proliferation and tissue-regenerative capacity than those of root-completing stage. Our present results indicate that the apical tissue, with the sustainable developmental ability throughout almost the whole process of tooth development, can yet be regarded as a competent candidate source for root/periodontal tissues regeneration.

  4. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... months. Many aspects of zebrafish development have been described in the ... development of the nervous system (Kimmel et al., 1994), and aspects of cell ..... to juvenile life stages in the zebrafish (Brown, 1997). Day. 19, therefore .... found throughout the reproductive cycle in fish, but has only been clearly ...

  5. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  6. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor

  7. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... diversification criteria. Section V of this notice describes the criteria by which SBA will evaluate applicants... work with SBA leverage and make appropriate suggestions to manage risk. Risk mitigation strategies... Diversification Rights. Per Sec. 107.320, SBA reserves the right to maintain diversification among Early Stage...

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RI). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition

  10. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; van der Linden, Yvette; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; van Herk, Marcel B.; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV's for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes

  11. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  12. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The perc

  13. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....1830. Section 107.1181--Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs. Two commenters addressed... provided an exception to the interest reserve requirement for leverage in the form of a discounted... reserve requirements. SBA clearly stated its intention to do so in the preamble to the proposed rule....

  14. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  15. Safety of laparoscopy versus laparotomy in early-stage endometrial cancer : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.J.E.; Bijen, C.B.; Arts, H.J.; Ter Brugge, H.G.; van der Sijde, R.; Paulsen, L.; Wijma, J.; Bongers, M.Y.; Post, W.J.; van der Zee, A.G.; de Bock, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The standard surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer is total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which is associated with substantial morbidity. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is less invasive and is assumed to b

  16. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor recurren

  17. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  18. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  19. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. karakullukcu (Baris); K. Oudenaarde (Kim); M.P. Copper (Marcel); W.M.C. Klop; R. van Veen (Robert); M. Wildeman (Maarten); I. Bing Tan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis

  20. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Marianne C; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definiti...

  1. Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.

  2. Do we need an early unfavorable (intermediate) stage of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Raemaekers, John

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of patients who have early unfavorable or intermediate-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma has greatly improved. The increasing efficacy of chemotherapy and late toxic effects of wide-field radiotherapy justify the careful testing of the new involved-node radiotherapy principle in the combined-m...

  3. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...- creating startups and small firms, accelerate research, and address barriers to success for entrepreneurs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars AGENCY:...

  4. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  5. Kohlberg's Moral Development Stages in Young Adults' Choices Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Frances A.; Haden, Dawn

    1994-01-01

    Describes a content analysis study that used Kohlberg's theory of moral development to determine the stage of moral development represented by protagonists in Young Adult Choices (i.e., lists of titles preferred by adolescent readers) fiction and the relationship to the level of moral reasoning of real-life young adults. (Contains 20 references.)…

  6. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  7. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David;

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...... not given adjuvant therapy. Seven genes consistently obtained statistical significance in Cox regression for overall survival. The combined signature has a weighted mean hazard ratio of 3.2 in all cohorts and 3.0 (C.I. 1.3-7.4, p ...... treatments. Several studies have searched for gene expression prognostic biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma, but these have not yielded a widely accepted prognosticator. We analyzed gene expression from seven published lung adenocarcinoma cohorts for which we included only stage I and II patients who were...

  8. Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and use of adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Ragab, Omar M; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-03-01

