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Sample records for early smoking-induced respiratory

  1. Could cigarette packaging be used as a tool to make prevention of smoke-induced respiratory diseases?

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    Sposato, Bruno; Lenzi, Piero Angelo; Carelli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-12-01

    The most important consequences of smoking are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer (LC). Although the use of shocking images and warning messages on cigarette packaging is a valid tool of smoke dishabituation, unfortunately, millions of people go on smoking. Our hypotheses is that cigarette packet covers could also be used to give further messages, especially meant to spur also a screening of smoke-induced respiratory diseases. Messages on cigarette packaging suggesting smokers to perform a spirometry and a chest X-ray may persuade them not only to quit their habit but also to have a screening for COPD and LC prevention. If our hypotheses is taken into account it will have a strong worldwide impact.

  2. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

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    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  3. Respiratory mechanics in ventilated preterm infants : early determinants and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snepvangers, Dimphn Adriana Cornelia Maria

    2004-01-01

    The studies in this thesis show that in the current surfactant era, the majority of ventilated preterm infants are still suffering from respiratory morbidity and substantial respiratory function abnormalities throughout the early years of life. Since respiratory function testing during mechanical ve

  4. Surfactant protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie L.; Tan, Qihua; Holst, René;

    2014-01-01

    Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The associat......Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage...... or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in non...... with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive...

  5. Early respiratory insufficiency in the ALS patient: a case study.

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    Houseman, Gail; Kelley, Mary

    2005-08-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a problem that develops in nearly all people diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is the treatment of choice for ALS patients with respiratory insufficiency. Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the test most commonly used to qualify ALS patients for NIPPV; however, some research suggests FVC may not be the best tool to measure early respiratory insufficiency in all patients with ALS. This case study introduces an ALS patient who had normal FVC results, symptoms of respiratory insufficiency, and abnormal nocturnal oximetry. After NIPPV initiation, the patient reported improved sleep and less daytime fatigue, which he associated with the start of NIPPV treatment.

  6. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

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    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers.

  7. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  8. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: prevention and early recognition.

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    de Haro, Candelaria; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Torrents, Eva; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-04-24

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). ARDS results in increased use of critical care resources and healthcare costs, yet the overall mortality associated with these conditions remains high. Research focusing on preventing ARDS and identifying patients at risk of developing ARDS is necessary to develop strategies to alter the clinical course and progression of the disease. To date, few strategies have shown clear benefits. One of the most important obstacles to preventive interventions is the difficulty of identifying patients likely to develop ARDS. Identifying patients at risk and implementing prevention strategies in this group are key factors in preventing ARDS. This review will discuss early identification of at-risk patients and the current prevention strategies.

  10. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

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    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-06-30

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals.

  11. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

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    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric

  12. The respiratory consequences of early-term birth and delivery by caesarean sections.

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    Kotecha, Sarah J; Gallacher, David J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-06-01

    In England and Wales, 19% of live births in 2012 were at 37-38 weeks' gestation, equating to nearly 140 000 early-term births each year. Since caesarean sections (CS) are often performed at early-term gestations, this accounts for some of the increased proportion of the early-term births. Infants born early-term are at an increased risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity particularly if they are delivered by caesarean section. The long term lung function data are limited but available data suggest that early-term delivery is associated with respiratory morbidity in childhood. CS also appears to be associated with increased neonatal morbidity and future development of respiratory symptoms. However, future studies need to confirm the independent effects of caesarean sections and early-term deliveries particularly for long term outcomes as both are likely to affect the respiratory system differently.

  13. Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.

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    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ∼2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator.

  14. Shared early origins of cardiovascular and respiratory development

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    Eising, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are often studied separately, but there is growing awareness that these diseases are closely linked. In this thesis we focused on two non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, which form a large contribution of the total morbidity and mortality of

  15. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  16. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

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    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

  17. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing; Danno polmonare precoce da fumo in soggetti asintomatici. Studio correlativo con TC dinamica ad elevata risoluzione e test di funzionalita' respiratoria

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    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna' , Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini e UO di Scienze Radiologiche Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Sezione Clinica Pneumologica

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p<0.005) and Tiffeneau index (p<0.005) which were lower in current-smokers or former-smokers, although still within the normal range. The HRCT study did not show areas of emphysema or air trapping in non smokers. In the smokers' group, air trapping was observed in 30.7% of cases: 33% former-smokers and 29.4% current smokers (mean extension was 21.36% in former smokers and 9.48% in current smokers). Mean extension in the

  18. Hypermethylation of CCND2 May Reflect a Smoking-Induced Precancerous Change in the Lung

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    Alexander Salskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It remains unknown whether tobacco smoke induces DNA hypermethylation as an early event in carcinogenesis or as a late event, specific to overt cancer tissue. Using MethyLight assays, we analyzed 316 lung tissue samples from 151 cancer-free subjects (121 ever-smokers and 30 never-smokers for hypermethylation of 19 genes previously observed to be hypermethylated in nonsmall cell lung cancers. Only APC (39%, CCND2 (21%, CDH1 (7%, and RARB (4% were hypermethylated in >2% of these cancer-free subjects. CCND2 was hypermethylated more frequently in ever-smokers (26% than in never-smokers (3%. CCND2 hypermethylation was also associated with increased age and upper lobe sample location. APC was frequently hypermethylated in both ever-smokers (41% and never-smokers (30%. BVES, CDH13, CDKN2A (p16, CDKN2B, DAPK1, IGFBP3, IGSF4, KCNH5, KCNH8, MGMT, OPCML, PCSK6, RASSF1, RUNX, and TMS1 were rarely hypermethylated (<2% in all subjects. Hypermethylation of CCND2 may reflect a smoking-induced precancerous change in the lung.

  19. Smoking-induced chromosomal segregation anomalies identified by FISH analysis of sperm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Ciro Silveira; Juchniuk de Vozzi, Maria Silvina; Dos Santos, Silvio Avelino; Vasconcelos, Maria Aparecida C; de Paz, Cláudia Cp; Squire, Jeremy A; Martelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    .... Previous studies have shown that toxic substances from cigarette smoke induce structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in vitro and could potentially increase levels of aneusomy in sperm...

  20. Early respiratory management of respiratory distress syndrome in very preterm infants and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control study.

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    Arjan B Te Pas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the period immediately after birth, preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (ENCPAP is an attempt to avoid intubation and may minimize lung injury. In contrast, ENCPAP can fail, and at that time surfactant rescue can be less effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the pulmonary clinical course and outcome of very preterm infants (gestational age 25-32 weeks with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS who started with ENCPAP and failed (ECF group, with a control group of infants matched for gestational age, who were directly intubated in the delivery room (DRI group. Primary outcome consisted of death during admission or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. RESULTS: 25 infants were included in the ECF group and 50 control infants matched for gestational age were included in the DRI group. Mean gestational age and birth weight in the ECF group were 29.7 weeks and 1,393 g and in the DRI group 29.1 weeks and 1,261 g (p = NS. The incidence of BPD was significantly lower in the ECF group than in the DRI group (4% vs. 35%; P<0.004; OR 12.6 (95% CI 1.6-101. Neonatal mortality was similar in both groups (4%. The incidence of neonatal morbidities such as severe cerebral injury, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity, was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A trial of ENCPAP at birth may reduce the incidence of BPD and does not seem to be detrimental in very preterm infants. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether early respiratory management of preterm infants with RDS plays an important role in the development of BPD.

  1. STUDY ON INFLAMMATORY CELLS IN BALF OF SMOKE-INDUCED CHRONIC BRONCHITIS RAT MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆云; 黄绍光; 吴华成; 程齐俭; 项轶; 万欢英

    2004-01-01

    Objective To establish a smoke-induced chronic bronchitis rat model and evaluate the pathological change semi-quantitatively, and study the characteristics of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in various stages. Methods Chronic bronchitis sequential rat model was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Experiments were performed in 30 young male Sprague-Dawley rats, which comprised 5 groups in random, i.e.,4 chronic bronchitis model groups and I control group. After stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the specimens were studied by semi-quantitative method to evaluate the morphologic changes in various stages. Meanwhile, the inflammatory cells of the BALF and the activity of myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) of lung tissue were analysed. Results During the process of the chronic bronchitis, the pathologic score was increasing as time went on, and the typical morphologic changes of chronic bronchitis emerged in the group 7 weeks. The total number of inflammatory cells in BALF was increasing as time went on, correlated with the pathologic scores ( P < 0. 01 ).And the percentage of lymphocyte increased as well as positively correlated with pathologic scores ( P < 0. 05 ),whereas that of macrophage decreased and negatively correlated with pathologic scores (P <0. 05). The MPO lever of lung tissue was correlated with the pathologic scores ( P < 0. 01 ). But the percentage of the neutrophil in the BALF was just in a high level during the first week, then it maintained relatively lower. Conclusion Smoke-induced chronic bronchitis is a slowly progressive inflammation process. The model we established is convenient and simple for the longitudinal study on the inflammatory process of chronic bronchitis and the therapy in the early stage. The semi-quantitative evaluation for the pathological change is with much more value. During the inflammatory sequential process of early stage of chronic bronchitis, the cellular characteristics are

  2. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Zhi-Hua Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Increased autophagy was observed in lung tissue from COPD patients, as indicated by electron microscopic analysis, as well as by increased activation of autophagic proteins (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B, LC3B, Atg4, Atg5/12, Atg7. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE is an established model for studying the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In human pulmonary epithelial cells, exposure to CSE or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor rapidly induced autophagy. CSE decreased HDAC activity, resulting in increased binding of early growth response-1 (Egr-1 and E2F factors to the autophagy gene LC3B promoter, and increased LC3B expression. Knockdown of E2F-4 or Egr-1 inhibited CSE-induced LC3B expression. Knockdown of Egr-1 also inhibited the expression of Atg4B, a critical factor for LC3B conversion. Inhibition of autophagy by LC3B-knockdown protected epithelial cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. Egr-1(-/- mice, which displayed basal airspace enlargement, resisted cigarette-smoke induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a critical role for Egr-1 in promoting autophagy and apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vitro and in vivo. The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury.

  3. Prognostic significance of early lactate clearance rate for severe acute respiratory failure patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧芝栋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic significanceof early lactate clearance rate for severe acute respiratory failure patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO).Methods Forty-three patients with severe acute respiratory failure supported by venous-venous(v-v)ECMO were enrolled from January 2007 to January 2013.Arterial blood lactate at pre-ECMO support(0 h)and at

  4. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

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    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...

  5. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

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    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    Full Text Available Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet.To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants.Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP.23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP.Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  6. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

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    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  7. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

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    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  8. Early administration of the second surfactant dose in preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

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    Köksal, Nilgün; Akpinar, Reyhan; Cetinkaya, Merih

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether early administration (2 hours after the first surfactant dose) of the second surfactant dose would be superior to late surfactant treatment (6 hours after the first surfactant dose) in preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Between June 2003 and March 2005, 40 newborns born with respiratory distress syndrome in Uludağ University Hospital were investigated in this prospective study. The inclusion criteria for the recruitment of the infants were: age respiratory distress syndrome, and need for mechanical ventilation with inspiratory oxygen fraction > or = 0.4 and mean airway pressure > or = 7 cm H2O to obtain arterial pressure of oxygen between 70-80 mmHg. Infants with lethal congenital anomalies or being treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation were excluded from the study. Birth weight, gestational age, gender, and Apgar scores were recorded and complications of the surfactant therapy were examined. Twenty boys and 20 girls were enrolled in the study. The first surfactant dose was administered in the first hour of life in all infants. The second surfactant dose was given 2 hours after the first dose in 20 of them and 6 hours after the first dose in the other 20. Infants in both groups (early versus late) were similar with respect to gestational age, birth weight, gender, and the rate of prenatal corticosteroids. There were also no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the response to surfactant therapy and complications. The results of this study show that administration of the second surfactant dose earlier is as effective as late administration, and it may be suggested that the second surfactant dose can be applied earlier in severe respiratory distress syndrome.

  9. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain.

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    Vani, G; Anbarasi, K; Shyamaladevi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  10. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  11. Salidroside alleviates cigarette smoke-induced COPD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fen; Liu, Jingyan; Yan, Tianhua; Miao, Mingxing

    2017-02-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of salidroside (Sal) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 50 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, CS group, CS+dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, CS+salidroside (20mg/kg) group and CS+salidroside (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by CS exposure for 8 weeks. The results of H&E staining demonstrated that Sal alleviated CS-induced pathological injury in lungs. Besides, Sal increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Sal also inhibited the generations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum and lungs. Furthermore, the administration of Sal significantly inhibited the protein levels of MAPK/NF-κB pathway in CS-induced mice. Our findings showed that Sal might effectively ameliorate the progression of COPD via MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic arsenic and respiratory health, from early life exposure to sex-specific effects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tiffany R; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the diverse body of epidemiologic research accrued on inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory health effects. Twenty-nine articles were identified that examined the relationship between inorganic arsenic exposure and respiratory outcomes (i.e. lung function, symptoms, acute respiratory infections, chronic non-malignant lung diseases, and non-malignant lung disease mortality). There was strong evidence of a general association between arsenic and non-malignant respiratory illness, including consistent evidence on lung function impairment, acute respiratory tract infections, respiratory symptoms, and non-malignant lung disease mortality. Overall, early life exposure (i.e. in utero and/or early-childhood) had a marked effect throughout the lifespan. This review also identified some research gaps, including limited evidence at lower levels of exposure (water arsenic arsenic and any single non-malignant respiratory disease or pathological process. Common limitations, including potential publication bias; non-comparability of outcome measures across included articles; incomplete exposure histories; and limited confounder control attenuated the cumulative strength of the evidence as it relates to US populations. This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiologic evidence and should be used to guide future research on arsenic's detrimental effects on respiratory health.

  13. Mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced COPD: insights from animal models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew Churg; Manuel Cosio; Joanne L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease support the protease-antiprotease hypothesis of emphysema, although which cells and proteases are the crucial actors remains controversial...

  14. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    neonatal airway colonization and risk of the LRI in a validated study cohort, and whether a possible association could be reflected in the early immune response to airway pathogens. In study I we aimed to ascertain the quality of information on child’s health, including asthma, allergy, eczema, respiratory...... the in vitro systemic immune response by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected at age 6 months with S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae and/or M.catarrhalis and quantified the production of a range of cytokines. Incidence of LRI was associated to an immune response pattern characterized by perturbed...... production of several cytokines, rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. This suggests that children at risk of future LRI present a distinct systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life, possibly reflecting an aberrant...

  15. Submersion and early-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Wayde; MacDonald, Russell D

    2011-01-01

    Drowning is a common cause of accidental death, particularly in younger people, and acute respiratory failure is common in these patients. This case report describes a healthy 18-year-old man who suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest due to submersion while swimming in a freshwater lake. First-responder cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using an automated external defibrillator resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. The patient was evacuated to a tertiary care center by a rotor-wing air medical crew. The crew experienced difficulties in oxygenating and ventilating the patient because of early-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This case report describes the pathophysiology and prehospital management of a patient with suspected early-onset ARDS secondary to drowning. This case report is unique because it describes the oxygenation and ventilation difficulties encountered in managing this patient in the transport setting, and possible strategies to deal with these difficulties. Finally, this case report highlights the prehospital bypass decision-making process for patients requiring specialized medical care.

  16. Modeling the Early Events of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Liao, Fang; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical picture of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation and respiratory failure, resembling that of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the events that lead to the recruitment of leukocytes are poorly understood. To study the cellular response in the acute phase of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-host cell interaction, we investigated the induction of chemokines, adhesion molecules, and DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin) by SARS-CoV. Immunohistochemistry revealed neutrophil, macrophage, and CD8 T-cell infiltration in the lung autopsy of a SARS patient who died during the acute phase of illness. Additionally, pneumocytes and macrophages in the patient's lung expressed P-selectin and DC-SIGN. In in vitro study, we showed that the A549 and THP-1 cell lines were susceptible to SARS-CoV. A549 cells produced CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) after interaction with SARS-CoV and expressed P-selectin and VCAM-1. Moreover, SARS-CoV induced THP-1 cells to express CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL3/MIP-1α, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, which attracted neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T cells in a chemotaxis assay. We also demonstrated that DC-SIGN was inducible in THP-1 as well as A549 cells after SARS-CoV infection. Our in vitro experiments modeling infection in humans together with the study of a lung biopsy of a patient who died during the early phase of infection demonstrated that SARS-CoV, through a dynamic interaction with lung epithelial cells and monocytic cells, creates an environment conducive for immune cell migration and accumulation that eventually leads to lung injury. PMID:16501078

  17. Delivery dependence of early proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat in respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, R N; Maddox, D A; Gennari, F J

    1991-01-01

    In the intact rat kidney, bicarbonate reabsorption in the early proximal tubule (EP) is strongly dependent on delivery. Independent of delivery, metabolic acidosis stimulates EP bicarbonate reabsorption. In this study, we investigated whether systemic pH changes induced by acute or chronic respiratory acid-base disorders also affect EP HCO3- reabsorption, independent of delivery (FLHCO3, filtered load of bicarbonate). Hypercapnia was induced in rats acutely (1-3 h) and chronically (4-5 d) by increasing inspired PCO2. Hypocapnia was induced acutely (1-3 h) by mechanical hyperventilation, and chronically (4-5 d) using hypoxemia to stimulate ventilation. When compared with normocapneic rats with similar FLHCO3, no stimulation of EP or overall proximal HCO3 reabsorption was found with either acute hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 74 mmHg, pH = 7.23) or chronic hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 84 mmHg, pH = 7.31). Acute hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 29 mmHg, pH = 7.56) did not suppress EP or overall HCO3 reabsorption. Chronic hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 26 mmHg, pH = 7.54) reduced proximal HCO3 reabsorption, but this effect was reversed when FLHCO3 was increased to levels comparable to euvolemic normocapneic rats. Thus, when delivery is accounted for, we could find no additional stimulation of proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory acidosis and, except at low delivery rates, no reduction in bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory alkalosis. PMID:1991847

  18. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yil Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis. The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.

  19. Local IL-17A potentiates early neutrophil recruitment to the respiratory tract during severe RSV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Jan Stoppelenburg

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis triggers a strong innate immune response characterized by excessive neutrophil infiltration which contributes to RSV induced pathology. The cytokine IL-17A enhances neutrophil infiltration into virus infected lungs. IL-17A is however best known as an effector of adaptive immune responses. The role of IL-17A in early immune modulation in RSV infection is unknown. We aimed to elucidate whether local IL-17A facilitates the innate neutrophil infiltration into RSV infected lungs prior to adaptive immunity. To this end, we studied IL-17A production in newborns that were hospitalized for severe RSV bronchiolitis. In tracheal aspirates we measured IL-17A concentration and neutrophil counts. We utilized cultured human epithelial cells to test if IL-17A regulates RSV infection-induced IL-8 release as mediator of neutrophil recruitment. In mice we investigated the cell types that are responsible for early innate IL-17A production during RSV infection. Using IL-17A neutralizing antibodies we tested if IL-17A is responsible for innate neutrophil infiltration in mice. Our data show that increased IL-17A production in newborn RSV patient lungs correlates with subsequent neutrophil counts recruited to the lungs. IL-17A potentiates RSV-induced production of the neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 by airway epithelial cells in vitro. Various lung-resident lymphocytes produced IL-17A during early RSV infection in Balb/c mice, of which a local population of CD4 T cells stood out as the predominant RSV-induced cell type. By removing IL-17A during early RSV infection in mice we showed that IL-17A is responsible for enhanced innate neutrophil infiltration in vivo. Using patient material, in vitro studies, and an animal model of RSV infection, we thus show that early local IL-17A production in the airways during RSV bronchiolitis facilitates neutrophil recruitment with pathologic consequences to infant lungs.

  20. Respiratory-Kinesiological Rehabilitation in the Early Periods after Cardiosurgical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Plotnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate an algorithm for early respiratory-kinesiological rehabilitation used in the multimodality treatment of cardiosurgical patients developing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Subjects and methods. A randomized study was performed in 90 cardiosurgical patients with postoperatively evolving MOD, who were mechanically ventilated. In addition to conventional intensive therapy, these patients received an original complex of early respiratory-kinesiological rehabilitation. Results and Conclusion. The study has demonstrated the impact of respiratory and kinesiological rehabilitation on the course of a postoperative period: normalization of autonomic status-evaluating tests (from Д13±1.7 to Д7.5±4.9, endurance coefficient (21.8±9.9 to 16.5±7.2 in the study group versus 20.5±10.2 to 18.3±6.5 in the control group, adaptation potential (from the poor values 3.3±2.7 to the tension ones 2.9±2.2 scores since day 2; this trend was observed in the control group since postoperative day 5; improvement of gas transport parameters during exercises and within at least 6 hours after this, without changing artificial ventilation (AV modes (improvement of the values of DO2I (by 12.3±4.5% of the baseline value, VO2I (by 8.8±5.3% of the baseline value, O2ER (by 16.5±8.5% of the baseline value; accelerated switching to assisted ventilation modes (78.6±18.3 hours (the start of assisted AV modes in the study group versus 92.1±22.7 hours in the control one; a shorter length of stay in an intensive care unit (9.55±4.3 versus 14.2±5.5 days. The positive result from a primary pharmacoeconomic analysis for surviving patients is shown. Key words: rehabilitation, multiple organ dysfunction, cardiac surgery.

  1. Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in haematology patients: long-term impact and early predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D

    2016-09-01

    Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Early versus delayed initiation of nasal continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature newborns: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Early n CPAP is more effective than late n CPAP for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, the early use of n CPAP would reduce the need for some invasive procedures such as intubation and mechanical ventilation.

  3. Identification of serum proteomic biomarkers for early porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genini Sem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is one of the most significant swine diseases worldwide. Despite its relevance, serum biomarkers associated with early-onset viral infection, when clinical signs are not detectable and the disease is characterized by a weak anti-viral response and persistent infection, have not yet been identified. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS is a reproducible, accurate, and simple method for the identification of biomarker proteins related to disease in serum. This work describes the SELDI-TOF MS analyses of sera of 60 PRRSV-positive and 60 PRRSV-negative, as measured by PCR, asymptomatic Large White piglets at weaning. Sera with comparable and low content of hemoglobin ( Results A total of 200 significant peaks (p  Conclusions SELDI-TOF MS profiling of sera from PRRSV-positive and PRRSV-negative asymptomatic piglets provided a proteomic signature with large scale diagnostic potential for early identification of PRRSV infection in weaning piglets. Furthermore, SELDI-TOF protein markers represent a refined phenotype of PRRSV infection that might be useful for whole genome association studies.

  4. A Recruiting Maneuver Algorithm in Patients with Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Levikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a recruiting maneuver (RM and adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 patients (14 men and 2 women aged 46 to 78 years (range 62±5.6 years with ARDS of various genesis. RM was made, by stepwisely increasing PEEP and inspiratory pressure under the control of dynamic lung compliance and hemodynamic parameters. The values of blood gas composition and hemodynamics were determined during the study. Results. RM caused an increase in oxygenation index (OI from 153.5±48.3 to 348.5±53.2 mm Hg. Oxygenation values returned to the baseline levels 30—40 min after the PEEP was set at the closure point of +2 cm H2O. If the set PEEP was 8—10 cm H2O higher than the objective, the effect of RM was retained for as long as 24 hours. When RM was performed using the maximum pressure of 50—60 cm H2O, the cardiac index (CI was lower in all the patients and 30—50% of the baseline values were achieved in all cases, which required the optimization of cardiotonic therapy. The time of this pronounced reduction in cardiac output with RM was not longer than 5 min. After RM, during mechanical ventilation with 18—26 cm H2O PEEP, the CI did not practically differ from the baseline values (3.31±0.41 and 3.37±0.36 l/min/m2, respectively, though the dopamine dose required to maintain normal hemodynamics was somewhat higher (7.5±2.3 and 6.3±2.6 ^g/kg/min. Conclusion. Analysis of the given cases suggests that RM is highly effective in patients at the early stages of acute lung injury. The duration of RM effects may depend on the set PEEP level in individual cases. Setting PEEP at a level of +2—4 cm H2O fails to prevent repeated alveolar derecruitment in a number of patients. In these cases, it is expedient to individually adjust PEEP levels, by taking into account the long-term changes in OI and Cdyn. In

  5. Effectiveness of early clinical exposure in learning respiratory physiology among the newly entrant MBBS students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAS, PIYALI; BISWAS, SUBHRADEV; SINGH, RAMJI; MUKHERJEE, SANHITA; GHOSHAL, SHARMISTHA; PRAMANIK, DEBASIS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early Clinical Exposure has been conceptualized to orient medical students towards actual clinical scenario and help them correlate their theoretical knowledge with real life situations in early years of MBBS courses. In the present study we explored the outcome of early clinical exposure in the context of basic science topics (Physiology) in fresh MBBS entrants and compared their performance with a conventionally taught control group. Methods: One hundred fifty voluntary students of 1st year MBBS (2015-16) batch consisted the sample of this study. They were divided into two groups through the simple random method (using computer generated random number table with roll numbers of the students). They were evaluated by MCQ (Multiple Choice Question) and OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) before and after being taught a basic Physiology topic (respiratory system) theoretically. The study group underwent clinical exposure before the post-test while the control group did not. Performance of the students was compared between the two groups by unpaired student’s t-test whereas marks of pre and post-test within the same group were compared by paired Student’s t-test. Everywhere p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The marks of each group in the pre and post-tests differed significantly (P<0.05 in each case). Post-test marks were significantly greater in each group though the level of improvement was strikingly higher in the study group (p=0.01). Though there was no significant difference in pre-test marks of both groups (P=0.73), post-test marks were significantly higher in the study group (P=0.04). Among the exposed students, majority (92%) opined that ECE was a better technique being practically oriented and more interesting while some (8%) found it to be more time and energy-consuming, suitable for selective portions of basic science topics. Conclusion: Early clinical exposure may be an effective technique to supplement the

  6. Respiratory Impairment after Early Red Cell Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with ALI/ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Surender; Sanfilippo, Dominic; Shoemaker, Allen; Curtis, Scott; Zuiderveen, Sandra; Ndika, Akunne; Stoiko, Michael; Hassan, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In the first 48 hours of ventilating patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multipronged approach including packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is undertaken to maintain oxygen delivery. Hypothesis. We hypothesized children with ALI/ARDS transfused within 48 hours of initiating mechanical ventilation would have worse outcome. The course of 34 transfused patients was retrospectively compared to 45 nontransfused control patients admitted to the PICU at Helen DeVos Children's Hospital between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2009. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) prior to transfusion was 8.2 g/dl compared to 10.1 g/dl in control. P/F ratio decreased from 135.4 ± 7.5 to 116.5 ± 8.8 in transfused but increased from 148.0 ± 8.0 to 190.4 ± 17.8 (P Fisher exact P < 0.282. Conclusion. This study suggests that early transfusions of patients with ALI/ARDS were associated with increased ventilatory needs.

  7. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Collagen Destruction; Key to Chronic Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Saskia A.; Braber, Saskia; Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Loi, Adele T. LoTam; Jackson, Patricia L.; Garssen, Johan; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.; Timens, Wim; Koenderman, Leo; Blalock, J. Edwin; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Folkerts, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking induces inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this progressive disease, chronic inflammation in the lung contributes to lung tissue destruction leading to the formatio

  8. Trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    Full Text Available Trimetazidine, a piperazine derivative used as an anti-anginal agent, improves myocardial glucose utilization through inhibition of fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate whether trimetazidine has the protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling in rats. In this study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: smoking group (exposed to cigarette smoke, trimetazidine group (exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with trimetazidine, and control group. The echocardiographic and morphometric data indicated that trimetazidine has protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the supernatant of left ventricular tissue. Cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. Gene expression and serum levels of inflammatory markers, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were deteced by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that trimetazidine could significantly reduce smoking-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

  9. Respiratory complications in the early post-operative period following elective craniotomies

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati, Sachidanand J; Mihir P Pandia; Rath, Girija P.; Parmod K Bithal; Dash, Hari H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Respiratory complications are of major concern after intracranial procedures. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of respiratory complications in the initial 72 hours after elective craniotomies and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing elective craniotomies were studied prospectively. Information pertinent to history, physical examinations, investigation reports, perioperative events and outcome at discharg...

  10. Early life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent findings and perspectives on the relationship between early life respiratory infections and asthma inception and to discuss emerging concepts on strategies that target these infectious agents for asthma prevention. Recent findings Cumulative evidence supports the role of early life viral infections, especially respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, as major antecedents of childhood asthma. These viruses may have different mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The airway microbiome and virus-bacteria interactions in early life have emerged as additional determinants of childhood asthma. Innovative strategies for the prevention of these early life infections, or for attenuation of acute infection severity, are being investigated and may identify effective strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of childhood asthma. Summary Early life infections are major determinants of asthma development. The pathway from early life infections to asthma is the result of complex interactions between the specific type of the virus, genetic and environmental factors. Novel intervention strategies that target these infectious agents have been investigated in proof-of-concepts trials, and further study is necessary to determine their capacity for asthma prevention. PMID:26854761

  11. Respiratory Impairment after Early Red Cell Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with ALI/ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Rajasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the first 48 hours of ventilating patients with acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a multipronged approach including packed red blood cell (PRBC transfusion is undertaken to maintain oxygen delivery. Hypothesis. We hypothesized children with ALI/ARDS transfused within 48 hours of initiating mechanical ventilation would have worse outcome. The course of 34 transfused patients was retrospectively compared to 45 nontransfused control patients admitted to the PICU at Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2009. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb prior to transfusion was 8.2 g/dl compared to 10.1 g/dl in control. P/F ratio decreased from 135.4±7.5 to 116.5±8.8 in transfused but increased from 148.0±8.0 to 190.4±17.8 (P<0.001 in control. OI increased in the transfused from 11.7±0.9 to 18.7±1.6 but not in control. Ventilator days in the transfused were 15.6±1.7 versus 9.5±0.6 days in control (P<0.001. There was a trend towards higher rates of MODS in transfused patients; 29.4% versus 17.7%, odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI; 0.6–5.6 Fisher exact P<0.282. Conclusion. This study suggests that early transfusions of patients with ALI/ARDS were associated with increased ventilatory needs.

  12. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH intubation was evaluated. Of the 100 patients, 76 (76%) showed improvement in clinical parameters and ABG. There was improvement in HR and RR, pH, and PCO2 within the first hour in the success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  13. The role of surfactant and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in early management of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Prabhu Iyer; Maroun Jean Mhanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surfactant replacement therapy has been used for few decades for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and has significantly improved morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Non-invasive respiratory support has recently emerged as a strategy in the early management of RDS. In this review, we discuss the different strategies of early management of RDS. Data sources: A literature search of PubMed database was conducted to review the subject. The quality of evidence of key clinical studies was graded according to a modified grading system of the international GRADE group. Results: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with selective surfactant is a safe alternative to routine intubation, surfactant and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with spontaneous breathing, and such an approach has been associated with decreased risk of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There is a risk of pneumothorax when using a high pressure of CPAP (≥8 cm of H2O), a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 >75 mm of Hg), and a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 >0.6) as a threshold for intubation while on CPAP. Conclusion: Not all preterm infants need surfactant treatment, and non-invasive respiratory support is a safe and effective approach.

  14. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  15. Respiratory complications in the early post-operative period following elective craniotomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidanand J Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Respiratory complications are of major concern after intracranial procedures. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of respiratory complications in the initial 72 hours after elective craniotomies and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing elective craniotomies were studied prospectively. Information pertinent to history, physical examinations, investigation reports, perioperative events and outcome at discharge of the patients were recorded. Occurrence of any sign or symptom of respiratory system, need for reintubation/increased ventilatory support within 72 hours of surgery were considered as post-operative respiratory complication. Relationships of numerical variables and categorical variables with post-operative respiratory complications (PRCs were assessed via T test and Chi-square (or Fisher′s exact. Multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression was performed for finding independent risk factors for respiratory complications. Results: Out of 961 patients, 137 (14.3% patients developed PRC within 72 hours of surgery. Ninety-nine (10.3% patients developed purulent tracheobronchitis. The patients who had PRC had longer hospital stays and poor Glasgow Outcome Scale at hospital discharge. The variables found as independent risk factors were tachycardia, blood transfusion in the intraoperative period and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS deterioration, hypokalemia and fever in the post-operative period. Conclusions : Respiratory complications within first 72 hours of elective craniotomies were common and were associated with prolonged hospital stay and poor neurological outcome. The variables which were found as independent risk factors were tachycardia, blood transfusion in the intraoperative period and GCS deterioration, hypokalemia and fever in the post-operative period.

  16. Use of a multistage model to predict time trends in smoking induced lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, J B

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were to use a mathematical model to predict the time course of smoking induced lung cancer, and to investigate to what extent the most recent increases in lung cancer mortality are due to cigarette smoking. DESIGN--A mathematical model was developed and solved by simulation to construct detailed smoking histories of the US white male population given available prevalence data by age and cohort. A multistage carcinogenesis model was used to predict the time course of ...

  17. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P algorithm has been developed.

  18. Passive cigarette smoking induces inflammatory injury in human arterial walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ni; HONG Jiang; DAI Qiu-yan

    2009-01-01

    :20 SSW (0.72±0.13) groups was also significantly higher than that in the control group (0.49±0.13) (P <0.05, P <0.01 vs control) by RT-PCR.Conclusions It is implied that a second-hand smoke solution induces the inflammatory reaction of the arterial wall by release of inflammatory factors even though there is no distinct structural change on the arterial walls under light microscope, indicating that passive cigarette smoking is related to inflammatory injury in human arterial wall and could be closely related to the early inflammatory stage of atherosclerosis.

  19. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim KH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Hyun Kim,1 Tai Sun Park,2,3 You-Sun Kim,1,3 Jae Seung Lee,2,3 Yeon-Mok Oh,2,3 Sang-Do Lee,2,3 Sei Won Lee2,3 1Asan Institute for Life Sciences, 2Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, 3Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1, derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.Materials and methods: C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.Results: Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking.Conclusion: RvD1

  20. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3(rd) ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2(nd) if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual's risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable

  1. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  2. Early-life development of the respiratory microbiome : -cystic fibrosis and healthy infants-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevaes, SMPJ

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative and positive associations between bacterial species have been described in the respiratory tract. Vaccination is a modifier of these interactions. Although appreciable levels of success have been achieved with current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, there is a need for alternati

  3. Association between respiratory infections in early life and later asthma is independent of virus type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, other picornaviruses, coronaviruses 229E and OC43, parainfluenza viruses 1-3, influenza viruses AH1, AH3, and B, human metapneumovirus, adenoviruses, and bocavirus) and 3 pathogenic airway bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella...

