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Sample records for early smoking-induced respiratory

  1. An improved method of early diagnosis of smoking-induced respiratory changes using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Jorge L M; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Faria, Alvaro C D; Melo, Pedro L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised learning techniques were investigated, including logistic linear classifiers, k nearest neighbor (KNN), neural networks and support vector machines (SVM). To evaluate performance, the ROC curve of the most accurate parameter was established as baseline. To determine the best input features and classifier parameters, we used genetic algorithms and a 10-fold cross-validation using the average area under the ROC curve (AUC). In the first experiment, the original FOT parameters were used as input. We observed a significant improvement in accuracy (KNN=0.89 and SVM=0.87) compared with the baseline (0.77). The second experiment performed a feature selection on the original FOT parameters. This selection did not cause any significant improvement in accuracy, but it was useful in identifying more adequate FOT parameters. In the third experiment, we performed a feature selection on the cross products of the FOT parameters. This selection resulted in a further increase in AUC (KNN=SVM=0.91), which allows for high diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify early smoking-induced respiratory alterations. The use of FOT cross products and the search for the best features and classifier parameters can markedly improve the performance of machine learning classifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus infections enhance cigarette smoke induced COPD in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Foronjy

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression.

  3. Parental smoking and respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, J K; Keena, V; Harakeh, Z; Marks, G

    2001-09-01

    The adverse health consequences of exposing children to tobacco smoke have been well documented. Re-calculation of the data available from cohort and cross-sectional studies worldwide shows that between 500-2500 excess hospitalisations and between 1000 to 5000 excess diagnoses per 100 000 young children as result from respiratory infections can be directly attributed to parental smoking. Results of published meta-analyses support these figures, which are probably under-estimated because of the effects of non-differential misclassification bias. These excess infections are a source of preventable morbidity and have a high cost to the community. They also have important long-term consequences because children who have respiratory infections in early life are at an increased risk of developing asthma in later childhood. More effective strategies that prevent smoking in young people before they become parents have the potential to lead to reductions in these high rates of unnecessary morbidity in the next generation of children.

  4. Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Bircan; Knudsen, Toril Mørkve; Janson, Christer; Nilsen, Roy M; Accordini, Simone; Benediktdottir, Bryndis; Dratva, Julia; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Debbie; Leynaert, Benedcite; Matheson, Melanie C; Norbäck, Dan; Real, Francisco G; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Villani, Simona; Dharmage, S C; Svanes, C

    2018-07-01

    Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire. The associations of maternal smoking in utero, maternal smoking during childhood, age of smoking debut and pack-years of smoking with respiratory symptoms, obstructive diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity were analysed using generalized linear regression, non-linearity between age of smoking debut and outcomes were assessed by Generalized additive mixed models. Respiratory symptoms and asthma were more frequent in adults if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and, in men, also if mother smoked in childhood. Wheeze and ≥3 respiratory symptoms declined with later smoking debut among women [≤10 years: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.26, 9.73; 11-12 years: 1.57[1.01-2.44]; 13-15 years: 1.11[0.94-1.32] and ≤10 years: 3.74[1.56-8.83]; 11-12 years: 1.76[1.19-2.56]; 13-15 years: 1.12[0.94-1.35], respectively]. Effects of increasing number of packyears were pronounced in women (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): OR/10 packyears women: 1.33 [1.18, 1.50], men: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] p interaction = 0.01). Among ever smokers, smoking exposure in each stage of the lifespan show persistent harmful effects for adult respiratory health, while women appeared to be more vulnerable to an early age of smoking debut and amount of smoking in adulthood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Respiratory problems and anxiety sensitivity in smoking lapse among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Paulus, Daniel J; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Adam; Manning, Kara; Luft, Benjamin J

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined whether the interaction of lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity is related to smoking lapse in the context of smoking cessation. Participants were adult daily smokers (N=60) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster who were in a smoking cessation treatment program (75.0% male, 50.6years old [SD=9.2], and current smoking rate was 17.6 cigarettes per day (SD=10.6). Results indicated that the interaction between lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity was a significant predictor of greater risk for lapse (i.e., lower survival time; B=0.005, OR=1.01, p=0.039). Follow-up analysis showed that greater respiratory symptoms were a significant predictor of lapse risk among those with high (B=0.116, OR=1.12, p=0.025), but not those with low (B=-0.048, OR=0.95, p=0.322), levels of anxiety sensitivity. The findings from the current study suggest that smokers with greater respiratory symptoms and higher levels of anxiety sensitivity may be associated with early lapse to smoking following smoking cessation treatment. Future work has the potential to inform the development of tailored cessation interventions for smokers who experience varying levels of lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory epithelial cell responses to cigarette smoke: the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Cigarette smoking exposes the respiratory epithelium to highly toxic, reactive oxygen nitrogen species which damage lung proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cell organelle in which all secreted and membrane proteins are processed. Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins in the ER, a condition termed ER stress, activates a complex cellular process termed the unfolded protein responses (UPR). The UPR acts to restore cellular protein homeostasis by regulating all aspects of protein metabolism including: protein translation and syntheses; protein folding; and protein degradation. However, activation of the UPR may also induce signaling pathways which induce inflammation and cell apoptosis. This review discusses the role of UPR in the respiratory epithelial cell response to cigarette smoke and the pathogenesis of lung diseases like COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  8. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  9. Surfactant Protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock Johansson, Sofie; Tan, Qihua; Holst, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The associat......Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage...... or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in non...... with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive...

  10. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, N.D.; Dede, C.

    2010-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory tract are the most common acute illness of childhood. Apart from the morbidity (and occasional mortality) attributable to respiratory infections, they also represent risk factors for asthma and possibly other chronic respiratory effects in later life. Children's exposure to harmful substances of tobacco smoke begins at prenatal period, if pregnant woman smokes after the delivery, it continues postnatally to be paced. Children are especially sensitive to the respiratory effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. ETS exposure is an significant and avoidable risk factor for respiratory diseases among children. ETS is a wide-spread environmental pollutant that has been long linked with respiratory problems. In children of all ages ETS exposure has been found to be associated with increased respiratory symptoms such as wheeze and cough. The role ETS plays in the development of atopy is of great interest, as atopy is closely related to the development of childhood asthma. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is preventable. This review discusses primarily on impact of ETS on during the fetal period and infancy and childhood.This paper reviews of several articles between year 1992- 2009 obtained from the internet; Pubmed and Medline. (author)

  11. Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchinsky, Andriy I; Burkett, Samuel E; Zanders, Thomas B; Chung, Kevin K; Regn, Dara D; Jordan, Bryan S; Necsoiu, Corina; Nguyen, Ruth; Hanson, Margaret A; Morris, Michael J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2011-10-01

    The role of airway pressure release ventilation in the management of early smoke inhalation injury has not been studied. We compared the effects of airway pressure release ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation on oxygenation in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by wood smoke inhalation. Prospective animal study. Government laboratory animal intensive care unit. Thirty-three Yorkshire pigs. Smoke inhalation injury. Anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs (n = 33) inhaled room-temperature pine-bark smoke. Before injury, the pigs were randomized to receive conventional mechanical ventilation (n = 15) or airway pressure release ventilation (n = 12) for 48 hrs after smoke inhalation. As acute respiratory distress syndrome developed (PaO2/Fio2 ratio conventional mechanical ventilation for 48 hrs and served as time controls. Changes in PaO2/Fio2 ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, mean airway pressure, plateau pressure, and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. PaO2/Fio2 ratio was lower in airway pressure release ventilation vs. conventional mechanical ventilation pigs at 12, 18, and 24 hrs (p conventional mechanical ventilation animals between 30 and 48 hrs post injury (p animals between 6 and 48 hrs (p conventional mechanical ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation pigs. In this model of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe smoke inhalation in swine, airway pressure release ventilation-treated animals developed acute respiratory distress syndrome faster than conventional mechanical ventilation-treated animals, showing a lower PaO2/Fio2 ratio at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after injury. At other time points, PaO2/Fio2 ratio was not different between conventional mechanical ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation.

  12. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND SMOKING HABITS OF SENIOR INDUSTRIAL STAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Susan H.; Wood, C. H.; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the smoking habits of 224 industrial `executives' aged 30 to 69 years in Social Classes I and II were ascertained by means of the Medical Research Council's questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 31% had persistent cough, 25% had persistent phlegm, and 21% were short of breath on hurrying or going up a hill; 9% had had one or more chest illnesses in the past three years lasting for about a week, and 4% had `chronic bronchitis'—defined as persistent phlegm and one or more chest illnesses in the past three years; 67% were smokers, 21% smoking more than 25 cigarettes (or equivalent tobacco) per day; another 20% had stopped smoking. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness was closely related to smoking habit. Data for those aged 40 to 59 years are compared with that obtained from London Transport Board workers and a sample of the population studied by the College of General Practitioners. The latter was further analysed and suggests that the prevalence of cough and phlegm is more closely related to the amount smoked than to social class. The prevalence of chest illness is probably more closely related to social class and less to the amount smoked. It is suggested that, although smoking may initiate irritative respiratory symptoms, the precursors of bronchitis, additional factors are important in causing progression to disabling or fatal chronic bronchitis. PMID:14278803

  13. Smoking cessation treatment by Dutch respiratory nurses: reported practice, attitudes and perceived effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, D; van Litsenburg, W; van Duurling, R; van Schayck, C P; Wesseling, G J

    2008-01-01

    To describe Dutch respiratory nurses' current smoking cessation practices, attitudes and beliefs, and to compare these with a survey from the year 2000, before the national introduction of a protocol for the treatment of nicotine and tobacco addiction (the L-MIS protocol). Questionnaire survey among all 413 registered respiratory nurses in the Netherlands in 2006. The response rate was 62%. Seventy-seven percent of the respondents reported to have "fairly good" or "good" knowledge of all steps of the L-MIS protocol. Seven out of 10 behavioural techniques for smoking cessation from the protocol were used by more than 94% of the respondents. Seventy-four percent of the respiratory nurses recommended the use of either nicotine replacement therapy (70%) or bupropion (44%). Almost two-thirds (65% of 254) perceived lack of patient's motivation as the most important barrier for smoking cessation treatment; a four-fold increase compared to the year 2000. We conclude that respiratory nurses are compliant with the L-MIS protocol. They offer intensive support and use behavioural techniques for smoking cessation more frequently than evidence-based pharmacological aids for smoking cessation. Perceived lack of patient's motivation forms the most important threat to respiratory nurses' future smoking cessation activities. International guidelines acknowledge that respiratory patients have a more urgent need to stop smoking but have more difficulty doing so. They should be offered the most intensive smoking cessation counselling in combination with pharmacotherapy. This kind of counselling may be more feasible for respiratory nurses than for physicians who often lack time. Their efforts could be increased by reimbursing pharmacological aids for smoking cessation and by developing simple tools to systematically assess motivation to quit and psychiatric co-morbidity in smoking patients.