    To examine trends of adjuvant radiotherapy choice and to examine associations between pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy choice for women with early-stage endometrial cancer. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify surgically treated stage I-II endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2012 (type 1 n=79,474, and type 2 n=25,020). Piecewise linear regression models were used to examine temporal trends of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) use, pelvic lymphadenectomy rate, and sampled node counts. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors for ICBT use. There was a significant increase in ICBT use and decrease in WPRT use during the study period. ICBT use exceeded WPRT use in 2003 for type 1 stage IA, and in 2007 for type 1 stage IB and type 2 stage IA diseases. In addition, number of sampled pelvic nodes significantly increased over time in type 1-2 stage I-II diseases (mean, 7.0-12.7 in 1988 to 15.2-17.6 in 2012, all Pcancer: adjusted-odds ratios for 1-10 and >10 nodes versus no lymphadenectomy in stage IA (1.38/2.40), IB (2.75/6.32), and II (1.36/2.91) diseases. Similar trends were observed for type 2 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for stage IA (1.69/3.73), IB (2.25/5.65), and II (1.36/2.19) diseases. Our results suggest that surgeons and radiation oncologists are evaluating the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy when counseling women with early-stage endometrial cancer for adjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Applications of a Stage Stacking Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of multistage axial compressors in gas turbine engines is typically accomplished with mean-line methods. These methods, which rely on empirical correlations, estimate compressor performance well near the design point, but may become less reliable off-design. For land-based applications of gas turbine engines, off-design performance estimates are becoming increasingly important, as turbine plant operators desire peaking or load-following capabilities and hot-day operability. The current work develops a one-dimensional stage stacking procedure, including a newly defined blockage term, which is used to estimate the off-design performance and operability range of a 13-stage axial compressor used in a power generating gas turbine engine. The new blockage term is defined to give mathematical closure on static pressure, and values of blockage are shown to collapse to curves as a function of stage inlet flow coefficient and corrected shaft speed. In addition to these blockage curves, the stage stacking procedure utilizes stage characteristics of ideal work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These curves are constructed using flow information extracted from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of groups of stages within the compressor. Performance estimates resulting from the stage stacking procedure are shown to match the results of CFD simulations of the entire compressor to within 1.6% in overall total pressure ratio and within 0.3 points in overall adiabatic efficiency. Utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated by estimation of the minimum corrected speed which allows stable operation of the compressor. Further utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated with a bleed sensitivity study, which estimates a bleed schedule to expand the compressors operating range.

  10. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...... there are different types of business incubators that do not necessarily offer the same types of services neither share a common vision about the way they should create value for their client companies. At the same time, early stage start-ups rely on the services provided by incubators and accelerators and need...... of the benefits from engaging in specific incubation programs. The objective of this paper is to investigate the value dimensions of specific types of business incubation services for early-stage start-ups in a way that may help such newly created firms to maximize the benefits from their participation...

  11. The relationship between clinical phenotype and early staged bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Victor W; Watts, Ray L; Schrandt, Christian J; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wang, Deli; Amara, Amy W; Guthrie, Barton L; Walker, Harrison C

    2013-12-01

    While many centers place bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems simultaneously, unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS followed by a staged contralateral procedure has emerged as a treatment option for many patients. However, little is known about whether the preoperative phenotype predicts when staged placement of a DBS electrode in the opposite STN will be required. The authors aimed to determine whether preoperative clinical phenotype predicts early staged placement of a second STN DBS electrode in patients who undergo unilateral STN DBS for Parkinson disease (PD). Eighty-two consecutive patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral STN DBS contralateral to the most affected hemibody and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined preoperative characteristics that predicted staged placement of a second electrode in the opposite STN. Preoperative measurements included aspects of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor asymmetry index, and body weight. At 2-year follow-up, 28 (34%) of the 82 patients had undergone staged placement of a contralateral electrode while the remainder chose to continue with unilateral stimulation. Statistically significant improvements in UPDRS total and Part 3 scores were retained at the end of the 2-year follow-up period in both subsets of patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most important predictors for early staged placement of a second subthalamic stimulator were low asymmetry index (OR 13.4, 95% CI 2.8-64.9), high tremor subscore (OR 7.2, CI 1.5-35.0), and low body weight (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-22.3). This single-center study provides evidence that elements of the preoperative PD phenotype predict whether patients will require early staged bilateral STN DBS. These data may aid in the management of patients with advanced PD who undergo STN DBS.

  12. The Experience of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Women Treated for Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Palle, Connie; Moeller, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of women are offered robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy as treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer in the developed world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how women diagnosed with early-stage endometrial cancer experienced robotic......-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 12 women, and interview data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four overarching themes emerged: "surgery was a piece of cake," "recovering physically after surgery," "going from being off guard to being...... on guard," and "preparing oneself by seeking information." The women had confidence in the robotic technique and experienced fast recovery after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy; however, they had uncertainties and unanswered questions concerning the postoperative course. Shortly after discharge...