  4. Effect of simvastatin on MMPs and TIMPs in cigarette smoke-induced rat COPD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2017-02-01

    /D: 0.160±0.034, P<0.01. In contrast, mean alveolar number was significantly decreased in the CSE group than that in the control group (13.5±2.0 of CSE vs 21.5±2.0 N/µm2 of control, P>0.01. Simvastatin slightly but not significantly prevented alteration of MLI, BWT/D, and mean alveolar number (MLI: 33.4±1.4 µm; BWT/D: 0.220±0.052; mean alveolar number: 15.5±2.5 N/µm2, P>0.05. Total white blood cell was significantly increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smoking group (3.3±2.5×109 cells/L vs 1.1±1.3×109 cells/L of control, P<0.01, and it was significantly reduced by simvastatin (2.3±2.1×109 cells/L, P<0.01. CSE resulted in significantly increased accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages (neutrophils: 14.5%±1.3% of CSE group vs 9.1%±1.5% of control; macrophage: 91%±3% of CSE group vs 87%±2% of control, P<0.05, and simvastatin significantly reduced neutrophils (12.9%±2.0%, P<0.05 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but had no effect on macrophage (89%±1.6%, P>0.05. In response to CSE, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 mRNA were upregulated more than sevenfold, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-4 increased two- to fivefold. Simvastatin significantly blocked upregulation of MMP-8 and -9 (P<0.01, but had no effect on MMP-12, TIMP-1 and TIMP-4 mRNA (P>0.05. In addition, simvastatin significantly blocked cigarette smoke-induced MMP-8 and -9 protein synthesis, while it had no significant effect on TIMP-1 and -4 protein synthesis even in the presence of cigarette smoke.Conclusion: CSE resulted in imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs, and by which mechanism, cigarette smoke may lead to insufficient lung tissue repair. Simvastatin partially blocked airway inflammation and MMP production and, thus, statins may modulate composition of the lung extracellular matrix. Keywords: tissue injury, tissue repair, smoking

  5. [Imaging protocols for the management of respiratory motions in the radiotherapy planning for early stage lung cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócza, Tamás; Pesznyák, Csilla; Lövey, József; Bajcsay, András; Szilágyi, András; Almády, Balázs; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our work is to present the imaging techniques used at the National Institute of Oncology for taking into consideration the breathing motion at radiation therapy treatment planning. Internationally recommended imaging techniques, such as 4D CT, respiratory gating and ITV (Internal Target Volume) definition were examined. The different imaging techniques were analysed regarding the delivered dose during imaging, the required time to adapt the technique, and the necessary equipment. The differences in size of PTVs (Planning Target Volume) due to diverse volume defining methods were compared in 5 cases. For 4D CT breath monitoring is crucial, which requires special equipment. To decrease the relatively high exposure of 4D CT it is possible to scan only a few predefined breathing phases. The possible positions of the tumour can be well approximated with CT scans taken in the inhale maximum, the exhale maximum and in intermediate phase. The intermediate phase can be exchanged with an ordinary CT image set, and the extreme phase CT images can be ensured by given verbal instructions for the patient. This way special gating equipment is not required. Based on these 3 breathing phases an ITV can be defined. Using this ITV definition method the margin between the CTV (Clinical Target Volume) and the PTV can be reduced by 1 cm. Using this imaging protocol PTV can be reduced by 30%. A further 10% PTV reduction can be achieved with respiratory gating. In the routine clinical practice respiratory motion management with a 3-phase CT-imaging protocol the PTV for early-stage lung cancer can be significantly reduced without the use of 4D CT and/or respiratory gating. For special, high precision treatment techniques 4D CT is recommended.

  6. Genetic ablation of the fpr1 gene confers protection from smoking-induced lung emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Silvia; Dalli, Jesmond; Fineschi, Silvia; Perretti, Mauro; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Lucattelli, Monica

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the main causative factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current research supports the concept that airway inflammation is central to the development and progression of the disease. Studies have demonstrated that neutrophils are increased in COPD lungs and that neutrophil-associated products correlate with the development and severity of COPD. The peptide FMLP is an active component of CS. FMLP interacts on the neutrophil and macrophage membranes with a high-affinity receptor subtype (FPR1) and with a low-affinity subtype FPRL1, promoting a chemotactic response, superoxide anion production, and degranulation. Bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract and lung cell damage may represent further sources of formyl peptides in patients with COPD. We investigated the role of FPR in a mouse model on lung inflammation and emphysema induced by CS. Here, we report the novel observation that genetic ablation of the FPR1 gene (Fpr1) confers protection from smoking-induced lung emphysema in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Fpr1 knockout mice displayed marked decreases in the lung migration of neutrophils and macrophages after CS exposure. Upon transgenic approach, the changes in cell numbers were accompanied by marked modulation of the expression of genes implicated in the inflammatory response. Administration of the FPR1 antagonist cyclosporine H to wild-type mice attenuated the acute inflammatory response evoked by CS. These findings may have clinical significance because current smokers and subjects with emphysema showed increased FPR expression in bronchoalveolar fluids and on peripheral neutrophils. Modulating the FPR1 signal should be explored as a potential new therapy.

  7. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for respiratory failure due to severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Antonello; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Barlascini, Cornelius; Santo, Mario; Ferrera, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) have been as defined pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit or carrying a high risk of death. Currently, the treatment of sCAP consists of antibiotic therapy and ventilator support. The use of invasive ventilation causes several complications as does admission to ICU. For this reason, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, few studies have currently assessed the usefulness of NIV in sCAP. We prospectively assessed 127 patients with sCAP and severe acute respiratory failure [oxygen arterial pressure/oxygen inspiratory fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2) intubation and the achievement of PaO2/FiO2 >250 with spontaneous breathing. We assessed predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 32 patients (25.1%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, chest X-ray worsening, and a lower PaO2/FiO2 and higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 1 h of NIV all independently predicted NIV failure. Higher lactate dehydrogenase and confusion, elevated blood urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years at admission, higher A-aDO2, respiratory rate and lower PaO2/FiO2 after 1 h of NIV and intubation rate were directly related to hospital mortality. Successful treatment is strongly related to less severe illness as well as to a good initial and sustained response to medical therapy and NIV treatment. Constant monitoring of these patients is mandatory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Delivery by Cesarean Section and Early Childhood Respiratory Symptoms and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C.; Håberg, Siri E.; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J.; Vangen, Siri; Nystad, Wenche

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that children delivered by cesarean section are at an increased risk of developing wheezing and asthma. This could be the result of an altered immune system development due to delayed gut colonization or of increased neonatal respiratory morbidity. The authors examined the associations between delivery by cesarean section and the development of wheezing, asthma, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in children up to 36 months of age among 37,171 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Generalized linear models were used in the multivariable analysis. Children delivered by cesarean section had an increased likelihood of current asthma at 36 months of age (relative risk = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.32), and the association was stronger among children of nonatopic mothers (relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.58). No increased risk of wheezing or recurrent lower respiratory tract infections was seen among children delivered by cesarean section. Findings were similar among children delivered by acute and elective cesarean section. In conclusion, children delivered by cesarean section may have an increased risk of current asthma at 36 months, but residual confounding cannot be excluded. In future prospective studies, investigators should reexamine this association in different age groups. PMID:22038100

  9. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development.

  10. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sahmeddini, M. A.; Janatmakan, F.; Khosravi, M. B.; Ghaffaripour, S.; Eghbal, M. H.; Nickeghbalian, S.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. Objective: To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. Methods: In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with en...

  11. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  12. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  13. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  14. Vam3, a derivative of resveratrol, attenuates cigarette smoke-induced autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji SHI; Ning YIN; Ling-ling XUAN; Chun-suo YAO; Ai-min MENG; Qi HOU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To appraise the efficacy of Vam3 (Amurensis H),a dimeric derivative of resveratrol,at inhibiting cigarette smoke-induced autophagy.Methods:Human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensates,and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was established by exposing male BALB/c mice to cigarette smoke.The protein levels of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3),Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1),and foxhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) were examined using Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry.LC3 punctae were detected by immunofluorescence.The levels of FoxO3a acetylation were examined by immunoprecipitation.The level of intracellular oxidation was assessed by detecting ROS and GSH-Px.Results:Vam3 attenuated cigarette smoke condensate-induced autophagy in human bronchial epithelial cells,and restored the expression levels of Sift1 and FoxO3a that had been reduced by cigarette smoke condensates.Similar protective effects of Vam3,reducing autophagy and restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a,were observed in the COPD animal model.Additionally,Vam3 also diminished the oxidative stress that was induced by the cigarette smoke condensates.Conclusion:Vam3 decreases cigarette smoke-induced autophagy via up-regulating/restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a and inhibiting the induced oxidative stress.

  15. Respiratory Development and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Quinn, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory development is crucial for all newborn infants. Premature infants may be born at an early stage of development and lack sufficient surfactant production. This results in respiratory distress syndrome. This article reviews the normal fetal development of the lung as well as the disorder that develops because of an early birth.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and Respiratory Health in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascon, Mireia; Sunyer, Jordi; Casas, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    's respiratory health in European birth cohorts. METHODS: We included 4608 mothers and children enrolled in 10 birth cohort studies from 7 European countries. Outcomes were parent-reported bronchitis and wheeze in the first 4 years of life. For each cohort, we performed Poisson regression analyses, modeling...... occurrences of the outcomes on the estimates of cord-serum concentrations of PCB 153 and DDE as continuous variables (per doubling exposure) and as cohort-specific tertiles. Summary estimates were obtained through random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The risk of bronchitis or wheeze (combined variable......) assessed before 18 months of age increased with increasing DDE exposure (relative risk [RR] per doubling exposure = 1.03 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.07]). When these outcomes were analyzed separately, associations appeared stronger for bronchitis. We also found an association between increasing PCB...

  17. Early treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation prolongs survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients with nocturnal respiratory insufficiency

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    Scoditti Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease, which rapidly leads to chronic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Currently, forced vital capacity (FVC 75%, independently by any treatment. Aim To assess the role of NPPV in improving outcome of ALS, a retrospective analysis was performed to investigate 1 year survival of ALS patients with FVC Methods We investigated seventy-two consecutive ALS patients who underwent pulmonary function test. Forty-four presented a FVC > 75% and served as control group. Twenty-eight patients presented a FVC Results Increased survival rate at 1 year in patients with FVC Conclusion This report demonstrates that early treatment with NPPV prolongs survival and reduces decline of FVC% in ALS.

  18. Early Mobilization Reduces Duration of Mechanical Ventilation and Intensive Care Unit Stay in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Willy; Chan, Khee-Siang; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Yuan, Kuo-Shu; Chao, Chien-Ming; Chen, Chin-Ming

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of a quality improvement program to introduce early mobilization on the outcomes of patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective observational study. Nineteen-bed ICU at a medical center. Adults patients with MV (N=153) admitted to a medical ICU. A multidisciplinary team (critical care nurse, nursing assistant, respiratory therapist, physical therapist, patient's family) initiated the protocol within 72 hours of MV when patients become hemodynamically stable. We did early mobilization twice daily, 5d/wk during family visits (30min each time), and cooperated with family, if possible. MV duration, rate of successful weaning, and length of ICU and hospital stay. We enrolled 63 patients in the before protocol group and 90 in the after protocol group. The 2 groups were well matched in age, sex, body height, body weight, body mass index, disease severity, cause of intubation, number of comorbidities, and most underlying diseases. After protocol group patients had shorter MV durations (4.7d vs 7.5d; PICU stays (6.9d vs 9.9d; P=.001) than did before protocol group patients. Early mobilization was negatively associated with the duration of MV (β=-.269; PICU shortened MV durations and ICU stays. A multidisciplinary team that includes the patient's family can work together to improve the patient's clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  20. Clinical observation on effects of high frequency oscillating ventilation on patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Zhi-gang ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of high frequency oscillating ventilation (HFOV on patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and its mechanism. Methods  Through self controlled study, in 25 patients who met criteria of ARDS, their PaO2/FiO2, Paw, arterial blood pH, PaCO2, Cst, cadiac index (CI, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, percentage pulmonary shunt (QS/QT, oxygen index (OI and incidence rate of ventilator associated lung injury (VALI, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were recorded 1, 3, 5 days before and after HFOV. Results  Five days later, X ray examination showed that all of the patients got better. Seven days later, 3 patients died because of original diseases, but their symptoms of ARDS improved. Three days after HFOV treatment, the value of PaO2/FiO2 (172.5±69.8 and Cst (63.4±10.5 increased compared with baseline (95.5±29.5, 31.5±4.5, P0.05. Conclusion  HFOV can improve oxygenation index and pulmonary complications of patients with early ARDS.

  1. Aging does not enhance experimental cigarette smoke-induced COPD in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Zhou

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the development of COPD is driven by premature aging/premature senescence of lung parenchyma cells. There are data suggesting that old mice develop a greater inflammatory and lower anti-oxidant response after cigarette smoke compared to young mice, but whether these differences actually translate into greater levels of disease is unknown. We exposed C57Bl/6 female mice to daily cigarette smoke for 6 months starting at age 3 months (Ayoung@ or age 12 months (Aold@, with air-exposed controls. There were no differences in measures of airspace size between the two control groups and cigarette smoke induced exactly the same amount of emphysema in young and old. The severity of smoke-induced small airway remodeling using various measures was identical in both groups. Smoke increased numbers of tissue macrophages and neutrophils and levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine, a marker of oxidant damage, but there were no differences between young and old. Gene expression studies using laser capture microdissected airways and parenchyma overall showed a trend to lower levels in older animals and a somewhat lesser response to cigarette smoke in both airways and parenchyma but the differences were usually not marked. Telomere length was greatest in young control mice and was decreased by both smoking and age. The senescence marker p21(Waf1 was equally upregulated by smoke in young and old, but p16(INK4a, another senescence marker, was not upregulated at all. We conclude, in this model, animal age does not affect the development of emphysema and small airway remodeling.

  2. Cigarette smoke induces an unfolded protein response in the human lung: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G; Duan, Xunbao; Ji, Rong; Perez, Oscar; Liu, Chunli; Merali, Salim

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, which exposes the lung to high concentrations of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies indicate that ROS interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and elicit a compensatory response termed the "unfolded protein response" (UPR). The importance of the UPR lies in its ability to alter expression of a variety of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. The present study used comparative proteomic technology to test the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking induces a UPR in the human lung. Studies were performed on lung tissue samples obtained from three groups of human subjects: nonsmokers, chronic cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Proteomes of lung samples from chronic cigarette smokers demonstrated 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, GRP78 and the UPR-regulated basic leucine zipper, transcription factors, ATF4 and Nrf2, which enhance expression of important anti-oxidant genes, increased rapidly (< 24 h) with cigarette smoke extract. These data indicate that cigarette smoke induces a UPR response in the human lung that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and at least partially reversible with smoking cessation. We speculate that activation of a UPR by cigarette smoke may protect the lung from oxidant injury and the development of COPD.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Early Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report

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    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by acute-onset dyspnea, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration, low pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, and an arterial oxygen tension/ inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mmHg. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, whether complicated by circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, and hypotension or not, was reported as an etiologic factor in the development of ARDS in the prethrombolytic era. In the thrombolytic era, two cases of AMI complicated with ARDS have been reported. ARDS in these two patients resulted from anaphylactic reaction to the thrombolytic agent and not from the hemodynamic consequences of AMI. Development of ARDS during the AMI period has not been reported after early successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Herein, we report a 61-year-old male patient with persistent chest pain who was diagnosed with Killip II anterior ST-segment elevation AMI. He was treated successfully with primary PCI 2.5 hours after the onset of chest pain. Unfortunately, on the third hospital day, acuteonset dyspnea (respiratory rate, 33 beats/min, fever (38.5°C, leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 18,360/μL, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration were noted. ARDS was diagnosed from the low PCWP (8 mmHg and a PaO2/FiO2 of less than 200 mmHg (160 mmHg. No usual causes of ARDS such as infection, aspiration, trauma, shock, or drug reactions were noted. We assumed that, in this particular patient, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome frequently induced by AMI might have caused this episode of ARDS. This may imply that AMI itself is a possible etiology of ARDS.

  4. Cigarette smoking induces heat shock protein 70 kDa expression and apoptosis in rat brain: Modulation by bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K; Kathirvel, G; Vani, G; Jayaraman, G; Shyamala Devi, C S

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with the development of several diseases and antioxidants play a major role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. Apoptosis is suggested as a possible contributing factor in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced toxicity. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the influence of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on apoptosis and the modulatory effect of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera) on smoking-induced apoptosis in rat brain. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, orally) for a period of 12 weeks. Expression of brain hsp70 was analyzed by Western blotting. Apoptosis was identified by DNA fragmentation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke induced hsp70 expression and apoptosis as characterized by DNA laddering, increased TUNEL-positive cells and ultrastructural apoptotic features in the brain. Administration of bacoside A prevented expression of hsp70 and neuronal apoptosis during cigarette smoking. We speculate that apoptosis may be responsible for the smoking-induced brain damage and bacoside A can protect the brain from the toxic effects of cigarette smoking.

  5. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  6. Role of macrophages in early host resistance to respiratory Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

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    Hongyu Qiu

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes nosocomial pneumonia and other infections. Although it is recognized as an increasing threat to immunocompromised patients, the mechanism of host defense against A. baumannii infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophages in host defense against A. baumannii infection using in vitro macrophage culture and the mouse model of intranasal (i.n. infection. Large numbers of A. baumannii were taken up by alveolar macrophages in vivo as early as 4 h after i.n. inoculation. By 24 h, the infection induced significant recruitment and activation (enhanced expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC-II of macrophages into bronchoalveolar spaces. In vitro cell culture studies showed that A. baumannii were phagocytosed by J774A.1 (J774 macrophage-like cells within 10 minutes of co-incubation, and this uptake was microfilament- and microtubule-dependent. Moreover, the viability of phagocytosed bacteria dropped significantly between 24 and 48 h after co-incubation. Infection of J774 cells by A. baumannii resulted in the production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and moderate amounts of nitric oxide (NO. Prior treatment of J774 cells with NO inhibitors significantly suppressed their bactericidal efficacy (P<0.05. Most importantly, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages significantly enhanced the susceptibility of mice to i.n. A. baumannii challenge (P<0.01. These results indicate that macrophages may play an important role in early host defense against A. baumannii infection through the efficient phagocytosis and killing of A. baumannii to limit initial pathogen replication and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines for the rapid recruitment of other innate immune cells such as neutrophils.

  7. Cigarette smoke-induced blockade of the mitochondrial respiratory chain switches lung epithelial cell apoptosis into necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Koeter, Gerard H.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Kauffman, Henk F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased lung cell apoptosis and necrosis occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD). Mitochondria are crucially involved in the regulation of these cell death processes. Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for development of COPD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke

  8. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, bacterial infections, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Bachman, D T; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1995-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. David Bachman reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children and focuses on community-acquired lower respiratory infections and respiratory syncytial virus. Eugene Shapiro discusses literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest: the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin, infections in day care centers, and new antimicrobial drugs. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood and discusses diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis and physiology, epidemiology, and treatment.

  9. Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy in an STXBP1 Patient with Lactic Acidemia and Normal Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Function

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    Dong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of clinical findings have been associated with mutations in Syntaxin Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1, including multiple forms of epilepsy, nonsyndromic intellectual disability, and movement disorders. STXBP1 mutations have recently been associated with mitochondrial pathology, although it remains unclear if this phenotype is a part of the core feature for this gene disorder. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented for diagnostic evaluation of intractable epilepsy, episodic ataxia, resting tremor, and speech regression following a period of apparently normal early development. Mild lactic acidemia was detected on one occasion at the time of an intercurrent illness. Due to the concern for mitochondrial disease, ophthalmologic evaluation was performed that revealed bilateral midperiphery pigmentary mottling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT testing demonstrated a bilaterally thickened ganglion cell layer in the perifovea. Skeletal muscle biopsy analysis showed no mitochondrial abnormalities or respiratory chain dysfunction. Exome sequencing identified a de novo c.1651C>T (p.R551C mutation in STXBP1. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in some individuals, our proband had only mild lactic acidemia and no skeletal muscle tissue evidence of mitochondrial disease pathology. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction is not an obligate feature of STXBP1 disease.

  10. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Richard J; Barrett, Paul M; Gower, David J

    2012-01-01

    Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise...

  11. Pentoxifylline attenuates cigarette smoke-induced overexpression of CXCR3 and IP-10 in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; CHEN Yan-wei; ZHANG Jin-nong; HU Xiao-fei; PENG Mei-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema is associated with overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands.Previously,we have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX) alleviated cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.The aim of this study was to determine if the overexpression of CXCR3 and its ligand interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) that was elicited by smoke exposure were attenuated by PTX.Methods (1) The study in vitro:a given number of RAW264.7 macrophages with decreasing concentrations of PTX in the culture medium were challenged with cigarette smoke extract (CSE); (2) The study in vivo:male BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups,i.e.,sham-smoke,smoke only,smoke with 2 mg/kg PTX,and smoke with 10 mg/kg PTX.The smoke exposure time was 90 minutes once a day,6 days a week for 16 weeks.PTX was given intraperitoneally before each episode of smoke exposure.Interferon (IFN)-y and IP-10 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).IP-10 mRNA in lung tissue was assessed by RT-PCR.CXCR3 positive cells in lung sections were visualized by immunochemistry staining.Results Up-regulation of IFN-y and IP-10 in the culture medium of macrophages elicited by CSE was inhibited by PTX in a dose-dependent manner.Chronic cigarette smoke exposure led to overexpression of IFN-y and IP-10 in BALF,upregulation of IP-10 mRNA and increased infiltration of CXCR3+ cells into lung parenchyma.Administration of PTX decreased the level of IFN-y from (6.26±1.38) ng/ml to (4.43±0.66) ng/ml by low dose PTX or to (1.74±0.28) ng/ml by high dose PTX.IP-10 was reduced from (10.35±1.49) ng/ml to (8.19±0.79) ng/ml by low dose PTX or to (7.51±0.60)ng/ml by high dose PTX.The expression of IP-10 mRNA was also down-regulated (P <0.05).But only with a high dose of PTX was the ratio of CXCR3+ cells decreased; 15.2±7.3 vs.10.4±1.8 (P <0.05).Conclusion PTX attenuates cigarette smoke-induced

  12. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin s

  13. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin

  14. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

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    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  15. Prevention of cigarette smoke induced lung cancer by low let ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Charles L. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, {approx}90% of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of {approx}1 Gy for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by {approx}40% following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of {approx}60% in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of {approx}1 Gy gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of {alpha}-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer.

  16. Relationship between the use of inhaled steroids for chronic respiratory diseases and early outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Jordi Almirall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. METHODS: Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%. In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002 in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787. This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542, with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194, but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027. Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis.

  17. Development of tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells favors exponential bacterial growth and survival during early respiratory tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Singh, Anju; Sahay, Bikash; Rahman, Tabassum; Feustel, Paul J; Pham, Giang H; Gosselin, Edmund J; Sellati, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    Tularemia is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Ft, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Ft exists in two clinically relevant forms, the European biovar B (holarctica), which produces acute, although mild, self-limiting infections, and the more virulent United States biovar A (tularensis), which is often associated with pneumonic tularemia and more severe disease. In a mouse model of tularemia, respiratory infection with the virulence-attenuated Type B (LVS) or highly virulent Type A (SchuS4) strain engenders peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammation. Paradoxically, despite an intense neutrophilic infiltrate and high bacterial burden, T(h)1-type proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) are absent within the first ∼72 h of pulmonary infection. It has been suggested that the bacterium has the capacity to actively suppress or block NF-κB signaling, thus causing an initial delay in up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. However, our previously published findings and those presented herein contradict this paradigm and instead, strongly support an alternative hypothesis. Rather than blocking NF-κB, Ft actually triggers TLR2-dependent NF-κB signaling, resulting in the development and activation of tDCs and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-β). In turn, these cytokines stimulate development and proliferation of T(regs) that may restrain T(h)1-type proinflammatory cytokine release early during tularemic infection. The highly regulated and overall anti-inflammatory milieu established in the lung is permissive for unfettered growth and survival of Ft. The capacity of Ft to evoke such a response represents an important immune-evasive strategy.

  18. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study.

  19. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  20. Cigarette smoke-induced collagen destruction; key to chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia A Overbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking induces inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this progressive disease, chronic inflammation in the lung contributes to lung tissue destruction leading to the formation of chemotactic collagen fragments such as N-acetylated Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-ac-PGP. The generation of this tripeptide is mediated by a multistep pathway involving matrix metalloproteases (MMPs 8 and 9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE. Here we investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE stimulates human PMNs to breakdown whole matrix collagen leading to the generation of the chemotactic collagen fragment N-ac-PGP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Incubating PMNs with CSE led to the release of chemo-attractant CXCL8 and proteases MMP8 and MMP9. PMNs constitutively expressed PE activity as well as PE protein. Incubating CSE-primed PMNs with collagen resulted in collagen breakdown and in N-ac-PGP generation. Incubation of PMNs with the tripeptide N-ac-PGP resulted in the release of CXCL8, MMP8 and MMP9. Moreover, we tested whether PMNs from COPD patients are different from PMNs from healthy donors. Here we show that the intracellular basal PE activity of PMNs from COPD patients increased 25-fold compared to PMNs from healthy donors. Immunohistological staining of human lung tissue for PE showed that besides neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells express PE. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that neutrophils activated by cigarette smoke extract can breakdown collagen into N-ac-PGP and that this collagen fragment itself can activate neutrophils, which may lead in vivo to a self-propagating cycle of neutrophil infiltration, chronic inflammation and lung emphysema. MMP-, PE- or PGP-inhibitors can serve as an attractive therapeutic target and may open new avenues towards effective treatment of COPD.

  1. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on smoking-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım Baş, Funda; Bayram, Dilek; Arslan, Bahriye; Armağan, Ilkay; Yeşilot, Şükriye; Çiçek, Emine; Yorgancıgil, Emre

    2017-03-01

    Exposed to cigarette leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species and the generation of bioactive molecules that can damage skin cells. This investigation was carried out to study possible effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) on smoking-induced rat skin injury. 28 Spraque-Dawley female rats were allocated into three groups: control group (n = 8), smoking group (n = 10; 12 cigarettes/day, 8 weeks) and smoking + ALA group (n = 10; 12 cigarettes/day + 100 mg/kg, 8 weeks). Experiment group animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia with 10%ketamine + 2%xylasine at the end of second mounts and then skin examples were taken from the epigastric area. Histochemical (Haematoxylin-Eosin and Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemical (TNF-α) and biochemical analysis (CAT, MDA and protein carbonylation) were performed on these skin tissues. Histologically, skin was distinguished normal structure in the control group. In the smoking group, collagen bundles and hair follicle degradation/reduction, sweat gland degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltration in dermis were encountered. In ALA-treated group, all of these changes were improved (p  0.05). MDA; which is indicator of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in cigarette group than in control group (p  0.05). In the ALA it was significantly lower compared to the control group and cigarette (p skin tissues in rats. However, ALA has a curative effect on cigarette-induced injuries on the skin tissues by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Oxidative DNA damage is involved in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Jie; An, Yan; Nie, Jihua; Tong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by exogenous toxicants are suggested to be involved in carcinogenesis by oxidative modification of DNA. 8-Hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been considered as a reliable biomarker for oxidative DNA damage both in vivo and in vitro studies. But the effect of smoking on oxidative damage has not yet been fully elucidated. Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke at concentrations of 20 and 60 % for 30 min, twice/day for 45 weeks. Then the histopathology of lung tissues, levels of ROS, 8-OHdG, and total antioxidant (T-AOC), expression of DNA repair enzymes, e.g. 8-oxyguaine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and MutThomolog 1 (Oxidized Purine Nucleoside Triphosphatase, MTH1) were determined in urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and lung tissue. The results showed that long-term cigarette smoke exposure can cause obvious damages of lung tissue in rats. In addition, a significant and cigarette smoke concentration-dependent increase in ROS and 8-OHdG were observed compared with the non-exposed control rats. In contrast, the expression of OGG1 and MTH1, and T-AOC levels were obviously decreased after long-term exposure to cigarette smoke. These findings indicate that long-term exposure to cigarette smoker increases ROS levels, decreases total antioxidant capacity, and interferes DNA repair capacity that eventually induces oxidative DNA damage, which appears to play an important role in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats, and determination of 8-OHdG levels might be a useful method for monitoring oxidative damage in cigarette smokers.

  3. THE SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF A PERIPHERAL VENO-VENOUS EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION FOR SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN THE EARLY PERIOD AFTER ADULT LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: of our clinical study was to present own experience of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO for the treatment of an adult patient (female, 28 yrs, 150 cm, 35 kg with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the early period after liver transplantation against satisfactory liver graft function. Materials and methods. Double-lumen cannula 22 F was placed percutaneously in the right internal jugular vein. The ext- racorporeal contour reduced in length and the polymethylpeptene oxygenator (priming volume 175 ml were also. Results. In 1 hour after the beginning of VV ECMO, we registered the noted improvement of arterial blood gas and acid-base balance (regress of respiratory acidosis, improvement of arterial oxygenation which allowed us to use the «protective» mode of mechanical ventilation. Improvement of gas exchange and regress of clinical and radiological manifestations of ARDS allowed for VV ECMO weaning and decannulation on day 7. The patient was discharged from ICU and then from our Centre to a homestay respectively on the 9th and 16th day after VV ECMO weaning with the satisfactory liver graft and lungs function. Conclusion. VV ECMO can be successfully applied to correct the life-threatening acute respiratory failure in the early period after liver transplantation. 

  4. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network.

  5. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as pulmonary fibrosis , ...

  6. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background: the importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Koopman (Laurens); A.H. Wijga (Alet); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); A.P.H. Vos (Ada); R.T. van Strien; B. Brunekreef (Bert); H.J. Neijens (Herman)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. METHODS: A total of 4146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnai

  7. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Zock, J.P.; Carsin, A.E.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Santa-Marina, L.; Tardón, A.; Ballester, F.; Basterrechea, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12-18 months old,

  8. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, other infectious diseases, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Klig, J E; Kahn, J S; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1997-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. Jean Klig reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children. Jeffrey Kahn and Eugene Shapiro discuss literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

  9. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  10. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    (2)) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m(3) increase in average NO(2......BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during....... Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper...

  11. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND.

  12. Effect of simvastatin on MMPs and TIMPs in cigarette smoke-induced rat COPD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiawei; Bao, Jie; Shi, Yanan; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Lindong; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Lihai; Sun, Mo; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2017-01-01

    significantly blocked cigarette smoke-induced MMP-8 and -9 protein synthesis, while it had no significant effect on TIMP-1 and -4 protein synthesis even in the presence of cigarette smoke. Conclusion CSE resulted in imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs, and by which mechanism, cigarette smoke may lead to insufficient lung tissue repair. Simvastatin partially blocked airway inflammation and MMP production and, thus, statins may modulate composition of the lung extracellular matrix. PMID:28260878

  13. Effect of simvastatin on MMPs and TIMPs in cigarette smoke-induced rat COPD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiawei; Bao, Jie; Shi, Yanan; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Lindong; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Lihai; Sun, Mo; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2017-01-01

    cigarette smoke-induced MMP-8 and -9 protein synthesis, while it had no significant effect on TIMP-1 and -4 protein synthesis even in the presence of cigarette smoke. CSE resulted in imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs, and by which mechanism, cigarette smoke may lead to insufficient lung tissue repair. Simvastatin partially blocked airway inflammation and MMP production and, thus, statins may modulate composition of the lung extracellular matrix.