  14. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  15. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  16. Simvastatin inhibits smoke-induced airway epithelial injury: implications for COPD therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin B; Zeki, Amir A; Bratt, Jennifer M; Wang, Lei; Filosto, Simone; Walby, William F; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Goldkorn, Tzipora; Schelegle, Edward S; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death. The statin drugs may have therapeutic potential in respiratory diseases such as COPD, but whether they prevent bronchial epithelial injury is unknown. We hypothesised that simvastatin attenuates acute tobacco smoke-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation and airway epithelial injury. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given simvastatin (20 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) daily for either 7 days prior to tobacco smoke exposure and during 3 days of smoke exposure, or only during tobacco smoke exposure. Pretreatment with simvastatin prior to and continued throughout smoke exposure reduced the total influx of leukocytes, neutrophils and macrophages into the lung and airways. Simvastatin attenuated tobacco smoke-induced cellular infiltration into lung parenchymal and airway subepithelial and interstitial spaces. 1 week of simvastatin pretreatment almost completely prevented smoke-induced denudation of the airway epithelial layer, while simvastatin given only concurrently with the smoke exposure had no effect. Simvastatin may be a novel adjunctive therapy for smoke-induced lung diseases, such as COPD. Given the need for statin pretreatment there may be a critical process of conditioning that is necessary for statins' anti-inflammatory effects. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of this statin protective effect.

  17. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied.

  18. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  19. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  20. How beneficial is vaping cannabis to respiratory health compared to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-11-01

    While vaping cannabis reduces respiratory exposure to toxic particulates in cannabis smoke, the resultant reduction in clinically evident harms to lung health is probably smaller than that likely to result from substituting e-cigarettes for smoked tobacco due to the comparatively greater harms of tobacco than cannabis smoking to lung health.

  1. Cigarette smoke induces molecular responses in respiratory tissues of ApoE−/− mice that are progressively deactivated upon cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boué, Stéphanie; De León, Héctor; Schlage, Walter K.; Peck, Michael J.; Weiler, Horst; Berges, An; Vuillaume, Grégory; Martin, Florian; Friedrichs, Baerbel; Lebrun, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE −/− mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to 6 months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract

  2. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna', Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p [it

  3. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, phospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  4. Respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is impaired by smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Shinobu; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Sumitomo, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. We analyzed 802 subjects (364 men and 438 women). The means of the lambda-mu-sigma method derived z-score of FEV1 (zFEV1) both in current-smokers and ex-smokers were lower than that in never-smokers. The mean zFEV1 in the ever-smokers with more than 30 pack-years of smoking history were lower than that in the ever-smokers with less smoking history. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant negative correlations between pack-years and zFEV1 both in the ex-smokers and current-smokers. There was no significant correlation between the duration of smoking cessation and zFEV1 in the ex-smokers. Our data suggests that respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is decreased based on smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner. Even after a long period of smoking cessation, the decreased respiratory function seems to be maintained in ex-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

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    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  6. Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

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    Thabane Lehana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive subjects is about three times of that in the general population. However, whether the extremely high smoking prevalence in HIV-positive subjects affects their lung function is unclear, particularly whether smoking decreases lung function more in HIV-positive subjects, compared to the general population. We conducted this study to determine the association between smoking and lung function, respiratory symptoms and diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects. Results Of 120 enrolled HIV-positive subjects, 119 had an acceptable spirogram. Ninety-four (79% subjects were men, and 96 (81% were white. Mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 43.4 (8.4 years. Mean (SD of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 percent of age, gender, race and height predicted value (%FEV1 was 93.1% (15.7%. Seventy-five (63% subjects had smoked 24.0 (18.0 pack-years. For every ten pack-years of smoking increment, %FEV1 decreased by 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.6%, -0.6%, after controlling for gender, race and restrictive lung function (R2 = 0.210. The loss of %FEV1 in our subjects was comparable to the general population. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers had higher odds of cough, sputum or breathlessness, after adjusting for highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART use, odds ratio OR = 4.9 (95% CI: 2.0, 11.8. However respiratory symptom presence was similar between non-smokers and former smokers, OR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.8. All four cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had smoked. Four of ten cases of restrictive lung disease had smoked (p = 0.170, and three of five asthmatic subjects had smoked (p = 1.000. Conclusions Cumulative cigarette consumption was associated with worse lung function; however the loss of %FEV1 did not accelerate in HIV-positive population compared to the general population. Current smokers had higher odds of respiratory symptoms

  7. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  8. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

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    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  9. Respiratory infections and pneumonia: potential benefits of switching from smoking to vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Davide; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Sands, Mark F; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstaining from tobacco smoking is likely to lower the risk of respiratory infections and pneumonia. Unfortunately, quitting smoking is not easy. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are emerging as an attractive long-term alternative nicotine source to conventional cigarettes and are being adopted by smokers who wish to reduce or quit cigarette consumption. Also, given that the propylene glycol in EC aerosols is a potent bactericidal agent, switching from smoking to regular vaping is likely to produce additional lung health benefits. Here, we critically address some of the concerns arising from regular EC use in relation to lung health, including respiratory infections and pneumonia. In conclusion, smokers who quit by switching to regular ECs use can reduce risk and reverse harm from tobacco smoking. Innovation in the e-vapour category is likely not only to further minimise residual health risks, but also to maximise health benefits.

  10. Exposure to secondhand smoke from neighbours and respiratory symptoms in never-smoking adolescents in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lok Tung; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-04

    To investigate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home from neighbours in Hong Kong adolescents and its association with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. A cross-sectional study. 79 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. 61,810 secondary 1 (USA grade 7) to 7 students, in which 50,762 never-smokers were identified and included in the analysis of the association between SHS exposure at home from neighbours and respiratory symptoms. Smoking status, family smoking status, SHS exposure at home from inside the home and from neighbours in the past 7 days, respiratory symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics were reported. Adjusted ORs (AORs) of respiratory symptoms for SHS exposure from the 2 sources in never-smokers were calculated using logistic regression. In all students, 33.2% were exposed to SHS at home, including 16.2% from inside the home only, 10.0% from neighbours only and 7.0% from both. The prevalence of SHS exposure from neighbours was 17.1%, including 13.5% for 1-4 days/week and 3.6% for 5-7 days/week. In never-smokers (n=50,762), respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with SHS exposure from neighbours with AORs (95% CI) of 1.29 (1.20 to 1.39) for any exposure (pexposure at home from any source, the AORs were 1.16 (1.07 to 1.25) for SHS from inside the home only (pexposure at home from neighbours was prevalent in Hong Kong adolescents, and was associated with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. SHS exposure at home may be underestimated by ignoring the neighbouring source. Smoke-free housing policy is needed to protect children and adolescents from harms of SHS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Future respiratory hospital admissions from wildfire smoke under climate change in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco Liu, Jia; Mickley, Loretta J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Yue, Xu; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-12-01

    Background. Wildfires are anticipated to be more frequent and intense under climate change. As a result, wildfires may emit more air pollutants that can harm health in communities in the future. The health impacts of wildfire smoke under climate change are largely unknown. Methods. We linked projections of future levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) specifically from wildfire smoke under the A1B climate change scenario using the GEOS-Chem model for 2046-2051, present-day estimates of hospital admission impacts from wildfire smoke, and future population projections to estimate the change in respiratory hospital admissions for persons ≥65 years by county (n = 561) from wildfire PM2.5 under climate change in the Western US. Results. The increase in intense wildfire smoke days from climate change would result in an estimated 178 (95% confidence interval: 6.2, 361) additional respiratory hospital admissions in the Western US, accounting for estimated future increase in the elderly population. Climate change is estimated to impose an additional 4990 high-pollution smoke days. Central Colorado, Washington and southern California are estimated to experience the highest percentage increase in respiratory admissions from wildfire smoke under climate change. Conclusion. Although the increase in number of respiratory admissions from wildfire smoke seems modest, these results provide important scientific evidence of an often-ignored aspect of wildfire impact, and information on their anticipated spatial distribution. Wildfires can cause serious social burdens such as property damage and suppression cost, but can also raise health problems. The results provide information that can be incorporated into development of environmental and health policies in response to climate change. Climate change adaptation policies could incorporate scientific evidence on health risks from natural disasters such as wildfires.

  12. Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murawski Judith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about long-term adverse health consequences experienced by flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS during the time smoking was allowed on airplanes. We undertook this study to evaluate the association between accumulated flight time in smoky airplane cabins and respiratory tract diseases in a cohort of never smoking flight attendants. Methods We conducted a mailed survey in a cohort of flight attendants. Of 15,000 mailed questionnaires, 2053 (14% were completed and returned. We excluded respondents with a personal history of smoking (n = 748 and non smokers with a history of respiratory tract diseases before the age of 18 years (n = 298. The remaining 1007 respondents form the study sample. Results The overall study sample was predominantly white (86% and female (89%, with a mean age of 54 years. Overall, 69.7% of the respondents were diagnosed with at least one respiratory tract disease. Among these respondents, 43.4% reported a diagnosis of sinusitis, 40.3% allergies, 30.8% bronchitis, 23.2% middle ear infections, 13.6% asthma, 13.4% hay fever, 12.5% pneumonia, and 2.0% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More hours in a smoky cabin were observed to be significantly associated with sinusitis (OR = 1.21; p = 0.024, middle ear infections (OR = 1.30; p = 0.006, and asthma (OR = 1.26; p = 0.042. Conclusion We observed a significant association between hours of smoky cabin exposure and self-reported reported sinusitis, middle ear infections, and asthma. Our findings suggest a dose-response between duration of SHS exposure and diseases of the respiratory tract. Our findings add additional evidence to the growing body of knowledge supporting the need for widespread implementation of clean indoor air policies to decrease the risk of adverse health consequences experienced by never smokers exposed to SHS.