  13. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  14. Geological, isothermal, and isobaric 3-D model construction in early stage of geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, M. P.; Suryantini; Catigtig, D.; Regandara, R.; Asnin, S. N.; Pratama, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    Construction of geology, thermal anomaly and pressure distribution of a geothermal system in the early stage of exploration where data is limited is described using a 3-D software, Leapfrog Geothermal. The geological 3-D model was developed from a topographic map (derived from DEM data), geological map and literature studies reported in an early geological survey. The isothermal 3-D model was constructed using reservoir temperature estimation from geothermometry calculated from chemical analyses on surface manifestations, available shallow gradient temperature hole data and the normal gradient temperature (3°C/100m) for a nonthermal area. The isobaric 3-D model was built using hydrostatic pressure where the hydrostatic pressure is determined by the product of the fluid density, acceleration due to gravity, and depth. Fluid density is given by saturated liquid density as a function of temperature. There are some constraints on the modelling result such as (1) within the predicted reservoir, the geothermal gradient is not constant but continues to increase, thus, creating an anomalously high temperature at depth, and (2) the lithology model is made by interpolating and extrapolating cross-sections whereas usually only two to three geology sections were available for this study. Hence, the modeller must understand the geology. An additional cross section was developed by the modeller which may not be as suitable as the geologist constructed sections. The results of this study can be combined with geophysical data such as gravity, geomagnetic, micro-tremor and resistivity data. The combination of geological, geochemical, isothermal, isobaric and geophysical data could be used in (1) estimating the geometry and size of the geothermal reservoir, (2) predicting the depth of top reservoir, and (3) creating well prognosis for exploration and production wells.

  15. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard;

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  16. Transient elevation of amygdala alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites during the early stages of amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M J; Vigil, A; Savage, D D; Weiss, G K

    1990-03-01

    Enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission retards but does not prevent the development of kindling. We previously reported that locus coeruleus (LC) alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites are transiently elevated during the early stages of kindling development. Since the firing activity of LC noradrenergic neurons is partially regulated via an alpha 2 receptor-mediated recurrent inhibition, the transient elevation in LC alpha 2 receptors could decrease LC activity and consequently facilitate the development of kindling. Transient elevation of alpha 2 receptor binding sites during early stages of kindling may also occur on noradrenergic axon terminals projecting to forebrain sites. Using in vitro neurotransmitter autoradiography techniques, we investigated this hypothesis by measuring specific [3H]idazoxan binding in 5 different areas of rat forebrain at 2 different stages of kindling development. After 2 class 1 kindled seizures, specific [3H]idazoxan binding was elevated significantly in the amygdala, but not in other forebrain regions. No differences in specific [3H]idazoxan binding were observed in any of the 5 brain regions in rats kindled to a single class 5 kindled motor seizure. Saturation of binding experiments indicated that the increase in amygdala [3H]idazoxan binding, following 2 class 1 kindled motor seizures, was due to an increase in the total number of alpha 2 receptor binding sites without a change in the affinity of the binding sites for [3H]idazoxan. Thus, the transient increase in alpha 2 receptors that occurs in the LC in the early stages of kindling also occurs in the forebrain region in which the kindled seizure originates.

  17. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  18. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methods Use was made of 38 human embryos and fetus

  19. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  20. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  1. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  2. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  3. Complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdin, E. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Gynecologic Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Social Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, P. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall complications, major as well as minor, in patients treated for early-stage cervical carcinoma as related to treatment parameters. Methods: In this retrospective study, 167 consecutive patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy were investigated. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Results: Transient or permanent complications appeared in up to half of all patients. Seven percent exhibited intraoperative complications and 35% suffered from early postoperative urinary tract problems; most frequently urinary tract infection. After one year, the urinary tract complications dominated; voidance difficulties and incontinence being most common. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 15% of patients. Lymphedema appeared during the first year in 21% of the patients but several of the mild or moderate cases improved after the first year. The relative risk of lymphedema was increased with shorter duration of surgery, extensive preoperative irradiation to the bladder and after external postoperative irradiation. Some form of late sequelae remained in every fifth patient, and every fourth patient, aged 23-44 years, periodically suffered from vasomotor symptoms despite estrogen replacement therapy. Conclusion: The complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma suggest that attempts should be made to evaluate effective treatments designed to minimize risk to the patients. (au) 29 refs.

  4. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  5. Surgical management for early-stage bilateral breast cancer patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jian Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China.This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014.A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5% suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC, and 296 (2.0% suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC. Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC.Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options.