  14. Smoking-Induced Changes in the Maternal Immune, Endocrine, and Metabolic Pathways and Their Impact on Fetal Growth: A Topical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Gratacós, Eduard; Gómez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal maternal smoking exposure (PMSE) is one of the major environmental risk factors encountered by the fetus. PMSE is usually associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes that may manifest at different stages of life. Nevertheless, fetal growth restriction is the most common smoking-induced side effect. PMSE induces changes in the maternal multiple organ systems. These alterations may affect placentation, which subsequently affects fetal growth. It is worthy to note, however, that the extent of maternal smoking-induced changes depends mainly on the maternal level of susceptibility. Hence, the perinatal pregnancy outcomes vary depending on the interaction between the triad: the maternal, fetal, and placental modifications, making it more complex. In this review, we try to unveil the effect of smoking-induced maternal changes on the maternal immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways and their impact on fetal growth. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  17. Influence of a Modified Atmosphere on the Induction and Activity of Respiratory Enzymes in Broccoli Florets during the Early Stage of Postharvest Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Makino, Yoshio; Inoue, Jun; Maejima, Kensaku; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Noguchi, Ko

    2017-10-04

    Modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere storage (hypoxia conditions) extend shelf lives of horticultural products by depressing the O2 uptake rate. We investigated the relationship between atmospheres and alternative oxidase (AOX) to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities (on the basis of oxygen isotope discrimination) and the relative amounts of two respiratory enzymes, AOX and COX, during the early stage of storage. Broccoli florets, with high O2 uptake rates, were stored under hypoxia and normoxia at 25 °C. O2 uptake rates, weight loss, and yellowing of broccoli florets were significantly lower when stored under hypoxia than when stored under normoxia. Significantly more AOX proteins were produced during storage under normoxia, but COX proteins were more consistent than those of AOX proteins. Hypoxia may depress the expression of AOX and prolong the shelf life. Oxygen isotope discrimination was elevated under hypoxia after 50.5 h. AOX production in broccoli was controlled more by changing atmospheres than by COX.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates cigarette smoke-induced restenosis after vascular angioplasty by attenuating inflammation in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Leng; Wang, Zhanqi; Yang, Genhuan; Li, Tianjia; Liu, Xinnong; Liu, Changwei

    2016-03-14

    Cigarette smoke is not only a profound independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but also aggravates restenosis after vascular angioplasty. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we investigated whether HO-1 upregulating by hemin, a potent HO-1 inducer, can protect against cigarette smoke-induced restenosis in rat's carotid arteries after balloon injury. Results showed that cigarette smoke exposure aggravated stenosis of the lumen, promoted infiltration of inflammatory cells, and induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules after balloon-induced carotid artery injury. HO-1 upregulating by hemin treatment reduced these effects of cigarette smoke, whereas the beneficial effects were abolished in the presence of Zincprotoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor. To conclude, hemin has potential therapeutic applications in the restenosis prevention after the smokers' vascular angioplasty. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigari, Naseh; Moghimi, Nasrin; Shahraki, Farhad Saber; Mohammadi, Shilan; Roshani, Daem

    2015-01-01

    Citrullination, a post-translational modification of proteins, is increased in inflammatory processes and is known to occur in smokers. It can induce anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, the most specific serologic marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Thus far, the incidence of autoimmunity in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) resulting in anti-CCP production has not been examined. We hypothesise that anti-CCP antibody level in these patients should be higher than that in healthy subjects. A total of 112 non-rheumatoid arthritis patients, including 56 patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD and 56 patients with tobacco-induced COPD, and 56 healthy non-smoker controls were included. The serum anti-CCP antibody levels were measured and compared between the groups and against smoke exposure and clinical characteristics. The mean anti-CCP antibody levels in wood-smoke-induced COPD group were significantly higher than those in tobacco-induced COPD group (p = 0.03) and controls (p = 0.004). Furthermore, 8 (14.2 %) patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD, 4 (7.14 %) with tobacco-induced COPD and 2 (3.57 %) controls exceeded the conventional cut-off of anti-CCP antibody positivity. No relationship was found between the anti-CCP antibody level and age, gender, duration of disease, Pack-years of smoking, and duration of exposure to wood smoke. Moreover, correlations between anti-CCP antibodies and severity of airflow limitation, CAT scores, mMRC scores of dyspnoea, and GOLD staging of COPD severity were not significant. Wood-smoke-induced COPD could significantly increase the anti-CCP antibody level in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients when compared with that in patients with tobacco-induced COPD and healthy controls.

  20. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B.; Milner, Dallin C.; Lewis, Adam L.; Dunaway, Todd M.; Egbert, Kaleb M.; Albright, Scott C.; Merrell, Brigham J.; Monson, Troy D.; Broberg, Dallin S.; Gassman, Jason R.; Thomas, Daniel B.; Arroyo, Juan A.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  1. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Lewis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal

  2. Respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  3. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  4. Protection from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Dysfunction and Damage by H2 Relaxin (Serelaxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Alessandro; Boccalini, Giulia; Lucarini, Laura; Catarinicchia, Stefano; Guasti, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Bani, Daniele; Nistri, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major etiologic factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by airway remodeling, lung inflammation and fibrosis, emphysema, and respiratory failure. The current therapies can improve COPD management but cannot arrest its progression and reduce mortality. Hence, there is a major interest in identifying molecules susceptible of development into new drugs to prevent or reduce CS-induced lung injury. Serelaxin (RLX), or recombinant human relaxin-2, is a promising candidate because of its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties highlighted in lung disease models. Here, we used a guinea pig model of CS-induced lung inflammation, and remodeling reproducing some of the hallmarks of COPD. Animals exposed chronically to CS (8 weeks) were treated with vehicle or RLX, delivered by osmotic pumps (1 or 10 μg/day) or aerosol (10 μg/ml/day) during CS treatment. Controls were nonsmoking animals. RLX maintained airway compliance to a control-like pattern, likely because of its capability to counteract lung inflammation and bronchial remodeling. In fact, treatment of CS-exposed animals with RLX reduced the inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes, accompanied by a significant reduction of the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β). Moreover, RLX was able to counteract the adverse bronchial remodeling and emphysema induced by CS exposure by reducing goblet cell hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, and fibrosis. Of note, RLX delivered by aerosol has shown a comparable efficacy to systemic administration in reducing CS-induced lung dysfunction and damage. In conclusion, RLX emerges as a new molecule to counteract CS-induced inflammatory lung diseases.

  5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    10.1 Respiratory failure2003068 Evaluation of non-invasive ventilation in a-cute respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. GU Jianyong(顾俭勇), et al. Dept E-mergen, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Shanghai J Med 2002; 25 (12): 741 - 743.Objective:To observe the effect of non-invasive venti-lation(NIV) in acute respiratory failure with chronic

  6. The Analysis of Average Diameter of Erythrocytes in Children of Early Age with Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Shevchenko,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of inflammatory bronkholegochny process in children is followed by the permanent changes in system of an eritron aggravating finally the phenomena of a hypoxia of bodies and fabrics. Work purpose: studying of average diameter of erythrocytes at children of early age, patients with pneumonia and ARVI. Determination of average diameter of erythrocytes was carried out by a diffraction method on identical structure of chaotic objects at 36 children with pneumonia and at 41 children with a ARVI aged from 4 months till 3 years. The control group was made by 20 almost healthy children of the same age. During the sharp period of a disease the average diameter of erythrocytes was authentically increased both at pneumonia, and at a ARVI. Reliable difference of these indicators when comparing a toxic syndrome at pneumonia and a ARVI is revealed. Thus, at children of early age, patients with pneumonia and ARVI, in dynamics of a disease the natural changes of average diameter of erythrocytes having differential and diagnostic and predictive value are revealed.

  7. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Al Hariri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO, represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure.Methods Adult rats were divided into four different groups: Control, Cigarette smoking (CS, AO, and CS + AO. Cigarette smoke exposure was for 4 weeks (5 days of exposure/week and AO group received pomegranate juice while other groups received placebo. Assessment of cardiovascular injury was documented by assessing different parameters of cardiovascular injury mediators including: 1 cardiac hypertrophy, 2 oxidative stress (OS, 3 expression of inflammatory markers, 3 expression of Bradykinin receptor 1 (Bdkrb1, Bradykinin receptor 2 (Bdkrb2, and 4 altered expression expression of fibrotic/atherogenic markers [(Fibronectin (Fn1 and leptin receptor (ObR].ResultsData from this work demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure induced cardiac hypertrophy, which was reduced upon administration of pomegranate in CS + AO group. Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with elevation in oxidative stress, significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNFα, Fn1 and ObR in rat’s aorta. In addition, an increase in aortic calcification was observed after one month of Cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, Cigarette smoke induced a significant up regulation in Bdkrb1 and Bdkrb2 expression levels. Finally, pomegranate supplementation exhibited cardiovascular protection assessed by the above findings and partly contributed to ameliorating cardiac

  8. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  9. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rubia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Lourenço, Juliana Dias; Riane, Alyne; Cervilha, Daniela Aparecida de Brito; Ito, Juliana Tiyaki; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution); PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE); CS (CS exposure for 60 days); and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days). At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm) and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC)-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox) in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Descrever um modelo murino de enfisema induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro (FC) e instilação de elastase pancreática porcina (EPP). Trinta e oito camundongos C57BL/6 foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos: controle (uma instilação intranasal

  10. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  11. Smoking-induced CXCL14 expression in the human airway epithelium links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Sackrowitz, Rachel; Fukui, Tomoya; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Chao, Ion Wa; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Downey, Robert J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-09-01

    CXCL14, a recently described epithelial cytokine, plays putative multiple roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis. In the context that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are both smoking-related disorders associated with airway epithelial disorder and inflammation, we hypothesized that the airway epithelium responds to cigarette smoking with altered CXCL14 gene expression, contributing to the disease-relevant phenotype. Using genome-wide microarrays with subsequent immunohistochemical analysis, the data demonstrate that the expression of CXCL14 is up-regulated in the airway epithelium of healthy smokers and further increased in COPD smokers, especially within hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions, in association with multiple genes relevant to epithelial structural integrity and cancer. In vitro experiments revealed that the expression of CXCL14 is induced in the differentiated airway epithelium by cigarette smoke extract, and that epidermal growth factor mediates CXCL14 up-regulation in the airway epithelium through its effects on the basal stem/progenitor cell population. Analyses of two independent lung cancer cohorts revealed a dramatic up-regulation of CXCL14 expression in adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma. High expression of the COPD-associated CXCL14-correlating cluster of genes was linked in lung adenocarcinoma with poor survival. These data suggest that the smoking-induced expression of CXCL14 in the airway epithelium represents a novel potential molecular link between smoking-associated airway epithelial injury, COPD, and lung cancer.

  12. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  13. Respiratory monitoring with electrical impedance tomography for lung protective ventilation and alveolar recruitment maneuver in a patient with a single lung transplant and early graft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Alonso, B; Latorre, I; García, J

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented on a patient who underwent left single lung transplantation for emphysema type COPD. There was early graft dysfunction gradeiii during the immediate postoperative period, which required the implantation of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Respirator ventilatory parameters were adjusted to avoid lung distension, low tidal volume (Vc) (280ml), high respiratory rates (20rpm), and a positive pressure at end expiration (PEEP) level of 8cmH2O. On monitoring the pulmonary tidal volume distribution by bedside electrical impedance tomography (EIT), it was noted that most of the tidal volume was distributed in the native lung emphysema. An alveolar recruitment manoeuvre was performed, under control of the EIT, that enabled the current volume and distribution and the pressures required to ventilate the transplanted lung to be observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Hepatic Dysfunction Is Associated with a Worse Outcome in Patients Presenting with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the ACURASYS and PROSEVA Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizier, Stéphanie; Forel, Jean-Marie; Ayzac, Louis; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Hraiech, Sami; Lehingue, Samuel; Loundou, Anderson; Roch, Antoine; Guerin, Claude; Papazian, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bilirubin is well-recognized marker of hepatic dysfunction in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Multiple organ failure often complicates acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution and is associated with high mortality. The effect of early hepatic dysfunction on ARDS mortality has been poorly investigated. We evaluated the incidence and the prognostic significance of increased serum bilirubin levels in the initial phase of ARDS. Methods The data of 805 patients with ARDS were retrospectively analysed. This population was extracted from two recent multicenter, prospective and randomised trials. Patients presenting with ARDS with a ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen < 150 mmHg measured with a PEEP ≥ 5 cm of water were included. The total serum bilirubin was measured at inclusion and at days 2, 4, 7 and 14. The primary objective was to analyse the bilirubin at inclusion according to the 90-day mortality rate. Results The 90-day mortality rate was 33.8% (n = 272). The non-survivors were older, had higher Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and were more likely to have a medical diagnosis on admission than the survivors. At inclusion, the SOFA score without the liver score (10.3±2.9 vs. 9.0±3.0, p<0.0001) and the serum bilirubin levels (36.1±57.0 vs. 20.5±31.5 μmol/L, p<0.0001) were significantly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors. Age, the hepatic SOFA score, the coagulation SOFA score, the arterial pH level, and the plateau pressure were independently associated with 90-day mortality in patients with ARDS. Conclusion Bilirubin used as a surrogate marker of hepatic dysfunction and measured early in the course of ARDS was associated with the 90-day mortality rate. PMID:26636318

  15. The use of the Berlin definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome during infancy and early childhood : multicenter evaluation and expert consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, Daniele; Piastra, Marco; Chidini, Giovanna; Tissieres, Pierre; Calderini, Edoardo; Essouri, Sandrine; Medina Villanueva, Alberto; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Pons-Odena, Marti; Perez-Baena, Luis; Hermon, Michael; Tridente, Ascanio; Conti, Giorgio; Antonelli, Massimo; Kneyber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A new acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) definition has been recently issued: the so-called Berlin definition (BD) has some characteristics that could make it suitable for pediatrics. The European Society for Pediatric Neonatal Intensive Care (ESPNIC) Respiratory Section started a project to

  16. The use of the Berlin definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome during infancy and early childhood : multicenter evaluation and expert consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, Daniele; Piastra, Marco; Chidini, Giovanna; Tissieres, Pierre; Calderini, Edoardo; Essouri, Sandrine; Medina Villanueva, Alberto; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Pons-Odena, Marti; Perez-Baena, Luis; Hermon, Michael; Tridente, Ascanio; Conti, Giorgio; Antonelli, Massimo; Kneyber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A new acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) definition has been recently issued: the so-called Berlin definition (BD) has some characteristics that could make it suitable for pediatrics. The European Society for Pediatric Neonatal Intensive Care (ESPNIC) Respiratory Section started a project to

  17. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004494 Respiratory control in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. WANG Wei (王玮), et al. Instit Respir Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Limy, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2004; 43 (9): 647-650.

  18. [Respiratory distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  19. Persistence of smoking-induced dysregulation of miRNA expression in the small airway epithelium despite smoking cessation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    Full Text Available Even after quitting smoking, the risk of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer remains significantly higher compared to healthy nonsmokers. Based on the knowledge that COPD and most lung cancers start in the small airway epithelium (SAE, we hypothesized that smoking modulates miRNA expression in the SAE linked to the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease, and that some of these changes persist after smoking cessation. SAE was collected from 10th to 12th order bronchi using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 arrays were used to assess miRNA expression in the SAE from 9 healthy nonsmokers and 10 healthy smokers, before and after they quit smoking for 3 months. Smoking status was determined by urine nicotine and cotinine measurement. There were significant differences in the expression of 34 miRNAs between healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers (p1.5, with functions associated with lung development, airway epithelium differentiation, inflammation and cancer. After quitting smoking for 3 months, 12 out of the 34 miRNAs did not return to normal levels, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway being the top identified enriched pathway of the target genes of the persistent dysregulated miRNAs. In the context that many of these persistent smoking-dependent miRNAs are associated with differentiation, inflammatory diseases or lung cancer, it is likely that persistent smoking-related changes in SAE miRNAs play a role in the subsequent development of these disorders.

  20. Gene Profiles in a Smoke-Induced COPD Mouse Lung Model Following Treatment with Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sun; Kokturk, Nurdan; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Sei Won; Lim, Jaeyun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) effectively reduce airway inflammation and regenerate the alveolus in cigarette- and elastase-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) animal models. The effects of stem cells are thought to be paracrine and immune-modulatory because very few stem cells remain in the lung one day after their systemic injection, which has been demonstrated previously. In this report, we analyzed the gene expression profiles to compare mouse lungs with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke with non-exposed lungs. Gene expression profiling was also conducted in a mouse lung tissue with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke following the systemic injection of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hCB-MSCs). Globally, 834 genes were differentially expressed after systemic injection of hCB-MSCs. Seven and 21 genes, respectively, were up-and downregulated on days 1, 4, and 14 after HCB-MSC injection. The Hbb and Hba, genes with oxygen transport and antioxidant functions, were increased on days 1 and 14. A serine protease inhibitor was also increased at a similar time point after injection of hCB-MSCs. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the levels of genes related to immune responses, metabolic processes, and blood vessel development were altered, indicating host responses after hCB-MSC injection. These gene expression changes suggest that MSCs induce a regeneration mechanism against COPD induced by cigarette smoke. These analyses provide basic data for understanding the regeneration mechanisms promoted by hCB-MSCs in cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

  1. The effect of artifical ventilation and dehydrobenzperidol on the development of early changes in the respiratory system in dogs with Mendelson's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budych, W

    1975-01-01

    The experiments were carried out to observe certain functional changes in the respiratory system which develop in the early stage of aspiration pneumonia and to study the possibility of influencing these changes by application of artificial ventilation (IPPB) and/or administration of dehydrobenzperidol. The experiments were carried out on 32 mongrel dogs divided into 4 groups. Experimental Mendelson's syndrome was produced by instilling, during anaesthesia, hydrochloric acid solution of pH 1.5 in a dose of 4 ml/kg into the tracheobronchial tree. Immediately after anaesthesia and then 10 times at intervals of one hour after HCl instillation the following determinations were done: mean blood pressure, CVP, haematocrit, PO2 and PCO2 in arterial and mixed venous blood, and minute artifical ventilation. The veno-arterial blood shunt in the lungs, alveolo-arterial difference of oxygen partial pressure and the effective compliance were also determined. The chemical damage to the lungs by acid caused condensation of blood and a fall in CVP. These changes were due to fluid escape from the vessels especially in the pulmonary vascular tree. Disturbances in pulmonary gas exchange were a result of deficient ventilation of lung areas damaged primarily by acid and suffering secondarily from developing disturbances in pulmonary blood flow. Dehydrobenzperidol in a dose of 1 mg/kg applied as the only treatment in Mendelson's syndrome had the same favourable effect on pulmonary changes as controlled IPPB. The combination of controlled artificial ventilation and intravenous dehydrobenzperidol decreased the disturbances in pulmonary gas exchange in Mendelson's syndrome. This was possible because both factors exert a benficial effect on ventilation and perfusion preventing the development of oedema and atelectasis.

  2. Effects of Early Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration on E-Selectin, Hemodynamic Stability, and Ventilatory Function in Patients with Septic-Shock-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-biao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of 72-hour early-initiated continuous venovenous hemofiltration (ECVVH treatment in patients with septic-shock-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (not acute kidney injury, AKI with regard to serum E-selectin and measurements of lung function and hemodynamic stability. Methods. This prospective nonblinded single institutional randomized study involved 51 patients who were randomly assigned to receive or not receive ECVVH, an ECVVH group (n=24 and a non-ECVVH group (n=27. Besides standard therapies, patients in ECVVH group underwent CVVH for 72 h. Results. At 0 and 24 h after initiation of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI, and E-selectin level were not significantly different between groups (all P>0.05. Compared to non-ECVVH group, PaO2/FiO2 is significantly higher and EVLWI and E-selectin level are significantly lower in ECVVH group (all P<0.05 at 48 h and 72 h after initiation of treatment. The lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in intensive care unit (ICU were shorter in ECVVH group (all P<0.05, but there was no difference in 28-day mortality between two groups. Conclusions. In patients with septic-shock-induced ARDS (not AKI, treatment with ECVVH in addition to standard therapies improves endothelial function, lung function, and hemodynamic stability and reduces the lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in ICU.

  3. Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Goehl, D R

    2015-08-01

    Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases. The objective of this research was to compare health and performance outcomes using either traditional BRD control (visual observation and metaphylaxis) or REDI during a 60-d postarrival phase in high-risk beef calves. The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 8 replicates at 3 different facilities over a 19-mo period. In each replicate, a single load of calves was randomly allocated to receive either conventional management (CONV; total = 8) or REDI (total = 8) as the method for BRD control. Cattle were monitored with each diagnostic method for the first 30 d on feed and performance variables were collected until approximately 60 d after arrival. Statistical differences ( 0.10) in risk of BRD treatment and REDI calves were not administered antimicrobials at arrival; therefore, REDI calves had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of doses of antimicrobials/calf (0.75 ± 0.1 doses) compared with CONV calves (1.67 ± 0.1 doses). In this trial, the REDI system was comparable to conventional management with the potential advantages of earlier BRD diagnosis and decreased use of antimicrobials. Further research should be performed to evaluate the longer-term impacts of the 2 systems.

  4. Systemic T-helper and T-regulatory cell type cytokine responses in rhinovirus vs. respiratory syncytial virus induced early wheezing: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuorinen Tytti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinovirus (RV associated early wheezing has been recognized as an independent risk factor for asthma. The risk is more important than that associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV disease. No comparative data are available on the immune responses of these diseases. Objective To compare T-helper1 (Th1, Th2 and T-regulatory (Treg cell type cytokine responses between RV and RSV induced early wheezing. Methods Systemic Th1-type (interferon [IFN] -gamma, interleukin [IL] -2, IL-12, Th2-type (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and Treg-type (IL-10 cytokine responses were studied from acute and convalescence phase serum samples of sole RV (n = 23 and RSV affected hospitalized wheezing children (n = 27. The pre-defined inclusion criteria were age of 3-35 months and first or second wheezing episode. Analysis was adjusted for baseline differences. Asymptomatic children with comparable demographics (n = 11 served as controls for RV-group. Results RV-group was older and had more atopic characteristics than RSV-group. At acute phase, RV-group had higher (fold change IL-13 (39-fold, IL-12 (7.5-fold, IFN-gamma (6.0-fold and IL-5 (2.8-fold concentrations than RSV-group and higher IFN-gamma (27-fold, IL-2 (8.9-fold, IL-5 (5.6-fold and IL-10 (2.6-fold than the controls. 2-3 weeks later, RV-group had higher IFN-gamma (>100-fold, IL-13 (33-fold and IL-10 (6.5-fold concentrations than RSV-group and higher IFN-gamma (15-fold and IL-2 (9.4-fold than the controls. IL-10 levels were higher in acute phase compared to convalescence phase in both infections (p Conclusion Our results support a hypothesis that RV is likely to trigger wheezing mainly in children with a predisposition. IL-10 may have important regulatory function in acute viral wheeze.

  5. 晚期早产儿近期呼吸系统并发症高危因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of early respiratory complications in late preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏; 陶珂; 李星云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of early respiratory complications in late preterm infants. Methods A total of 112 late preterm infants diagnosed with early respiratory complications were collected as the re-search group. At the same time, 112 late preterm infants without early respiratory complications were selected as the con-trol group. The clinical data was analyzed between the two groups in order to identify the risk factors of early respiratory complications in late preterm infants. Results Single factor analysis showed that the related factors of early respiratory complications in late preterm infants included the pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, placenta previa, placental abruption, maternal fever during the late pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes, contamination of amniotic fluid, fetal intrauterine distress, asphyxia, small for gestational age infant, cesarean delivery, incidence of multiple pregnancy and neonatal sepsis (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the above indexes revealed that maternal fever during the late pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes, fetal intrauterine distress, cesarean delivery, incidence of multiple pregnancy, asphysia, and neonatal sepsis were the risk factors for early respiratory complications in late preterm infants (P<0.05), which have early warning function. Conclusion It is important to focus the risk factors for effective monitoring and follow-up, which could provide timely reasonable intervention for neonates and reduce the incidence of early respiratory complications in late preterm infants and the neonatal mortality.%目的 探讨晚期早产儿发生近期呼吸系统并发症的危险因素.方法 选取2011年1月至2014年12月我院收治的112例发生了近期呼吸系统疾病的晚期早产儿为观察组,随机选取同期收治的112例未发生此类疾病的晚期早产儿为对照组,分别对两组患儿的临床资料进行分析,筛选出晚期早产儿发生

  6. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  7. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970318 A study on evoked potentials in cor pul-monale patients with chronic respiratory failure.QIAO Hui(乔慧), et al. Beijing Neurosurg Instit,Beijing, 100050. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 43-45. Objective: Evoked protential was used to detect thechange of brain function in cor pulmonale patients with

  8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    6.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004073 A study on the heterogenous apoptosis of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils from peripheral blood of asthmatic patients. LIU Chuntao (刘春涛), et al. West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003; 26(10):610 - 614.

  9. Implementing change in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2010-06-01

    Though people are generally averse to change, change and innovation are critically important in respiratory care to maintain scientific and clinical progress. This paper reviews the issue of change in respiratory care. I summarize several available models of organizational and personal change (ie, those of Kotter and of Silversin and Kornacki, and the Intentional Change Theory of Boyatzis), review the characteristics of change-avid respiratory therapy departments, offer an example of a change effort in respiratory care (implementation of respiratory care protocols) and then analyze this change effort as it took place at one institution, the Cleveland Clinic, using these models. Finally, I present the results of an analysis of change-avid respiratory therapy departments and offer some suggestions regarding change management for the profession and for individual respiratory care clinicians. Common features of theories of organizational change include developing a sense of urgency, overcoming resistance, developing a guiding coalition, and involving key stakeholders early. With the understanding that change efforts may seem unduly "clean" and orderly in retrospect, the models help explain the sustainable success of efforts to implement the Respiratory Therapy Consult Service at the Cleveland Clinic. By implication, these models offer value in planning change efforts prospectively. Further analysis of features of change-avid respiratory therapy departments indicates 11 highly desired features, of which four that especially characterize change-avid departments include: having an up-to-date leadership team; employee involvement in change; celebrating wins; and an overall sense of progressiveness in the department. This analysis suggests that understanding and embracing change is important. To anchor change in our profession, greater attention should be given to developing a pipeline of respiratory care clinicians who, by virtue of their advanced training, have the skills

  10. IL-1α/IL-1R1 expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mechanistic relevance to smoke-induced neutrophilia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M Botelho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to COPD pathogenesis are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to assess IL-1 α and β expression in COPD patients and to investigate their respective roles in perpetuating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Functional studies were pursued in smoke-exposed mice using gene-deficient animals, as well as blocking antibodies for IL-1α and β. Here, we demonstrate an underappreciated role for IL-1α expression in COPD. While a strong correlation existed between IL-1α and β levels in patients during stable disease and periods of exacerbation, neutrophilic inflammation was shown to be IL-1α-dependent, and IL-1β- and caspase-1-independent in a murine model of cigarette smoke exposure. As IL-1α was predominantly expressed by hematopoietic cells in COPD patients and in mice exposed to cigarette smoke, studies pursued in bone marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that the crosstalk between IL-1α+ hematopoietic cells and the IL-1R1+ epithelial cells regulates smoke-induced inflammation. IL-1α/IL-1R1-dependent activation of the airway epithelium also led to exacerbated inflammatory responses in H1N1 influenza virus infected smoke-exposed mice, a previously reported model of COPD exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides compelling evidence that IL-1α is central to the initiation of smoke-induced neutrophilic inflammation and suggests that IL-1α/IL-1R1 targeted therapies may be relevant for limiting inflammation and exacerbations in COPD.

  11. Influence of facilities of physical rehabilitation on the functional state of the cardial and respiratory system for children with the purchased vices hearts after surgical interference in an early after operational period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashlo N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered results of analysis of literary sources about influence of facilities of physical rehabilitation on the functional state of the cardial and respiratory system for children with the purchased mitral vices hearts after surgical interference in an early after operational period. Features over of methods of medical physical culture, tasks and maintenance of medical physical culture, description of physical exercises which are used in given period with this pathology, are brought. In experiment took part 10 boys in age 13-18 years after a mitral commissurotomy and mitral valve replacement. It is well-proven that the program of physical rehabilitation generally accepted and offered by us with the use of different methods of employments of medical gymnastics, influenced beneficially on the functional state of the cardial and respiratory system both control and basic groups.

  12. Inhibitory effect of Chinese green tea on cigarette smoke-induced up-regulation of airway neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-12 via antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CH; Yeung, SC; Man, RYK; Ip, MSM; Mak, JCW; Chan, KH

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that Chinese green tea (Lung Chen), in which epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) accounts for 60% of catechins, protected cigarette smoke-induced lung injury. We now hypothesized that Lung Chen tea may also have potential effect on lung oxidative stress and proteases/anti-proteases in a smoking rat model. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to either sham air (SA) or 4% cigarette smoke (CS) plus 2% Lung Chen tea or water by oral gavage. Serine proteases, matrix metal...

  13. 急性颈椎脊髓损伤并发呼吸功能障碍的早期救治%Early treatment of respiratory dysfunction after acute cervical spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广辉; 满毅; 张咏; 史建刚; 贾连顺

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性颈椎脊髓损伤并发呼吸功能障碍的临床特点及早期有效的治疗措施.方法 回顾性分析105例急性颈椎脊髓损伤患者的临床资料,分析患者入院时的呼吸模式、血气分析指标,判断患者脊髓损伤平面,以ASIA评分评价瘫痪程度,根据患者颈椎损伤情况及呼吸功能状况行颈部牵引制动、气管切开及呼吸机辅助呼吸、加强翻身拍背及支气管镜吸痰、抗感染、颈椎前后路减压植骨内固定手术等治疗措施.结果 出现呼吸功能障碍97例,其中严重呼吸衰竭行气管切开、呼吸机辅助呼吸34例,单纯气管切开48例,15例未气管切开、仅行吸氧及支气管镜吸痰治疗.2例死亡,其中l例肺部严重感染,1例颅脑外伤合并纵隔血肿等多发伤.气管切开、呼吸机辅助呼吸患者全部脱机封管成功.结论 急性颈椎脊髓损伤患者应早期进行呼吸功能评估,采用气管切开等进行有效的呼吸道管理,调整患者营养状态并加强抗感染,必要时行颈椎手术等综合治疗.%Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and early effective treatment for respiratory dysfunction after acute cervical spinal cord injury.Methods Retrospectively 105 patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury were analyzed.When the patients were in hospital,respiratory mode and blood gas analysis were recorded and the ASIA score was used to evaluate the degree of paralysis and spinal cord injury level.According to the respiratory condition and cervical injury,cervical traction and other immobilization were finished.Some patients were operated for incision of trachea and the breath was supported by ventilator.All the patients were turned over and slapped the back in order to excrete phlegm on time.Sometimes bronchial lavage was used to excrete phlegm.Anti-infection was emphasized.Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion or posterior decompression and fusion operation were finished once the

  14. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  15. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    7.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2003306 Effects of vaccae on airway contraction and inflammation in asthmatic guinea pigs. ZHAO Xiao(赵晓燕), et al. Zhejiang Respir Drug Res Lab Med Sch, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310031. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003;26(4):218-222.Objective: To study the effects of Mycobacterium vaccae(M. vaccae)on the lung function, airway hyper-

  16. 早期营养过剩对呼吸系统影响的研究进展%Advance on impact of early nutrition surplus on respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶泽慧; 黄英

    2014-01-01

    Effect of early nutrition on the risk of future health and disease has received widespread attention. Obesity induced by early nutrition surplus is a major contributor to a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, nervous diseases, endocrine diseases, immunological diseases,and metabolic diseases. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are underappreciated. This review aims to summarize the progression on the effect of early nutrition surplus on respiratory system.%早期营养状况对远期健康和成年疾病风险的影响已成为日益关注的话题.早期营养过剩诱导的肥胖对机体的影响目前主要集中于心血管系统、神经系统、内分泌系统、免疫系统及代谢性疾病的研究,而对呼吸系统的影响并没有得到足够的重视.本文主要针对早期营养过剩对呼吸系统影响的研究进展作一综述.

  17. Attenuation of smoke induced neuronal and physiological changes by bacoside rich extract in Wistar rats via down regulation of HO-1 and iNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is well known herbal medicine for its neuropharmacological effects. It alleviates variety of disorders including neuronal and physiological changes. Crackers smoke is a potent risk factor that leads to free radical mediated oxidative stress in vivo. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective efficacy of B. monniera extract (BME) against crackers smoke induced neuronal and physiological changes via modulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in rats. Rats were exposed to smoke for 1h for a period of 3 weeks and consecutively treated with BME at three different dosages (i.e., 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt.). Our results elucidate that BME treatment ameliorates histopathalogical changes, reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation, acetylcholine esterase activity and brain neurotransmitter levels to normal. BME supplementation efficiently inhibited HO-1 expression and nitric oxide generation by down-regulating iNOS expression. Smoke induced depletion of antioxidant enzyme status, monoamine oxidase activity was also replenished by BME supplementation. Thus the present study indicates that BME ameliorates various impairments associated with neuronal and physiological changes in rats exposed to crackers smoke by its potent neuromodulatory, antioxidant and adaptogenic propensity.

  18. Role of eicosanoids in a model of smoke-induced lung injury. Final report, 1 June 1987-4 June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, M.L.

    1988-06-29

    Smoke inhalation has been identified as a major cause of lung injury and death in fires with mortality rate of approximately 75%. Soldiers regularly occupy enclosed spaces and travel near flammable fuels. The combination of burning material and an enclosed space are major factors that lead to smoke inhalation. A combination of diesel fuel and polycarbonate plastic was used to generate smoke-induced lung injury. Rabbits were exposed to 60 tidal-volume breaths of smoke in approximately 10 minutes. Acute smoke-exposure caused changes in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and plasma eicosanoid concentration, especially at 0.5 hours post-smoke exposure. In addition, there were decreases in technetium-labeled diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTcDTPA) T1/2, increases in BAL total white cell count and alveolar macrophage acid phosphatase activity, and pathological evidence of pulmonary edema and type 2 pneumocyte injury. It is concluded that lung eicosanoids are involved in the inflammatory process caused by severe smoke inhalation. However, the specific roles these lung eicosanoids play in the smoke-induced injury process are not known at this time.

  19. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  20. 早期联合应用NCPAP和PS治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征%Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure And Pulmonary Surfactant Therapy For Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周媛; 杨静; 王岩岩; 王李敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 讨论经鼻持续气道正压通气(NCPAP)联合肺表面活性物质(PS)治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的治疗效果.方法 应用NCPAP联合PS治疗25例呼吸窘迫综合征的新生儿,并对其临床特点、动脉血气分析进行分析.结果 23例发绀和呼吸困难症状均有所减轻或消失.X线表现肺透亮度明显改善,或病变未进展,血气分析参数明显改善.2例因病情加重放弃治疗.结论 NCPAP联合PS能迅速有效地治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征.用这种方法通过阻止呼吸窘迫综合征的进展,降低了以后应用呼吸机的需要.细致观察和正确的护理也是治疗成功的关键.%Objective To investigate the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure ( NCPAP ) early combined with pul-monary surfactant ( PS ) on newborn with respiratory distress syndrome ( RDS ). Methods 25 cases of newborn with respiratory distress syndrome were treated by Curosurf ( 100 ~ 200 mg/kg, every times ) and then they were given breath support by NCPAP. The clinical characteristics and results of blood gas analysis were evaluated. Results The symptoms of cyanosis and breathing difficulties disappeared or were reduced in 23 cases. The lung permeability showed by X-ray was obviously improved. Because the condition became more serious, two cases gave up. Conclusions Early NCPAP combined with PS have a good effect for newborn with respiratory distress syndrome, and improving the survival rate. It can decrease the requirement for respiratory machine by preventing respiratory distress syndrome. The cor-rect nursing is the key of successful treatment.