  13. Association between smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Crystal E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-10-30

    Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smoke-free legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smoke-free legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified by using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 with the use of the Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified articles. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smoke-free law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smoke-free laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range, 2-57 months) were included. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (relative risk, 0.848; 95% confidence interval 0.816-0.881), other heart disease (relative risk, 0.610; 95% confidence interval, 0.440-0.847), cerebrovascular accidents (relative risk, 0.840; 95% confidence interval, 0.753-0.936), and respiratory disease (relative risk, 0.760; 95% confidence interval, 0.682-0.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smoke-free laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Smoke-free legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk.

  14. Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Zhang, Mei; Dignan, Mark; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2006-09-01

    Bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and 3 and 6 months after implementation of a smoke-free ordinance. Hair nicotine, self-reported exposure to SHS, and respiratory symptoms were assessed on 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly selected establishments in Lexington, Kentucky. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers with more than half smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes per day. Workers provided a hair sample at baseline and at the 3-month interview. There was a significant decline in hair nicotine 3 months postlaw when controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. The only significant decline in SHS exposure was in the workplace and other public places. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly postlaw. Hospitality workers demonstrated significant declines in hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms after the law. Comprehensive smoke-free laws can provide the greatest protection to bar workers who are the most vulnerable to SHS exposure at work.

  15. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  16. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  17. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a PDF version of the Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking report and also a pdf version of an overview of progress made in reducing exposure to secondsmoke in the past 25 years.

  18. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Zhi-Hua Chen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear.Increased autophagy was observed in lung tissue from COPD patients, as indicated by electron microscopic analysis, as well as by increased activation of autophagic proteins (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B, LC3B, Atg4, Atg5/12, Atg7. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE is an established model for studying the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In human pulmonary epithelial cells, exposure to CSE or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor rapidly induced autophagy. CSE decreased HDAC activity, resulting in increased binding of early growth response-1 (Egr-1 and E2F factors to the autophagy gene LC3B promoter, and increased LC3B expression. Knockdown of E2F-4 or Egr-1 inhibited CSE-induced LC3B expression. Knockdown of Egr-1 also inhibited the expression of Atg4B, a critical factor for LC3B conversion. Inhibition of autophagy by LC3B-knockdown protected epithelial cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. Egr-1(-/- mice, which displayed basal airspace enlargement, resisted cigarette-smoke induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema.We demonstrate a critical role for Egr-1 in promoting autophagy and apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vitro and in vivo. The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury.

  19. Impact of the Spanish smoking control law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Esteve; Fu Balboa, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María José; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó i Cerezuela, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHO...

  20. Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursan Cinar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the statuses of hospitalized children with diagnosis of respiratory tract disease with cigarette use in the parents. This descriptive study was conducted in a Gowerment Hospital in the Sakarya city center in Turkey between June 2007 and June 2008. The inclusion criterion was willingness of families with children hospitalized due to diagnosis of respiratory disease to particípate in the study. Data were collected from 345 parents using the questionnaire prepared by researchers. In our study parental smoking was observed in 42.3% of fathers, 7.8% mothers and for 20.9% both parents were smoking. It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three times higher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers. Health care professionals who take care of children need to discuss the harmful effects of smoking and the importance of reducing childhood exposure to secondhand smoke; parents should be educated and encouraged not to smoke.

  1. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  2. The effect of passive exposure to tobacco smoke on perioperative respiratory complications and the duration of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Esen; Karaman, Yucel; Gonullu, Mustafa; Tekgul, Zeki; Cakmak, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative care unit recovery time investigated in patients with passive tobacco smoke exposure according to the degree of exposure. Total 270 patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years with the ASA physical status I or II exposed and not exposed to passive tobacco smoke received general anesthesia for various elective surgical operations evaluated for the study. Patients divided into two groups as exposed and non-exposed to passive tobacco smoke, those exposed to passive smoke are also divided into two groups according to the degree of exposure. Patients taken to the postoperative care unit (PACU) at the end of the operation and monitorized until Modified Aldrete's Scores became 9 and more. Respiratory complications evaluated and recorded in intraoperative and postoperative period. A total of 251 patients were enrolled; 63 (25.1%) patients had airway complications, 11 (4.4%) had complications intraoperatively and 52 (20.7%) patients had complications postoperatively. There has been found significant relation with passive tobacco smoke exposure and high incidences of perioperative and postoperative respiratory complications. The risk of cough, desaturation and hypersecretion complications were found to be increased depending on the degree of exposure. There was significant relation between the degree of passive smoke exposure and the duration of PACU stay. Passive tobacco smoke exposed general anesthesia receiving patients also regarding to the degree of exposure having high rates of perioperative respiratory complications and prolongation of PACU stays when compared with unexposed patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [The effect of passive exposure to tobacco smoke on perioperative respiratory complications and the duration of recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Esen; Karaman, Yucel; Gonullu, Mustafa; Tekgul, Zeki; Cakmak, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative care unit recovery time investigated in patients with passive tobacco smoke exposure according to the degree of exposure. Total 270 patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years with the ASA physical status I or II exposed and not exposed to passive tobacco smoke received general anesthesia for various elective surgical operations evaluated for the study. Patients divided into two groups as exposed and non-exposed to passive tobacco smoke, those exposed to passive smoke are also divided into two groups according to the degree of exposure. Patients taken to the postoperative care unit (PACU) at the end of the operation and monitorized until Modified Aldrete's Scores became 9 and more. Respiratory complications evaluated and recorded in intraoperative and postoperative period. A total of 251 patients were enrolled; 63 (25.1%) patients had airway complications, 11 (4.4%) had complications intraoperatively and 52 (20.7%) patients had complications postoperatively. There has been found significant relation with passive tobacco smoke exposure and high incidences of perioperative and postoperative respiratory complications. The risk of cough, desaturation and hypersecretion complications were found to be increased depending on the degree of exposure. There was significant relation between the degree of passive smoke exposure and the duration of PACU stay. Passive tobacco smoke exposed general anesthesia receiving patients also regarding to the degree of exposure having high rates of perioperative respiratory complications and prolongation of PACU stays when compared with unexposed patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health.

  5. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W; Krzyzanowski, M W; Wojtyniak, B

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  6. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  7. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. [Impact of the legislation for smoke-free workplaces on respiratory health in hospitality workers--review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) is a significant risk factor for the development of many diseases, including lung cancer, lower respiratory tract infections, asthma and eye, throat and nasal irritations. Hospitality workers form an occupational group with high exposure to ETS in their workplace. Taking into account the health consequences of ETS exposure and high prevalence of exposure in public places, including workplaces, many countries have implemented the smoking ban that prohibits or restricts smoking in workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The epidemiological studies have indicated a significant reduction in the exposure level after implementation of the smoking ban. Most studies have also indicated a significant reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms. The impact of the smoking ban on the lung function measurements is still not clear.

  9. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus F C; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William C S; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-11-06

    Half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor PM2.5. Both men and women exposed to biomass smoke reported more respiratory symptoms compared to those exposed to clean fuel. Women exposed to biomass were more likely to complain of ever wheeze (32.0 % vs. 23.5%; p = 0.004) and breathlessness (17.8% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.017) compared to males with tobacco smoking being a major risk factor. Chronic cough was similar in both the biomass and non-biomass smoke exposed groups whereas chronic phlegm was reported less frequently by participants exposed to biomass smoke. Higher PM2.5 levels (≥2 SDs of the 24-hour mean) were associated with breathlessness (OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.47, 2.99) and wheeze (1.76, 1.37, 2.26). The study suggests that while those exposed to biomass smoke had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, urban dwellers (who were exposed to higher ambient air pollution) were more at risk of having productive cough.

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and respiratory morbidity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Constant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and a major public health problem. Prenatal maternal smoking and post-natal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS lead to dose-dependent decrease in lung function and respiratory morbidity. Influence of different socioeconomic indicators and ETS in the home has also been suggested. Methods: Data on 313 children (52 % male from 4 public schools in Lisbon was analyzed [1st (46 % and 4th graders]. ETS assessment and respiratory symptoms were based on a self-answered questionnaire. All children performed standard spirometry in the school setting and 54 % were acceptable according to ATS/ERS criteria. Descriptive and bivariate analysis of the most relevant variables was done, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted to the variables with clinical/statistical relevance. Results: ETS in the home was found in 41 % (maternal smoking during pregnancy 18 %, smoking mother 32 %, smoking father 38 %. Smoking fathers had lower education and less qualified occupation. Cough was more frequent in children with a smoking mother (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95 %CI, 1.1–4 and wheezing in children with maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking parents. All differences were significant (p < 0.05. No association was found between parental education and cough/wheeze or ETS and respiratory infections/asthma/decreased spirometric values. Conclusions: Children in Lisbon are frequently exposed to ETS which results in significant respiratory morbidity. Targeted interventions must have social conditions in consideration. In this study, field spirometry was not helpful in early detection of lung function disability in children associated with ETS. Resumo: Introdução: A exposição ao fumo do tabaco (EFT é factor de risco para Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crónica e um problema major de saúde pública. A EFT pré e/ou pós-natal determina