  6. Circulating micro-RNA expression profiles in early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Schetter, Aaron J; Welsh, Judith A; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Bowman, Elise D; Harris, Curtis C

    2012-03-15

    Circulating micro-RNA (miR) profiles have been proposed as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer, including lung cancer. We have developed methods to accurately and reproducibly measure micro-RNA levels in serum and plasma. Here, we study paired serum and plasma samples from 220 patients with early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 220 matched controls. We use qRT-PCR to measure the circulating levels of 30 different miRs that have previously been reported to be differently expressed in lung cancer tissue. Duplicate RNA extractions were performed for 10% of all samples, and micro-RNA measurements were highly correlated among those duplicates. This demonstrates high reproducibility of our assay. The expressions of miR-146b, miR-221, let-7a, miR-155, miR-17-5p, miR-27a and miR-106a were significantly reduced in the serum of NSCLC cases, while miR-29c was significantly increased. No significant differences were observed in plasma of patients compared with controls. Overall, expression levels in serum did not correlate well with levels in plasma. In secondary analyses, reduced plasma expression of let-7b was modestly associated with worse cancer-specific mortality in all patients, and reduced serum expression of miR-223 was modestly associated with cancer-specific mortality in stage IA/B patients. MiR profiles also showed considerable differences comparing African American and European Americans. In summary, we found significant differences in miR expression when comparing cases and controls and find evidence that expression of let-7b is associated with prognosis in NSCLC. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  7. Increased Hemodynamic Load in Early Embryonic Stages Alters Endocardial to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Madeline; López, Claudia S.; David, Larry; Maloyan, Alina; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease. However, the progressive detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac defects remain unclear. Endothelial–mesenchymal cell transition is one of the many complex developmental events involved in transforming the early embryonic outflow tract into the aorta, pulmonary trunk, interventricular septum, and semilunar valves. This study elucidated the effects of increased hemodynamic load on endothelial–mesenchymal transition remodeling of the outflow tract cushions in vivo. Outflow tract banding was used to increase hemodynamic load in the chicken embryo heart between Hamburger and Hamilton stages 18 and 24. Increased hemodynamic load induced increased cell density in outflow tract cushions, fewer cells along the endocardial lining, endocardium junction disruption, and altered periostin expression as measured by confocal microscopy analysis. In addition, 3D focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy analysis determined that a portion of endocardial cells adopted a migratory shape after outflow tract banding that is more irregular, elongated, and with extensive cellular projections compared to normal cells. Proteomic mass-spectrometry analysis quantified altered protein composition after banding that is consistent with a more active stage of endothelial–mesenchymal transition. Outflow tract banding enhances the endothelial–mesenchymal transition phenotype during formation of the outflow tract cushions, suggesting that endothelial–mesenchymal transition is a critical developmental process that when disturbed by altered blood flow gives rise to cardiac malformation and defects. PMID:28228731

  8. Stigma toward psychosis and its formulation process: prejudice and discrimination against early stages of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoko; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-02-01

    Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals. We performed a survey examining stigmas toward people with psychotic-like-experiences (PLE), at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), schizophrenia, or depression. Prejudice was measured using a 21-item questionnaire, and discrimination was measured using the Social Distance Scale. The participants consisted of 149 people from the general public, 97 patients, and 119 psychiatric professionals. Generally, a similar pattern was observed among the groups in which prejudice and discrimination against PLE was mildest, followed by that against ARMS and depression, and finally schizophrenia. When the stigma of the general public was compared with that of psychiatric professionals, the prejudice and discrimination against PLE of the general public were both lower than those of the psychiatric professionals. However, the prejudice of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for ARMS. Furthermore, the discrimination of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for schizophrenia. The stigmas of mental illness differed according to the clinical stage, although the pattern of severity was similar among the three groups. A formulation process is suggested in which stigma toward schizophrenia develops from an attitudinal property (prejudice) against ARMS and a behavioral property (discrimination) against schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  10. Reading skills of students with speech sound disorders at three stages of literacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M; Lewis, Barbara A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Tag, Jessica; Avrich Ciesla, Allison; Stein, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years;months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children's literacy stages.

  11. Methodologies for investigating drug metabolism at the early drug discovery stage: prediction of hepatic drug clearance and P450 contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Chie; Murayama, Norie; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    The attrition rate in drug development is being reduced by continuous advances in science and technology introduced by various academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. This has been certainly noticeable in reducing the frequency with which unfavorable absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) characteristics of any candidate drug causes failure in clinical development. Nonetheless, it is important that the objectives in reducing attrition during later stages of development are matched by information generated in the earliest stage of discovery. In this review, we summarize the methodologies employed during the early stages of drug discovery and discuss new findings in the areas of (1) drug metabolism enzymes, (2) the contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450, CYP) to hepatic metabolism, (3) prediction of hepatic intrinsic clearance, (4) reaction phenotyping, and (5) the metabolic differences between highly homologous enzymes such as CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The total contribution of P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases to drug metabolism is reported to be more than 80%; therefore, glucuronidation is increasingly recognized as an important clearance pathway in addition to that of P450 enzymes. When estimating the contribution of P450, interpreting the results of inhibition studies using a single P450 inhibitor can lead to false conclusions. For instance, 1-aminobenzotriazole and SKF-525A have a varying range of IC(50) values for inhibition of drug exidation-reaction by different CYP450 enzymes. There are disparities between methodologies at early stage drug discovery and late stage development. For example, although the drug depletion approach for the prediction of hepatic intrinsic clearance may not be desirable at late stages of development, it is suitable at the early drug discovery stage since kinetic characterization and measurement of specific drug metabolites are not required. Data from protein binding assays in plasma and