  1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  2. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  4. Chronic Exposure to Water-Pipe Smoke Induces Alveolar Enlargement, DNA Damage and Impairment of Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Epidemiological evidence indicates that water-pipe smoking (WPS adversely affects the respiratory system. However, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not well understood. Recent experimental studies reported the occurrence of lung inflammation and oxidative stress following acute and subacute exposure to WPS. Here, we wanted to verify the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in mice chronically-exposed to WPS and to evaluate, for the first time, its effect on alveolar injury and DNA damage and their association with impairment of lung function. Methods: Mice were nose-only exposed to mainstream WPS (30 min/day; 5 days/week for 6 consecutive months. Control mice were exposed using the same protocol to atmospheric air only. At the end of the exposure period, several respiratory parameters were assessed. Results: In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, WPS increased neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers, lactate dehydrogenase, myeloperoxidase and matrix metallopeptidase 9 activities, as well as several proinflammatory cytokines. In lung tissue, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione were all increased by WPS exposure. Along with oxidative stress, WPS exposure significantly increased lung DNA damage index. Histologically the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had foci of mixed inflammatory cells infiltration in the interalveolar interstitium which consisted of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, we found dilated alveolar spaces and alveolar ducts with damaged interalveolar septae, and impairment of lung function following WPS exposure. Conclusion: We show the persistence of lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice chronically-exposed to WPS and demonstrate, for the first time, the occurrence of DNA damage and enlargement of alveolar spaces and ducts associated with impairment of lung function. Our findings provide novel mechanistic elucidation for the

  5. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930118 Facial or nasal mask pressure supportventilation in managing acute exacerbation ofchronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.CHEN Rongchang(陈荣昌),et al.GuangzhouInstit Respir Dis,Guangzhou 510120.Chin Tu-berc & Respir Dis 1992;15(5)285-287.Eleven COPD patients(age:65±9 yrs)withacute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure(PaCO2 11.3±1.1kPa)were treated with maskpressure support ventilation,another 10 similarpatients(age:68±12yrs)served as controls.Bi-PAP ventilator was used with the followingmodifications:(1)Non-rehreathing valve set-in proximal to mask;(2)5 LPM oxygen flow de-livered into mask to reduce the dead space ef-fect.Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours ev-ery time and 1-2 times daily for 7 days.Syn-

  6. N-acetylcysteine increases the frequency of bone marrow pro-B/pre-B cells, but does not reverse cigarette smoking-induced loss of this subset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that mice exposed to cigarette smoke for three weeks exhibit loss of bone marrow B cells at the Pro-B-to-pre-B cell transition, but the reason for this is unclear. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione precursor, has been used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on lung function. Here we determined whether smoke exposure impairs B cell development by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, and whether NAC treatment prevents smoking-induced loss of developing B cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Groups of normal mice were either exposed to filtered room air or cigarette smoke with or without concomitant NAC treatment for 5 days/week for three weeks. Bone marrow B cell developmental subsets were enumerated, and sorted pro-B (B220(+CD43(+ and pre-B (B220(+CD43(- cell fractions were analyzed for cell cycle status and the percentage of apoptotic cells. We find that, compared to sham controls, smoke-exposed mice have ∼60% fewer pro-B/pre-B cells, regardless of NAC treatment. Interestingly, NAC-treated mice show a 21-38% increase in total bone marrow cellularity and lymphocyte frequency and about a 2-fold increase in the pro-B/pre-B cell subset, compared to sham-treated controls. No significant smoking- or NAC-dependent differences were detected in frequency of apoptotic cells or the percentage cells in the G1, S, or G2 phases of the cycle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The failure of NAC treatment to prevent smoking-induced loss of bone marrow pre-B cells suggests that oxidative stress is not directly responsible for this loss. The unexpected expansion of the pro-B/pre-B cell subset in response to NAC treatment suggests oxidative stress normally contributes to cell loss at this developmental stage, and also reveals a potential side effect of therapeutic administration of NAC to prevent smoking-induced loss of lung function.

  7. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with mucoplysaccharidosis using pulmonary function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. El Falaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Evaluation and follow up of patients with MPS using pulmonary function tests are essential to detect early involvement of respiratory system and hence start treatment for respiratory complications early in the course of the disease.

  8. Respiratory Microbiome of New-born Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Gallacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbours diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unravelled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long term respiratory health. This review summarises the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonisation and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the short and long term. The challenges of neonatal respiratory microbiome studies and future research directions are also discussed.

  9. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a ... States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In the United ...

  11. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  12. Association of early respiratory Infections and children's current asthma%早期呼吸道感染性疾病与儿童哮喘的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚利; 沈科; 冯雪芳; 叶旭丹; 江龙挺

    2011-01-01

    [目的]初步探讨儿童哮喘与生命早期羅患呼吸道疾病之间的关系.[方法]共301例哮喘儿童纳入研究.301例非喘息性疾病患儿作为对照.采用向家长书面问卷调查方法询问各组婴儿围生期因素、家族史及既往感染性疾病等资料进行综合调查.[结果]本地区儿童早期呼吸道感染和中耳炎患病次数、既往毛细支气管炎、肺炎和支气管炎、新生儿期接受NICU治疗、男性、哮喘家族史、过敏体质以及被动吸烟等均与儿童后期哮喘发病密切相关,而呼吸道感染和中耳炎的发病年龄则与哮喘的关系不明显.[结论]本地区儿童早期呼吸道感染和中耳炎患病次数与儿童哮喘的发生发展以及发作程度密切相关,具有上述高危因素的儿童是本地区制定哮喘预舫措施重点关注人群.%[Objective] To evaluate the association of a history of respiratory infection in the first few months after neonatal birth with current asthma in locality. [Methods] A total of 301 children with average aged 4 years were recruited into study group and 301 children without asthma were categorized into control group. The parents of these children were responded to a questionnaire covering demographic factors, lifestyle, home environment, and health history, including a detailed history of respiratory conditions. Logistic regression was used to model the association of asthma and asthma severity with history of respiratory infections, controlling for gender, family history of asthma, and other factors. [Results] Our data indicated the significant association of current asthma with the numbers of respiratory infection and ear infection in the past year and the morbidity of bronchiolitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, NICU treatment in neonate, male, asthmatic family history, allergies and passive smoking, but not with the first age at first respiratory and ear infection. [Conclusion] There is association of early respiratory and ear

  13. Exploration of early respiratory infections and children's current asthma in casc-control study%早期呼吸道感染疾病与儿童哮喘发病关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳庆; 陈萍; 庄家用

    2012-01-01

    [目的]初步探讨儿童后期哮喘患病与早期屣患呼吸道感染性疾病之间的关系. [方法]共317例哮喘儿童纳入研究,317例非喘息性疾病患儿作为对照.采用向家长书面问卷调查方法询问各组婴儿围产期因素、家族史及既往呼吸道感染性疾病等资料进行综合调查.采用后退法进行哮喘患病危险因素的多因素配比条件Lcgistic回归分析.[结果]在校正了其他与儿童哮喘发生发展密切相关的因素后,既往上/下呼吸道感染次数以及下呼吸道初发年龄与儿童期哮喘的发病存在密切相关;上呼吸道感染和下呼吸道感染的发作次数以及下呼吸道感染的初次发作年龄均与哮喘中度、重度发作关系密切.上呼吸道感染初次发作年龄与儿童哮喘发作以及病情程度均无显著关系. [结论]本地区儿童早期呼吸道感染与儿童四岁左右哮喘的发生发展以及发作程度密切相关.%[Ohjective]To explore the association of early respiratory infection and children's current asthma. [Methods] A total of 317 children with average aged about 4 years were recruited into the study group and 317 healthy children without asthma were categorized into the control group. The parents of these children were responded to a questionnaire covering demographic factors,lifestyle,home environment,and health history,including a detailed history of respiratory conditions. Back multi-factor matched conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of children 's asthma about four years old. [Results]After adjustment for the other covariate factors, the data indicated the significant association of current asthma and the degree with the numbers of upper/low respiratory infection and the age of onset of low respiratory infection in the past year. No significant correlation was found between the ages of onset of upper respiratory infection with current asthma and the degree. [Conclusion

  14. Analysis of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants%超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华娟

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症的发生情况。方法对2010年3月~2012年12月本院出生的129例超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行临床分析。结果新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS),呼吸暂停,肺部感染,气漏,支气管肺发育不良(BPD)3组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中<1000 g组发生率最高,1250~1499 g组发生率最低。3组痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行密切监护和针对治疗,可提高患儿的成活率,提高生存质量。%Objective To investigate the occurrence of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants. Methods Early respiratory complications of 129 cases with extremely low and very low birth weight infants born in our hospital from March 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results There were significant differences in NRDS,apnea,pulmonary infection,gas leakage and BPD among the three groups(P<0.05).The incidence of the group with birth weight less than 1000 g was the highest,while the incidence of the group with birth weight ranged from 1250 g to 1499 g was the lowest.There was significant difference in the cure rate among the three groups(P<0.05). Concluson Close monitoring and corresponding treatment of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants can improve the survival rate and life quality of infants.

  15. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  16. The potential role of respiratory motion management and image guidance in the reduction of severe toxicities following stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for patients with centrally located early stage non-small cell lung cancer or lung metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Image guidance allows delivery of very high doses of radiation over a few fractions, known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR. This treatment is associated with excellent outcome for early stage non-small cell lung cancer and metastases to the lungs. In the delivery of SABR, central location constantly poses a challenge due to the difficulty of adequately sparing critical thoracic structures that are immediately adjacent to the tumor if an ablative dose of radiation is to be delivered to the tumor target. As of current, various respiratory motion management and image guidance strategies can be used to ensure accurate tumor target localization prior and/ or during daily treatment, which allows for maximal and safe reduction of set up margins. The incorporation of both may lead to the most optimal normal tissue sparing and the most accurate SABR delivery. Here, the clinical outcome, treatment related toxicities, and the pertinent respiratory motion management/image guidance strategies reported in the current literature on SABR for central lung tumors are reviewed.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  18. Pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids and N-acetylcysteine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凌; 蔡柏蔷; 朱元珏

    2004-01-01

    Background T lymphocytes and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the details of the mechanisms involved are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the changes in interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), MMP-9, MMP-12 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels in a smoke-induced COPD rat model and the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids and N-acetylcysteine.Methods Male Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 3.5 months. Budesonide or N-acetylcysteine was given in the last month. Lung function was measured at the end of the study. IL-4 and IFN-γ levels were then determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of MMP-9, MMP-12 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissue was determined by RT-PCR. Results In comparison with the control group, rats exposed to smoke had a significant increase in IL-4 and MMP-12 levels and a significant decrease in IFN-γ levels. In addition, the IL-4/ IFN-γ ratio and MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio were both higher. At the same time, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second to forced vital capacity (FEV0.3/FVC) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) decreased and expiratory resistance (Re) increased. By measuring pulmonary mean linear intercept and mean alveolar numbers, obvious emphysematous changes were observed in the smoke exposed group. After treatment with budesonide, IL-4 and MMP-12 decreased and IFN-γ increased. The IL-4/IFN-γ ratio returned to normal, though the MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio remained unchanged. FEV0.3/FVC was significantly higher and Re was significantly lower than that in untreated smoke exposed rats. No significant differences were found in pulmonary mean linear intercept and mean alveolar numbers. After treatment with N-acetylcysteine, IFN-γ increased and the IL-4/IFN-γ ratio decreased. The MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio remained

  19. Early caregiving stress exposure moderates the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity at 1 month and biobehavioral outcomes at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore; Abar, Beau; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing scientific interest in the psychophysiological functioning of children living in low-socioeconomic status (SES) contexts, though this research is complicated by knowledge that physiology-behavior relations often operate differently in these environments among adults. Importantly, such research is made more difficult because SES may be a proxy for a wide range of risk factors including poor caregiving and exposure to parental substance use. We used factor analysis to organize risk-exposure data collected from 827 children-many of whom were raised in low-SES contexts and exposed to substances prenatally-into dissociable components including economic stress, caregiving stress (e.g., stress the caregiver may experience, including parental psychopathology), and postnatal substance exposure. These factors, along with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity at age 1 month, were used to predict behavior dysregulation and resting RSA at age 3 years. A significant RSA Reactivity × Caregiving Stress interaction indicated that infants who exhibited high RSA reactivity at 1 month experienced the greatest behavior dysregulation at 3 years, but only when they were exposed to high levels of caregiving stress. Among African Americans, the highest resting RSA at 3 years was found in infants with less RSA reactivity, but only if they also experienced less caregiving stress. Our work is consistent with biological sensitivity to context, adaptive calibration, and allostatic load models, and highlights the importance of studying Physiology × Environment interactions in low-SES contexts for predicting behavior and resting RSA.

  20. Recuperating lung decoction attenuates inflammation and oxidation in cigarette smoke-induced COPD in rats via activation of ERK and Nrf2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlei; Yan, Yue; Shi, Qi; Kong, Yanhua; Gao, Longxia; Bao, Haipeng; Li, Youlin

    2017-07-01

    Oxidative/antioxidative imbalance and chronic inflammation are the main contributors to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effect of recuperating lung decoction (RLD) on inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with COPD induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We used intravenous infusion of LPS combined with cigarette smoke exposure as a COPD rat model. We observed that RLD treatment increased the protein level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG but decreased 8-OHdG and 4-HNE in the serum. Furthermore, RLD significantly inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β induced by cigarette smoke exposure, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and alleviated the severity of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Mechanistically, RLD treatment prevented disease through downregulation of phosphorylated-ERK and Nrf2 expression, which regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. RLD treatment exerted a dramatic therapeutic effect on COPD. This study revealed a mechanism that RLD functions on the regulation of ERK signalling to inhibit inflammation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sestrin-2, a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, promotes cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and is upregulated in individuals with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Heidler

    2013-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and/or other environmental pollutants that are believed to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS that gradually disrupt signalling pathways responsible for maintaining lung integrity. Here we identify the antioxidant protein sestrin-2 (SESN2 as a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, and PDGFRβ signalling as an upstream regulator of alveolar maintenance programmes. In mice, the mutational inactivation of Sesn2 prevents the development of cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema by upregulating PDGFRβ expression via a selective accumulation of intracellular superoxide anions (O2−. We also show that SESN2 is overexpressed and PDGFRβ downregulated in the emphysematous lungs of individuals with COPD and to a lesser extent in human lungs of habitual smokers without COPD, implicating a negative SESN2-PDGFRβ interrelationship in the pathogenesis of COPD. Taken together, our results imply that SESN2 could serve as both a biomarker and as a drug target in the clinical management of COPD.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Chinese green tea on cigarette smoke-induced up-regulation of airway neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-12 via antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Ho; Chan, Stanley Chi Hang; Yeung, Sze Chun; Man, Ricky Ying Keung; Ip, Mary Sau Man; Mak, Judith Choi Wo

    2012-09-01

    Our recent study has indicated that Chinese green tea (Lung Chen), in which epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) accounts for 60% of catechins, protected cigarette smoke-induced lung injury. We now hypothesized that Lung Chen tea may also have potential effect on lung oxidative stress and proteases/anti-proteases in a smoking rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either sham air (SA) or 4% cigarette smoke (CS) plus 2% Lung Chen tea or water by oral gavage. Serine proteases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their respective endogenous inhibitors were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissues by gelatin/casein zymography and biochemical assays. Green tea consumption significantly decreased CS-induced elevation of lung lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and CS-induced up-regulation of neutrophil elastase (NE) concentration and activity along with that of α(1)-antitrypsin (α(1)-AT) and secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) in BAL and lung. In parallel, significant elevation of MMP-12 activity was found in BAL and lung of the CS-exposed group, which returned to the levels of SA-exposed group after green tea consumption but not CS-induced reduction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 activity, which was not reversed by green tea consumption. Taken together, our data supported the presence of local oxidative stress and protease/anti-protease imbalance in the airways after CS exposure, which might be alleviated by green tea consumption through its biological antioxidant activity.

  3. FEATURES OF A COURSE OF THE INFECTION CAUSED BY A VIRUS OF HERPES OF THE 6TH TYPE AMONG CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE IN THE SETTING OF A ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Okolysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 95 children aged from 5 months till 3 years (middle age 1,7 ±1,1, who were admitted in children's infectious department of theClinicalInfectionsHospital№1 by diagnosis acute respiratory virus infection in the height of disease. Anti-genes of sharp respiratory viruses by the IF method, markers of HHV-6 type, and also a cytomegalovirus of the person (CMV and Epstein-Barre's virus the ELISA methods and PTsR-rv are studied. Respiratory viruses are found among the hospitalized children in 46,3% of cases, from them paraflu (32,6% in comparison with flu (9,5% and a respiratornosintsitialny virus (4,2%, р < 0,05 statistically significantly is more often revealed. Markers of HHV are revealed at 73,7% of children. During the mixed infection HHV-6 markers are found in the vast majority of children (79,4% in combination with this or that representative of Herpesviridae, is statistically significantly more often with CMV(16,8%, р < 0,05. DNA of HHV-6 is statistically significantly more often (41% and with more viral load (53 400 copies/ml is revealed in a saliva in comparison with blood and urine. DNA of HHV-6 ina saliva statistically significantly is defined among the children visiting child care centers more often, than at unorganized children (72% against 40,4%, р = 0,0001 that testifies about a horizontal transmission of infection. It is observed that markers of HHV-6 are defined statistically significantly more often among children aged from 7 till 12 months (50% and among children older by 1 year (49,2% in comparison with children aged from 0 till 6 months (10%, р < 0,05. It is shown that among children of an early age the exanthema at HHV-6-of an infection is associated with presence of DNA of HHV-6 with high concentration (more than 120 000 copies/ml in blood.

  4. Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinrong; Cui, Zhaobo; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Gao, Pan; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shufen; Li, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients. The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China. A total of 74 patients received NPPV and 90 patients received CMV. Inclusion criteria included the following: physician-diagnosed AECOPD, spontaneous airway clearance of excessive secretions, arterial blood gas analysis requiring intensive care, moderate-to-severe dyspnea, and a Kelly–Matthay scale score of 3 to 5. Exclusion criteria included the following: preexisting psychiatric/neurological disorders unrelated to HE, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper airway obstruction, acute coronary syndromes, preadmission tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, and urgent endotracheal intubation for cardiovascular, psychomotor agitation, or severe hemodynamic conditions. Intensive care unit participants were managed by NPPV. Participants received standard treatment consisting of controlled oxygen therapy during NPPV-free periods; antibiotics, intravenous doxofylline, corticosteroids (e.g., salbutamol and ambroxol), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin; and therapy for comorbidities if necessary. Nasogastric tubes were inserted only in participants who developed gastric distension. No pharmacological sedation was administered. The primary and secondary outcome measures included comparative complication rates, durations of ventilation and hospitalization, number of invasive devices/patient, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality

  5. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which ... The very nature of respiratory physiology ... of this essential step with resultant loss of accuracy in .... intensity of treatment, or for medicolegal .... likened to trying to manage dia-.

  6. Paraoxsonase2 (PON2) and oxidative stress involvement in pomegranate juice protection against cigarette smoke-induced macrophage cholesterol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Aviram, Michael

    2016-11-25

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) promotes various stages of atherosclerosis development. Macrophages are the predominant cells in early atherogenesis, and the polyphenolic-rich pomegranate juice (PJ) is known for its protective role against macrophage atherogenicity. The aim of the current study was to examine the atherogenic effects of CS on macrophages, and to evaluate the protective effects of PJ against CS-induced macrophage atherogenicity. Murine J774A.1 macrophages were treated with CS-exposed medium in the absence or presence of PJ. Parameters of lipid peroxidation in CS-exposed medium were measured by the lipid peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. Atherogenicity of macrophages incubated with increasing concentrations of CS-exposed medium was assessed by cytotoxicity, oxidative stress determined by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA, activity of the cellular anti-oxidant paraoxonase2 (PON2), macrophage accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as through high density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux from the cells. CS exposure resulted in significant and dose-dependent increases in lipid peroxides and TBARS medium levels (up to 3 and 8-fold, respectively). Incubation of macrophages with CS-exposed medium resulted in dose-dependent increases in macrophage damage/injury (up to 6-fold), intracellular ROS levels (up to 31%), PON2 activity (up to 2-fold), and macrophage cholesterol content (up to 24%). The latter might be explained by reduced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from CS-exposed macrophages (by 21%). PJ protected macrophages from CS-induced increases in intracellular ROS levels and cholesterol accumulation, as well as the attenuated efflux of cholesterol. These data indicate that CS stimulates macrophage oxidation and activates PON2 as a possible compensatory response to the oxidative burden. CS impairs HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages leading to cellular

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of anti-inflammatory compounds in acute and chronic mouse models of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Joanie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate compounds being developed to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are typically assessed using either acute or chronic mouse smoking models; however, in both systems compounds have almost always been administered prophylactically. Our aim was to determine whether the prophylactic effects of reference anti-inflammatory compounds in acute mouse smoking models reflected their therapeutic effects in (more clinically relevant chronic systems. Methods To do this, we started by examining the type of inflammatory cell infiltrate which occurred after acute (3 days or chronic (12 weeks cigarette smoke exposure (CSE using female, C57BL/6 mice (n = 7-10. To compare the effects of anti-inflammatory compounds in these models, mice were exposed to either 3 days of CSE concomitant with compound dosing or 14 weeks of CSE with dosing beginning after week 12. Budesonide (1 mg kg-1; i.n., q.d., roflumilast (3 mg kg-1; p.o., q.d. and fluvastatin (2 mg kg-1; p.o., b.i.d. were dosed 1 h before (and 5 h after for fluvastatin CSE. These dose levels were selected because they have previously been shown to be efficacious in mouse models of lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF leukocyte number was the primary endpoint in both models as this is also a primary endpoint in early clinical studies. Results To start, we confirmed that the inflammatory phenotypes were different after acute (3 days versus chronic (12 weeks CSE. The inflammation in the acute systems was predominantly neutrophilic, while in the more chronic CSE systems BALF neutrophils (PMNs, macrophage and lymphocyte numbers were all increased (p Conclusions These results demonstrate that the acute, prophylactic systems can be used to identify compounds with therapeutic potential, but may not predict a compound's efficacy in chronic smoke exposure models.

  8. 器官捐赠供肺移植受者术后早期肺部感染17例临床分析%Early respiratory infections in lung transplantation recipients from donation after cardiac death donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 张稷; 卫栋; 陈静瑜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiology,etiology and prevention strategy of early respiratory infections (≤1 month) in lung transplantation recipients with donation after cardiac death donors.Method The clinical data of donors and recipients,particularly on early respiratory infections,were retrospectively analyzed in 17 lung transplantations.Result From Jan.2015 to Apr.2015,12 episodes of early respiratory infections (≤ 1 month) in 17 lung transplantation recipients occurred (12/17,70.6%).The organisms most frequently involved were bacteria:Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4/26,15.4%),Klebsiella pneumoniae (4/26,15.4%),Staphylococcus aureus (3/26,11.5%),and Acinetobacter baumannii (3/26,11.5%).Of 26 bacterial strains,3 were Methecillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus,3 were carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumanni,2 were carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas cepacia,2 were extended spectrum b-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae,and one was carbapenem and quinolone resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Conclusion The morbidity of early infections is high in lung transplantation recipients.In our experience,bacterial respiratory infections are most common in the early post-transplant period (≤ 1 month).Incidence of Aspergillus spp.and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia is lower than before lung transplantation,probably due to the spread of universal prophylaxis.%目的 旨在探讨心脏死亡供者器官捐赠供肺移植术后早期(≤1个月)受者呼吸道感染的发病率、病原体及防治策略.方法 回顾分析2015年1月至2015年4月间心脏死亡供者器官捐赠供肺移植17例的供、受者资料,特别是受者术后早期呼吸道感染的临床资料.结果 17例受者术后早期共发生呼吸道感染12例次,术后呼吸道分泌物培养共得致病细菌26株,包括铜绿假单胞菌4株(15.4%,4/26),肺炎克雷伯菌4株(15.4%,4/26),鲍曼不动杆菌3株(11.5%,3/26),金黄色葡萄球菌3株(11.5%,3/26),嗜麦芽窄食单胞菌2

  9. The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, N-acetylcysteine and green tea on tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in strain A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschi, H; Espiritu, I; Yu, M; Willits, N H

    1998-10-01

    Male and female strain A/J mice were exposed to a mixture of cigarette sidestream and mainstream smoke at a chamber concentration of total suspended particulates of 82.5 mg/m3. Exposure time was 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 months. The animals were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air before sacrifice and lung tumor count. Male animals were fed either 0.2% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 0.05% phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in diet AIN-76A with 5% corn oil added. Female animals received normal laboratory chow and were given a 1.25% extract of green tea in the drinking water. Corresponding control groups were fed diets without NAC or PEITC or given plain tap water. Exposure to tobacco smoke increased lung tumor multiplicity to 1.1-1.6 tumors/lung, significantly higher than control values (0.5-1.0 tumors/lung). None of the putative chemopreventive agents (NAC, PEITC or green tea extract) had a protective effect. In positive control experiments, PEITC significantly reduced both lung tumor multiplicity and incidence in mice treated with the tobacco smoke-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In mice treated with three different doses of urethan and fed NAC in the diet, a significant reduction in lung tumor multiplicity was found only at one dose level. Green tea extract did not reduce lung tumor multiplicity in animals treated with a single dose of NNK. It was concluded that successful chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis might require administration of several chemopreventive agents rather than just a single one.

  10. Associations of interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms with C-reactive protein concentration and lung function decline in smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Shumansky, Karey; Sin, Don D; Man, S F Paul; Akhabir, Loubna; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Paré, Peter D; Sandford, Andrew J; He, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We reported association of haplotypes formed by IL-1b (IL1B)-511C/T (rs16944) and a variable number of tandem repeats (rs2234663) in intron 3 of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) with rate of lung function decline in smoking-induced COPD. The aim of current study was to further investigate this association. We genotyped an additional 19 polymorphisms in IL1 cluster (including IL1A, IL1B and IL1RN) in non-Hispanic whites who had the fastest (n = 268) and the slowest (n = 292) decline of FEV1% predicted in the same study. We also analyzed the association of all 21 polymorphisms with serum CRP levels. None of 21 polymorphisms showed significant association with rate of decline of lung function or CRP levels after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Before adjusting for multiple comparisons, only IL1RN_19327 (rs315949) showed significant association with lung function decline (P = 0.03, additive model). The frequencies of genotypes containing the IL1RN_19327A allele were 71.9% and 62.2%, respectively in the fast and slow decline groups (P = 0.02, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3); the IL1B_5200 (rs1143633) and rs2234663 in IL1RN were associated with serum CRP levels (P=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). No single marker was significantly associated with either rate of lung function decline or serum CRP levels.

  11. Practical approach to management of respiratory complications in neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangera Z

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zaheer Mangera, Kirat Panesar, Himender MakkerRespiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Patients with certain neurological diseases are at increased risk of developing chest infections as well as respiratory failure due to muscular weakness. In particular, patients with certain neuromuscular disorders are at higher risk. These conditions are often associated with sleep disordered breathing. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory complications early in the course of their disease, although patients with neuromuscular disorders often present in the acute setting with respiratory involvement. This review of the respiratory complications of neurological disorders, with a particular focus on neuromuscular disorders, explores why this happens and looks at how to recognize, investigate, and manage these patients effectively.Keywords: respiratory failure, respiratory muscle weakness

  12. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  13. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  14. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  15. [Occupational respiratory tract allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebohle, E; Wallenstein, G

    1979-04-01

    Professionally conditioned allergoses of the respiratory tract (BK 41) can occur in all industrial regions. The allergoses conditioned by organic dusts of vegetable or animal origin (regions food production, plant production and animal keeping) predominate. Since 1976 the BK 41 has been on the 10th rank of alases, 1977), above all conditioned by an improved establishment. Among the diagnoses bronchial asthma is in the first place. The high proportion of allergoses by cereal constituents is to be led back to the, as a rule, unproblematic allergologic clarification diagnostics. One may conclude that difficulties of the recognition in other allergens condition a considerable dark number, particularly in chemical working materials. The allergoses by cereal constituents are followed by the constituents of the animal epidermis (above all hair of laboratory animals). The remainder -- without any importance of the succession -- belongs to moulds, mites, plant pollen, parasubstituted aromates, chrome and rare allergens. Apart from the slight number of alveolitis diseases the allergoses conditioned by organic dusts belong to the type of early reaction (characteristic representatives: baker's asthma). Problematical are the allergoses of the type of the late reaction. Chemical substances of the hapten type are above all in question (characteristic representative: chrome asthma). Here is most cases expressed irritation effects are present so that this pathogenetic factor is frequently determining without proving any immune-specific effects. The report is based on forgiven criteria of decision.

  16. [Postoperative respiratory insufficiency and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösek, V; Wiebe, K

    2015-05-01

    The development of a postoperative respiratory insufficiency is typically caused by several factors and include patient-related risks, the extent of the procedure and postoperative complications. Morbidity and mortality rates in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high. It is important to have consistent strategies for prevention and preoperative conditioning is essential primarily for high-risk patients. Treatment of established postoperative lung failure requires early tracheotomy, protective ventilation (tidal volume 6 ml/kg body weight), elevated positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP, 10-20 mmH2O), recurrent bronchoscopy and early patient mobilization. In critical cases an extracorporeal lung assist is considered to be beneficial as a bridge to recovery and for realizing a protective ventilation protocol. Different systems with separate indications are available. The temporary application of a lung assist allows thoracic surgery to be performed safely in patients presenting with insufficient respiratory function.

  17. Palivizumab prophylaxis, respiratory syncytial virus, and subsequent recurrent wheezing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoes, Eric A. F.; Groothuis, Jessil R.; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Reger, Christian H. L.; Mitchell, Ian; Fredrick, Linda M.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Children who experience respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) early in life have high rates of subsequent recurrent wheezing. Palivizumab, an anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, has 78% to 80% efficacy in preventing RSV hospitalization in premature infants

  18. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in cigarette smoke-induced mucus hypersecretion in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jun; WANG Ke; FENG Yu-lin; CHEN Xue-rong; XU Dan; ZHANG Ming-ke

    2011-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,which is closely associated with cigarette smoking.However,the signal transduction pathway from the cell surface to the nucleus through which cigarette smoke causes upregulation of mucin gene expression is not well known.This study was designed to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) in airway mucus hypersecretion induced by cigarette smoke in rats.Methods A rat model of airway mucus hypersecretion was induced by exposure to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks.Rats exposed to inhalation of cigarette smoke or normal saline were given an intraperitoneal injection of U0126,a specific MEK1 kinase inhibitor,at doses of 0.25 mg/kg,0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg for 14 days.Expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein,ERK 1/2 and phosphorylated-ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) were detected by RT-PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Results Cigarette smoke significantly increased airway goblet cells metaplasia,induced the overexpression of MUG5AC mRNA and protein in bronchial epithelia,and increased the ratio of p-ERK 1/2 and ERK 1/2.U0126 significantly attentuated the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein induced by cigarette smoke (P <0.05).Moreover,there was a significant positive correlation between the ratio of p-ERK1/2 to ERK1/2 and the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein (P<0.05).Conclusions Inhibition of ERK 1/2 by U0126 decreased the ratio of p-ERK 1/2 to ERK 1/2 and expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein.ERK 1/2 may play an essential role in cigarette smoke-induced mucus hypersecretion in vivo.

  19. A novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving role for resolvin D1 in acute cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Min Hsiao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a profound pro-inflammatory stimulus that contributes to acute lung injuries and to chronic lung disease including COPD (emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Until recently, it was assumed that resolution of inflammation was a passive process that occurred once the inflammatory stimulus was removed. It is now recognized that resolution of inflammation is a bioactive process, mediated by specialized lipid mediators, and that normal homeostasis is maintained by a balance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving pathways. These novel small lipid mediators, including the resolvins, protectins and maresins, are bioactive products mainly derived from dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. We hypothesize that resolvin D1 (RvD1 has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in a model of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.Primary human lung fibroblasts, small airway epithelial cells and blood monocytes were treated with IL-1β or cigarette smoke extract in combination with RvD1 in vitro, production of pro-inflammatory mediators was measured. Mice were exposed to dilute mainstream cigarette smoke and treated with RvD1 either concurrently with smoke or after smoking cessation. The effects on lung inflammation and lung macrophage populations were assessed.RvD1 suppressed production of pro-inflammatory mediators by primary human cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of mice with RvD1 concurrently with cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced neutrophilic lung inflammation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. RvD1 promoted differentiation of alternatively activated (M2 macrophages and neutrophil efferocytosis. RvD1 also accelerated the resolution of lung inflammation when given after the final smoke exposure.RvD1 has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in cells and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Resolvins

  20. Effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) on inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-ye Geng; Zi-bing Liu; Na-na Song; Gui-hong Zhang; Wei-zhong Jin; Wang Zhou; Li Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:Improvement in lung function was reported after acupuncture treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),but little is known about the underlying mechanisms.Because an immune response imbalance could be seen in COPD,we hypothesize that electroacupuncture (EA) may play a role in regulating inflammatory cytokines and contribute to lung protection in a rat model of smoke-induced COPD.METHODS:A COPD model using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to cigarette smoke was established.The rats were randomly divided into four groups (control,sham,COPD,and COPD plus EA),and COPD model was evaluated by measuring pulmonary pathological changes and lung function.EA was applied to the acupuncture point Zusanli (ST36) for 30 min/d for 14 d in sham and COPD rats.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was used to measure levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-1β (IL-β),and malonaldehyde (MDA).RESULTS:Compared with the control rats,COPD rats had significant changes in lung resistance (RL) and lung compliance (CL) (both P<0.01),bronchi and bronchiole airway obstruction (P<0.01),and levels of MDA,TNF-α,and IL-1β (P<0.01).There were no significant differences between the control and the sham groups.Compared with the COPD rats,the COPD plus EA rats had decreased RL and increased CL (both P<0.05),and reduced bronchi and bronchiole airway obstruction (P<0.05,P<0.01,respectively),while levels of TNF-α,IL-1β,and MDA in BALF were lowered (P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively).However,TNF-α and IL-1βlevels of the EA group rats remained higher than those of the control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:EA at ST36 can reduce lung injury in a COPD rat model,and beneficial effects may be related to down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines.The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects may prolong the clinical benefit of EA.