  11. Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Elie; Milone, Margherita

    2017-11-01

    Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency as a predominant feature of the clinical phenotype are uncommon and underestimated in adults. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients with hereditary myopathies who demonstrated early respiratory insufficiency before the need for ambulatory assistance. Only patients with disease-causing mutations or a specific histopathological diagnosis were included. Patients with cardiomyopathy were excluded. We identified 22 patients; half had isolated respiratory symptoms at onset. The diagnosis of the myopathy was often delayed, resulting in delayed ventilatory support. The most common myopathies were adult-onset Pompe disease, myofibrillar myopathy, multi-minicore disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Single cases of laminopathy, MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike events), centronuclear myopathy, and cytoplasmic body myopathy were identified. We highlighted the most common hereditary myopathies associated with early respiratory insufficiency as the predominant clinical feature, and underscored the importance of a timely diagnosis for patient care. Muscle Nerve 56: 881-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Final data of an Italian multicentric survey about counseling for smoking cessation in patients with diagnosis of a respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletto, Enrica; Rapetti, Simonetta Grazia; Demichelis, Sara; Galetta, Domenico; Catino, Annamaria; Ricci, Donata; Moretti, Anna Maria; Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Bruno, Arianna; Valmadre, Giuseppe; Bandelli, Gian Piero; Trisolini, Rocco; Gianetta, Martina; Pacchiana, Maria Vittoria; Vallone, Stefania; Novello, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for cancer and several respiratory diseases. Quitting smoking at any point of life may increase the effectiveness of treatments and improve prognosis of patients with any pulmonary disease, including lung cancer. However, few institutions in Europe offer to patients adequate counseling for smoking cessation. Aim of this study was to investigate the level of counseling for smoking cessation offered by healthcare professionals to patients and their appreciation towards the intervention itself. Between January 2013 and February 2016, 490 patients, diagnosed with a respiratory diseases, were prospectively evaluated with an anonymous survey developed by WALCE (Women Against Lung Cancer in Europe). The majority of patients enrolled (76%) declared to have stopped smoking after the diagnosis of a respiratory disease, 17% to smoke less, 7% to continue smoking. Patients who reported to have never received any counseling for smoking cessation were 38%. Almost 73% of the other patients reported a positive judgment about the quality of healthcare's intervention. Despite these favorable considerations, 83% of patients have disclosed they simply quit smoking overnight without help, 5% have used electronic cigarettes, 5% nicotine replacement treatments, 4% dedicated books, 3% have attended a referral clinic. Considering all the smoking-related side effects, greater efforts should be made in order to better support patients in smoking cessation. Smoking should be considered as a real physical disorder and similar surveys should be encouraged with the aim to fight the 'stigma' of smoking that still exists among patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  17. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  18. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S. [Chiba Tokusyukai Hospital, Funabashi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  19. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S.

    1998-01-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  20. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  1. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B T; Weber, R E; Yeh, H C; Lundgren, D L; Snipes, M B; Mauderly, J L

    1988-12-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to {sup 14}C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m{sup 3} for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14{sub C} contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 {+-} 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 {+-} 0.9% and 15.9 {+-} 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  2. Evaluating of the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Taichiro; Higuchi, Tomoaki; Iwamoto, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An influence of smoking on the respiratory function and pulmonary emphysema is well known. However, there are few reports evaluating the relation between smoking and emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT. In this study, we evaluated the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function (%VC, FEV 1.0 %). Four hundred and sixty-six healthy members of Self-defense force (mean age; 50.1±5.32 years; all men) were recruited in this study. Emphysematous changes were confirmed by the chest CT in 26 subjects. (5.56%, group A) The remaining 440 subjects showed no emphysematous changes. (group B) On the other hand, 8 subjects (1.7%) were FEV 1.0 % 1.0 % was 76.7±4.7% in group A and 82.5±5.0% in group B (P<0.05). %VC was 117±11.3% in group A and 112±13.2% in group B (P<0.05). In addition, risk to show emphysematous changes in CT was high among the patients whose Brinkmann index (BI) value was over 600 (Odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5 to 18.5). We conducted that it is possible to evaluate the influence of smoking on the respiratory function by the CT as well as respiratory function test. (author)

  3. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  4. Respiratory mechanics in ventilated preterm infants : early determinants and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snepvangers, Dimphn Adriana Cornelia Maria

    2003-01-01

    The studies in this thesis show that in the current surfactant era, the majority of ventilated preterm infants are still suffering from respiratory morbidity and substantial respiratory function abnormalities throughout the early years of life. Since respiratory function testing during mechanical

  5. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: Protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Baertsch, N.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  6. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Shan Ho

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD. To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  7. Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain Aging and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β–amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia. PMID:22606286

  8. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts to estimate the leukemogenic potency of benzene. Using multiple-decrement life tables, we calculated lifetime risks of total leukemia and AML deaths for never, light, and heavy smokers. We repeated these calculations, removing the effect of benzene in cigarettes based on the estimated potencies. From these life tables we determined smoking-attributable risks and benzene-attributable risks. The ratio of the latter to the former constitutes the proportion of smoking-induced cases attributable to benzene. Based on linear potency models, the benzene in cigarette smoke contributed from 8 to 48% of smoking-induced total leukemia deaths [95% upper confidence limit (UCL), 20-66%], and from 12 to 58% of smoking-induced AML deaths (95% UCL, 19-121%). The inclusion of a quadratic term yielded results that were comparable; however, potency models with only quadratic terms resulted in much lower attributable fractions--all models substantially overestimate low-dose risk, linear extrapolations from empirical data over a dose range of 10- to 100-fold resulted in plausible predictions.

  9. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  10. Perinatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is associated with changes in DNA methylation that precede the adult onset of lung disease in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth; Brown, Traci A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Postma, Britten; Malany, Keegan; Yang, Mihi; Kim, Yang Jee; Hamilton, Raymond F; Holian, Andrij; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure can induce epigenetic alterations associated with inflammation and respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to address the long-term epigenetic consequences of perinatal ETS exposure on latent respiratory disease risk, which are still largely unknown. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to prenatal and early-life ETS; offspring lung pathology, global DNA, and gene-specific methylation were measured at two adult ages. Significant alterations in global DNA methylation and promoter methylation of IFN-γ and Thy-1 were found in ETS-exposed offspring at 10-12 and 20 weeks of age. These sustained epigenetic alterations preceded the onset of significant pulmonary pathologies observed at 20 weeks of age. This study suggests that perinatal ETS exposure induces persistent epigenetic alterations in global DNA, as well as IFN-γ and Thy-1 promoter methylation that precede the adult onset of fibrotic lung pathology. These epigenetic findings could represent potential biomarkers of latent respiratory disease risk.

  11. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  12. Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddervold Ingunn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that particulate air pollution derived from wood stoves causes acute inflammation in the respiratory system, increases the incidence of asthma and other allergic diseases, and increases respiratory morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory effects from short-term wood smoke exposure in humans. Twenty non-smoking atopic volunteers with normal lung function and without bronchial responsiveness were monitored during three different experimental exposure sessions, aiming at particle concentrations of about 200 μg/m3, 400 μg/m3, and clean air as control exposure. A balanced cross-over design was used and participants were randomly allocated to exposure orders. Particles were generated in a wood-burning facility and added to a full-scale climate chamber where the participants were exposed for 3 hours under controlled environmental conditions. Health effects were evaluated in relation to: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, and forced vital capacity (FVC. Furthermore, the effects were assessed in relation to changes in nasal patency and from markers of airway inflammation: fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC and nasal lavage (NAL samples were collected before, and at various intervals after exposure. Results No statistically significant effect of wood smoke exposure was found for lung function, for FENO, for NAL or for the nasal patency. Limited signs of airway inflammation were found in EBC. Conclusion In conclusion, short term exposure with wood smoke at a concentration normally found in a residential area with a high density of burning wood stoves causes only mild inflammatory response.

  13. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  14. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in cessation, and lessen SHS exposure of adolescents need to be school-based and employed as early as middle school.

  15. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    .61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02 (P<0.001. Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in cessation, and lessen SHS exposure of adolescents need to be school-based and employed as early as middle school. Keywords: adolescents, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, respiratory symptoms, lung function

  16. Does acute tobacco smoking prevent cue-induced craving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation aids appear to be limited in their ability to prevent craving triggered by exposure to smoking-associated stimuli; however, the extent to which cue-induced cravings persist following denicotinized or nicotine-containing tobacco smoking is not known. Thirty (17 male) ⩾12-hour abstinent dependent smokers completed two sessions during which they smoked a nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarette. Instructions regarding the nicotine content of the cigarette varied across sessions, and all participants were exposed to a neutral cue followed by a smoking cue after cigarette consumption. Craving was assessed before and after cigarette consumption and cue exposure. Reduced intentions to smoke were associated with both nicotine expectancy (pSmoking-associated stimuli increased craving regardless of nicotine expectancy or administration (p-valuessmoking, neither smoking-related nicotine administration nor expectation prevents increases in craving following exposure to smoking-associated stimuli. These findings suggest that cue-induced craving may be resistant to various pharmacological and psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. A novel swine model of ricin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Shahaf Katalan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to the plant toxin ricin leads to respiratory insufficiency and death. To date, in-depth study of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS following pulmonary exposure to toxins is hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we established the pig as a large animal model for the comprehensive study of the multifarious clinical manifestations of pulmonary ricinosis. Here, we report for the first time, the monitoring of barometric whole body plethysmography for pulmonary function tests in non-anesthetized ricin-treated pigs. Up to 30 h post-exposure, as a result of progressing hypoxemia and to prevent carbon dioxide retention, animals exhibited a compensatory response of elevation in minute volume, attributed mainly to a large elevation in respiratory rate with minimal response in tidal volume. This response was followed by decompensation, manifested by a decrease in minute volume and severe hypoxemia, refractory to oxygen treatment. Radiological evaluation revealed evidence of early diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates while hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged, excluding cardiac failure as an explanation for respiratory insufficiency. Ricin-intoxicated pigs suffered from increased lung permeability accompanied by cytokine storming. Histological studies revealed lung tissue insults that accumulated over time and led to diffuse alveolar damage. Charting the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio in a mechanically ventilated pig confirmed that ricin-induced respiratory damage complies with the accepted diagnostic criteria for ARDS. The establishment of this animal model of pulmonary ricinosis should help in the pursuit of efficient medical countermeasures specifically tailored to deal with the respiratory deficiencies stemming from ricin-induced ARDS.