  12. Moral Stage Development and Knowledge of Kohlberg's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charles S.

    1982-01-01

    A linear regression model was used to test the relationship between the knowledge of Kohlberg's theory and moral stage development. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the multivariate relationship between one dependent and five independent variables. Neither analysis demonstrated a statistically significant relationship. (Author/PN)

  13. Usability of tablet computers by people with early-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fabian S; Wallace, Tim; Luszcz, Mary A; Reynolds, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers are generally associated with an intuitive interface. The adoption and use of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context could potentially assist in daily living and provide users with a source for leisure activities and social networking. As dementia mainly affects the older adult population, it is expected that many people with dementia and even their carers do not use tablet computers as part of their everyday living. This paper explores the usability of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context as a source of leisure for people with dementia. The main advantage of the use of tablet computers in this manner is to provide carers some reprieve from the constant care and attention often required in caring for people with dementia. Seven-day in-home trials were conducted to determine whether people with early-stage dementia were -capable of using a tablet computer independently. Twenty-one people with early-stage dementia and carer dyads participated in the trial. Feedback was gathered through questionnaires from both the person with dementia and their carer regarding the use of a tablet computer as part of their everyday living. Approximately half the participants with dementia were able to engage with and use the tablet computer independently, which proved to be helpful to their carers. No significant traits were observed to help identify those who were less likely to use a tablet computer. Carer relief was quantified by the amount of time participants with dementia spent using the device without supervision. The results and feedback from the trial provide significant insights to introducing new technology within the early-stage dementia context. Users' needs must be considered on a case-by-case basis to successfully facilitate the uptake of tablet computers in the dementia context. The trial has provided sufficient justification to further explore more uses of tablet computers in the dementia context, and not just for

  14. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He ZX

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhen-Xin He,1 Pu Xiang,2 Jian-Ping Gong,1 Nan-Sheng Cheng,3 Wei Zhang4 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, 3Department of Bile Duct Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 4Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yue Bei People’s Hospital, Shaoguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Aim: To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods: The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015, Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015, PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015, Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015 were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm or early stage (≤3 cm HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results: Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528 to liver resection (n=419 for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI

  15. The effects of bromazepam on the early stage of visual information processing (P100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Fernanda; Sampaio, Isabel; Veiga, Heloisa; Ferreira, Camila; Cagy, Maurício; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    The early stages of visual information processing, involving the detection and perception of simple visual stimuli, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to psychotropic agents. The present study investigated the effects of an acute dose of bromazepam (3 mg), compared with placebo, on the P100 component of the visual evoked potential and reaction time. The sample, consisting of 14 healthy subjects (6 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Results suggest that bromazepam (3 mg) impairs the initial stage of visual information processing, as observed by an increase in P100 latency.

  16. Spatiotemporal proteomic analyses during pancreas cancer progression identifies serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) as a novel candidate biomarker for early stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Justin E; Zhang, Yuzheng; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Solan, Joell L; Lampe, Paul D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-12-01

    Pancreas cancer, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is the deadliest of solid tumors, with a five-year survival rate of disease improves survival rates, but access to tissue and other biospecimens that could be used to develop early detection markers is confounded by the insidious nature of pancreas cancer. Mouse models that accurately recapitulate the human condition allow disease tracking from inception to invasion and can therefore be useful for studying early disease stages in which surgical resection is possible. Using a highly faithful mouse model of pancreas cancer in conjunction with a high-density antibody microarray containing ∼2500 antibodies, we interrogated the pancreatic tissue proteome at preinvasive and invasive stages of disease. The goal was to discover early stage tissue markers of pancreas cancer and follow them through histologically defined stages of disease using cohorts of mice lacking overt clinical signs and symptoms and those with end-stage metastatic disease, respectively. A panel of seven up-regulated proteins distinguishing pancreas cancer from normal pancreas was validated, and their levels were assessed in tissues collected at preinvasive, early invasive, and moribund stages of disease. Six of the seven markers also differentiated pancreas cancer from an experimental model of chronic pancreatitis. The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its involvement in progression from precursor pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of STK4 at different stages of disease revealed a dynamic expression pattern further implicating it in early tumorigenic events. Immunohistochemistry of a panel of human pancreas cancers confirmed that STK4 levels were increased in tumor epithelia relative to normal tissue. Overall, this integrated approach yielded several tissue