  1. Practical approach to management of respiratory complications in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangera, Zaheer; Panesar, Gurkirat; Makker, Himender

    2012-01-01

    Patients with certain neurological diseases are at increased risk of developing chest infections as well as respiratory failure due to muscular weakness. In particular, patients with certain neuromuscular disorders are at higher risk. These conditions are often associated with sleep disordered breathing. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory complications early in the course of their disease, although patients with neuromuscular disorders often present in the acute setting with respiratory involvement. This review of the respiratory complications of neurological disorders, with a particular focus on neuromuscular disorders, explores why this happens and looks at how to recognize, investigate, and manage these patients effectively.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Treatment Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory Syncytial ... Specific Aims Outline Your Experiments Know Your Audience Write Your Research Plan Plan Your Budget & Personnel Salary ...

  3. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCIs often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB. Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients’ inspiratory function following a SCI.

  4. Respiratory Infections Precede Adult-Onset Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of a...

  5. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen.

  6. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  7. Advances in respiratory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Bach, Jonathan F; Shaw, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    Effective respiratory therapy depends on obtaining a definitive diagnosis and following established recommendations for treatment. Unfortunately, many respiratory conditions are idiopathic in origin or are attributable to nonspecific inflammation. In some situations, disorders are controlled rather than cured. Recent advances in pulmonary therapeutics include the use of new agents to treat common diseases and application of local delivery of drugs to enhance drug effect and minimize side effects.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  9. Miliary tuberculosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, A R; Marruecos, L; Artigas, A; Rodriguez, C

    1987-01-01

    Although, miliary tuberculosis is an unusual cause of severe acute respiratory failure, we describe nine patients with miliary tuberculosis who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. This complication occurred in seven patients despite treatment with antituberculous drugs. In two patients who developed the syndrome, miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed only at postmortem. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in all cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in seven cases suggests a possible pathophysiologic relationship with severe pulmonary vascular damage. The high mortality rate (88.8%) was associated with nonpulmonary organ system failure. Miliary tuberculosis should be considered in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome of unknown etiology, and simple diagnostic procedures such as sputum, bronchial brushing, and gastric examination should be followed by invasive diagnostic procedures to confirm this etiology. Since untreated miliary tuberculosis is usually fatal, early recognition of this disease is of great importance, and specific therapy may play a lifesaving role.

  10. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    (brachytherapy, tumoural ablation by laser or photodynamic therapy can quickly alleviate the symptoms and re-establish the air flow. Treatment of haemoptysis depends on the cause that is provoking it and on its quantity. Bronchoscopy continues to be the front line procedure in the majority of cases; it provides diagnostic information and can interrupt bleeding through washes with ice-cold serum, endobronchial plugging or topical injections of adrenaline or thrombin. External radiotherapy continues to be an extraordinarily useful procedure in treating haemoptysis caused by tumours and in carefully selected situations of endobronchial therapy with laser or brachytherapy, and bronchial arterial embolisation can provide a great palliative effect. Respiratory emergencies due to pulmonary parenchyma disease in the oncology patient can have a tumoural, iatrogenic or infectious cause. Early recognition of each of these will determine the administration of a specific treatment and the possibilities of success.

  11. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  12. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  13. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  14. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  15. Reduced nuclear translocation of serum response factor is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in a cigarette smoke-induced mouse model of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ran Ma, Xuefang Gong, Hua Jiang, Chunyi Lin, Yuqin Chen, Xiaoming Xu, Chenting Zhang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu, Nanshan ZhongGuangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, The 1st Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction are common complications in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Serum response factor (SRF is a transcription factor which is critical in myocyte differentiation and growth. In this study, we established a mouse COPD model induced by cigarette smoking (CS exposure for 24 weeks, with apparent pathophysiological changes, including increased airway resistance, enlarged alveoli, and skeletal muscle atrophy. Levels of upstream regulators of SRF, striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS, and ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA were decreased in quadriceps muscle of COPD mice. Meanwhile, the nucleic location of SRF was diminished along with its cytoplasmic accumulation. There was a downregulation of the target muscle-specific gene, Igf1. These results suggest that the CS is one of the major cause for COPD pathogenesis, which induces the COPD-associated skeletal muscle atrophy which is closely related to decreasing SRF nucleic translocation, consequently downregulating the SRF target genes involved in muscle growth and nutrition. The STARS/RhoA signaling pathway might contribute to this course by impacting SRF subcellular distribution. Keywords: SRF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, skeletal muscle atrophy, cigarette smoking

  16. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  17. Establishment of a Rabbit Model of Smoke-Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%构建单纯烟熏至慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 邢珍; 刘全乐; 王锦川; 焦宝良; 王新生; 刘军超; 李福龙

    2013-01-01

    To establishment of a rabbit model of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods:Cut tobacco was used as irritant to prepare chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models,Those rabbits in smoke-induced model group were in self-made smoke cage,Pure cut tobacco 15g was burned at a time.Those rabbits in normal control group were not exposed to smoke.Exposed to smoker for 0.5 hour once,2 times per day,lasted for 70 days.All rabbits were anesthetized at no smoking for 1 week after the last smoke exposure,the arterial blood gases were analyzed before being sacrificed.Protein content in right lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured and leukocyte count and classification were also done.The removed left lung tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histomorphology observation.Results:Totally 11 rabbits were involved in the analysis.When compared with normal control group,in smoke-induced model group,there were plenty of inflammatoty cells infiltrated in bronchial walls.Protein content and total mumber of leukocytes in BALF were increased significantly(p<0.05); PO2 and SaO2 were significantly lower (p<0.05),PCO2 were significantly higher (p<0.05).Conclusion:A smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rabbit model was established successfully,and it should endure a long time one-lung ventilation after being anesthetized.%目的:构建烟熏至慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型.方法:利用自制的方法采用单纯旱烟烟熏兔70d停1周,麻醉后行血气分析,处死后右肺进行支气管灌洗液分析,左肺作病理切片.结果:与正常饲养兔相比,烟熏兔肺泡灌洗液中蛋白含量显著增加,白细胞总数显著增加,分类中中性粒细胞比例增加:动脉氧分压(PO2)明显降低(P<0.05),二氧化碳分压(PCO2)增高(P<0.05),动脉血氧饱和度明显下降(p<0.05).结论:自制方法成功构建慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型,并能耐受麻醉过程中长时间单肺通气.

  18. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  19. Respiratory problems in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrant, N J; Gatland, D J

    1990-01-01

    Death from respiratory causes in acromegaly is three times more common than in the general population and is most often the result of upper airways obstruction, although less commonly pulmonary dysfunction and disturbance of the central nervous system may occur. These factors may be found alone or in combination. Despite several reports of laryngeal involvement, upper airway obstruction in acromegaly is usually regarded as being due to macroglossia and pharyngeal soft tissue hypertrophy. We present four cases of acromegaly in which tracheostomy was required for laryngeal obstruction, with a review of the literature concerning the nature of respiratory problems in acromegaly.

  20. GlyT2-Dependent Preservation of MECP2-Expression in Inhibitory Neurons Improves Early Respiratory Symptoms but Does Not Rescue Survival in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmann, Swen; Mesuret, Guillaume; Dannenberg, Julia; Arnoldt, Mauricio; Niebert, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been shown to manifest in a neurodevelopmental disorder that is called Rett syndrome. A typical problem that occurs during development is a disturbance of breathing. To address the role of inhibitory neurons, we generated a mouse line that restores MECP2 in inhibitory neurons in the brainstem by crossbreeding a mouse line that expresses the Cre-recombinase (Cre) in inhibitory neurons under the control of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2, slc6a5) promotor (GlyT2-Cre) with a mouse line that has a floxed-stop mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2stop/y). Unrestrained whole-body-plethysmography at postnatal day P60 revealed a low respiratory rate and prolonged respiratory pauses in Mecp2stop/y mice. In contrast, GlyT2-Cre positive Mecp2stop/y mice (Cre+; Mecp2stop/y) showed greatly improved respiration and were indistinguishable from wild type littermates. These data support the concept that alterations in inhibitory neurons are important for the development of the respiratory phenotype in Rett syndrome. PMID:27672368

  1. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  2. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capacity. Other problems include ineffective cough, poor secretion clearance, airway diseases such as asthma, sleep apnea, and low oxygen. These problems affect people of all ages and all types of OI. Respiratory infection, poor ... good secretion clearance by staying well hydrated and speaking to your ...

  3. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  4. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  5. American Association for Respiratory Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBRC Credentials Congress News & Highlights Clinician Training on Tobacco Dependence for Respiratory Therapists Increase your skill with ... 12 Dad’s Struggle with ALS Inspires Respiratory Therapy Student Read More Oct 12 RSV Experience Leads Member ...

  6. Respiratory Resistance In Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael J.

    1975-01-01

    Patients' respiratory problems may interfere with their talking in therapy sessions. Interventions by the therapist must be based on an understanding of the underlying dynamics which produced the respiratory problem. (Author)

  7. Respiratory manifestations in amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling; CAI Bai-qiang; ZHONG Xu; ZHU Yuan-jue

    2005-01-01

    Background Amyloidosis is a collection of diseases in which different proteins are deposited. Amyloid deposits occur in systemic and organ-limited forms. In both systemic and localized forms of the disease, lung can be involved. The aim of this study was to explore the different respiratory manifestations of amyloidosis. Methods Chest radiology, clinical presentations, bronchoscopic/laryngoscopic findings and lung function data of 59 patients with amyloidosis involving respiratory tract collected during January 1986 to March 2005, were analysed.Results Of the 16 cases with localized respiratory tract amyloidosis, 8 had the lesions in the trachea and the bronchi, 2 in the larynx and the trachea, 5 in the larynx and/or the pharynx, and 1 in the lung parenchyma. Of 43 systemic amyloidosis with respiratory tract involvement, 3 had the lesions in bronchi, 13 in lung parenchyma, 33 in pleura, 8 in mediastina, 1 in nose and 1 in pharynx. Chest X-rays were normal in most cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. CT, unlike chest X-rays, showed irregular luminal narrowing, airway wall thickening with calcifications and soft tissue shadows in airway lumen. Localized lung parenchymal amyloidosis presented as multiple nodules. Multiple nodular opacities, patch shadows and reticular opacities were the main radiological findings in systemic amyloidosis with lung parenchymal involvement. In pleural amyloidosis, pleural effusions and pleural thickening were detected. Mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy were also a form of lung involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The major bronchoscopic findings of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were narrowing of airway lumen, while nodular, 'tumour like' or 'bubble like' masses, with missing or vague cartilaginous rings, were detected in about half of the patients.Conclusions Localized respiratory tract amyloidosis mostly affects the trachea and the bronchi. Chest X-rays are not sensitive to detect these lesions. Systemic amyloidosis often involves

  8. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  9. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechan

  10. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...

  11. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  12. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  13. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  14. Respiratory diseases in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases are one of the major indirect causes of maternal deaths. Pregnancy is a unique physiological state during which changes occur in all systems of the body to meet metabolic needs of both the mother and growing foetus. Enlarging uterus and increasing hormonal levels cause changes in volumes and mechanics of lungs. Understanding the basic physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory changes during pregnancy along with the pathology of disease processes are vital in makin...

  15. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  16. The global burden of respiratory disease-impact on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Heather J; Ferkol, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with infants and young children especially susceptible. The spectrum of disease ranges from acute infections to chronic non-communicable diseases. Five respiratory conditions dominate-acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, tuberculosis (TB), and lung cancer. Pneumonia remains the predominant cause of childhood mortality, causing nearly 1.3 million deaths each year, most of which are preventable. Asthma is the commonest non-communicable disease in children. Pediatric TB constitutes up to 20% of the TB caseload in high incidence countries. Environmental exposures such as tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, and poor nutrition are common risk factors for acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Pediatric and adult respiratory disease is closely linked. Early childhood respiratory infection or environmental exposures may lead to chronic disease in adulthood. Childhood immunization can effectively reduce the incidence and severity of childhood pneumonia; childhood immunization is also effective for reducing pneumonia in the elderly. The Forum of International Respiratory Societies (FIRS), representing the major respiratory societies worldwide, has produced a global roadmap of respiratory diseases, Respiratory Disease in the World: Realities of Today-Opportunities for Tomorrow. This highlights the burden of respiratory diseases globally and contains specific recommendations for effective strategies. Greater availability and upscaled implementation of effective strategies for prevention and management of respiratory diseases is needed worldwide to improve global health and diminish the current inequities in health care worldwide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during the laryngeal chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Aidan K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laryngeal chemoreflex exists in infants as a primary sensory mechanism for defending the airway from the aspiration of liquids. Previous studies have hypothesized that prolonged apnea associated with this reflex may be life threatening and might be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Methods In this study we quantified the output of the respiratory neural network, the diaphragm EMG signal, during the laryngeal chemoreflex and eupnea in early postnatal (3–10 days piglets. We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm EMG activity corresponding to reflex-related events involved in clearance (restorative mechanisms such as cough and swallow exhibit lower complexity, suggesting that a synchronized homogeneous group of neurons in the central respiratory network are active during these events. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using the approximate entropy to asses the complexity of respiratory patterns. Results Diaphragm EMG, genioglossal activity EMG, as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume were recorded from 5 unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets. Approximate entropy values of the EMG during cough and swallow were found significantly (p p Conclusion Reduced complexity values of the respiratory neural network output corresponding to coughs and swallows suggest synchronous neural activity of a homogeneous group of neurons. The higher complexity values exhibited by eupneic respiratory activity are the result of a more random behaviour, which is the outcome of the integrated action of several groups of neurons involved in the respiratory neural network.

  18. [Hardware and software for EMG recording and analysis of respiratory muscles of human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnushkin, S D; Chakhman, V N; Segizbaeva, M O; Pogodin, M A; Aleksandrov, V G

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new hardware and software system that allows to not only record the EMG of different groups of the respiratory muscles, but also hold its amplitude-frequency analysis, which allows to determine the change in the contribution to the work of breathing of a respiratory muscles and detect early signs of fatigue of the respiratory muscles. Presented complex can be used for functional diagnostics of breath in patients and healthy people and sportsmen.

  19. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apeksh Patwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone.

  20. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  1. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabeticketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidityand mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requiresfocused clinical monitoring, careful interpretationof arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditionsthat can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions thatcompromise respiratory function caused by DKA can bedetected at presentation but are usually more prevalentduring treatment. These conditions include deficits ofpotassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic ornon-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not causedby DKA that can worsen respiratory function under theadded stress of DKA include infections of the respiratorysystem, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular diseaseand miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognitionand management of the conditions that can lead torespiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failureand improve mortality from DKA.

  2. Metformin-associated respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2004-01-01

    We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.

  3. Respiratory tract malacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Banner, Jytte

    2006-01-01

    To stress the importance of considering Laryngo-tracheo-bronchomalacia (LTBM) as a cause of death in infancy and early childhood.......To stress the importance of considering Laryngo-tracheo-bronchomalacia (LTBM) as a cause of death in infancy and early childhood....

  4. Clinical and mutational characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, Xenia L.; Verrips, Aad; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Snoeck, Irma N.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.; Brooks, Alice; Bulk, Saskia; Gooskens, Rob; Fock, Annemarie; Verschuuren - Bemelmans, Cornelia; Sinke, Richard J.; de Visser, Marianne; Lemmink, Henny H.

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder with early respiratory difficulties, distal muscle weakness, and contractures leading to foot deformities as the most striking clinical symptoms. Mutations of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain

  5. Clinical and mutational characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, X.L.; Verrips, A.; Poll-The, B.T.; Cobben, J.M.; Snoeck, I.N.; Coo, I.F.M. de; Brooks, A.; Bulk, S.; Gooskens, R.; Fock, A.; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.; Sinke, R.J.; Visser, M. de; Lemmink, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder with early respiratory difficulties, distal muscle weakness, and contractures leading to foot deformities as the most striking clinical symptoms. Mutations of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain

  6. Approaches to induce and elicit respiratory allergy: Impact of route and intensity of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of test protocols have been developed to predict respiratory allergenic potential, none of these are widely applied or fully accepted. However, given the serious health problems caused by respiratory allergy and the ever-increasing stream of new chemicals into workplaces, early ide

  7. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  8. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  9. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M

    2012-04-01

    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  10. Acute Respiratory Distress in Children: Croup and Acute Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article.

  11. Respiratory Arrest in an Obese Pregnant Woman with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Iwashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pregnant, non-Japanese-speaking Peruvian, and, thus, with communication difficulty, suffered hyperemesis gravidarum and had respiratory arrest, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The obese pregnant woman (prepregnancy weight: 107 kg had vomited and lost 15 kg in bodyweight over appropriately 2 weeks prior to the arrest but had not complained due to communication difficulty, which, together with her obesity, prevented a Japanese obstetrician from noticing her severe condition. 1,000 mL of low potassium fluid plus thiamine was administered. She became unable to stand, suggesting lower-extremity-proximal-muscle weakness, and then respiratory arrest occurred. Hypopotassemia (2.3 mEq/L, pulseless electrical activity, and muscle weakness suggested the presence of severe potassium deficiency, which may have caused respiratory muscle paralysis, leading to the respiratory arrest. Hypercapnea was severer than expected for compensatory hypoventilation, indicating the presence of concomitant severe hypoventilation, which may also have contributed to respiratory arrest. She recovered with electrolyte and volume replacement. Respiratory arrest can occur with hyperemesis gravidarum, and obesity and communication difficulties can prevent the early detection of severe conditions.

  12. Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2010-08-01

    Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur.

  13. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR, parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses.

  14. Respiratory Therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Zagorodnyaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the outcomes of intensive care in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation.Materials and methods. Respiratory therapy was analyzed in 43 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. According to the procedure of artificial ventilation (AV, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 those who had undergone routine tracheal intubation (n=23 AND 2 THOSE who had received noninvasive intubation through a nasal mask (n=20. The respiratory parameters, blood gas composition, central hemodynamic parameters, respiratory support time, and the pattern of complications were analyzed.Results. Noninvasive artificial ventilation permits one to make the patients active in earlier periods and take a spontaneous breath, recovers the respiratory index earlier, reduces the level of positive end-expiratory pressure, the frequency of infectious complications of the tracheobronchial tree, and length of stay in an intensive care unit as compared with endotracheal AV.Conclusion. The findings suggest that noninvasive AV is highly effective and yields better results of treatment in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  15. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  16. Modeling neural mechanisms for genesis of respiratory rhythm and pattern. II. Network models of the central respiratory pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, I A; Paton, J F; Schwaber, J S

    1997-04-01

    The present paper describes several models of the central respiratory pattern generator (CRPG) developed employing experimental data and current hypotheses for respiratory rhythmogenesis. Each CRPG model includes a network of respiratory neuron types (e.g., early inspiratory; ramp inspiratory; late inspiratory; decrementing expiratory; postinspiratory; stage II expiratory; stage II constant firing expiratory; preinspiratory) and simplified models of lung and pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR), which provide feedback to the respiratory network. The used models of single respiratory neurons were developed in the Hodgkin-Huxley style as described in the previous paper. The mechanism for termination of inspiration (the inspiratory off-switch) in all models operates via late-I neuron, which is considered to be the inspiratory off-switching neuron. Several two- and three-phase CRPG models have been developed using different accepted hypotheses of the mechanism for termination of expiration. The key elements in the two-phase models are the early-I and dec-E neurons. The expiratory off-switch mechanism in these models is based on the mutual inhibitory connections between early-I and dec-E and adaptive properties of the dec-E neuron. The difference between the two-phase models concerns the mechanism for ramp firing patterns of E2 neurons resulting either from the intrinsic neuronal properties of the E2 neuron or from disinhibition from the adapting dec-E neuron. The key element of the three-phase models is the pre-I neuron, which acts as the expiratory off-switching neuron. The three-phase models differ by the mechanisms used for termination of expiration and for the ramp firing patterns of E2 neurons. Additional CRPG models were developed employing a dual switching neuron that generates two bursts per respiratory cycle to terminate both inspiration and expiration. Although distinctly different each model generates a stable respiratory rhythm and shows physiologically

  17. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43 were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2 and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease.

  18. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease. PMID:27006460

  19. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  20. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  1. Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  2. Investigation about atorvastatin resist to tobacco smoking inducing endothelial inflammation%阿托伐他汀抵抗吸烟相关性血管内皮损伤的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭轶; 卢小刚; 代远斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of atorvastatin resist to tobacco smoking inducing endothelial inflammation .Meth‐ods HUVECs were divided into normal control group ,cigarette smoking extract(CSE) group and atorvastatin(AS)+CSE group . The cellular morphology of HUVECs in three group were observed ,then the expressions of VCAM‐1 and E selectin in HUVECs in three group were detected by western blot assay .Results In CES group ,drastic morphological change of HUVECs were observed . In AS+CSE group ,minor morphological change of HUVECs were observed .Also ,the protein levels of VCAM‐1 and E selectin were much higher in CSE group than that of in other two groups(P<0 .05) ,and the protein levels of VCAM‐1 and E‐selectin in AS+CSE group were a little higher than that of in control group ,but much lower than that of in CSE group(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Our results showed that atorvastatin might partly resist to tobacco smoking inducing endothelial inflammation .%目的:探讨阿托伐他汀对吸烟相关性血管内皮损伤的保护作用。方法将人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)分为对照组、香烟提取物处理组和阿托伐他汀联合香烟提取物处理组。观察不同组细胞的形态学变化,并检测不同组细胞中血管细胞黏附分子‐1(VCAM‐1)和E‐选择素(E‐selectin)的蛋白表达。结果香烟提取物处理组HUVECs的细胞形态发生了剧烈的变化,失去了基本形态;而阿托伐他汀联合香烟提取物处理组 HUVECs的细胞形态仅发生了轻微的改变,保留了基本形态。同时VCAM‐1和E‐selectin蛋白在香烟提取物处理组细胞中表达明显高于对照组和阿托伐他汀联合香烟提取物处理组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);VCAM‐1和E‐selectin蛋白在阿托伐他汀联合香烟提取物处理组细胞中的表达稍高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿托伐他汀可以抵抗吸烟导致的血管

  3. Respiratory function in handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, C; Fujita, M; Umemoto, H; Taneda, M; Sanae, N; Tazaki, T

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory function of severely handicapped children. Tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined in a total of 130 children with different clinical motor abilities. Tidal volume of non-sitters (n = 39) was significantly lower than ambulators (n = 49) or sitters (n = 42) (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in respiratory rate among the three groups. Among 45 children whose vital capacity could be determined, the tidal volumes showed a significant correlation with vital capacity (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). Among four children whose tidal volume was less than 200 ml and respiratory rate was more than 30 cpm, blood gas analysis revealed hypoxia in three of them. The tidal volumes, therefore, would be a useful guide to estimate respiratory functions. It was concluded that the respiratory function in a non-sitter with reduced tidal volume is impaired, and that preventive measures must be taken against respiratory infection.

  4. 鲻早期发育阶段鳃的超微结构及其呼吸表面积的研究%Study on gill ultrastructure and respiratory area in early developmetal stages of grey mullet(Mugil cephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 李加儿; 谢菁; 马之明; 陈怡飚

    2014-01-01

    应用扫描电镜技术对人工繁育鲻(Mugil cephalus)早期发育阶段10、15、23、36、40和44日龄的仔、稚、幼鱼鳃结构作了观察,同时计测其呼吸表面积,探讨幼体体质量、体长与呼吸表面积之间的相关关系。结果显示,随着日龄增长,仔、稚、幼鱼的鳃结构和功能逐渐完善,鳃丝总数随仔、稚、幼鱼全长和体质量的增加分别呈幂指数式和对数式增加;单位长度鳃小片数与体质量之比值随体质量的增长呈幂指数式增加;体质量与总呼吸面积之间的变化关系以及体质量与单个鳃小片面积之间的变化关系可分别用二次项关系式表达。研究结果表明,鲻鳃的发育和分化是与仔、稚、幼鱼的生长、形态发育及生理功能的完善同步。%We observed the gill ultrastructure in early developmental stages of larval,juvenile and young grey mullets(Mugil cepha-lus)at 10th ,15th ,23rd ,36th ,40th and 44th day after hatching by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory area was estimated, and the relationship was studied among body weight,body length and respiratory area. Results show that the gill ultrastructure and function gradually improved in larval,juvenile and young M. cepalus as growing. The total number of gill filaments increased with in-creasing body length and body weight in power series and logarithmic series. The ratio of secondary filaments per millimeter to body weight increased with increasing body weight in power series. Relationship between body weight and total respiratory area as well as that between body weight and single secondary filament area could be expressed by quadratic equation. In conclusion,development and dif-ferentiation of gill were in accordance with growth,development and perfection of physiological function in larval,juvenile and young M. cepalus.

  5. Personalized Medicine in Respiratory Disease: Role of Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, V S; Teran, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases affect humanity globally, with chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, among others) and lung cancer causing extensive morbidity and mortality. These conditions are highly heterogeneous and require an early diagnosis. However, initial symptoms are nonspecific, and the clinical diagnosis is made late frequently. Over the last few years, personalized medicine has emerged as a medical care approach that uses novel technology aiming to personalize treatments according to the particular patient's medical needs. This review highlights the contributions of proteomics toward the understanding of personalized medicine in respiratory disease and its potential applications in the clinic.

  6. with respiratory symptoms in Lilongwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit of outpatient department management of patients with respiratory symptoms ... verbal reports of main symptoms did not match with those recorded on OPD notes. .... palpitations, rheumatism, tonsillitis, general body pains, COAD, difficulty ...

  7. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  8. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  9. Respiratory Failure Secondary to Human Metapneumovirus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a 32-Month-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is a common virus that can cause respiratory problems ranging from mild upper respiratory tract disease to respiratory failure requiring mechanical support. Here, we report a case of a 32-month-old male with a previous history of asthma, who developed respiratory failure two weeks after onset of cough and rhinorrhea and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO for 9 days after failing high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. To our knowledge, this is the oldest reported pediatric patient with respiratory failure secondary to human metapneumovirus that did not respond to mechanical ventilation. This case highlights three critical points: the potentially fatal causative role of HMPV in respiratory failure in an older pediatric age group of immunocompetent hosts, the importance of early recognition of impending respiratory failure, and the timely utilization of ECMO.

  10. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W R; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468).

  11. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  12. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46% and cough (n: 52, 14.98% were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%, chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%, and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01% . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91% by chi-square test (P: 0.001. To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

  13. Thalamic mediation of hypoxic respiratory depression in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo; Ibe, Basil; Guerra, Catalina; Kruger, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Immaturity of respiratory controllers in preterm infants dispose to recurrent apnea and oxygen deprivation. Accompanying reductions in brain oxygen tensions evoke respiratory depression, potentially exacerbating hypoxemia. Central respiratory depression during moderate hypoxia is revealed in the ventilatory decline following initial augmentation. This study determined whether the thalamic parafascicular nuclear (Pf) complex involved in adult nociception and sensorimotor regulation (Bentivoglio M, Balerecia G, Kruger L. Prog Brain Res 87: 53-80, 1991) also becomes a postnatal controller of hypoxic ventilatory decline. Respiratory responses to moderate isocapnic hypoxia were studied in conscious lambs. Hypoxic ventilatory decline was compared with peak augmentation. Pf and/or adjacent thalamic structures were destroyed by the neuron-specific toxin ibotenic acid (IB). IB lesions involving the thalamic Pf abolished hypoxic ventilatory decline. Lesions of adjacent thalamic nuclei that spared Pf and control injections of vehicle failed to blunt hypoxic respiratory depression. Our findings reveal that the thalamic Pf region is a critical controller of hypoxic ventilatory depression and thus a key target for exploring molecular concomitants of forebrain pathways regulating hypoxic ventilatory depression in early development.

  14. 'The Right Ventricle in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with poor clinical outcomes with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based upon improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction, is commonly encountered in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome varies across studies ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and mortality, severe right ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect right ventricular function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction would be of benefit however, echocardiography markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population.

  15. 改良早期预警评分在预测急诊呼吸系统潜在危重症患者预后中的应用%Application of Modified Early Warning Score in Predicting the Prognosis of Potential Critical Respiratory System Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪梅; 吴君; 陈莲花; 夏伶俐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss application value of modified early warning score (MEWS)in potential critical respiratory system disease in the emergency department.Methods Totally 566 cases with respiratory system that hospitalized from May 2014 to October 2014 in emergency department of our hospital were selected,and the MEWS score was evaluated,the patients’prognosis was tracked.The correlationship between MEWS score and patients’prognosis was analyzed.The MEWS score and ROC curve was compared between survival and dead ca-ses.Results MEWS score of dead cases were higher than survival cases,the difference was statistically significant (t =-10.02,P <0.05),MEWS score was positively correlated with the prognosis (r =0.63,P <0.05).The death was setted as the predictive index,the best cut-off point was 3.5,sensitivity 66%,specificity 74%,positive predic-tive value 62%,negative predictive value 93%,the area under the ROC curve:AZ=0.743(95%CI :0.663 0.823). Conclusions MEWS have moderate predictive value in patient with potential critical respiratory system disease in the emergency department.MEWS is simple and practical,which is worth for clincal promotion.%目的:探讨改良早期预警评分(modified early warning score,MEWS)在急诊呼吸系统潜在危重症患者预后中的应用价值.方法对湖北医药学院附属人民医院急诊科2014年5-10月收治的566例呼吸系统患者进行 MEWS 评分,追踪患者预后,分析 MEWS 评分与患者预后的相关性;比较存活、死亡患者的 MEWS 分值和 MEWS 评分对患者预后鉴别的 ROC 曲线.结果死亡组 MEWS 评分高于存活组,差异有统计学意义(t =-10.02,P <0.05);MEWS 分值与患者预后呈正相关(r =0.63,P <0.05).以死亡为预测指标时,MEWS 评分的最佳截断点为3.5分、灵敏度66%、特异度74%、阳性预测值62%、阴性预测值93%、ROC 曲线下面积 AZ=0.743(95%CI :0.6630.823).结论MEWS 评分对急诊呼吸系

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Seahorn, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    all species that we work with? What do we define as acute onset? Most human ARDS cases occur while patients are in hospital being treated for other problems, whereas many of our patients present already in respiratory distress. If we are unable to ventilate patients for economic or practical reasons, what do we use as the equivalent of the Pao2/Flo, ratio'? Reliance on the pathologist is not reasonable, because many disease processes can look similar to ARDS under the microscope. If anything, ALI and ARDS are clinical diagnoses. It is time for veterinarians to reach a consensus on the definition for ALI and ARDS in our patients. Only when we have a consensus of definition can rational prospective clinical trials of therapies be designed.

  17. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  18. Complications of acromegaly: cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Auriemma, Renata S; Grasso, Ludovica F S; Pivonello, Claudia; Simeoli, Chiara; Patalano, Roberta; Galdiero, Mariano; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an enhanced mortality, with cardiovascular and respiratory complications representing not only the most frequent comorbidities but also two of the main causes of deaths, whereas a minor role is played by metabolic complications, and particularly diabetes mellitus. The most prevalent cardiovascular complications of acromegaly include a cardiomyopathy, characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic and systolic dysfunction together with arterial hypertension, cardiac rhythm disorders and valve diseases, as well as vascular endothelial dysfunction. Biochemical control of acromegaly significantly improves cardiovascular disease, albeit completely recovering to normal mainly in young patients with short disease duration. Respiratory complications, represented mainly by sleep-breathing disorders, particularly sleep apnea, and respiratory insufficiency, frequently occur at the early stage of the disease and, although their severity decreases with disease control, this improvement does not often change the indication for a specific therapy directed to improve respiratory function. Metabolic complications, including glucose and lipid disorders, are variably reported in acromegaly. Treatments of acromegaly may influence glucose metabolism, and the presence of diabetes mellitus in acromegaly may affect the choice of treatments, so that glucose homeostasis is worth being monitored during the entire course of the disease. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acromegaly, aimed at obtaining a strict control of hormone excess, are the best strategy to limit the development or reverse the complications and prevent the premature mortality.

  19. 构建单纯烟熏至慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型%Establishment of a Rabbit Model of Smoke-induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 邢珍; 刘全乐; 王锦川; 焦宝良; 王新生; 刘军超; 李福龙

    2012-01-01

    objective: To establishment of a rabbit model of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: Cut tobacco was used as irritant to prepare chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models, Those rabbits in smoke—induced model group were in self-made smoke cage, Pure cut tobacco 15g was burned at a time. Those rabbits in normal control group were not exposed to smoke. Exposed to smoker for 0.5 hour once, 2 times per day, lasted for 70 days. All rabbits were anesthetized at no smoking for 1 week after the last smoke exposure , the arterial blood gases were analyzed before being sacrificed. Protein content in right lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured and leukocyte count and classification were also done. The removed left lung tissues were stained with hematoxylin—eosin for histomorphology observation. Results: Totally 11 rabbits were involved in the analysis. When compared with normal control group, in smoke—induced model group, there were plenty of inflammatoty cells infiltrated in bronchial walls. Protein content and total mumber of leukocytes in BALF were increased significantly (p<0.05); P02 and SaO2 were significantly lower (p<0.05), PCO2 were significantly higher (p<0.05). Conclusion: A smoke—induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rabbit model was established successfully,and it should endure a long time one—lung ventilation after beihg anesthetized.%目的:构建烟熏至慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型.方法:利用自制的方法采用单纯旱烟烟熏兔70 d停1周,麻醉后行血气分析,处死后右肺进行支气管灌洗液分析,左肺作病理切片.结果:与正常饲养兔相比,烟熏兔肺泡灌洗液中蛋白含量显著增加,白细胞总数显著增加,分类中中性粒细胞比例增加:动脉氧分压(PO2)明显降低(P<0.05),二氧化碳分压(PCO2)增高(P<0.05),动脉血氧饱和度明显下降(P<0.05).结论:自制方法成功构建慢性阻塞性肺疾病兔模型,并能耐受麻

  20. Our great forgotten, chronic respiratory sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordejé Laguna, María Luisa

    2017-05-08

    Lung’s own properties make that nutritional support, besides covering the requirements can modulate its infl ammatory response. Lung tissue has a low glucose stock. Fatty acids are the main energy producer of type II pneumocytes, which use them in order to form phospholipids, essential for surfactant whose creation and release decrease in acute lung injury (ALI). Glutamine is a good substratum for endocrine cells and type II pneumocytes. Due to high nutritional risk, it is important its assessments in disorders as COPD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ADRS). Indirect calorimetry values the effect of ventilation and nutritional support, avoiding overfeeding. Hypophosphatemia and refeeding syndrome are frequent and need to be avoided because of their morbidity. In critically ill patients, malnutrition can lead to respiratory failure and increasing mechanical ventilation time. To avoid hypercapnia in weaning, glucose levels should be controlled. High lipids/carbohydrates ratio do not show usefulness in COPD neither mechanical ventilation removal. ALI patients beneficiate from an early start and the volume administered. Enteral nutrition with high fatty acids ratio (EPA, DHA and γ-linolenic acid) and antioxidants do not show any superiority. Omega-3 fatty acid in parenteral nutrition could modulate infl ammation and immunosuppression in a positive manner. The use of glutamine, vitamins or antioxidants in these patients could be justified.