  18. Immune-regulating effects of exercise on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ashkan; Alack, Katharina; Richter, Manuel Jonas; Krüger, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking (LTCS) represents an important risk factor for cardiac infarction and stroke and the central risk factor for the development of a bronchial carcinoma, smoking-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pathophysiologic development of these diseases is suggested to be promoted by chronic and progressive inflammation. Cigarette smoking induces repetitive inflammatory insults followed by a chronic and progressive activation of the immune system. In the pulmonary system of cigarette smokers, oxidative stress, cellular damage, and a chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors are described which are followed by the translocation of the NF-kB, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases, and damage-associated molecular patterns. In parallel, smoke pollutants cross directly through the alveolus–capillary interface and spread through the systemic bloodstream targeting different organs. Consequently, LTCS induces a systemic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress in the vascular system. In blood, these processes promote an increased coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. In muscle tissue, inflammatory processes activate catabolic signaling pathways followed by muscle wasting and sarcopenia. In brain, several characteristics of neuroinflammation were described. Regular exercise training has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacological treatment strategy in smoke-induced pulmonary diseases. It is well established that exercise training exerts immune-regulating effects by activating anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. In this regard, the release of myokines from contracting skeletal muscle, the elevations of cortisol and adrenalin, the reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and the increased mobilization of immune-regulating leukocyte subtypes might be of vital importance. Exercise training also increases the local and systemic

  19. Optimal control problem in correlation between smoking and epidemic of respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Apri, M.

    2014-02-01

    Smoking appears to be a risk factor that may increase the number of different pulmonary infections. This link is likely to be mediated by smoking adverse effects on the respiratory defenses. A mathematical model to describe correlation between the number of smokers and its effect on the number of infected people suffer from respiratory disease like influenza is constructed in this paper. Promotion of healthy life is accounted in the model as an optimal control problem to reduce the number of smokers. In this work, the transition rates from smokers to non-smokers and from non-smokers to smokers are regarded as the control variables. Assuming the control variables are constant, equilibrium points of the model can be obtained analytically. The basic reproductive ratio as the endemic threshold is taken from the spectral radius of the next-generation matrix. Using numerical simulation, we show that the healthy life promotion can reduce the number of infected person significantly by reducing the number of smokers. Furthermore, different initial conditions to show different situations in the field are also simulated. It is shown that a large effort to increase the transition rate from smokers to non-smokers and to reduce the transition from non-smokers to smokers should be applied in the endemic reduction scenario.

  20. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  1. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  2. A brain-targeted ampakine compound protects against opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Xiao, Dian; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Fang, Tong-Yu; Yong, Zheng; Su, Rui-Bin

    2017-08-15

    The use of opioid drugs for pain relief can induce life-threatening respiratory depression. Although naloxone effectively counteracts opioid-induced respiratory depression, it diminishes the efficacy of analgesia. Our studies indicate that ampakines, in particular, a brain-targeted compound XD-8-17C, are able to reverse respiratory depression without affecting analgesia at relatively low doses. Mice and rats were subcutaneously or intravenously injected with the opioid agonist TH-030418 to induce moderate or severe respiratory depression. XD-8-17C was intravenously administered before or after TH-030418. The effect of XD-8-17C on opioid-induced respiratory depression was evaluated in terms of the opioid-induced acute death rate, arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. In addition, the hot-plate test was conducted to investigate whether XD-8-17C influenced opioid-induced analgesia. Pre-treatment with XD-8-17C significantly reduced opioid-induced acute death, and increased the median lethal dose of TH-030418 by 4.7-fold. Blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests demonstrated that post-treatment with XD-8-17C alleviated respiratory depression, as indicated by restoration of arterial blood gas (pO 2 , sO 2 , cK + ) and lung function parameters (respiratory frequency, minute ventilation) to the normal range. The hot-plate test showed that XD-8-17C had no impact on the antinociceptive efficacy of morphine. The ability of XD-8-17C to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression has the potential to increase the safety and convenience of opioid treatment. These findings contribute to the discovery of novel therapeutic agents that protect against opioid-induced respiratory depression without loss of analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  4. Comparison of respiratory-induced variations in photoplethysmographic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jin; Jin, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Sun, Weixin; Guo, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical method for detecting blood volume changes in tissue. Respiratory-induced intensity, frequency and amplitude variations are contained in the PPG signal; thus, an understanding of the relationships between all of these variations and respiration is essential to advancing respiration monitoring based on PPG. This study investigated correlations between respiratory-induced variations extracted from PPG and simultaneous respiratory signals. PPG signals were recorded from 28 healthy subjects under eight different conditions. Six respiratory-induced variations, i.e. the period of the systole, diastole and pulse, the amplitude of the systole and diastole, and the intensity variation, were determined from the PPG signal. The results indicate that, compared with the period of the pulse, the period of the systole and diastole correlates weakly with respiration; the amplitude of the diastole has a stronger correlation with respiration than the amplitude of the systole. For men, when the respiratory rate is less than 10 breaths min −1 , the period of the pulse has the strongest correlation with respiration, whereas up to or above 15 breaths min −1 , the intensity variation becomes strongest in the sitting posture, while the amplitude of the diastole is strongest in the supine posture. For women, compared with the other variations, the period of the pulse has nearly the strongest correlation with respiration, independent of respiratory rate or posture

  5. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  6. [The domestic inhalation of the smoke from firewood and of other biological materials. A risk for the development of respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, J R; Regalado-Pineda, J; Morán-Mendoza, A O

    1999-01-01

    A high proportion of the world population, especially in developing countries, is exposed to indoor pollutants produced by inefficient biomass stoves. The levels of pollutants, including toxins and carcinogens in the kitchen are usually very high. This potential pathogenic exposure has been scarcely studied. The exposure to biomass smoke has been associated to chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow obstruction in adults and to acute respiratory infections in children. At the National Institute of Pulmonary Diseases in Mexico, we have observed the entire spectrum of diseases associated with tobacco in people who never smoked and who were exposed to wood smoke. Women exposed to wood smoke had a five-fold risk of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow obstruction, as compared to the non-exposed, according to a recent case-control study done at our Institute. The indoor levels of suspended particles smaller than 10 microns were frequently above 1,000 micrograms/m3 in a rural community in the state of Mexico. This information supports a causal role for biomass smoke for the genesis of several respiratory diseases, representing a potentially public health problem.

  7. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts t...

  8. Inhibition of protein kinase A and GIRK channel reverses fentanyl-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaonan; Yong, Zheng; Su, Ruibin

    2018-06-11

    Opioid-induced respiratory depression is a major obstacle to improving the clinical management of moderate to severe chronic pain. Opioids inhibit neuronal activity via various pathways, including calcium channels, adenylyl cyclase, and potassium channels. Currently, the underlying molecular pathway of opioid-induced respiratory depression is only partially understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of opioid-induced respiratory depression in vivo by examining the effects of different pharmacological agents on fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. Respiratory parameters were detected using whole body plethysmography in conscious rats. We show that pre-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 reversed the fentanyl-related effects on respiratory rate, inspiratory time, and expiratory time. Pre-treatment with the G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel blocker Tertiapin-Q dose-dependently reversed the fentanyl-related effects on respiratory rate and inspiratory time. A phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogs did not affect fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. These findings suggest that PKA and GIRK may be involved in fentanyl-induced respiratory depression and could represent useful therapeutic targets for the treatment of fentanyl-induced ventilatory depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with the smoke retained in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to clarify this point using the CULTEX® RFS module which is a recently developed direct exposure system. For this purpose, solanesol and acetaldehyde were respectively chosen as the particulate and gas/vapor phase representatives of smoke constituents, and their deposition and balance per unit area of cell culture surface of the RFS module were measured (dosimetry. We also conducted human retention studies to compare with the dosimetry data. By comparing inhaled smoke and exhaled smoke under three inhalation conditions, we estimated the regional retention and balance of each representative per unit surface area of the respiratory tract (mouth, bronchi, and alveoli separately. The deposition of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit area of cell culture surface in the RFS module decreased dependent on the dilution flow rate and ranged from 0.26-0.0076%/cm2 in our experimental conditions. The ratio of deposited acetaldehyde to deposited solanesol ranged from 0.96-1.96 in the RFS module. The retention of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit surface area in the mouth and the bronchi ranged from 0.095-0.0083%/cm2 in this study. The retention per unit surface area of alveoli was far lower than in the other two regions (0.0000063%/cm2. The ratio of retained acetaldehyde to retained solanesol ranged from 0.54-1.97. From these results, we concluded that the CULTEX® RFS module can simulate

  10. Smoking, depression, and hospital costs of respiratory cancers: Examining race and sex variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqar A. Husaini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking and depression on hospital costs for lung cancer (LC. Methods: We extracted data on depression, smoking history, demographics, and hospital charges for patients with respiratory cancers (ICD-9 codes 161–163, 165 from the 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System. The sample (n=6665 was mostly white (86% and male (57%. Age-adjusted rates were developed in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention methods, and hospital costs were compared for patients with LC with versus without depression and a smoking history. Results: Three findings (P<0.001 emerged: (1 the LC rate was higher among blacks than among whites, and higher among men than among women; (2 while 66% of LC patients smoked (more men than women without racial variation, 24% had depression (more females and whites were depressed; (3 the LC hospital cost was 54% higher than the non-LC hospital cost, and this cost doubled for patients with LC with depression and smoking versus those without such characteristics. Conclusion: While LC is more prevalent among blacks and men, depression is higher among female and white patients. Since depression with higher costs existed among LC patients, our findings point to (1 the possibility of cost savings by diagnosing and treating depression among LC patients, and (2 implementation of proven smoking cessation programs to reduce LC morbidity and hospital costs.

  11. Early respiratory acidosis is a new risk factor for pneumonia after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planquette, Benjamin; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Trinquart, Ludovic; Meyer, Guy; Riquet, Marc; Sanchez, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is a life-threatening complication of lung resection (LR). Its risk factors, bacteriological profile and outcome are not well known. The aims of this study were to describe the outcome and causal bacteria and to identify risk factors for POP. We reviewed all cases admitted to intensive care after LR. Clinical parameters, operative and postoperative data were recorded. POP was suspected on the basis of fever, radiographic infiltrate, and either leucocytosis or purulent sputum. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture of a respiratory sample. Risk factors for POP were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. We included 159 patients in this study. POP was diagnosed in 23 patients (14.4%) and was associated with a higher hospital mortality rate (30% versus 5%, P = 0.0007) and a longer hospital stay. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species were the most frequently identified pathogens. Early respiratory acidosis (ERA; OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.1-8.1), blood transfusion (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.1), bilobectomy (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.2-43.1) and smoking history (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.1-3) were identified as independent risk factors. ERA may be a risk factor for POP and could serve as a target for therapeutic interventions.

  12. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-06-30

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals.