  17. Identification of an AP2-family protein that is critical for malaria liver stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiroh Iwanaga

    Full Text Available Liver-stage malaria parasites are a promising target for drugs and vaccines against malaria infection. However, little is currently known about gene regulation in this stage. In this study, we used the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and showed that an AP2-family transcription factor, designated AP2-L, plays a critical role in the liver-stage development of the parasite. AP2-L-depleted parasites proliferated normally in blood and in mosquitoes. However, the ability of these parasites to infect the liver was approximately 10,000 times lower than that of wild-type parasites. In vitro assays showed that the sporozoites of these parasites invaded hepatocytes normally but that their development stopped in the middle of the liver schizont stage. Expression profiling using transgenic P. berghei showed that fluorescent protein-tagged AP2-L increased rapidly during the liver schizont stage but suddenly disappeared with the formation of the mature liver schizont. DNA microarray analysis showed that the expression of several genes, including those of parasitophorous vacuole membrane proteins, was significantly decreased in the early liver stage of AP2-L-depleted parasites. Investigation of the targets of this transcription factor should greatly promote the exploration of liver-stage antigens and the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatocyte infection by malaria parasites.

  18. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  19. Interplay between shape and roughness in early-stage microcapillary imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardo, Salvatore; Palpacelli, Silvia; De Maio, Alessandro; Cingolani, Roberto; Succi, Sauro; Pisignano, Dario

    2012-02-07

    Flows in microcapillaries and associated imbibition phenomena play a major role across a wide spectrum of practical applications, from oil recovery to inkjet printing and from absorption in porous materials and water transport in trees to biofluidic phenomena in biomedical devices. Early investigations of spontaneous imbibition in capillaries led to the observation of a universal scaling behavior, known as the Lucas-Washburn (LW) law. The LW allows abstraction of many real-life effects, such as the inertia of the fluid, irregularities in the wall geometry, and the finite density of the vacuum phase (gas or vapor) within the channel. Such simplifying assumptions set a constraint on the design of modern microfluidic devices, operating at ever-decreasing space and time scales, where the aforementioned simplifications go under serious question. Here, through a combined use of leading-edge experimental and simulation techniques, we unravel a novel interplay between global shape and nanoscopic roughness. This interplay significantly affects the early-stage energy budget, controlling front propagation in corrugated microchannels. We find that such a budget is governed by a two-scale phenomenon: The global geometry sets the conditions for small-scale structures to develop and propagate ahead of the main front. These small-scale structures probe the fine-scale details of the wall geometry (nanocorrugations), and the additional friction they experience slows the entire front. We speculate that such a two-scale mechanism may provide a fairly general scenario to account for extra dissipative phenomena occurring in capillary flows with nanocorrugated walls.

  20. Four-arm robotic lobectomy for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Galetta, Domenico; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Melfi, Franca; Schmid, Ralph Alexander; Borri, Alessandro; Vannucci, Fernando; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility and safety of four-arm robotic lung lobectomy in patients with lung cancer and described the robotic lobectomy technique with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Over 21 months, 54 patients underwent robotic lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer at our institute. We used a da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Mountain View, Calif) with three ports plus one utility incision to isolate hilum elements and perform vascular and bronchial resection using standard endoscopic staplers. Standard mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed subsequently. Surgical outcomes were compared with those in 54 patients who underwent open surgery over the same period and were matched to the robotic group using propensity scores for a series of preoperative variables. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 7 (13%) cases. Postoperative complications (11/54, 20%, in each group) and median number of lymph nodes removed (17.5 robotic vs 17 open) were similar in the 2 groups. Median robotic operating time decreased by 43 minutes (P = .02) from first tertile (18 patients) to the second-plus-third tertile (36 patients). Median postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter after robotic (excluding first tertile) than after open operations (4.5 days vs 6 days; P = .002). Robotic lobectomy with lymph node dissection is practicable, safe, and associated with shorter postoperative hospitalization than open surgery. From the number of lymph nodes removed it also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life still require evaluation. We expect that technologic developments will further simplify the robotic procedure. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.