  1. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  2. Effects of respiratory muscle training and electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles on respiratory capabilities in tetraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, A; Savrin, R; Erjavec, T; Kralj, A; Karcnik, T; Skorjanc, T; Benko, H; Obreza, P

    1997-08-01

    Thirteen tetraplegic patients were included in the study of the effects of respiratory muscle training and of electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles on their respiratory capabilities. Each patient was subjected for three 1 month lasting periods of the study: for inspiratory muscle training, expiratory muscle training and for a period without training. The sequence of these three periods was random for each patient. Respiratory tests (RT) measuring forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were conducted before and following each monthly period. Measurements were taken under four sets of conditions: the patients' unassisted efforts, their efforts combined with pressure manually applied by a therapist to the upper part of their abdomen, and their efforts accompanied by electrical stimulation (ES) of the abdominal muscles during the early phase of expirium, once triggered by the therapist and once by the patients themselves. RT values were increasing following respiratory muscle training and inspiratory training apparently had a slightly greater effect than its expiratory counterpart. The increments of values of RT were statistically significant (P muscle training. RT measurements were greater when the patient's voluntary effort was combined with ES of abdominal muscles than when it was not. This study concludes that respiratory muscle training is a potentially effective approach and that ES of the abdominal muscles has potentials to improve coughing in tetraplegic patients.

  3. Gene therapy and respiratory neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a life-sustaining behavior that in mammals is accomplished by activation of dedicated muscles responsible for inspiratory and expiratory forces acting on the lung and chest wall. Motor control is exerted by specialized pools of motoneurons in the medulla and spinal cord innervated by projections from multiple centers primarily in the brainstem that act in concert to generate both the rhythm and pattern of ventilation. Perturbations that prevent the accomplishment of the full range of motor behaviors by respiratory muscles commonly result in significant morbidity and increased mortality. Recent developments in gene therapy and novel targeting strategies have contributed to deeper understanding of the organization of respiratory motor systems. Gene therapy has received widespread attention and substantial progress has been made in recent years with the advent of improved tools for vector design. Genes can be delivered via a variety of plasmids, synthetic or viral vectors and cell therapies. In recent years, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have become one of the most commonly used vector systems, primarily because of the extensive characterization conducted to date and the versatility in targeting strategies. Recent studies highlight the power of using AAV to selectively and effectively transduce respiratory motoneurons and muscle fibers with promising therapeutic effects. This brief review summarizes current evidence for the use of gene therapy in respiratory disorders with a primary focus on interventions that address motor control and neuroplasticity, including regeneration, in the respiratory system.

  4. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  5. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  6. The European Respiratory Society spirometry tent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maio, Sara; Sherrill, Duane L; MacNee, William

    2012-01-01

    In order to raise public awareness of the importance of early detection of airway obstruction and to enable many people who had not been tested previously to have their lung function measured, the European Lung Foundation and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) organised a spirometry testing...... tent during the annual ERS Congresses in 2004-2009. Spirometry was performed during the ERS Congresses in volunteers; all participants answered a simple, brief questionnaire on their descriptive characteristics, smoking and asthma. Portable spirometers were freely provided by the manufacturer. Nurses......,395 (83.5%) performed acceptable spirometry (mean age 51.0 ± 18.4 yrs; 25.5% smokers; 5.5% asthmatic). Airway obstruction was present in 12.4% of investigated subjects according to LLN criteria and 20.3% according to GOLD criteria. Through multinomial logistic regression analysis, age, smoking habits...

  7. Respiratory allergy to Cupressus sempervirens in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A; Graziani, E; Anticoli, S; Simeoni, S; Terzano, C; Mannino, F

    1997-01-01

    Mediterranean Cypress pollen is the major aerospore component in winter and early spring. Several recent studies have assessed the incidence of respiratory allergy to this pollen. A personal series of patients encountered in 1994-96 revealed a 9.33% incidence of positive prick-test responses to Cypress pollen among a population with atopical status. That series included 16 (19.05%) single and 68 (80.95%) multiple allergy sufferers. Among the former the symptoms encountered were rhinitis (62.5%) and asthma (37.5%). Given the ever-increasing incidence of Cypress pollen allergy, there is a need to restrict the planting of the tree for ornamental purposes, especially in areas with a high pollen count.

  8. Initial respiratory management in preterm infants and bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sanz López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventilator injury has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Avoiding invasive ventilation could reduce lung injury, and early respiratory management may affect pulmonary outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of initial respiratory support on survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia at a gestational age of 36 weeks. DESIGN/METHODS: A prospective 3-year observational study. Preterm infants of 26 weeks (sensitivity =89.5% and specificity = 67%. The need for prolonged mechanical ventilation could be an early marker for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This finding could help identify a target population with a high risk of chronic lung disease. Future research is needed to determine other strategies to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in this high-risk group of patients.

  9. HEART DISEASE IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Babachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between heart disease and infectious pathogens is well known. Despite the high frequency of cardiac pathology in infectious diseases, it is rarely diagnosed because of lack of specific clinical  and  laboratory  symptoms. It is especially  difficult to diagnose in  children. Airborne  infections in the structure of infectious morbidity of children occupy a leading place.The aim of this work was to study the nature of the lesions of the heart  in children suffering from acute infection of the respiratory tract.Materials and  methods: 341 children with acute respiratory infection of moderate severity were surveyed by a method of ECG dispersion mapping. Cardiac  pathology has not previously been determined in these children. Signs of disease of the heart was identified in 76 children (22%. Further study included instrumental (ECG, ECHO-KG,  daily monitoring of ECG, biochemical and  etiological (ELISA, PCR, immunocytochemical research  methods for determining the nature of the damage to the heart and the etiology of the disease.Results. Myocarditis was diagnosed in 2%  of children, a violation of repolarization – in 21%,  heart  rhythm disorders  – in 35%  (AV – blockade in 4%.  Most  often  signs  of heart disease were detected in children with Epstein-Barr virus (32%, streptococcal (28%, cytomegalovirus (25%, herpesvirus type  6 infection (24%. Pathogens from the  group of acute respiratory virus infections were identified in 28%, enterovirus – in  10%,  Haemophilus influenzae – in  10%, Mycoplasma pneumonia – in 10%,  Pneumococcus – in 9%, Chlamydia – in 9%, Parvovirus B19 – in 6%.Conclusion. Sensitive screening test  to  detect cardiac pathology is the method of ECG dispersion mapping. Heart damage in children with respiratory diseases in 60% of cases is associated with  mixed infections. Timely  diagnosis of lesions of the heart in infectious diseases in children allows to adjust the

  10. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Postmature and Respiratory Distress Syndrome Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    A 12-month followup study of 151 infants (46 preterm respiratory disease syndrome--RDS--Ss, 46 postterm postmaturity syndrome Ss, and 59 normal term Ss) was conducted to ascertain any early intervention needs and early predictors on 1-year performance, and to formulate a cumulative risk index which would identify those infants who were continuing…

  11. Respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    2001-09-01

    This article was written as an introduction to a special issue of Behavior Modification dedicated to studies in the field of respiratory psychophysiology. Although the invited articles that constitute this special issue cover a fairly broad range of topics, priority was given to articles that focus on the role of respiration in panic disorder. Attention is directed to the fundamental role of breathing in applied psychophysiology and to the encouragement of research in the modification of breathing behavior. The connection between respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification is explained by reference to (a) a recent article on Pavlovian and operant control of breathing behavior and (b) four published volumes of selected articles dedicated exclusively to the field of respiratory psychophysiology. The present special issue of Behavior Modification marks the fifth volume.

  12. Neck pain causes respiratory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapreli, Eleni; Vourazanis, Evangelos; Strimpakos, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a presumptive mechanism for the development of changes in respiratory function due to chronic neck pain. The patient with neck pain presents a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition of leading to a respiratory dysfunction: (a) the decreased strength of deep neck flexors and extensors, (b) the hyperactivity and increased fatigability of superficial neck flexors, (c) the limitation of range of motion, (d) the decrease in proprioception and disturbances in neuromuscular control, (e) the existence of pain and (f) the psychosocial influence of dysfunction. The possible connection of neck pain and respiratory function could have a great impact on various clinical aspects notably patient assessment, rehabilitation and pharmacological prescription.

  13. Respiratory problems in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla; Fusco, Flavio

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was performed with reference to the frequency, diagnosis and management of the above respiratory problems in patients in advanced and terminal stages of the disease. Particular emphasis was given to the importance of communication with the patients and their families, which is considered a crucial point in the care and the cure of such patients.

  14. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of Adenoviral Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Using Cidofovir With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhyeok; Kim, Seulgi; Kwon, Oh Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeong, Inbeom; Son, Ji Woong; Na, Moon Jun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Park, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Sun Jung

    2017-03-01

    Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir. However, few reports discussed the efficacy of cidofovir in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We experienced 3 cases of adenoviral pneumonia associated with ARDS and treated with cidofovir and respiratory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All 3 patients showed a positive clinical response to cidofovir and survival at 28 days. Cidofovir with early ECMO therapy may be a therapeutic option in adenoviral ARDS. A literature review identified 15 cases of adenovirus pneumonia associated with ARDS.

  16. Respiratory distress in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  17. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  18. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  19. Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders in the Old Order Amish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Lina; Goldstein, Amy; Walsh Vockley, Catherine; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Biery, Amy; Irani, Afifa; Ibarra, Jordan; Morton, D Holmes; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Vockley, Jerry

    2016-08-01

    The Old Order Amish populations in the US are one of the Plain People groups and are descendants of the Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to North America in the early eighteenth century. They live in numerous small endogamous demes that have resulted in reduced genetic diversity along with a high prevalence of specific genetic disorders, many of them autosomal recessive. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies arising from mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations have not previously been reported in the Plain populations. Here we present four different Amish families with mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. Mutations in two mitochondrial encoded genes leading to mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder were identified in two patients. In the first case, MELAS syndrome caused by a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation (m.3243A>G) was identified in an extended Amish pedigree following a presentation of metabolic strokes in the proband. Characterization of the extended family of the proband by a high resolution melting assay identified the same mutation in many previously undiagnosed family members with a wide range of clinical symptoms. A MELAS/Leigh syndrome phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation [m.13513G>A; p.Asp393Asn] in the ND5 gene encoding the ND5 subunit of respiratory chain complex I was identified in a patient in a second family. Mutations in two nuclear encoded genes leading to mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder were also identified in two patients. One patient presented with Leigh syndrome and had a homozygous deletion in the NDUFAF2 gene, while the second patient had a homozygous mutation in the POLG gene, [c.1399G>A; p.Ala467Thr]. Our findings identify mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency as a cause of disease in the Old Order Amish that must be considered in the context of otherwise unexplained systemic disease, especially if neuromuscular symptoms are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  1. Pulse steroid therapy in adult respiratory distress syndrome following petroleum naphtha ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Y; Soma, K; Asari, Y; Ohwada, T

    2000-01-01

    A suicide attempt by a 23-year-old woman involved ingestion of 1000 mL of petroleum naphtha. Early chemical pneumonitis was complicated by life-threatening, diffuse interstitial lung consolidation with pneumatoceles. Pulse steroid therapy beginning on day 17 was associated with remarkable resolution of interstitial consolidation, although an enlarging secondarily infected pneumatocele ruptured to produce a bronchopleural fistula. Thoracic surgery and antibiotic therapy resulted in improvement of the patient's respiratory condition, and she was discharged with no residual respiratory symptoms. High-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be a useful addition to aggressive supportive treatment in late adult respiratory distress syndrome following hydrocarbon ingestion.

  2. [Remodelling of right heart chambers in patients with occupational respiratory diseases in post-contact period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of occupational respiratory diseases and functional cardiorespiratory state in workers were studied in thorough examination of 329 workers including main occupations of refractory metals alloys production, who are exposed to polymetallic highly dispersed aerosols in concentrations exceeding the MACs. The data obtained prove changes in intracardial hemodynamics, lower myocardial contractility and lung hypertension even at early stages of the process, progressing in the advanced disease and in post-contact period. Heart remodelling underlies frequent cardiac arrhythmias in occupational respiratory diseases. With that, intensity of the changes reliably increases with higher degree of bronchial obstruction in the patients and could serve as a marker of respiratory failure severity.

  3. Respiratory Care of Infants and Children with Congenital Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula and Oesophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadreameli, Sara C; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2016-01-01

    Despite acute respiratory and chronic respiratory and gastro-intestinal complications, most infants and children with a history of oesophageal atresia / trachea-oesophageal fistula [OA/TOF] can expect to live a fairly normal life. Close multidisciplinary medical and surgical follow-up can identify important co-morbidities whose treatment can improve symptoms and optimize pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. This article will discuss the aetiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of congenital TOF, with an emphasis on post-surgical respiratory management, recognition of early and late onset complications, and long-term clinical outcomes.

  4. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing? If you guessed your lungs, you're right! Your lungs make up one of the largest organs in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, get rid of stale air, and even talk. ...

  5. Nasopharyngeal colonization with respiratory pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory (otitis media, pneumonia) and invasive (sepsis, meningitis) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that every year one million children under the age of five die of pneumonia, mainly in developing countries. Elderly are ano

  6. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  7. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and…

  9. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  10. [Respiratory function in glass blowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders.

  11. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses: clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause major morbidity in infants and children. Traditionally, respiratory viruses are detected with conventional tests (viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)), however nowadays viral diagnostics are being revolutionized by the increased implemen

  12. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  13. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for respiratory morbidity, among high school students of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mathew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma and other respiratory diseases among children and adolescents has been on the rise in recent years and this can affect the quality of life and scholastic performance of school students. Therefore, it is essential to find out the actual prevalence of respiratory morbidity among high school students so that we can plan early interventions against this problem. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the students from classes 8 to 10, from a public school in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, using a modified American Thoracic Society Questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-A to assess respiratory symptoms among general population. Results: The prevalence of cough was 40.8% (95% CI 34.8% to 46.9% and that of wheeze was found to be 19.6% (95% CI 15.1% to 24.9%. Among the possible risk factors for developing respiratory diseases, it was found that only family history of respiratory problems had a significant association with symptoms of respiratory disease (P = 0.002. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the study may be due to the fact that the study was conducted during the rainy season in which there is a higher incidence of respiratory infections. But these findings point towards the need to conduct more comprehensive and objective studies on the subject. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1149-1152

  15. Managing common neonatal respiratory conditions during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kristi L; Jamie, Scott F; Baskerville, Rosland M

    2014-10-01

    As neonatal care in the tertiary setting advances, neonatal transport teams are challenged with incorporating these innovations into their work environment. One of the largest areas of advancement over the last decade involves respiratory support and management. Many major respiratory treatments and the equipment required have been adapted for transport, whereas others are not yet feasible. This article reviews the history of respiratory management during neonatal transport and discusses current methodologies and innovations in transport respiratory management.

  16. Atypical respiratory complications of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveen Kumar; AK Gadpayle; Deepshikha Trisal

    2013-01-01

    In last decade, dengue has emerged as one of the most important vector born disease.With increasing cases, uncommon presentations and complications are now commonly recognized. Here, we report two cases of rare pattern of respiratory involvement in dengue: acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchiolitis with respiratory failure.

  17. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  18. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  19. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEASYNDROME WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) induced acute respiratory failure. Methods The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 9 patients were reviewed. Results 9 patients (8 females, 1 male) presented with obesity and mental disturbance, with a BMI being 44.97 kg /m2, (45.25 kg/m2 in the fe male). The mean age of the group was 67.89 years (61~74 years). All had respiratory acidosis (mean pH 7.17), hypercapni a (mean PaCO2 94.10mmHg) (63.97~143.18mmHg), and hypoxemia (mean PaO2 39mmHg) (29.03~44.03mmHg). During periods of clinical stability all but 2 had awaken hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 46.73mmHg) (38.25~54.68mmHg). Four of the 9 patients had pulmonary function test showing FEV1>70%. Conclusion OSAS induced acute respiratory fail ure has a sudden onset and various presentations and can be reversed with early and proper treatment. The severity of abnormal pulmonary function was less than what would be expected to cause respiratory failure.

  20. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  1. Lung Function in African Infants in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Impact of Lower Respiratory Tract Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Diane M; Turkovic, Lidija; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Vanker, Aneesa; Stein, Dan J; Sly, Peter D; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2017-01-15

    Lower respiratory tract illness is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether infants are predisposed to illness because of impaired lung function or whether respiratory illness reduces lung function. To investigate the impact of early life exposures, including lower respiratory tract illness, on lung function during infancy. Infants enrolled in the Drakenstein child health study had lung function at 6 weeks and 1 year. Testing during quiet natural sleep included tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide, and multiple breath washout measures. Risk factors for impaired lung health were collected longitudinally. Lower respiratory tract illness surveillance was performed and any episode investigated. Lung function was tested in 648 children at 1 year. One hundred and fifty (29%) infants had a lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life. Lower respiratory tract illness was independently associated with increased respiratory rate (4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08; P = 0.02). Repeat episodes further increased respiratory rate (3%; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = 0.004), decreased tidal volume (-1.7 ml; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.2; P = 0.03), and increased the lung clearance index (0.13 turnovers; 95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = 0.006) compared with infants without illness. Tobacco smoke exposure, lung function at 6 weeks, infant growth, and prematurity were other independent predictors of lung function at 1 year. Early life lower respiratory tract illness impairs lung function at 1 year, independent of baseline lung function. Preventing early life lower respiratory tract illness is important to optimize lung function and promote respiratory health in childhood.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called sarcomeres . Sarcomeres are the basic units of muscle contraction; they are made of proteins that generate the mechanical force needed for muscles to contract. Titin has several functions within sarcomeres. One of its most important jobs is to provide ... Dystrophy Canada Muscular Dystrophy UK ...

  3. Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung

  4. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  6. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  7. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  8. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  9. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Korpela, Jaana; Vuori, Arno; Saaresranta, Tarja; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease causing degeneration of motor neurons, without any curative treatment. The most common cause of death is respiratory arrest due to atrophy of the respiratory musculature. ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency differs in mechanism from the more common causes of dyspnea, such as diseases of pulmonary or cardiac origin. Recognizing the respiratory insufficiency can be challenging for a clinician. It should be possible to predict the development of respiratory insufficiency in order to avoid leaving the treatment decisions concerning respiratory insufficiency to emergency services. Noninvasive ventilatory support can be used to alleviate the patient's dyspnea. It is actually recommended as the first-line treatment of ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency.

  10. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  11. Adenosine improves cardiomyocyte respiratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babsky, A M; Doliba, M M; Doliba, N M; Osbakken, M D

    1998-01-01

    The role of adenosine on the regulation of mitochondrial function has been studied. In order to evaluate this the following experiments were done in isolated rat cardiomyocites and mitochondria using polarographic techniques. Cardiomyocyte oxygen consumption (MVO2) and mitochondrial respiratory function (State 3 and State 4, respiratory control index, and ADP/O ratio) were evaluated after exposure to adenosine. Cardiomyocyte MVO2 was significantly lower in cells previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) than in cells not exposed to adenosine (control). Addition of dipyridamole (10 microM) or 8-(p-Sulfophenyl) theophylline (50 microM) to cardiomyocytes before adenosine incubation prevented the adenosine-induced changes in MVO2. Mitochondria obtained from isolated perfused beating heart previously perfused with adenosine (10 microM, 30 min heart perfusion) also resulted in significant increases in ADP/O and respiratory control index compared to matching control. Mitochondria isolated from cardiomyocytes previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) resulted in a significant increase in mitochondrial ADP/O ratio compared to control. Adenosine-induced decrease in cardiomyocyte MVO2 may be related to an increase in efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and more economical use of oxygen, which is necessary for survival under ischemic stress.

  12. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Opiate-induced respiratory depression in young pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J; Honari, S R; Sharar, S R; Patterson, D R; Dimick, P L; Heimbach, D M

    1998-01-01

    Three children younger than 5 with minor burns (< 5% total body surface area) experienced opiate-induced respiratory depression early in hospitalization. This prompted a decrease in the recommended opiate analgesic-dose ranges on our pediatric worksheet. In reviewing 57 admissions, 31 pre- and 26 post-dose change, the amount of opioid equivalents/kg received on admission day did not differ significantly. However, the incidence of respiratory depressive events decreased. Lower opiate-dose guidelines might improve the safe administration of these medications to young children. Other factors- such as concomitant sedative medications, previously administered opiate analgesics, and underlying medical conditions-also must be considered when giving initial doses of opiate analgesics in the burn center.

  14. Respiratory failure, coma and cutaneous lesions due to disseminated strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance the clinician's awareness of Strongyloidiasis as a cause of critical illness. Design: A case report. Setting: A 600- bed, tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Patient: A 53 years old diabetic male, presenting with acute respiratory failure, having received treatment for 2 weeks for acute bronchitis that included corticosteroids. He had a history of receiving several courses of treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae detected in his stools. During this admission, he went on to develop neurological signs, cutaneous lesions and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Negative stool examinations led to the diagnosis being delayed until the 7th day, when the larvae were demonstrated in the skin lesions and tracheal aspirate. Conclusion: Awareness of the varied presentations of Strongyloidiasis and a diligent search for the larvae at various sites are crucial for early diagnosis.

  15. Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Roger; Sidani, Mohamad A; Fremont, Richard D; Kihlberg, Courtney

    2012-11-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. Early antibiotic treatment may be indicated in patients with acute otitis media, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, epiglottitis, or bronchitis caused by pertussis. Persistent cases of rhinosinusitis may necessitate the use of antibiotics if symptoms persist beyond a period of observation. Antibiotics should not be considered in patients with the common cold or laryngitis. Judicious, evidence-based use of antibiotics will help contain costs and prevent adverse effects and drug resistance.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults for severe acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, H; Repusseau, B; Ouattara, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the indications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This technique of oxygenation has significantly increased worldwide with the H1N1 flu pandemic. The goal of ECMO is to maintain a safe level of oxygenation and controlled respiratory acidosis under protective ventilation. The enthusiasm for ECMO should not obscure the consideration for potential associated complications. Before widespread diffusion of ECMO, new trials should test the efficacy of early initiation or CO2 removal in addition to, or even as an alternative to mechanical ventilation for severe ARDS. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory failure in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevransky, Jonathan E; Haponik, Edward F

    2003-02-01

    Elderly individuals comprise an increasing proportion of the population and represent a progressively expanding number of patients admitted to the ICU. Because of underlying pulmonary disease, loss of muscle mass, and other comorbid conditions, older persons are at increased risk of developing respiratory failure. Recognition of this vulnerability and the adoption of proactive measures to prevent decompensation requiring intrusive support are major priorities together with clear delineation of patients' wishes regarding the extent of support desired should clinical deterioration occur. Further, the development of coordinated approaches to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure and strategies to prevent the need for intubation, such as the use of NIV in appropriate patients, are crucial. As soon as endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are implemented strategies that facilitate the liberation of elderly patients from the ventilator are especially important. The emphasis on a team approach, which characterizes geriatric medicine, is essential in coordinating the skills of multiple health care professionals in this setting. Respiratory failure can neither be effectively diagnosed nor managed in isolation. Integration with all other aspects of care is essential. Patient vulnerability to nosocomial complications and the "cascade effect" of these problems such as the effects of medications and invasive supportive procedures all impact on respiratory care of elderly patients. For example, prolonged mechanical ventilation may be required long after resolution of the underlying cause of respiratory failure because of unrecognized and untreated delirium or residual effects of small doses of sedative and/or analgesic agents or other medications in elderly patients with altered drug metabolism. The deleterious impact of the foreign and sometimes threatening ICU environment and/or sleep deprivation on the patient's course are too often overlooked because

  18. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Al Tahan

    2010-02-01

    limited by the small number of tested patients. P300 latency changes correlated significantly with age as well as severity of respiratory failure. P300 was also significantly delayed whether hypoxia occurred with or without hypercapnia.Conclusion: Results show a significant delay of P300 latency in patients with severe and mild respiratory failure. This was associated with subclinical encephalopathy in most patients, evidenced by a near-normal MMSE score. Apart from confirming the importance of P300 latency measurement as a marker of respiratory encephalopathy, this study asserts the causal relationship between hypoxemia and cognitive derangement. Furthermore, it promotes the early use of oxygen therapy in a selected group of patients with mild or moderate respiratory failure, who have responsibilities which involve taking rapid critical decisions.Keywords: event-related evoked potentials, hypoxic–hypercapnic encephalopathy, respiratory failure, chronic respiratory encephalopathy

  19. [Effects of indoor exposures on respiratory and allergic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Lombardi, Enrico; Berti, Giovanna; Rusconi, Franca; La Grutta, Stefania; Piffer, Silvano; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Galassi, Claudia; Forastiere, Francesco; Viegi, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that indoor pollution increases the risk for chronic pulmonary diseases and acute respiratory symptoms in children/adolescents. Some associations have been confirmed by studies. Other relations are still unclear, such as those regarding dog and cat ownership. In this study we assessed the relationships of the exposure to mould and dog/cat ownership with respiratory/allergic symptoms/diagnoses, such as wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema, and cough/phlegm in 20,016 children (6-7 yrs old) and 13,266 adolescents (13-14 yrs old) from 12 Italian areas. Early mould exposure (in the first year of life) was positively related to all considered symptoms/diagnoses (significantly for wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis in both children and adolescents, and for cough/phlegm among children); current exposure (in the last year) was a significant risk factor for wheeze, among children. In the latter, dog exposure only in the first year of life increased the risk for wheezing and cough/phlegm, whereas the presence of a dog lifetime seemed a protective factor (though not significant) for all symptoms/diagnoses; negative relations (but not significant) suggested a protective effect by the cat for asthma, independently of exposure period. Among adolescents, the presence of a dog both lifetime and only in the first year of life was significantly related to cough/phlegm; except for rhino-conjunctivitis, all symptoms/diagnoses were negatively related to the presence of a cat lifetime (though not significantly). In conclusion, our results confirmed the effects of mould exposure, especially when it occurs early, on the prevalence of respiratory disorders such as asthma, rhinitis and cough in the pediatric age. The complex relations between keeping a dog or cat at home and respiratory/allergic symptoms/diseases in childhood warrants further studies.

  20. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  1. Behavioral inspiratory inhibition: inactivated and activated respiratory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, J

    1989-11-01

    1. Eleven adult cats were trained to stop inspiration in response to a conditioning stimulus. The conditioning stimuli were presented at the onset of inspiration at intervals of approximately 20-30 s. Intratracheal pressures, diaphragmatic activity, and the extracellular activity of single medullary respiratory neurons were recorded while the animals performed this response. 2. Inactivation of the diaphragm to the conditioning stimuli occurred at latencies that varied from 40 to 110 ms and averaged 74 +/- 32 (SD) ms. 3. The subjects of this report are 38 inspiratory neurons that were inactivated and 19 cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally. These cells were located in the region of n. ambiguus and the ventrolateral n. of tractus solitarius. 4. The inspiratory cells that were inactivated behaviorally had the following characteristics: 1) Most had an augmenting inspiratory profile with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) postinspiratory activity. Other types were inspiratory throughout (n = 5), decrementing inspiratory (n = 3), tonic inspiratory (n = 4), early inspiratory (n = 2), and expiratory-inspiratory (n = 1). 2) Their mean discharge rate was 39 +/- 2.7 (SE) Hz. 3) The latency of their inactivation in response to the task averaged 81 +/- 4.9 (SE) ms, and 4) Their activity corresponded closely to breathing not only during the behavioral response but also during eupnea (eta 2 = 0.62 +/- 0.04, mean +/- SE) and respiratory acts such as sneezing, sniffing, meowing, and purring. 5. The cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally had the following characteristics. 1) As a group, they had discharge profiles related to every phase of the respiratory cycle. 2) They were recorded in the same region as, and often simultaneously with, respiratory cells that were inactivated. 3) Their activity patterns were highly variable such that the signal strength and consistency of the respiratory component of that activity were weak (eta 2

  2. Perioperative Respiratory Disorders in Spinal Cord Compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2008-01-01

    significant reduction in PaO2 to 85.5±2.3 mm Hg and an increase in PaCO2 to 41.5±1.4 mm Hg as compared with Group B. In this group, VC, FVC, FEV1, AFEVV25—75% postoperatively decreased by 1.1—1.3 time (p<0.05, Pa02=100±3.3 mm Hg and PaCO2=35.7±1.7 mm. Conclusion. Following surgery, neurogenic respiratory disorders progress in patients with varying damage to the spinal cord (compression myelopathy and to a greater extent in those with its complete conduction disturbances. The postoperative use of prolonged epidural blockade versus opioid analgesics promotes early activation, patients’ adaptation to spontaneous respiration and prevention of lung complications. Key words: spinal cord damage, neurogenic respiratory failure, postoperative period.

  3. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) from Endemic Influenza A/H1N1: Prehospital Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Ahmetagic, Sead

    2015-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute life threatening respiratory failure. In daily practice there is difficulty in diagnostic and therapeutic management of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We observed delay in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with clinical signs for the presence of severe respiratory disorders. Finding timely evidence of the presence the clinical signs of threatening ARDS and underlying diseases like influenza A/H1N1 during prehospital period in early stage of disease it is possible introduce early adequate treatment: high flow oxygen, fluid replacement and pharmacological and antiviral therapy. This measure can reduce high mortality in patients who develop ARDS. It is important to improve diagnostic criteria for a precise definition of ARDS and transfer it in practice of emergency and family medicine, microbiology, intensive care units, hospital departments of infectious and respiratory diseases. In this article we underlined the key elements of the new definition of ARDS, diagnostic criteria and the importance of early diagnosis in prehospital period following clinical feature and course (a presence of severe dyspnea) by adding chest x-ray and laboratory investigations.

  5. Airway Management of Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Patients in respiratory distress often require airway management, including endotracheal intubation. It takes a methodical approach to transition from an unstable patient in distress with an unsecured airway, to a stable, sedated patient with a definitive airway. Through a deliberate course of advanced preparation, the emergency physician can tailor the approach to the individual clinical situation and optimize the chance of first-pass success. Sedation of the intubated patient confers physiologic benefits and should be included in the plan for airway control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modern features of infants’ feeding and its impact on respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka K.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of infants’ feeding connected with the incidence of respiratory diseases. Rationality and duration of breast feeding does not cause doubts. But unfortunately today, only 60-80% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Naturally, this causes impact on disease incidence of such children. Formation of bronchopulmonary pathology is of particular interest. The basis of modern research is the concept of programmed impact of nutrition in early childhood on health in lateryears. We have determined the dependence of respiratory diseases incidence in children of early age on duration of exclusively breast feeding. Not only frequent respiratory diseases, but formation of bronchitis, pneumonia or other complications of their course is of importance. The study included questioning of mothers and children under 7 years of age, clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations in the hospital in case of respiratory disease. All studies were conducted in accordance with the characteristics of diet quality of the child in the first year of life with the following biostatistical processing. 601 children aged from 3 months to 7 years were examined. It was found that the duration of breast feeding in the region is 89% only to the age of 6-months, and up to 1 year the percentage of breastfed children reduces to 38%. This affected the resistance of children to respiratory infections, especially in the first year of life. Children exclusively breastfed up to 1 year suffer from respiratory diseases 1-2 times per year. In children over one year of age breast feeding does not affect the frequency of respiratory pathology. Increase of respiratory diseases frequency in children aged 3-5 years is due to attending preschool institutions and increasing contacts between children, which significantly reduces their resistance.

  7. Improvement in the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy using a respiratory guiding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Suh, Tae-Suk; Yoon, Jai-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) depends on the respiratory regularity because external respiratory signals are used for gating the radiation beam at particular phases. Many studies have applied a respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. To verify the effectiveness of this system, we acquired respiratory signals from five volunteers. The improvement in respiratory regularity was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of the amplitudes and the periods between free and guided breathing. The reduction in residual motion at each phase was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of sorted data within each corresponding phase bin as obtained from free and guided breathing. The results indicate that the respiratory guiding system improves the respiratory regularity, and that most of the volunteers showed significantly less average residual motion at each phase. The average residual motion measured at phases of 40, 50, and 60%, which showed lower variation than other phases, were, respectively, reduced by 41, 45, and 44% during guided breathing. The results show that the accuracy of RGRT can be improved by using the in-house-developed respiratory guiding system. Furthermore, this system should reduce artifacts caused by respiratory motion in 4D CT imaging.

  8. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Kale Cekinmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts. Respiratory distress syndrome or complications caused by respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. This article briefly reviews respiratory distress syndrome and its complications. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 615-630

  9. Respiratory muscle weakness in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-12-01

    Common peripheral neuropathies do not usually cause diaphragmatic weakness and subsequent respiratory compromise. However, respiratory involvement is relatively common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Experience in GBS has led to a standardized approach to manage respiratory problems in peripheral neuropathies. Diaphragmatic weakness is not common in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and extremely rare in multifocal motor neuropathy. The linkage has been described between certain subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease such as CMT2C and CMT4B1 and diaphragmatic weakness. A correlation usually has not been found between electrophysiologic findings and clinical respiratory signs or spirometric abnormalities in peripheral neuropathies except in amplitudes of evoked phrenic nerve responses. Careful and frequent assessment of respiratory function by a qualified team of healthcare professionals and physicians is essential. Criteria established for mechanical ventilation in GBS cases may be applied to other peripheral neuropathies with respiratory compromise as necessary.

  10. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  11. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing effor...