  13. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Henriksson, R.; Cai, Y.-Q.; Hellstroem, S.; Bjermer, L.; Hoernqvist Bylunds, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  14. Antagonism of morphine-induced central respiratory depression by donepezil in the anesthetized rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKI TSUJITA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is often used in cancer pain and postoperative analgesic management but induces respiratory depression. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for drug candidates that can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression but have no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in central respiratory control and physostigmine antagonizes morphine-induced respiratory depression. However, physostigmine has not been applied in clinical practice because it has a short action time, among other characteristics. We therefore asked whether donepezil (a long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression. Using the anesthetized rabbit as our model, we measured phrenic nerve discharge as an index of respiratory rate and amplitude. We compared control indices with discharges after the injection of morphine and after the injection of donepezil. Morphine-induced depression of respiratory rate and respiratory amplitude was partly antagonized by donepezil without any effect on blood pressure and end-tidal C0(2. In the other experiment, apneic threshold PaC0(2 was also compared. Morphine increased the phrenic nerve apnea threshold but this was antagonized by donepezil. These findings indicate that systemically administered donepezil partially restores morphine-induced respiratory depression and morphine-deteriorated phrenic nerve apnea threshold in the anesthetized rabbit

  15. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Langbein

    Full Text Available Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  16. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  17. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries—The neglected role of outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world’s leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards. PMID:28658290

  18. Benfotiamine Counteracts Smoking-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Healthy Smokers

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    Alin Stirban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Smoking induces endothelial dysfunction (ED mainly by exacerbating oxidative stress (OS and inflammation. Benfotiamine, a thiamine prodrug with high bioavailability, prevents nicotine-induced vascular dysfunction in rats. It remained unknown whether this effect also occurs in humans. Methods. Therefore, 20 healthy volunteers (mean age: 38 years were investigated twice, 7–10 days apart in a randomized, cross-over, and investigator-blinded design. Vascular function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD of the brachial artery and by measurements of the soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1. Investigations were performed after an overnight fast as well as 20 minutes after one cigarette smoking. On another day, the same procedure was applied following a 3-day oral therapy with benfotiamine (1050 mg/day. Ten patients were randomized to start with smoking alone, and ten started with benfotiamine. Results. Results are expressed as (mean ± SEM. Smoking acutely induced a decrease in FMD by 50% (∗∗P<0.001 versus baseline an effect significantly reduced by benfotiamine treatment to 25%∗§ (∗P<0.05 versus baseline, §P<0.05 versus smoking alone. Smoking-induced elevation in sVCAM-1 was also prevented by benfotiamine. The endothelium-independent vasodilatation remained unaltered between days. Conclusion. In healthy volunteers, smoking blunts vascular function mirrored by a decrease in FMD and an increase in sVCAM-1. Short-term treatment with benfotiamine significantly reduces these effects, showing protective vascular properties.

  19. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  20. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  1. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  2. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.

  3. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  4. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus FC; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William CS; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor...

  5. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema

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    Rubia Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE. Methods: A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution; PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE; CS (CS exposure for 60 days; and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days. At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Results: Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Conclusions: Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  6. Calls to Poison Centers for hookah smoking exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzky, Sandra S; Spiller, Henry A; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2018-06-01

    Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults. This article provides background information on hookah smoking, describes hookah-induced acute injuries that could precipitate poison center calls, and offers suggestions for exposure characterization.

  7. Radon and daughters in cigarette smoke measured with SSNTD and corresponding committed equivalent dose to respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium ( 238 U) and Thorium ( 232 Th) contents were measured inside various tobacco samples by using a method based on determining detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for the emitted alpha particles. Alpha and beta activities per unit volume, due to radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their decay products, were evaluated inside cigarette smokes of tobacco samples studied. Annual committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of various cigarette smokes were determined in the thoracic and extrathoracic regions of the respiratory tract. Three types of cigarettes made in Morocco of black tobacco show higher annual committed equivalent doses in the extrathoracic and thoracic regions of the respiratory tract than the other studied cigarettes (except one type of cigarettes made in France of yellow tobacco); their corresponding annual committed equivalent dose ratios are larger than 1.8. Measured annual committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.8x10 -9 to 1.10x10 -3 Sv yr -1 in the extrathoracic region and from 1.3x10 -10 to 7.6x10 -6 Sv yr -1 in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract for a smoker consuming 20 cigarettes a day

  8. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

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    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  9. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  10. Intratracheal transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells attenuates smoking-induced COPD in mice

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    Shi Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhihui Shi,1 Yan Chen,1 Jun Cao,2 Huihui Zeng,1 Yue Yang,1 Ping Chen,1 Hong Luo,1 Hong Peng,1 Shan Cai,1 Chaxiang Guan3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central-South University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The People’s Hospital of Hunan Province, 3Department of Physiology, Xiangya Medical School, Central-South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs might play a protective role in COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratracheal allogeneic transplantation of bone-marrow-derived EPCs would attenuate the development of smoking-induced COPD in mice.Methods: Isolated mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of C57BL/6J mice were cultured in endothelial cell growth medium-2 for 10 days, yielding EPCs. A murine model of COPD was established by passive 90-day exposure of cigarette smoke. On day 30, EPCs or phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea. On day 90, EPCs or 30 µL phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea, and on day 120, inflammatory cells, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured.Results: After EPC treatment, the lung function of the mice had improved compared with the untreated mice. Mean linear intercept and destructive index were reduced in the EPCs-treated group compared with the untreated group. In addition, the EPCs-treated mice exhibited less antioxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the untreated mice. Moreover, decreased activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TUNEL-positive cells in lung tissues were detected in EPCs-treated mice.Conclusion: Intratracheal transplantation of EPCs attenuated the development of pulmonary emphysema and lung function disorder probably by alleviating inflammatory infiltration, decelerating apoptosis

  11. Respiratory-induced prostate motion: quantification and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Shawn; Crook, Juanita M.; Kendal, Wayne S.; Zanto, Janos S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The precise localization of the prostate is critical for dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy. This study identifies and characterizes a potential cause of inaccurate prostatic localization--respiratory-induced movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate movement during respiration was measured fluoroscopically using implanted gold fiducial markers. Twenty sequential patients with CT 1 -T 3 N 0 M 0 prostate carcinoma were evaluated prone, immobilized in customized thermoplastic shells. A second 20 patients were evaluated both prone (with and without their thermoplastic shells) and supine (without their shells). Results: When the patients were immobilized prone in thermoplastic shells, the prostate moved synchronously with respiration. In the study the prostate was displaced a mean distance of 3.3 ± 1.8 (SD) mm (range, 1-10.2 mm), with 23% (9/40) of the displacements being 4 mm or greater. The respiratory-associated prostate movement decreased significantly when the thermoplastic shells were removed. Conclusion: Significant prostate movement can be induced by respiration when patients are immobilized in thermoplastic shells. This movement presumably is related to transmitted intraabdominal pressure within the confined space of the shells. Careful attention to the details of immobilization and to the possibility of respiratory-induced prostate movements is important when employing small field margins in prostatic radiotherapy

  12. Surviving With Smog and Smoke: Precision Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuous efforts of regional governmental agencies, air pollution remains a major threat to public health worldwide. In January 2017, a severe episode of smog similar to the Great Smog of 1952 occurred in London. The longest episode of Chinese haze also developed in Beijing, during which levels of particulate matter smog and Chinese haze are associated with large numbers of premature deaths each year, at 400,000 and 1.2 million, respectively, primarily from respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and ischemic heart diseases. In addition to air pollution, some are exposed to other harmful environmental factors, such as secondhand smoke. For countries with large populations of smokers, such as China, India, the United States, and Russia, surviving both smog and smoke is a serious problem. With novel genomic and epigenomic studies revealing air pollution- and smoking-induced mutational signatures and epigenetic editing in diseases such as lung cancer, it has become feasible to develop precision strategies for early intervention in the disease-causing pathways driven by the specific mutations or epigenetic regulations, or both. New therapies guided by gene-drug interactions and genomic biomarkers may also be developed. We discuss both perspectives regarding the urgent need to manage the toxic effects of smog and smoke for the benefit of global health and the novel concept of precision intervention to protect the exposed individuals when exposure to smog and secondhand smoke cannot be voluntarily avoided or easily modified. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

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    Sundby Johanne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause. Methods The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940–41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors. Results Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.28. Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.33. Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12–3.30. These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72 and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39–0.98 were negatively associated with early menopause. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive

  14. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

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    Joshua B. Lewis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal

  15. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  17. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  18. Assessment of tobacco smoke effects on neonatal cardiorespiratory control using a semi-automated processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omar, Sally; Le Rolle, Virginie; Beuchée, Alain; Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Carrault, Guy

    2018-05-10

    A semi-automated processing approach was developed to assess the effects of early postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the cardiorespiratory control of newborn lambs. The system consists of several steps beginning with artifact rejection, followed by the selection of stationary segments, and ending with feature extraction. This approach was used in six lambs exposed to 20 cigarettes/day for the first 15 days of life, while another six control lambs were exposed to room air. On postnatal day 16, electrocardiograph and respiratory signals were obtained from a 6-h polysomnographic recording. The effects of postnatal ETS exposure on heart rate variability, respiratory rate variability, and cardiorespiratory interrelations were explored. The unique results suggest that early postnatal ETS exposure increases respiratory rate variability and decreases the coupling between cardiac and respiratory systems. Potentially harmful consequences in early life include unstable breathing and decreased adaptability of cardiorespiratory function, particularly during early life challenges, such as prematurity or viral infection. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Immune-regulating effects of exercise on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashkan Madani,1 Katharina Alack,2 Manuel Jonas Richter,3,4 Karsten Krüger1 1Department of Exercise and Health, Institute of Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany; 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Giessen, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC, Germany; 4German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Giessen, Germany Abstract: Long-term cigarette smoking (LTCS represents an important risk factor for cardiac infarction and stroke and the central risk factor for the development of a bronchial carcinoma, smoking-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pathophysiologic development of these diseases is suggested to be promoted by chronic and progressive inflammation. Cigarette smoking induces repetitive inflammatory insults followed by a chronic and progressive activation of the immune system. In the pulmonary system of cigarette smokers, oxidative stress, cellular damage, and a chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors are described which are followed by the translocation of the NF-kB, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases, and damage-associated molecular patterns. In parallel, smoke pollutants cross directly through the alveolus–capillary interface and spread through the systemic bloodstream targeting different organs. Consequently, LTCS induces a systemic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress in the vascular system. In blood, these processes promote an increased coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. In muscle tissue, inflammatory processes activate catabolic signaling pathways followed by muscle wasting and sarcopenia. In brain, several characteristics of neuroinflammation were described. Regular exercise training has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacological treatment strategy in smoke-induced pulmonary diseases