  12. Dental considerations in patients with respiratory problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Claramunt Lozano, Ariadna; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Gavaldá Esteve, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Many respiratory disorders can compromise routine dental care and require special treatment for the affected patients. Patients often visit the dental clinic with respiratory problems already diagnosed by other specialists. The dental professional therefore must provide correct dental care in the context of such a diagnosis. The present study offers a literature review of those respiratory disorders which can have implications for dental care. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CO...

  13. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  14. EVALUATION OF RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY IN CARPET WEAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupation exposes an individual to certain hazards which are known as occupational diseases or pneumoconiosis. Carpet weavers are constantly exposed to dust in their workplace environment, posing a threat to their health. Spirometry is a readily available tool to measure pulmonary functions in the high risk group at an early stage which helps to take necessary measures to prevent further damage. AIMS: To study and compare the effects of long term dust exposure on pulmonary functions of carpet weavers with those of healthy subjects unexposed to such dust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 adult female workers from carpet making industry were chosen for our study. 50 age and sex matched healthy subjects who were not exposed to excessive dust, enrolled as the controls. Forced expiratory spirograms were recorded by RMS Medspiror. Parameters such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1, the ratio of FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow in the middle half of FVC (FEF25-75%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR were assessed in both cases and controls. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The results were analyzed by using the student’s unpaired t-test. RESULTS: Carpet weavers showed deterioration in FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75%, PEFR and FEV1/FVC ratio which was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001, suggestive of obstructive respiratory disorder. CONCLUSION: Weavers are at risk of developing occupational lung disease which can be prevented by taking meticulous measures and creating health awareness among them.

  15. An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Respiratory Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Neha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A one and a half years old boy presented with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress, accompanied by dry non spasmodic cough and characterized by appearance of a continuous stridor showing no positional variation. The child was symptomatic since early infancy. Parents also complained of inability to gain weight as compared to other siblings.  There was no history of foreign body ingestion or complaints of asthma or tuberculosis in the family. General physical examination revealed tachypnea and biphasic stridor in a malnourished and stunted child in the absence of any significant lymphadenopathy or oral thrush.On systemic examination, bilaterally, stridorous sounds were auscultated. Primary investigations on the child showed minimal reflux on gastro-esophageal reflux isotope scan, a normal chest roentgenogram, negative sweat chloride test and negative serology for HIV (Human immuno­deficiency virus. Echocardiography performed on the child revealed a structurally normal heart. On conducting further investigations, bronchoscopy detected a bulge in the anterior tracheal wall while barium swallow displayed indentation in the upper esophagus. The MRI (magnetic resonance imaging subsequently conducted clinched the underlying clinical condition. The MRI images are depicted below.

  16. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  17. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means {+-} standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 {+-} 0.34 mm, 0.33 {+-} 0.24 mm and 0.31 {+-} 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means {+-} SD for the periods were 0.04 {+-} 0.09 s, 0.04 {+-} 0.02 s and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means {+-} SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  19. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy for a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction and annuloaortic ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Masakazu; Ohzeki, Hajime; Namura, Osamu; Hayashi, Jun-ichi

    2003-08-01

    A 23-year-old man with Marfan syndrome, who had undergone surgery for pectus excavatum and scoliosis and who had severe respiratory dysfunction, was referred for surgical repair of annuloaortic ectasia. The preoperative pulmonary function test revealed severe obstructive and restrictive respiratory dysfunction, with forced expiratory volume in one second of 650 ml and vital capacity of 1,220 ml. These parameters improved after 4 months respiratory physiotherapy. A modified Bentall's procedure was performed after respiratory physiotherapy. A tracheostomy made on the 7th postoperative day (POD) appeared to improve respiratory condition and he was weaned off mechanical ventilation on the 14th POD. The lower limits of pulmonary function for open heart surgery have not been established clearly; however, our case will help elucidate these limits of respiratory function for open heart surgery. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy improved parameters of pulmonary function test and may decrease the morbidity of postoperative pulmonary complications in a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  20. Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

  1. The respiratory proteins of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    For a long time, respiratory proteins have been considered unnecessary in most insects because the tracheal system was thought to be sufficient for oxygen supply. Only a few species that survive under hypoxic conditions were known exceptions. However, recently it has become evident that (1) intracellular hemoglobins belong to the standard repertoire of insects and (2) that hemocyanin is present in many "lower" insects. Intracellular hemoglobins have been identified in Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis and many other insects. In all investigated species, hemoglobin is mainly expressed in the fat body and the tracheal system. The major Drosophila hemoglobin binds oxygen with high affinity. This hemoglobin type possibly functions as a buffer system for oxygen supply at low partial pressures and/or for the protection from an excess of oxygen. Similar hemoglobins, present in much higher concentrations, store oxygen in specialized tracheal organs of the botfly and some backswimmers. The extracellular hemoglobins in the hemolymph of chironomid midges are evolutionary derivatives of the intracellular insect hemoglobins, which emerged in response to the hypoxic environment of the larvae. In addition, several hemoglobin variants of unknown functions have been discovered in insect genomes. Hemocyanins transport oxygen in the hemolymph of stoneflies, but also in the Entognatha and most hemimetabolan taxa. Apparently, hemocyanin has been lost in Holometabola. At present, no physiological or morphological character is known that could explain the presence or loss of hemocyanins in distinct taxa. Nevertheless, the occurrence of respiratory proteins in insects adds further complexity to our view on insect respiration.

  2. Investigation of Early Chest Radiograohic Images of Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complicated with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia%呼吸窘迫综合征并发支气管肺发育不良早期胸部影像的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳国荣; 张剑; 罗世康; 叶伙华; 刘超凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the imaging findings and significance of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(NRDS)complicated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD),and improve the understandings of complication of chest images especially the early chest images. Method:66 newborns with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome complicated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD)admitted in the hospital from January 2006 to November 2011 were involved in this research. These cases who had clear discharge diagnosis,full chest image data and complete clinical data and followed for 2 years were analyzed retrospectively. Result:Review of imaging after average treatment for 2-3 weeks showed that 66 cases who treated with NRDS complicated with BPD all showed lungs brightness reduction,ground glass visible changes,planes and flocculent cloud shadow patches of both lung fields and blurred boundary performance. Furthermore,absorption was relatively slower and lasting time was relatively longer compared with image of pulmonary edema during the treatment. 66 cases ultimately had varied degrees of grid-like vesicle-like shadow of change and 25 cases had no significant change after continuous film image. Conclusion:Chest radiographic image change is the most intuitive,most convenient,fastest and first method of clinical dynamic observation. Diagnosis of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia is mainly according on clinical history and imaging data. Although image of chest radiograph and CT has no significantly character,it is very important for the diagnosis. The high resolution CT can provide some valuable signs which contribute to the early diagnosis of development of BPD and gain important time for the prevention and treatment of patients.%  目的:探讨新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)并发支气管肺发育不良(BPD)影像学表现及其意义,以提高对该并发症的胸部影像的认识,尤其是该并发症的早期胸部影像的认识。方法:选择2006

  3. Lung pathogenicity of European genotype 3 strain porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) differs from that of subtype 1 strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Popma-de Graaf, D.J.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Stockhofe, N.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is difficult to control due to a high mutation rate of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and the emergence of virulent strains. The objective of this study was to analyse early and late pathological responses in the respiratory tract after infection with the

  4. Calculating the respiratory flow velocity fluctuations in pericardial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniorakis, Eftychios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Zarreas, Elias; Barlagiannis, Dimitris; Skandalakis, Nikos; Karidis, Constantinos

    2010-11-01

    An excessive respiratory fluctuation (RTFV) in transmitral early diastolic velocity E is a pivotal Doppler echocardiographic sign of haemodynamic compromise, in constrictive pericardial diseases. RTFV is expressed as a percentage and 25% is considered a threshold value. Unfortunately there is no unanimity in calculating RTFV. Sometimes it is expressed as a percentage of expiratory E velocity, while others of inspiratory E velocity. This disparity has led to gross misinterpretations in medical literature. Here we emphasize the importance of a rational procedure calculating RTFV and we propose the appropriate mathematical model.

  5. Respiratory Distress in Infants and Congenital Lobar Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğce Aksu Uzunhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a rare congenital lung abnormality. Intrinsic or extrinsic obstruction of the lobar bronchus causes air trapping and hyperinflation Clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to acute neonatal respiratory failure, recurrent infectious episodes and tachypnea episodes. Lobectomy has been recognized as the most effective method of treatment in patients with severe symptoms. With the widespread use of antenatal ultrasound and radiological imaging in recent years, now it is possible to diagnose CLE in asymptomatic infants or infants with mild symptoms. In this paper, we present the case of a early diagnosed CLE in an infant who was followed up conservatively.

  6. Adult respiratory distress syndrome: mediators on the run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, K M

    1994-06-01

    The critical care nurse can no longer view adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a single organ dysfunction. ARDS may be the triggering event or the end result of a systemic inflammatory response. This article focuses on the research examining the cellular and humoral mediators precipitating the pathophysiologic processes seen in ARDS. An examination of assessment cues for early diagnosis and continued evaluation of the progression of acute lung injury and the systemic response are explored. Concluding the article is a critical analysis of supportive and experimental treatment modalities and their impact on patient outcome.

  7. Respiratory care year in review 2013: neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Haynes, Jeffrey M; Carlin, Brian W; Hess, Dean R

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory care practice includes neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to these topics in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care.

  8. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical g

  9. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  10. Mitochondrial Cristae Shape Determines Respiratory Chain Supercomplexes Assembly and Respiratory Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliati, Sara; Frezza, Christian; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Varanita, Tatiana; Quintana-Cabrera, Ruben; Corrado, Mauro; Cipolat, Sara; Costa, Veronica; Casarin, Alberto; Gomes, Ligia C.; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Salviati, Leonardo; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose A.; Scorrano, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Summary Respiratory chain complexes assemble into functional quaternary structures called supercomplexes (RCS) within the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane, or cristae. Here, we investigate the relationship between respiratory function and mitochondrial ultrastructure and provide evidence that cristae shape determines the assembly and stability of RCS and hence mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Genetic and apoptotic manipulations of cristae structure affect assembly and activity o...

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  12. The early changes of respiratory system resistance andγδT lymphocytes infiltrated in graft after lung transplantation of mouse%小鼠肺移植术后早期肺呼吸阻力与γδT淋巴细胞变化规律的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其瑞; 王丽凤; 张亚梅; 许江南; 李辉; 丁跃中

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance andγδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts� Methods The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015� The male C57BL/6 mice ( n=35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group,n=10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group (n=5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group ( n=10 ): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group ( allogenic group,n=10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3⁃day and 7⁃day subgroups ( n=5 )� Respiratory system resistance and histological features of grafts were assessed, and differences in graft infiltrating γδT lymphocytes and mRNA expression of interleukin ( IL )⁃17A were quantified on 3 and 7 days after transplantation� Multiple comparisons were performed using one⁃way analysis of variance and least significant difference analysis� Results ( 1 ) The respiratory system resistance of syngenic group and allogenic group were (2�61±0�59) cmH2O·s/ml and (2�84±0�31) cmH2O·s/ml 3 days post⁃operation, both of them increased compared to control group (1�39±0�17) cmH2O·s/ml (1 cmH2O=0�098 kPa) (P=0�001, 0�000). The respiratory system resistance of allogenic group were (4�33±0�67) cmH2 O·s/ml 7 days post⁃operation, which was significantly higher than that of syngenic 7⁃day subgroup (1�87±0�27) cmH2O·s/ml and control group (1�39±0�17) cmH2O·s/ml (P=0�000, 0�000)�(2) The isografts of syngenic group showed a relatively normal histological appearance with minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the allografts of allogenic group infiltrated apparently by inflammatory cells, especially 7⁃day subgroup showed acute cellular rejection� ( 3) The percentage of γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in isografts and allografts were 3�90%± 0�86% and 4�40%± 0�57%, respectively, which were

  13. Neonatal total IgE and respiratory tract infections in children with intrauterine smoke exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, J.; Smit, H.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Schilder, A.G.M.; Brunekreef, B.; Wijga, A.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to increase the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTI). Some children, however, may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of ETS than others. We examined whether early atopic status (defined by elevated neonatal total IgE

  14. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  15. Neonatal total IgE and respiratory tract infections in children with intrauterine smoke exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, Jopje; Smit, Henriette; Rovers, Maroeska; Hoekstra, Maarten; Schilder, Anne; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan; Sanders, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to increase the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTI). Some children, however, may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of ETS than others. We examined whether early atopic status (defined by elevated neonatal total IgE (tI

  16. Neonatal total IgE and respiratory tract infections in children with intrauterine smoke exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, J.; Smit, H.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Schilder, A.G.M.; Brunekreef, B.; Wijga, A.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to increase the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTI). Some children, however, may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of ETS than others. We examined whether early atopic status (defined by elevated neonatal total IgE (t

  17. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); L.E.M. Elstgeest (Liset E.); S. Scholtens (Salome); A. Haveman-Nies (Annemien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); U. Gehring (Ulrike); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in

  18. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  19. New diagnostic method of the acute respiratory distress syndrome; Neues Diagnoseverfahren des akuten Lungenversagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialy, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabt. Zyklotron

    2000-07-01

    Different diseases can be the risk factors for the ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). A new bed-side diagnosis-system was developed in the Research Center Karlsruhe in cooperation with the University of Freiburg especially under the aspect of an early diagnosis and a long-time monitoring of the therapy with nitrogen-monoxide. (orig.)

  20. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  1. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loss, G.; Depner, M.; Ulfman, L.H.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Hose, A.J.; Genuneit, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on co

  2. Presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency with respiratory syncytial virus and pneumocystis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Allende-Martínez, Luis; Corral Sánchez, María Dolores; Arocena, Jaime de Inocencio; González-Granado, Luis Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency can cause severe, life-threatening viral, bacterial and fungal infections at an early age. We report a case of a 4-month-old boy with co-infection by respiratory syncytial virus and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection that led to recognition of severe combined immunodeficiency.

  3. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health in Russian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Sergey V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the child's later asthma or chronic respiratory symptoms and to our knowledge no studies have elaborated respiratory infections and allergies in this context. Objective To assess the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on respiratory health of Russian school children. Methods We studied a population of 5951 children (8 to12 years old from 9 Russian cities, whose parents answered a questionnaire on their children's respiratory health, home environment, and housing characteristics. The main health outcomes were asthma, allergies, chronic respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections. We used adjusted odds ratios (ORs from logistic regression analyses as measures of effect. Results Prenatal exposure due to maternal smoking had the strongest effects on asthma (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.19–5.08, chronic bronchitis (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08–1.96 and respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.90–1.89. The associations were weaker for exposure during early-life (adjusted ORs 1.38/1.27/1.15 respectively and after 2 years of age (adjusted ORs 1.45/1.34/1.18 compared to prenatal exposure and the weakest or non-existent for current exposure (adjusted ORs 1.05/1.09/1.06. Upper respiratory infections were associated more strongly with early-life exposure (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.42 than with prenatal (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.01 or current exposure (adjusted OR1.05, 95% CI 0.92–1.20. The risk of allergies was also related to early life exposure to tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.42. Conclusion Adverse effects of tobacco smoke on asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic respiratory symptoms are strongest when smoking takes place during pregnancy. The relations are weaker for exposure during early-life and after 2

  4. Respiratory interneurones in the thoracic spinal cord of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, P A; Munson, J B; Sears, T A; Westgaard, R H

    1988-01-01

    1. The discharges of spontaneously firing neurones, whose activity was modulated in phase with the central respiratory cycle, were recorded in the thoracic ventral horn (T3-T9) of anaesthetized, paralysed cats. 2. Out of 310 neurones, forty-six were positively identified as motoneurones by antidromic activation or spike-triggered averaging, fifty-four were positively identified as interneurones by antidromic activation from other spinal cord segments and ninety were indirectly identified as interneurones by virtue of their positions or firing rates as compared to the motoneurones. 3. Units were classified as inspiratory (64%), expiratory (25%) or post-inspiratory (7%) according to the times of their maximum firing rates. The remaining 4% consisted of units whose discharges were either strongly locked to the respiratory pump cycle or did not fit into the other categories. All but one of the motoneurones were classified as inspiratory or expiratory. 4. Inspiratory and expiratory units were further classified as early, late or tonic according to the starting times of their discharges in the respiratory cycle. The interneurones (both positively and indirectly identified) included more of the early and tonic categories and more fast-firing units than did the motoneurones in both the inspiratory and expiratory groups. 5. The locations of the motoneurones corresponded to the known positions of the intercostal and interchondral motor nuclei, including clear segregation of inspiratory and expiratory populations. The locations of neither the interneurones nor the unidentified units were segregated according to their firing patterns. These neurones were concentrated in the medial half of the ventral horn and were found generally more dorsally than the positions of the motoneurones, though their positions overlapped considerably with this group. 6. The axons of the positively identified interneurones were identified from one to five segments caudally and mostly contralaterally

  5. Dynamic changes in spirometry and pathology of smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rat%烟熏法建立的慢性阻塞性肺疾病鼠肺功能和病理的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 郭雪君; 管小俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes in spirometry and pathology of smokeinduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rat,and provide a theoretical basis for the successful establishment of COPD rat model.Methods Thirty SD rats at 8 weeks of age were randomized divided into 6 weeks smoke-exposed group (E1 group) and 6 week sham-exposed group (C1 group),12weeks smoke-exposed group (E2 group) and 12 weeks sham-exposed group (C2 group),interval smokeexpose group (normal feeding 6 weeks after smoke for 12 weeks,E3 group).Using Buxco research system to obtain the spirometry data and HE staining to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue.Results ①Compared with C1 group,FRC,IC,VC and TLC of E1 group were increased (P <0.05),FEV100/FVC,FEV200/FVC were reduced by 22%,11% respectively (P <0.01).②Compared with C2 group,the FRC of E2 group was increased while IC,VC,TLC were decreased (P <0.05),FEV100/FVC and FEV200/FVC were reduced by 28% and 21% (P <0.01).③Compared with E2 group,IC,VC,TLC of E3 group were increased (P < 0.05),while no difference in FEV100/FVC,FEV200/FVC.④ The pathological examination of lungs from E1 group displayed narrowed alveolar septa which was the performance of mild emphysema,and with partial infiltration of characteristic inflammatory cells.The alveolar of E2 group displayed typical performance of emphysema with infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cell surrouding bronchioles and vesseles.E3 group displayed obvious emphysema while no significant inflammation was detected.C1 and C2 group showed the structural intergity of airway epithelium and alveolar septa.Conclusions Smoking time affects the spirometry and pathology of smoke induced rat typically.With 6 weeks smoking time,the rats performed early-stage COPD while with 12 weeks smoking time performed typical COPD.%目的 动态观察不同烟熏时间建立的慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)大鼠肺功能和病理的改变,为成功建立COPD大

  6. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new i...

  7. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  9. A Guide for Respiratory Therapy Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Respiratory Therapy, Dallas, TX.

    The document presents educational criterion upon which curriculum builders can create a competency-based program of respiratory therapy education. The 11 modules presented supplement and compliment the document Delineation of Roles and Functions of Respiratory Therapy Personnel (CE 005 945) which is listed as appendix D but not included as such.…

  10. Expanding the Respiratory Therapy Curriculum. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mary; Allenbaugh, Patricia

    This project was conducted to upgrade Seattle Central Community College's four-quarter respiratory care program to a two-year associate degree program in respiratory therapy. The program needed to include a developmental pathway for entry of nontraditional students and also a college-level prerequisite entry pathway for traditional students. In…

  11. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644

  12. [Hot topics in respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Galvao, M Luiza; García-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Sanz, Francisco; Blanquer, José

    2011-01-01

    We review the most interesting articles on respiratory infections published in the last trimester of 2009 and in 2010. Notable publications in bronchiectasis were the Guidelines of the British Thoracic Society, as well as several articles on the natural course of the process, the impact of exacerbations on the course of the disease, and treatment with inhaled antibiotics. Other notable publications were the SEPAR-SEIMC consensus document for the management of tuberculosis and articles on the use of interferon-gamma in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. The new recommendations of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery on community-acquired pneumonia have recently been published. Equally important are studies on the viral etiology of community-acquired pneumonia, the impact of corticosteroid treatment in pneumonia, the duration of antibiotic therapy and preventive measures in both community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia.

  13. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  14. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  15. Linking microbiota and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Matthias; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates the relevance of microbiota for pulmonary health and disease. Independent investigations recently demonstrated that the lung harbors a resident microbiota. Therefore, it is intriguing that a lung microbiota can shape pulmonary immunity and epithelial barrier functions. Here, we discuss the ways how the composition of the microbial community in the lung may influence pulmonary health and vice versa, factors that determine community composition. Prominent microbiota at other body sites such as the intestinal one may also contribute to pulmonary health and disease. However, it is difficult to discriminate between influences of lung vs. gut microbiota due to systemic mutuality between both communities. With focuses on asthma and respiratory infections, we discuss how microbiota of lung and gut can determine pulmonary immunity and barrier functions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Derivation of the respiratory rate from directly and indirectly measured respiratory signals using autocorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrumpf Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of respiratory rates from contineous respiratory signals is commonly done using either fourier transformation or the zero-crossing method. This paper introduces another method which is based on the autocorrelation function of the respiratory signal. The respiratory signals can be measured either directly using a flow sensor or chest strap or indirectly on the basis of the electrocardiogram (ECG. We compare our method against other established methods on the basis of real-world ECG signals and use a respiration-based breathing frequency as a reference. Our method achieved the best agreement between respiration rates derived from directly and indirectly measured respiratory signals.

  17. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  18. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinamarco, Paula Vanessa Valverde; Ponce, Cesar Cilento

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis (PA) is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  19. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vanessa Valverde Dinamarco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary agenesis (PA is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  20. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  1. CPAP, effective respiratory support in patients with AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedoros, H P; Lee, R P; Marriot, D

    1991-11-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) associated with severe respiratory failure is an increasingly common problem in major centres and is associated with a high mortality in previous and recent studies. Early in the epidemic, alternatives to invasive intensive care treatment were utilized in our institution and found to be successful. When respiratory failure developed, mask CPAP was used instead of intubation and ventilation. A retrospective review of 175 cases of HIV infected patients with confirmed first presentation PCP was undertaken. Treatment with our protocol resulted in an overall hospital mortality of 9%. Those patients who did not require supplemental oxygen or respiratory support had no in-hospital mortality. The group who required supplemental oxygen had a mortality of 10%. If respiratory failure supervened (severe respiratory distress, PaO2 less than 50 mmHg, SaO2 less than 90% on mask oxygen), CPAP was introduced. The mortality in this group was 22%. Only two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support after failure of CPAP. Both patients were intubated and received intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Both patients died.

  2. Bronchoscopic findings in Down syndrome children with respiratory problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pravit, Jetanachai

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) can affect the upper and lower respiratory tract in a number of ways and disorders of other systems can impact upon respiratory function, giving rise to a wide variety of respiratory manifestations...

  3. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated tuberculosis: the role of respiratory isolation and personal respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H

    2007-05-01

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis continues to decline in most developed countries, the risk of healthcare-associated tuberculosis, remains for patients or healthcare staff. Outbreaks of healthcare-associated tuberculosis are usually associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment, or the care of patients in sub-optimal facilities. The control and prevention of tuberculosis in hospitals is best achieved by three approaches, namely administrative (early investigation diagnosis, etc.), engineering (physical facilities e.g. ventilated isolation rooms) and personal respiratory protection (face sealing masks which are filtered). Recent guidelines on the prevention of tuberculosis in healthcare facilities from Europe and the USA have many common themes. In the UK, however, negative pressure isolation rooms are recommended only for patients with suspected multi-drug resistant TB and personal respiratory protection, i.e. filtered masks, are not considered necessary unless multi-drug resistant TB is suspected, or where aerosol-generating procedures are likely. In the US, the standard of care for patients with infectious tuberculosis is a negative pressure ventilated room and the use of personal respiratory protection for all healthcare workers entering the room of a patient with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis. The absence of clinical trials in this area precludes dogmatic recommendations. Nonetheless, observational studies and mathematical modelling suggest that all measures are required for effective prevention. Even when policies and facilities are optimal, there is a need to regularly review and audit these as sometimes compliance is less than optimal. The differences in recommendations may reflect the variations in epidemiology and the greater use of BCG vaccination in the UK compared with the United States. There is a strong argument for advising ventilated facilities and personal respiratory protection for the care of all patients with tuberculosis, as

  4. Effects of Salbutamol on Respiratory Mechanics during One-lung Ventilation Early in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%沙丁胺醇对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者单肺通气早期呼吸力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周其富; 俞渭生

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effects of salbutamol aerosol inhalation prior to anesthesia induction on respiratory mechanics during one lung ventilation early in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS Forty patients with concomitant COPD, scheduled for lobectomy were randomly allocated into observation group(n=20) and control group(n=20) . Salbutamol aerosol 200 ug (two puffs) were administered according to instructions before oxygenation via mask in observation group, whereas in control group no aerosol was given before oxygenation via mask. Anesthesia induction was initiated after 30 min oxygenation in both groups. Changes of blood gas analysis, peak and platform pressure of airway, airway resistance and chest-lung compliance were monitored. RESULTS Compared with control group, value of PaCO2 in anesthesia induction , double lung ventilation, 10 minutes and 20 minutes after one lung ventilation were lower in observation group, however, PaO2 were higher in respective time, P<0.05 or P<0.01; When compared with control group,the peak of and platform pressure of airway, airway resistance in double lung ventilation, 10 minutes and 20 minutes after one lung ventilation were lower in observation group and chest-lung compliance was higher in observation group, P<0.05. CONCLUSION Salbutamol aerosol inhalation can reduce airway pressure and airway resistance and increase chest-lung compliance during one lung ventilation in patients with COPD. It can improve anestheia safety and it is advantageous for breathing management during operation.%目的 麻醉诱导前吸入硫酸沙丁胺醇气雾剂(万托林),观察其对单肺通气早期呼吸力学的影响.方法 合并慢性肺阻塞疾患(COPD)拟行肺叶切除手术的患者40例,随机分成观察组和对照组各20例,观察组:患者给予万托林200 μg(2揿)后面罩吸氧;对照组:单纯面罩吸氧,30 min后开始麻醉诱导.记录监测时点的血气分析以及气道峰压、气道平台

  5. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  6. Breastfeeding protects against adverse respiratory outcomes at 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Karen M; Frampton, Chris M; Wickens, Kristin; Epton, Michael J; Pattemore, Philip K; Ingham, Tristram; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian; Town, G Ian

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between breastfeeding, respiratory and other allergic disorders has been controversial. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between breastfeeding, respiratory outcomes, eczema and atopy at 15 months of age in a prospective birth cohort in New Zealand. A total of 1105 children were enrolled at birth, and 1011 (91.2%) were followed up at 15 months. Logistic regression was used to model associations between breastfeeding duration and respiratory outcomes, eczema and atopy after adjusting for relevant confounding variables: ethnicity, socio-economic status, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, gender and respiratory infections in the first 3 months of life. Breastfeeding was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes at 15 months. After adjustment for confounders, each month of exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma by 20% (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.90), wheezing by 12% (0.88, 0.82 to 0.94) and inhaler use by 14% (0.86, 0.78 to 0.93). Associations for both exclusive and additional breastfeeding durations, and respiratory outcomes remained independently significant when modelled simultaneously. Although independently associated with all respiratory outcomes, adjusting for parental history of allergic disease or maternal history of asthma did not alter our findings. Breastfeeding was not associated with eczema or atopy at 15 months. In conclusion, there was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding on infant wheezing and other adverse respiratory outcomes that may be early indicators of asthma in New Zealand children.

  7. Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity by quantitative ultrasound lung texture analysis: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Montse; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Cobo, Teresa; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Sabrià, Joan; Richter, Jute; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo; García-Posada, Raúl A; Bugatto, Fernando; Santisteve, Ramon; Vives, Àngels; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Bartha, José Luis; Carretero-Lucena, Pilar; Tan, Kai Lit; Cruz-Martínez, Rogelio; Burke, Minke; Vavilala, Suseela; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Delgado, Juan Luis; Schenone, Mauro; Vilanova, Josep; Botet, Francesc; Yeo, George S H; Hyett, Jon; Deprest, Jan; Romero, Roberto; Gratacos, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity may be useful to plan delivery in complicated pregnancies. The limited predictive performance of the current diagnostic tests together with the risks of an invasive procedure restricts the use of fetal lung maturity assessment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of the fetal lung (quantusFLM) to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity in preterm and early-term (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine format, and analyzed with quantusFLM. Physicians were blinded to the analysis. At delivery, perinatal outcomes and the occurrence of neonatal respiratory morbidity, defined as either respiratory distress syndrome or transient tachypnea of the newborn, were registered. The performance of the ultrasound texture analysis test to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity was evaluated. A total of 883 images were collected, but 17.3% were discarded because of poor image quality or exclusion criteria, leaving 730 observations for the final analysis. The prevalence of neonatal respiratory morbidity was 13.8% (101 of 730). The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 74.3% (75 of 101), 88.6% (557 of 629), 51.0% (75 of 147), and 95.5% (557 of 583), respectively. Accuracy was 86.5% (632 of 730) and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 6.5 and 0.3, respectively. The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with an accuracy similar to that previously reported for other tests with the advantage of being a noninvasive technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  9. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  10. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  11. [Diagnosis, therapy and prevention of respiratory virus infections in lung transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Lars C; Isenring, Bruno D; Schuurmans, Macé M

    2014-04-09

    Lung transplant recipients have a life-long profound immunosuppression which makes them prone to respiratory tract infections, in particular viral infections during the winter season. Since the respiratory tract infections may have potentially severe consequences, we recommend early diagnosis and treatment. We obtain nasopharyngeal swabs for viral and bacteriological examination and then treat pre-emptively with antivirals, broad-band antibiotics and often also with intravenous immunoglobulins. Treatment duration is often longer than in immunocompetent patients. As preventive measures we provide vaccination against seasonal influenza and recommend specific daily hygiene measures.

  12. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  13. Measurement of ventilatory threshold by respiratory frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, Teru; Ueda, Takeshi; Teramoto, Keisuke

    2002-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether respiratory frequency can be used as a valid parameter for estimating ventilatory threshold and for examining differences in exercise modes such as a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. 24 men and 12 women performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer and on a treadmill. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, pulmonary ventilation, ventilatory frequency, and heart rate were measured continuously every 30 sec. during the test. Three different and independent reviewers detected the ventilatory threshold point and break point of respiratory rate, which were then compared. Analysis indicated that (1) ventilatory threshold was well correlated with break point of respiratory rate for both cycle (r=.88, pcycle) or 88% (treadmill) of break point of respiratory rate. (2) The regression equation for treadmill exercise was more accurate than that for cycling, but the detected data samples were smaller. The break point of respiratory rate was more easily detected for the cycle ergometer test 33 of 36 subjects) than for the treadmill test (only 15 of 36). The cycle ergometer test identified the break point of respiratory rate more easily than did the treadmill test. (3) There was an association between physical fitness and whether the break point of respiratory rate was detectable, and the more fit the subject (above average), the more likely the break point was to be undetected. Our study demonstrates that the break point of respiratory rate is closely associated with ventilatory threshold and that the cycle ergometer test is more conducive than the treadmill test to the detectability of break point of respiratory rate.

  14. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  15. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  16. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  17. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  18. Use of respiratory and facial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, John E; Ritchie, Lisa; Fry, Carole

    Infectious microorganisms can be transmitted by various routes. Respiratory and facial protection is needed to prevent infection with organisms that are usually transmitted through the droplet/airborne route, or when airborne particles have been artificially created, for example during aerosol-generating procedures. Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and pandemic (H1N1) influenza in 2009 highlighted that health professionals may have difficulty in choosing the correct facial and respiratory protection. The Scientific Development Committee of the Healthcare Infection HealtSociety established a working group to develop guidance addressing this issue.

  19. Respiratory Magnetogram Detected with a MEMS Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Nicolas, Saul M.; Juarez-Aguirre, Raul; Herrera-May, Agustin L.; Garcia-Ramirez, Pedro; Figueras, Eduard; Gutierrez-D., Edmundo A.; Tapia, Jesus A.; Trejo, Argelia; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by the brain or the heart are very useful in clinical diagnostics. Therefore, magnetic signals produced by other organs are also of considerable interest. Here we show first evidence that thoracic muscles can produce a strong magnetic flux density during respiratory activity, that we name respiratory magnetogram. We used a small magnetometer based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which was positioned inside the open thoracic cage of anaesthetized and ventilated rats. With this new MEMS sensor of about 20 nT resolution, we recorded a strong and rhythmic respiratory magnetogram of about 600 nT. PMID:24046516

  20. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  1. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  2. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  3. Evaluation of respiratory conditions in early phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Avaliação das condições respiratórias na fase inicial do transplante de células tronco hematopoiéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Bom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory physiotherapy based on clinical evidence and analyze the improvement in respiratory parameters. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. Two different previously established respiratory physiotherapy protocols were applied from days D-1 to D+7 that aimed to improve airway clearance, pulmonary re-expansion and the strengthening of respiratory muscles. Group A were subjected to diaphragmatic proprioceptive stimulation, breathing exercises, incentive spirometry with Respiron®, inspiratory muscle training with the Threshold® Inspiratory Muscle Training device, bronchial hygienization with Shaker® and cough stimulation. Group B performed a protocol that only used incentive spirometry. The parameters analyzed were: tidal volume, minute volume, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory frequency. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients submitted to myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were included in this study. Among these, thirty-nine were evaluated and randomized in the two groups. There were significant differences between the groups for tidal volume at D+2 (p-value = 0.007 and maximal inspiratory pressure (p-value = 0.03, maximal expiratory pressure (p-value = 0.03 and tidal volume (p-value = 0.004 at D+7. CONCLUSION: On comparing Group A with Group B, the authors concluded that the protocol of respiratory physiotherapy applied in this study resulted in an improvement in ventilation and in respiratory muscle strength of patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.OBJETIVO: investigar a eficácia da fisioterapia respiratória (FR baseada em evidência clínica e nos parâmetros respiratórios. Estudo prospectivo realizado na Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Dois

  4. Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Mannheimia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Mannheimia Haemolytica ... to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Mannheimia spp was isolated from the nasal swab and lymph node and lung ...