  20. Benfotiamine counteracts smoking-induced vascular dysfunction in healthy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirban, Alin; Nandrean, Simona; Kirana, Stanley; Götting, Christian; Veresiu, Ioan Andrei; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2012-01-01

    Background. Smoking induces endothelial dysfunction (ED) mainly by exacerbating oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. Benfotiamine, a thiamine prodrug with high bioavailability, prevents nicotine-induced vascular dysfunction in rats. It remained unknown whether this effect also occurs in humans. Methods. Therefore, 20 healthy volunteers (mean age: 38 years) were investigated twice, 7-10 days apart in a randomized, cross-over, and investigator-blinded design. Vascular function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and by measurements of the soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1. Investigations were performed after an overnight fast as well as 20 minutes after one cigarette smoking. On another day, the same procedure was applied following a 3-day oral therapy with benfotiamine (1050 mg/day). Ten patients were randomized to start with smoking alone, and ten started with benfotiamine. Results. Results are expressed as (mean ± SEM). Smoking acutely induced a decrease in FMD by 50% ((∗∗)P benfotiamine treatment to 25%(∗§) ((∗)P benfotiamine. The endothelium-independent vasodilatation remained unaltered between days. Conclusion. In healthy volunteers, smoking blunts vascular function mirrored by a decrease in FMD and an increase in sVCAM-1. Short-term treatment with benfotiamine significantly reduces these effects, showing protective vascular properties.

  1. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain from birth to early infancy

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    Tomosa Mine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have focused on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain (RWG during infancy, the dose-response relationship has not yet been confirmed, and very few studies have included Asian populations. Using a record-linkage method, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and RWG in infants at around 4 months of age to clarify the dose-response relationship. Methods: Two databases were used: maternal check-ups during pregnancy and early infancy check-ups (between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 in Okinawa, Japan were linked via IDs and provided to us after unlinkable anonymizing. For 10,433 subjects (5229 boys and 5204 girls, we calculated the change in infants' weight z-score by subtracting the z-score of their birth weight from their weight at early infancy check-ups. Smoking exposure was categorized into five groups. We used Poisson regression to examine the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with RWG in early infancy. Results: Overall, 1524 (14.6% were ex-smoker and 511 (4.9% were current smoker. Compared with the reference category of non-smokers, the adjusted risk ratio of RWG was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.32 for ex-smokers, 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93–1.50 for those who smoked 1–5 cigarettes per day, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.24–2.00 for those who smoked 6–10 cigarettes per day, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.51–3.01 for those who smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day. There was a clear dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated in a dosedependent manner with increased risk of RWG in early infancy.

  2. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yil Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis. The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.

  3. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Petersen, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. METHODS: In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused...... and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. CONCLUSION: Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent......BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override...

  4. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (pworkers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (pworkers with workers.

  5. Interactions between ethanol and cigarette smoke in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; La Maestra, S.; Micale, Rosanna T.; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cigarette smoke and ethanol are known to synergize in the upper aerodigestive tract. • Their interactions in the lower respiratory tract have poorly been explored. • Prenatal and postnatal treatments of mice with ethanol caused pulmonary alterations. • However, ethanol attenuated smoke-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in lung. • The interaction between smoke and alcohol depends on life stage and target tissue. - Abstract: Both ethanol and cigarette smoke are classified as human carcinogens. They can synergize, especially in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract that are targeted by both agents. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ethanol and smoke in the respiratory tract, either following transplacental exposure and/or postnatal exposure. We designed two consecutive studies in mouse models by exposing Swiss H mice to oral ethanol and/or inhaled mainstream cigarette smoke for up to 4 months, at various prenatal and postnatal life stages. Clastogenic effects and histopathological alterations were evaluated after 4 and 8 months, respectively. Ethanol was per se devoid of clastogenic effects in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. However, especially in mice exposed both transplacentally throughout pregnancy and in the postnatal life, ethanol administration was associated not only with liver damage but also with pro-angiogenetic effects in the lung by stimulating the proliferation of blood vessels. In addition, these mice developed pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias, microadenomas, and benign tumors. On the other hand, ethanol interfered in the lung carcinogenesis process resulting from the concomitant exposure of mice to smoke. In fact, ethanol significantly attenuated some smoke-related preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the respiratory tract, such as alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, microadenomas, and even malignant tumors. In addition, ethanol

  6. Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD or heart disease (HD. Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively. All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003; smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001; and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001. No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92. Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

  7. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  8. Lung Microbiota Is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ariane R; Lynch, Susan V; Langelier, Chaz; Christie, Jason D; McCauley, Kathryn; Nelson, Mary; Cheung, Christopher K; Benowitz, Neal L; Cohen, Mitchell J; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients after severe trauma; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. To determine whether cigarette smoking contributes to ARDS development after trauma by altering community composition of the lung microbiota. We studied the lung microbiota of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU after severe blunt trauma. To do so, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of endotracheal aspirate samples obtained on ICU admission (n = 74) and at 48 hours after admission (n = 30). Cigarette smoke exposure (quantified using plasma cotinine), ARDS development, and other clinical parameters were correlated with lung microbiota composition. Smoking status was significantly associated with lung bacterial community composition at ICU admission (P = 0.007 by permutational multivariate ANOVA [PERMANOVA]) and at 48 hours (P = 0.03 by PERMANOVA), as well as with significant enrichment of potential pathogens, including Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Haemophilus, and Treponema. ARDS development was associated with lung community composition at 48 hours (P = 0.04 by PERMANOVA) and was characterized by relative enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae and of specific taxa enriched at baseline in smokers, including Prevotella and Fusobacterium. After severe blunt trauma, a history of smoking is related to lung microbiota composition, both at the time of ICU admission and at 48 hours. ARDS development is also correlated with respiratory microbial community structure at 48 hours and with taxa that are relatively enriched in smokers at ICU admission. The data derived from this pilot study suggest that smoking-related changes in the lung microbiota could be related to ARDS development after severe trauma.

  9. A longitudinal study of the reciprocal relationship between ever smoking and urgency in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jessica L; Riley, Elizabeth; Puleo, Gabriella E; Smith, Gregory T

    2017-09-01

    Among early adolescents in the United States (U.S.), the prevalence of cigarette smoking is at its lowest level in recent decades. Nonetheless, given the risks of smoking in early development, it remains critically important to study both risk factors for smoking and risks from smoking. This longitudinal study with U.S. early adolescents examines smoking initiation and tests a model of reciprocal prediction between ever smoking and the personality trait of urgency (i.e., mood-based impulsivity), a trait that increases risk for multiple forms of dysfunction. Participants (n=1906; 90% 10-11 years old, 50% female, 39% racial minorities at baseline) completed questionnaires 1-2 times per year starting in 5th grade and ending in 9th grade. Structural equation modeling allowed tests of bidirectional relationships between ever smoking and urgency controlling for pubertal status and negative affect at each wave. Incidence of ever smoking increased from 5% to 27% over time, with current smoking around 5% at the last wave. Urgency at each wave predicted ever smoking at the next wave above and beyond covariates and prior smoking (all psmoking predicted an increase in urgency at the subsequent wave above and beyond covariates and prior urgency (all psmoking increases with higher levels of urgency and urgency increases secondary to engagement in smoking. Future work should therefore explore urgency as a point of prevention for smoking and smoking cessation as a means to mitigate mood-based impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational exposure to second hand smoke and respiratory and sensory symptoms: A cross-sectional survey of hospital workers in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and an increased risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of cases of mortality and morbidity is attributable to exposure of adults to SHS and is related to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. In Egypt, comprehensive smoke-free laws exist, however, in many workplaces they are poorly enforced consequently exposing workers to the detrimental health hazards of SHS. We aimed at determination of workplace exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS and its association with respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms in hospital workers in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Material and methods: A cross-sectional face to face survey was conducted by the use of a standardised questionnaire among 415 adult hospital workers; representing 50% of all employees (81% response rate; recruited from 4 randomly selected general hospitals in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Results: All hospitals employees reported exposure to SHS - on average 1.5 (SD = 2.5 hours of exposure per day. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheezes (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01, shortness of breath (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01, phlegm (OR = 1.23, p < 0.01, running and irritated nose (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01 as well as a sore, scratchy throat (OR = 1.23. Conclusions: These findings point out that workplace exposure to SHS is evident in hospitals in Port-said governorate and that workers are adversely affected by exposure to it at work. This underlines the importance of rigorous enforcement of smoke-free policies to protect the workers' health in Egypt.