  5. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  6. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as well...

  7. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  8. Epidemiology of Respiratory Disease in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article is to review what is known about infectious and non-infectious ... lung disease, probably of infective origin, known as lymphocytic ... Respiratory tract infections and fever have been described .... is high but the causes are unknown. 4.

  9. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  10. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  11. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  12. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training

    OpenAIRE

    Verges, S; Lenherr, O; Haner, A C; Schulz, C.; Spengler, C M

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects...

  13. Bubble CPAP - a primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Prashanth S; Khan, Firdose; Maiya, P P

    2009-05-01

    In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. We conducted this prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of bubble-CPAP as primary mode of respiratory support. Bubble CPAP was found to be safe and effective means of treating mild and moderate grade RDS, it was also observed to be more successful in babies born to mothers who had received antenatal steroids.

  14. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  15. REPEATED ABDOMINAL EXERCISE INDUCES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Coast

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling. These exercises have a large ventilatory component, though, and can still be argued to be respiratory activities. Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters. Eight subjects performed pulmonary function, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP measurements, and an incremental breathing test before and after completing a one-time fatiguing exercise bout of sit-ups. Each subject acted as their own control performing the same measurements 3-5 days following the exercise bout, substituting rest for exercise. Following sit-up induced fatigue, significant decreases were measured in MIP [121.6 ± 26 to 113.8 ± 23 cmH2O (P <0.025], and incremental breathing test duration [9.6 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 0.7 minutes (P <0.05]. No significant decreases were observed from control pre-test to control post-test measurements. We conclude that after a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP and endurance (incremental breathing test duration but not spirometric pulmonary function

  16. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  17. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  18. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  19. Structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Maria Luisa; Bianchi, Cristina; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    Two models exist of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: the model of a random organization of the individual respiratory enzyme complexes and that of a super-complex assembly formed by stable association between the individual complexes. Recently Schägger, using digitonin solubilization and Blue Native PAGE produced new evidence of preferential associations, in particular a Complex I monomer with a Complex III dimer, and suggested a model of the respiratory chain (the respirasome) based on direct electron channelling between complexes. Discrimination between the two models is amenable to kinetic testing using flux control analysis. Experimental evidence obtained in beef heart SMP, according to the extension of the Metabolic Control Theory for pathways with metabolic channelling, showed that enzyme associations involving Complex I and Complex III take place in the respiratory chain while Complex IV seems to be randomly distributed, with cytochrome c behaving as a mobile component. Flux control analysis at anyone of the respiratory complexes involved in aerobic succinate oxidation indicated that Complex II and III are not functionally associated in a stable supercomplex. A critical appraisal of the solid-state model of the mitochondrial respiratory chain requires its reconciliation with previous biophysical and kinetic evidence that CoQ behaves as a homogeneous diffusible pool between all reducing enzyme and all oxidizing enzymes: the hypothesis can be advanced that both models (CoQ pool and supercomplexes) are true, by postulating that supercomplexes physiologically exist in equilibrium with isolated complexes depending on metabolic conditions of the cell.

  20. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49% had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  1. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  2. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  3. [Use of respiratory masks in healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, C; Bouvet, E; Abiteboul, D

    2008-08-01

    Two different types of filtering respiratory masks are available in healthcare settings. The first ones are used to protect patients from droplets coming from the mouth of healthcare workers (HCW) and the second ones are protective masks. For the moment, we lack information regarding application of Ministry of Health recommendations and on adherence of HCW to mask use. Geres, the HCW exposure risk study group, and the INRS, are now conducting a survey in several hospitals in France to evaluate the use of respiratory masks in healthcare settings. Two phases are planned. Phase I is a self survey using a questionnaire for occupational doctors and hygienists and phase II includes three steps on HCW behavior: evaluation of knowledge and practice concerning respiratory masks, evaluation of respiratory mask use, evaluation of wear and fit test in a context of airborne isolation with a FFP1 and FFP2 respiratory mask. Phase I is finished and phase II is beginning. The first phase I data show that the Ministry's recommendations are observed: respiratory masks are available, written recommendations are present; information and training are organized for healthcare workers. Phase II results are not available yet.

  4. Effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training and abdominal drawing-in maneuver on respiratory muscle activity in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, In-Seob

    2015-08-01

    No study has examined the effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training (RMT) and abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) on respiratory muscle activity and function in stroke patients during early pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RMT combined with ADIM on decreased respiratory muscle activity and function in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia. Thirty-seven subjects with post-stroke hemiplegia were randomly allocated to three groups; integrated training group (ITG), respiratory muscle training group (RMTG), and control group (CG). All of the subjects received routine therapy for stroke rehabilitation for 1 hour, five times a week for 6 weeks. Especially, the ITG received RMT using an incentive respiratory spirometer and ADIM using a Stabilizer, and the RMTG only received RMT using incentive respiratory spirometer for 15  minutes a day, five times a week for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry for measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC) and force expiratory volume in 1  second (FEV1). Additional surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis was included by measuring the respiratory muscle activity. Our results showed that changes between the pre- and post-test values of FVC (F = 12.50, P = 0.02) and FEV1 (F = 12.81, P = 0.01) (P hemiplegia.

  5. Respiratory insufficiency correlated strongly with mortality of rodents infected with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, John D; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Wang, Hong; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) disease can be fatal for high-risk patients. Since WNV or its antigens have been identified in multiple anatomical locations of the central nervous system of persons or rodent models, one cannot know where to investigate the actual mechanism of mortality without careful studies in animal models. In this study, depressed respiratory functions measured by plethysmography correlated strongly with mortality. This respiratory distress, as well as reduced oxygen saturation, occurred beginning as early as 4 days before mortality. Affected medullary respiratory control cells may have contributed to the animals' respiratory insufficiency, because WNV antigen staining was present in neurons located in the ventrolateral medulla. Starvation or dehydration would be irrelevant in people, but could cause death in rodents due to lethargy or loss of appetite. Animal experiments were performed to exclude this possibility. Plasma ketones were increased in moribund infected hamsters, but late-stage starvation markers were not apparent. Moreover, daily subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in physiological saline solution did not improve survival or other disease signs. Therefore, infected hamsters did not die from starvation or dehydration. No cerebral edema was apparent in WNV- or sham-infected hamsters as determined by comparing wet-to-total weight ratios of brains, or by evaluating blood-brain-barrier permeability using Evans blue dye penetration into brains. Limited vasculitis was present in the right atrium of the heart of infected hamsters, but abnormal electrocardiograms for several days leading up to mortality did not occur. Since respiratory insufficiency was strongly correlated with mortality more than any other pathological parameter, it is the likely cause of death in rodents. These animal data and a poor prognosis for persons with respiratory insufficiency support the hypothesis that neurological lesions affecting respiratory function may be the

  6. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  7. CT在油酸致兔急性呼吸窘迫综合征早期诊断中的应用%The value of computed tomography in early diagnosis in rabbits with acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金兆辰; 蒋文芳; 吉木森; 姚利群; 虞志新; 冯玉玲; 吴永红; 周红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of computed tomography(CT)in early diagnosis by comparison of the changes of different defrees of aeratation in lung compartments of rabbits with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)induced by oleic acid.Method Twenty white rabbits were randomly(random number)divided into control group and oleic acid group.Oleic acid(0.1 mL/kg)was given intravenously to induce ARDS in cr room.Arterial blood gas analysis was determined every 15 rain.All rabbits underwent chest X-my and lung spiral cr scans examinations at basal state(T_0),200 mmHg<OI<300 mmHg(T_1)and OI<200 mmHg(T_2).The percentages of different degrees aeratation in different aerated lung compartments were measured by CT software at the same time.Changes in different lung compartments,chest images,and the correlation between lung volume and OI were investigated.Moreover,the wet/dry ratio and pathological changes in lung were examined.Data were evaluated by two-sample t-test and repeated measutement data analysis of variance,and Spearman raak correlation was used to analyze the correlation between two variables.Results(1)The percentages of non-aerated,poorly aerated and normally aerated compartment were significantly different at different intervals in the oleic add group (P<0.01),and the percentages of non-aerated compartment were(19.30±2.34)%at T_1 and)26.47±1.89)%at T_2,and those of the poorly aerted compartment were(28.08±2.70)%at T_1 and(37.40±1.78)%at T_2 which were higber than those in control group(P<0.01).While the percentages of normally aerated compartment were(47.38±3.19)%at T_1 and(30.82±3.25)%at T_2 which were lower than those in control group [(79.12±1.25)%at T_1 and(78.23±1.84)%at T_2](P<0.01),there were no significant differences in percentages of hyperinflated compartment between two groups(P>0.05).(2)There was a negative correlation in respect of OI between non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments(-0.745~-0.636)while the

  8. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF 5785 CASES WITH RESPIRATORY SYSTEM TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and tendency of incidence of patients with respiratory system tumors during the past 23 y in Tianjin. Methods: All data in our research was obtained from the surgical pathology files of Department of Pathology of the general and the Second Hospitals of Tianjin Medical University between 1981 and 2003. All data was analyzed by Spss 11.5 statistics program. The comparisons were made by u-test, P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: 1. The detection rate of malignant tumors is significantly higher than that of benign tumors (U=52.68, p=0.000) in respiratory system. 2. The common sites of benign tumors are nose and pharynx, but the common sites of malignant tumors are lung and larynx. 3. The incidence of benign tumors generally peaks between the ages of 40 and 50, but the incidence of malignant tumor generally peaks between the ages of 50 and 60. 4. The commonest histological type of malignant tumors is squamous cell carcinoma, but the commonest histological type of benign tumors is papilloma. 5. The detection rate of malignant lung tumors steadily increased between 1981 and 1999 and increased sharply from 1999 to 2003, but the detection rate of malignant Nasopharyngeal tumors steadily decreased from 1981 to 2003. Between 1981 and 1997, the detection rate of malignant laryngeal tumors steadily increased, followed by a decrease between 1997 and 2003. Conclusion: The detection rate of malignant respiratory system tumors especially lung cancer is gradually increasing. Therefore early prevention and treatment are critical to patients' prognosis.

  9. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions.

  10. [Physical therapy performance in respiratory and motor involvement during postoperative in children submitted to abdominal surgeries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Caroline C; Gonçalves, Marcela T; Piccolo, Mariana M; Lima, Simone; Rosa, George J da; Paulin, Elaine; Schivinski, Camila S

    2011-01-01

    to verify the physiotherapy performance in the respiratory and motor affections during postoperative period in pediatric patients undergoing abdominal surgery. was a literature review of articles published in the databases Lilacs, Medline and SciELO in the period 1983 to 2010 as well as books, papers presented at scientific meetings and journals of the area, who approached the post-therapy of abdominal surgery in children. The keywords used were: abdominal surgery, children and physiotherapy. 28 articles, one book chapter and one dissertation had been selected that examined the question and proposed that contained all, or at least two of the descriptors listed. Most of the material included covers the incidence of respiratory complications after surgery for pediatric abdominal surgery due to immaturity of the respiratory system of this population, abdominal manipulation of surgical period, the prolonged time in bed, pain at the incision site and waste anesthetic. Some authors also discuss the musculoskeletal and connective tissue arising from the inaction and delay of psychomotor development consequent to periods of hospitalization in early childhood, taking on the role of physiotherapy to prevent motor and respiratory involvement. there are few publications addressing this topic, but the positive aspects of physiotherapy have been described, especially in relation to the prevention of respiratory complications and motor, recognized the constraints and consequences of hospitalizations and surgeries cause in children.

  11. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  12. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    ; there was little or no evidence of increasing or decreasing cost trends. Increased awareness of the detrimental effects of AR and/or AA on patients' HRQL and its considerable cost burden might encourage early diagnosis and treatment, in order to minimize the disease burden and ensure beneficial and cost-effective...... the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease...

  13. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  14. [Usefulness of urinary antigen and sputum Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Takashi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Tomioka, Toshiaki; Odagiri, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of a rapid urinary antigen detection kit (Binax NOW) to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae in the early diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory tract infections in 313 patients with presumptive respiratory tract infections. We compared results of this test with those of sputum Gram staining. Urinary antigen and sputum Gram staining were respectively positive in 37 and 36 of 57 patients with pneumococcal respiratory infections. The urinary antigen showed moderate positive rate of 64.9% and low false positive rate of 2.3%. The sputum Gram staining also showed moderate positive rate of 64.3% and low false positive rate of 3.5%. Pneumococcal antigen was more frequently detected in patients with severe pneumococcal infections (6/6) than those with mild (5/10) and moderate (26/41) infections. Of the 9 patients who had received antibiotics before testing, antigen was detected in 8 but positive results of sputum Gram stain were in 4. In conclusion, urinary antigen test is a useful test for early diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory infections especially in adult patients with moderate or severe infections for whom demonstrative results of a sputum Gram stain is unavailable, even after commencement of antibiotic treatment.

  15. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of wheezi

  16. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  17. Respiratory sensitization : Advances in assessing the risk of respiratory inflammation and irritation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebriel, R.; Callant Cransveld, C.; Crommelin, D.; Diamant, Z.; Glazenburg, B.; Joos, G.; Kuper, F.; Natsch, A.; Nijkamp, F.; Noteborn, H.; Pieters, R.; Roberts, D.; Roggen, E.; Rorije, E.; Seed, M.; Sewald, K.; Heuvel, R. van den; Engelen, J. van; Verstraelen, S.; Loveren, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory sensitization provides a case study for a new approach to chemical safety evaluation, as the prevalence of respiratory sensitization has increased considerably over the last decades, but animal and/or human experimental/predictive models are not currently available. Therefore, the goal

  18. Respiratory sensitization : Advances in assessing the risk of respiratory inflammation and irritation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebriel, R.; Callant Cransveld, C.; Crommelin, D.; Diamant, Z.; Glazenburg, B.; Joos, G.; Kuper, F.; Natsch, A.; Nijkamp, F.; Noteborn, H.; Pieters, R.; Roberts, D.; Roggen, E.; Rorije, E.; Seed, M.; Sewald, K.; Heuvel, R. van den; Engelen, J. van; Verstraelen, S.; Loveren, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory sensitization provides a case study for a new approach to chemical safety evaluation, as the prevalence of respiratory sensitization has increased considerably over the last decades, but animal and/or human experimental/predictive models are not currently available. Therefore, the goal o

  19. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  20. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  1. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with neuromuscular impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Arne; Prusseit, Julia; Müller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Clinically obvious reasons why children with neurological impairment (NMI) may be more severely affected in case of a viral respiratory tract infection include reduced vital capacity due to muscular weakness or spastic scoliosis, disturbed clearance of respiratory excretions (weak coughing and dysphagia), inability to comply actively with physiotherapeutic interventions, recurrent micro-aspirations (gastroesophageal reflux disease, vomiting related to coughing), a history of frequent exposure to antibiotics and health care institutions, colonization with resistant pathogens, impaired immunologic defence mechanisms due to severe malnutrition and cachexia, and early clinical deterioration in case of high fever with metabolic acidosis and hypercapnia, and maybe associated seizures or febrile convulsions.Data from the literature suggests that in all children with NMI, who have to be hospitalized with severe clinical deterioration due to an airway infection, at least one specimen of nasopharyngeal secretions should be sent as soon as possible to a virologic laboratory to detect viral pathogens. Children with severe NMI and those mechanically ventilated for other reasons being hospitalized during the RSV season must be strictly protected against nosocomial RSV infection by means of standard and droplet precautions. Finally, children with severe NMI and age below 24 months of life should receive passive immunization with palivizumab following international recommendations.

  3. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, respiratory outcomes and atopy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Seif O; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the aetiology of childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes.In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we examined associations of maternal gestational hypertension, hypertension before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia with wheezing at 18 months, wheezing and asthma at 7 years and lung function at 8-9 years, after controlling for potential confounders (n=5322-8734, depending on outcome).Gestational hypertension was not associated with any of the outcomes. There was weak evidence for a positive association between pre-eclampsia and early wheezing (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.94-1.82, compared to normotensive pregnancies) and for negative associations between pre-eclampsia and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (adjusted mean difference in sd score -0.14, 95% CI -0.33-0.06) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (-0.15, 95% CI -0.34-0.04). Hypertension before pregnancy was positively associated with wheezing (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.16-2.31) and asthma (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00-1.79).Gestational hypertension is unlikely to be a risk factor for childhood respiratory disorders; hypertension before pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood wheezing and asthma, but this finding needs replication. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether pre-eclampsia is associated with impaired childhood lung function.

  4. [Newborn life threatening respiratory failure treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Ewa; Grzybowski, Adam; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Przybylski, Roman; Walas, Wojciech; Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Szary, Tomasz; Włoczka, Grzegorz; Skalski, Janusz H; Zembala, Marian

    2006-01-01

    THE AIM of the study was to show first results of newborn life threatening respiratory failure treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in Poland. Nine newborns were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Silesian Center for Heart Diseases. Newborns were born in 38 week of gestational age (36-41 weeks) with mean birth weight of 3490 g. Reasons for the referral were: meconium aspiration syndrome, infection, and pulmonary hypertension. Each newborn fulfilled an Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. seven out of nine of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survived. Full clinical stabilization was reached about 6th hour of treatment. Mean extracorporeal oxygenation time was 162 hours. For eight newborns veno-venous method was applied and for one newborn veno-arterial method. Roller pump was used in 7 cases and centrifugal pomp in one case. Five newborns had uneventful treatment. During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy we have observed several complications: PDA, hemorrhagic complications, renal failure, arterial hypertension, septicemia, tubing rupture. extracorporeal oxygenation is an effective method of treatment for newborn life threatening respiratory failure. Obtained results do not differ much from Extracorporeal Life Support Organization register results. The most essential problem for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is correct qualification, early referral, safe transportation as well as the development of centers providing ECMO treatment.

  5. Flavonoids Inhibit the Respiratory Burst of Neutrophils in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ciz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils represent the front-line defence cells in protecting organisms against infection and play an irreplaceable role in the proper performance of the immune system. As early as within the first minutes of stimulation, neutrophilic NADPH oxidase is activated, and cells release large quantities of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. These oxidants can be highly toxic not only for infectious agents but also for neighboring host tissues. Since flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of ROS production. The present paper summarizes contemporary knowledge on the effects of various flavonoids on the respiratory burst of mammalian neutrophils. It can be summarized that the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on the respiratory burst of phagocytes are mediated via inhibition of enzymes involved in cell signaling as well as via modulation of redox status. However, the effects of flavonoids are even more complex, and several sites of action, depending upon the flavonoid structure and way of application, are included.

  6. Respiratory support for severe acute respiratory syndrome: integration of efficacy and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; CAO Zhi-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with the SARS virus. The most obvious clinical characteristic of SARS is rapidly progressive pneumonia, and about 20% patients need intensive care due to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).1-3 In the absence of effective drugs for SARS, supportive care, especially respiratory support techniques (RSTs), is of primary importance. On the other hand, offering RSTs to SARS patients may carry a high-risk of infection to healthcare workers because of the high infectivity of SARS. Therefore, the strategy of RSTs for SARS should be the integration of efficacy and safety. In this issue of the Chinese Medical Journal, an article from Hong Kong has retrospectively compared both the safety and efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with that of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in SARS.

  7. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  8. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia of brainstem lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, F J; Bauer, L; Baxter, D

    1999-04-01

    In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that intrinsic and extrinsic brainstem lesions situated within the pontomedullary region would effect the integrity of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The study sample consisted of three patients with anatomic brainstem abnormalities associated with isolated Chiari I malformation, Chiari II malformation with syringobulbia, and achondroplasia with cervicomedullary compression. They were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group of nine patients. Each subject's electrocardiogram was recorded in a quiet room and digitized by a personal computer during five 1-minute periods. R-R intervals within each 1-minute period were converted to heart rate in 120 successive 0.5-second intervals. The resultant heartrate time series was converted to its underlying frequency composition by a fast Fourier transform and averaged across minutes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia was defined as the variability in the time series over a frequency range (0.096 to 0.48 Hz) corresponding to a range of respiratory rates from 6 to 30 breaths per minute. Analysis revealed a significant reduction in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (P < .05), defined as the summated area under the curve, with a mean for controls of 35.42+/-28.13 SD and for subjects of 17.20+/-11.50 SD. There was a gradient of abnormality noted, with the mildest deviation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia for the patient with isolated Chiari I malformation and maximum deviation seen in the patient with extrinsic cervicomedullary compression.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  10. Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Össur Ingi Emilsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms, either through a vagal bronchoconstrictive reflex or through microaspiration of gastric contents. No diagnostic test is available, however, to diagnose when respiratory illnesses are caused by GER and when not, but research in this field has been moving forward. Various biomarkers in different types of biosamples have been studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the present knowledge in this field. GER patients with respiratory diseases seem to have a different biochemical profile from similar patients without GER. Inflammatory biomarkers differ in asthmatics based on GER status, tachykinins are elevated in patients with GER-related cough, and bile acids are elevated in lung transplant patients with GER. However, studies on these biomarkers are often limited by their small size, methods of analysis, and case selections. The two pathogenesis mechanisms are associated with different respiratory illnesses and biochemical profiles. A reliable test to identify GER-induced respiratory disorders needs to be developed. Bronchoalveolar lavage is too invasive to be of use in most patients. Exhaled breath condensate samples need further evaluation and standardization. The newly developed particles in exhaled air measurements remain to be studied further.

  11. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  12. Interoceptive dimensions across cardiac and respiratory axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Manassei, Miranda F; Hamilton-Fletcher, Giles; In den Bosch, Yvo; Critchley, Hugo D; Engels, Miriam

    2016-11-19

    Interoception refers to the sensing of signals concerning the internal state of the body. Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity are proposed to account for differences in affective processing, including the expression of anxiety. The majority of investigations of interoceptive accuracy focus on cardiac signals, typically using heartbeat detection tests and self-report measures. Consequently, little is known about how different organ-specific axes of interoception relate to each other or to symptoms of anxiety. Here, we compare interoception for cardiac and respiratory signals. We demonstrate a dissociation between cardiac and respiratory measures of interoceptive accuracy (i.e. task performance), yet a positive relationship between cardiac and respiratory measures of interoceptive awareness (i.e. metacognitive insight into own interoceptive ability). Neither interoceptive accuracy nor metacognitive awareness for cardiac and respiratory measures was related to touch acuity, an exteroceptive sense. Specific measures of interoception were found to be predictive of anxiety symptoms. Poor respiratory accuracy was associated with heightened anxiety score, while good metacognitive awareness for cardiac interoception was associated with reduced anxiety. These findings highlight that detection accuracies across different sensory modalities are dissociable and future work can better delineate their relationship to affective and cognitive constructs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

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    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  14. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: 'SARS' or 'not SARS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A M; Hon, K L E; Cheng, W T; Ng, P C; Chan, F Y; Li, C K; Leung, T F; Fok, T F

    2004-01-01

    Accurate clinical diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) based on the current World Health Organization definition is difficult and at times impossible at the early stage of the disease. Both false positive and false negative cases are commonly encountered and this could have far-reaching detrimental effects on the patients, their family and the clinicians alike. Contact history is particularly important in diagnosing SARS in children as their presenting features are often non-specific. The difficulty in making a correct diagnosis is further compounded by the lack of a sensitive rapid diagnostic test. Serology is not particularly helpful in the initial triaging of patients as it takes at least 3 weeks to become positive. Co-infection and other treatable conditions should not be missed and conventional antibiotics should remain as part of the first-line treatment regimen. We report five cases to illustrate the difficulties and dilemmas faced by clinicians in diagnosing SARS in children.

  15. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children.

  16. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  17. Huge Neck Masses Causing Respiratory Distress in Neonates: Two Cases of Congenital Cervical Teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Hasan Özkan; Oğuzkurt, Pelin; Temiz, Abdulkerim; Bolat, Filiz Aka; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2016-12-01

    Congenital cervical teratomas are rare and usually large enough to cause respiratory distress in the neonatal period. We present two cases of congenital huge cystic neck masses in which distinguishing cervical cystic hygroma and congenital cystic teratoma was not possible through radiologic imaging techniques. Experience with the first case, which was initially diagnosed and treated as cystic hygroma by injection sclerotherapy, led to early suspicion and surgery in the second case. The masses were excised completely and histopathologic diagnoses were congenital teratoma in both patients. Our aim is to review congenital huge neck masses causing respiratory distress in early neonatal life to highlight this dilemma briefly with these interesting cases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Putative respiratory chain of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuric, Vincent; Rouillon, Astrid; Chandad, Fatiha; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The electron transfer chain in Porphyromonas gingivalis, or periodontopathogens, has not yet been characterized. P. gingivalis, a strict anaerobic bacteria and the second colonizer of the oral cavity, is considered to be a major causal agent involved in periodontal diseases. Primary colonizers create a favorable environment for P. gingivalis growth by decreasing oxygen pressure. Oxygen does not appear to be the final electron acceptor of the respiratory chain. Fumarate and cytochrome b have been implicated as major components of the respiratory activity. However, the P. gingivalis genome shows many other enzymes that could be implicated in aerobic or nitrite respiration. Using bioinformatic tools and literature studies of respiratory pathways, the ATP synthesis mechanism from the sodium cycle and nutrients metabolism, the putative respirasome of P. gingivalis has been proposed.

  19. RESPIRATORY REEDUCATION IN THORACIC CONTUSION RECOVERY

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    Aurelia PREDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory reeducation is a way to recover the thoracic contusion. Correcting dyspnea induced by pain, decreases the required postcontuzional recovery time and, therefore, the required social reintegration time. This is achieved an increasing of the pacient life quality, and significant savings of human and material resources: reducing medical and somato-functional recovery costs, reducing the sick leave payment and the work days off to. The „TES” device has been designed in order to improve respiratory reeducation and to recover the thoracic contusion. A study showed that the postcontuzional recovery was significantly increased by using the physical exercises of respiratory reeducation. The „TES” device demonstrated his role in this.

  20. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN PREGNANCY

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    Madhumala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a clinical syndrome of severe dyspnea of rapid onset, hypoxemia, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates leading to respiratory failure. ARDS occurs in pregnancy and may have unique causes. Overall mortality for both the mother and the fetus is high and significant morbidity can persist even after initial recovery. ARDS is associated with obstetric causes such as amniotic fluid embolism, preeclampsia, septic abortion, and retained products of conception or non - obstetr ic causes that include sepsis, aspiration pneumonitis, influenza pneumonia, blood transfusions, and trauma. Here is a 24 years old female admitted with 7months of amenorrhea, who presented with respiratory failure, she was intubated and ventilated for 47da ys. She recovered, and a live baby was delivered. She was discharged after 73days.

  1. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

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    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  2. The Respiratory Chain of Alkaliphilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Ann Krulwich

    2008-01-29

    Alkaliphilic bacteria that grow at extremely high pH are confronted by particular bioenergetic problems in carrying out oxidative phosphorylation. This project focused on the properties and adaptations of the respiratory chain. The respiratory chain as a whole, the redox poises of its components and several individual complexes of the respiratory chain of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 have been characterized as part of this project and, importantly, this project has helped support the development of genetic tools that make B. pseudofirmus OF4 the most genetically tractable and, hence, most bioenergetically characterized extreme alkaliphile. Evidence has been obtained for a pivotal role of the cca3-type terminal oxidase in oxidative phosphorylation, especially at high pH and motifs that may be relevant to that special role have been identified.

  3. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  4. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  5. Predictors of Successful Noninvasive Ventilation Treatment for Patients Suffering Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shian Lin

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: APACHE II scores recorded prior to NIV treatment, PImax30, R30, RR60, as well as improvements to RR during the first 30 minutes of NIV treatment and to PEmax during the first 60 minutes of NIV treatment were predictors of successful NIV treatment for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Such parameters may be helpful in selecting patients to receive NIV treatment and also for deciding when early termination of the treatment is appropriate.

  6. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  7. Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verder, Henrik; Bohlin, Kajsa; Kamper, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian approach is an effective combined treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It is composed of many individual parts. Of significant importance is the early treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)......-postnatal treatment with nCPAP and surfactant decreases the severity and mortality of RDS and BPD. This is mainly due to a diminished use of MV in the first days of life....

  8. Frequent respiratory events in postoperative patients aged 60 years and above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broens SJL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne JL Broens,1 Xuan He,1 Rachel Evley,2 Erik Olofsen,1 Marieke Niesters,1 Ravi P Mahajan,2 Albert Dahan,1 Monique van Velzen1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands; 2Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK Abstract: There is limited information on the occurrence of respiratory events in postoperative patients after discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. We studied the respiratory rate (RR of 68 patients aged 60 years and above during the first 6 hours following elective surgery under general anesthesia to assess the frequency of respiratory events in the care unit and on the ward. RR was derived from the continuous RR counter RespiR8, measuring RR by quantifying the humidity of exhaled air. One-minute-averaged RRs were collected and analyzed to assess the frequency of postoperative bradypnea (RR 1–6 breaths/minute and apnea (cessation of inspiratory flow ≥60 seconds. Values were median (interquartile range or mean (SD. The median RR was 13 (10–15 breaths/minute. In the 6-hour postoperative period, 78% and 57% of patients experienced at least one bradypnea or apnea event, respectively. A median of ten (3.5–24 bradypnea and three (1–11 apnea events were detected per patient. The occurrence of respiratory events in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU was a predictor of events on the ward (bradypnea, r2=0.4, P<0.001; apnea, r2=0.2, P<0.001. Morphine consumption correlated weakly with respiratory events in the PACU, but not on the ward. Patients with apnea had significantly larger neck circumference than patients without (39.6 [0.7] versus 37.4 [0.8] cm, P<0.05. Bradypneic or apneic respiratory events are frequent in postoperative elderly patients and even occur relatively late after surgery. Continuous respiratory monitoring on the ward, especially in patients with risk factors, such as early occurrence of events, opioid use, and larger

  9. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia and severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Halawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucoepithelial disruption of the skin, hair and mucous membranes. It results from defective gap junction formation and leads to non-scarring alopecia, mucosal erythema, perineal erythematous intertrigo, involvement of the conjunctival mucosa, and pulmonary disease. We present a case of severe respiratory distress in an initially healthy full term infant born to a mother with HMD. This infant later developed signs and symptoms of HMD. A high index of suspicion for pulmonary infection with atypical organism is essential in infants with a family history of HMD who present with respiratory distress.

  10. Respiratory Motion Prediction in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Sastry

    Active respiratory motion management has received increasing attention in the past decade as a means to reduce the internal margin (IM) component of the clinical target volume (CTV)—planning target volume (PTV) margin typically added around the gross tumor volume (GTV) during radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Engineering and technical developments in linear accelerator design and respiratory motion monitoring respectively have made the delivery of motion adaptive radiation therapy possible through real-time control of either dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion (gantry based linear accelerator design) or robotic arm motion (robotic arm mounted linear accelerator design).

  11. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates.

  12. Do benzodiazepines contribute to respiratory problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozoris, Nicholas T

    2014-12-01

    Non-selective benzodiazepines are a class of sedative and anxiolytic medication that are commonly prescribed. Physiology studies and animal studies suggest that non-selective benzodiazepines may adversely impact respiration through a variety of mechanisms. Several recent, well-designed, population-based observational studies confirm that benzodiazepine-related negative respiratory outcomes are a concern. In this article, the mechanisms and clinical evidence for non-selective benzodiazepine-related adverse respiratory outcomes, as well as the methodological issues relating to the evaluation of adverse drug effects are reviewed.

  13. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ... (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain...

  14. The Impact of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Respiratory Illness in Infants and Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.H.J.; Hooyenga, P.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Scalabrin, D.M.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Birch, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnanc

  15. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to NDUFA12 mutations as a new cause of Leigh syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Rodenburg, Richard J; van den Brand, Mariël;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a girl with Leigh syndrome born to first-cousin parents of Pakistani descent with an isolated respiratory chain complex I deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts. Her early development was delayed, and from age 2 years she started losing motor abilities. Cerebral MRI showed...

  16. Elective high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, F.; Askie, L.M.; Offringa, M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the considerable amount of evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation as compared to conventional ventilation in the early treatment of respiratory distres

  17. Infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus needed less ventilator time with nasal continuous airways pressure then invasive mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borckink, Ilse; Essouri, Sandrine; Laurent, Marie; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Tissieres, Pierre; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has been proposed as an early first-line support for infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We hypothesised that infants <6 months with severe RSV would require shorter ventilator support on NCPAP than invasive mechanic

  18. Infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus needed less ventilator time with nasal continuous airways pressure then invasive mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borckink, Ilse; Essouri, Sandrine; Laurent, Marie; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Tissieres, Pierre; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    AIM: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has been proposed as an early first-line support for infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We hypothesised that infants <6 months with severe RSV would require shorter ventilator support on NCPAP than invasive

  19. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  20. Quantification of respiratory depression during pre-operative administration of midazolam using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Castro, Luis N.; Mehta, Jaideep H.; Brayanov, Jordan B.; Mullen, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pre-operative administration of benzodiazepines can cause hypoventilation—a decrease in minute ventilation (MV)—commonly referred to as “respiratory compromise or respiratory depression.” Respiratory depression can lead to hypercarbia and / or hypoxemia, and may heighten the risk of other respiratory complications. Current anesthesia practice often places patients at risk for respiratory complications even before surgery, as respiratory monitoring is generally postponed until the patient is in the operating room. In the present study we examined and quantified the onset of respiratory depression following the administration of a single dose of midazolam in pre-operative patients, using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor that reports MV, tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR). Methods Impedance-based Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) data were collected and analyzed from 30 patients prior to undergoing orthopedic or general surgical procedures. All patients received 2.0 mg of midazolam intravenously at least 20 minutes prior to the induction of anesthesia and the effects of midazolam on the patient's respiratory function were analyzed. Results Within 15 minutes of midazolam administration, we noted a significant decrease in both MV (average decrease of 14.3% ± 5.9%, pbenzodiazepines affect primarily TV rather than RR. Such respiratory monitoring data provide the opportunity for individualizing dosing and adjustment of clinical interventions, especially important in elderly patients. With additional respiratory data, clinicians may be able to better identify and quantify respiratory depression, reduce adverse effects, and improve overall patient safety. PMID:28235069