  11. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Roflumilast Protects against Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Mitophagy-Dependent Cell Death in Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sun Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Son, Eun Suk; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong Woong

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies show that mitophagy, the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria, mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and contributes to the development of emphysema in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of mitophagy in the regulation of CSE-exposed lung bronchial epithelial cell (Beas-2B) death. We also investigated the role of a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, roflumilast, in CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death. Our results demonstrated that CSE induces mitophagy in Beas-2B cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and increased the expression levels of the mitophagy regulator protein, PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1), and the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-1-like protein (DRP1). CSE-induced epithelial cell death was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE but was decreased by small interfering RNA-dependent knockdown of DRP1. Treatment with roflumilast in Beas-2B cells inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting the expression of phospho-DRP1 and -PINK1. Roflumilast protected against cell death and increased cell viability, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase release test and the MTT assay, respectively, in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE. These findings suggest that roflumilast plays a protective role in CS-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  12. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  13. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita de Cassia; Neto, Eurico Camargo; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2015-01-01

    Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet. To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants. Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP. 23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks) were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP. Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  15. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    Full Text Available Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet.To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants.Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP.23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP.Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  16. Does smoking status affect the likelihood of consulting a doctor about respiratory symptoms? A pilot survey in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Moira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers attribute respiratory symptoms, even when severe, to everyday causes and not as indicative of ill-health warranting medical attention. The aim of this pilot study was to conduct a structured vignette survey of people attending general practice to determine when they would advise a person with respiratory symptoms to consult a medical practitioner. Particular reference was made to smoking status and lung cancer. Methods Participants were recruited from two general practices in Western Australia. Respondents were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires containing nine vignettes chosen at random from a pool of sixty four vignettes, based on six clinical variables. Twenty eight vignettes described cases with at least 5% risk of cancer. For analysis these were dubbed 'cancer vignettes'. Respondents were asked if they would advise a significant other to consult a doctor with their respiratory symptoms. Logistic regression and non-parametric tests were used to analyse the data. Results Three hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and forty completed responses were collected over six weeks. The majority (70.3% of respondents were female aged forty and older. A history of six weeks' of symptoms, weight loss, cough and breathlessness independently increased the odds of recommending a consultation with a medical practitioner by a factor of 11.8, 2.11, 1.40 and 4.77 respectively. A history of smoking independently increased the odds of the person being thought 'likely' or 'very likely' to have cancer by a factor of 2.46. However only 32% of cancer vignettes with a history of cigarette smoking were recognised as presentations of possible cancer. Conclusion Even though a history of cigarette smoking was more likely to lead to the suggestion that a symptomatic person may have cancer we did not confirm that smokers would be more likely to be advised to consult a doctor, even when presenting with common

  17. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, pbrain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  18. Chronic air-flow limitation does not increase respiratory epithelial permeability assessed by aerosolized solute, but smoking does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchon, G.J.; Russell, J.A.; Barritault, L.G.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the separate influences of smoking and severe air-flow limitation on aerosol deposition and respiratory epithelial permeability, we studied 26 normal nonsmokers, 12 smokers without airway obstruction, 12 nonsmokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 11 smokers with COPD. We aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid to particles approximately 1 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter. Levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically against time to calculate clearance as percent per minute. The distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in control subjects and in smokers, but patchy in both groups with COPD. No difference was found between clearances of the control group (1.18 +/- 0.31% min-1), and nonsmoker COPD group (1.37 +/- 0.82% min-1), whereas values in smokers without COPD (4.00 +/- 1.70% min-1) and smokers with COPD (3.62 +/- 2.88% min-1) were significantly greater than in both nonsmoking groups. We conclude that (1) small particles appear to deposit peripherally, even with severe COPD; (2) respiratory epithelial permeability is normal in nonsmokers with COPD; (3) smoking increases permeability by a mechanism unrelated to air-flow limitation

  19. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-01-01

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1 -/- MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  20. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803

  1. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Edaravone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated early pulmonary fibrosis via amelioration of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xida; Lai, Rongde; Su, Xiangfen; Chen, Guibin; Liang, Zijing

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is responsible for the both short-term and long-term outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is still no effective cure to improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger, have anti-fibrosis effects in the rat model of ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Rats were subjected to intravenous injection of LPS, and edaravone was given intraperitoneally after LPS administration daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS treatment rapidly increased lung histopathology abnormalities, coefficient of lung, hydroxyproline and collagen I levels, stimulated myofibroblast differentiation and induced expression of TGF-β1 and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling as early as day 7 after LPS injection. Moreover, LPS intoxication significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it dramatically decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities from day 1 after LPS treatment. On the contrary, edaravone treatment ameliorated LPS-induced myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis, simultaneously, and attenuated LPS-stimulated oxidative stress and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. Collectively, edaravone may attenuate ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis through amelioration of oxidative stress and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Edaravone may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS-related pulmonary fibrosis in early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Respiratory effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water and tobacco smoking in southern part of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Muhammad Balal; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Jalbani, Nusrat; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a survey has been conducted during 2005-2007 on surface and groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and its impact on the health of local population, of villages located on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We have also assessed the relationship between arsenic exposure through respiratory disorders in male subjects with drinking water and smoking cigarettes made from tobacco grown in agricultural land irrigated with As contaminated lake water. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) were collected from As exposed subjects (100% smokers) and age matched healthy male subjects (40.2% smoker and 59.8% non smokers) belong to unexposed areas for comparison purposes. The As concentration in drinking water (surface and underground water), agricultural soil, cigarette tobacco and biological samples were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of As concentrations in lake water was 35.2-158 μg/L (average 97.5 μg/L), which is 3-15 folds higher than permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). While the As level in local cigarette tobacco was found to be 3-6 folds higher than branded cigarettes (0.37-0.79 μg/g). Arsenic exposed subjects (with and without RD) had significantly elevated levels of As in their biological samples as compared to referent male subject of unexposed area. These respiratory effects were more pronounced in individuals who had also As induced skin lesions. The linear regressions showed good correlations between As concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed subjects with and without respiratory problems.

  4. Respiratory effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water and tobacco smoking in southern part of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamali, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jalbani, Nusrat, E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Lahore, Okara Campus, Okara (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a survey has been conducted during 2005-2007 on surface and groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and its impact on the health of local population, of villages located on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We have also assessed the relationship between arsenic exposure through respiratory disorders in male subjects with drinking water and smoking cigarettes made from tobacco grown in agricultural land irrigated with As contaminated lake water. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) were collected from As exposed subjects (100% smokers) and age matched healthy male subjects (40.2% smoker and 59.8% non smokers) belong to unexposed areas for comparison purposes. The As concentration in drinking water (surface and underground water), agricultural soil, cigarette tobacco and biological samples were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of As concentrations in lake water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L (average 97.5 {mu}g/L), which is 3-15 folds higher than permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). While the As level in local cigarette tobacco was found to be 3-6 folds higher than branded cigarettes (0.37-0.79 {mu}g/g). Arsenic exposed subjects (with and without RD) had significantly elevated levels of As in their biological samples as compared to referent male subject of unexposed area. These respiratory effects were more pronounced in individuals who had also As induced skin lesions. The linear regressions showed good correlations between As concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed subjects with and without respiratory problems.

  5. Respiratory involvements among women exposed to the smoke of traditional biomass fuel and gas fuel in a district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Md Abdul; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Selim, Shahjada; Karim, Md Rizwanul; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Burning of biomass fuel (cow-dung, crop residue, dried leaves, wood, etc.) in the kitchen releases smoke, which may impair the respiratory functions of women cooking there. This paper aimed to compare the respiratory symptoms between biomass fuel users and gas fuel users in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews and chest examination of 224 adult women using biomass fuel in a rural village and 196 adult women using gas fuel in an urban area. The prevalence of respiratory involvement (at least one among nine symptoms and two diseases) was significantly higher among biomass users than among gas users (29.9 vs. 11.2 %). After adjustment for potential confounders by a logistic model, the odds ratio (OR) of the biomass users for the respiratory involvement was significantly higher (OR = 3.23, 95 % confidence interval 1.30-8.01). The biomass fuel use elevated symptoms/diseases significantly; the adjusted OR was 3.04 for morning cough, 7.41 for nasal allergy, and 5.94 for chronic bronchitis. The mean peak expiratory flow rate of biomass users (253.83 l/min) was significantly lower than that of gas users (282.37 l/min). The study shows significant association between biomass fuel use and respiratory involvement among rural women in Bangladesh, although the potential confounding of urban/rural residency could not be ruled out in the analysis. The use of smoke-free stoves and adequate ventilation along with health education to the rural population to increase awareness about the health effects of indoor biomass fuel use might have roles to prevent these involvements.

  6. Genotoxicity and fetal abnormality in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Sinzato, Y K; Lima, P H O; Souza, M S S; Iessi, I L; Kiss, A C I; Takaku, M; Rudge, M V C; Calderon, I M P

    2011-10-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the offspring. Malformation rates among the offspring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage. To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). On pregnancy day 21, blood samples were obtained for DNA damage analysis and fetuses were collected for congenital anomaly assessment. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analysis. Exposure of diabetic rats to tobacco smoke prior to pregnancy increased fetal DNA damage, but failed to induce teratogenicity. Thus, these results reinforce the importance for women to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke long before they become pregnant. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  8. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3(rd) ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2(nd) if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual's risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable

  9. Smoking increases the risk of early meniscus repair failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Ryan; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether patients who smoke cigarettes at the time of surgery are at significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure relative to non-smokers. Retrospective chart review identified 64 current smokers within a series of 444 consecutive patients who underwent meniscus repair during a 7 years period. Fifty-two of these 64 smokers were available for follow-up and were matched by age, sex, and ACL status with non-smokers from the same cohort. Records of these 104 patients with a total of 120 meniscus repairs were reviewed to identify meniscus repair failure (defined as repeat surgery on the index meniscus) during the median 13-month (range: 3-79 months) follow-up period. The smoking and non-smoking groups were similar in age, sex, ACL status, BMI, meniscus repair technique, and meniscus involved. Meniscus repair failure occurred in 19 of the 112 menisci in 104 patients, for an overall failure risk of 17 %. Of the 19 failures, 14 occurred in 79 repaired medial menisci (18 % failure risk) and 5 occurred in 33 repaired lateral menisci (15 % failure risk). Meniscus repair failure occurred in significantly more smokers (15 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -27 % failure risk) than non-smokers (4 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -7 % failure risk) (p = 0.0076). Smoking is associated with significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure as defined by the incidence of repeat surgery on the index meniscus. III.

  10. The protective effect of PRMT6 overexpression on cigarette smoke extract-induced murine emphysema model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue He,1–3 Tiao Li,1–3 Naixin Kang,1–3 Huihui Zeng,1–3 Siying Ren,1–3 Dandan Zong,1–3 Jinhua Li,1–3 Shan Cai,1–3 Ping Chen,1–3 Yan Chen1–3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, 2Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, 3Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6 is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a. H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3, which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induced emphysema. Further experiments were performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved.Materials and methods: Human lung tissues were obtained from patients undergoing pneumonectomy for benign pulmonary lesions. BALB/c mice were treated with lentiviral vectors intratracheally and injected with CSE three times. The protein expression of PRMT6, H3R2me2a, and H3K4me3 in human and mouse samples, as well as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in mice were detected in lung homogenates by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, Bcl-2, Bax, and eNOS in mice was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The expression of PRMT6 was significantly downregulated in the pulmonary parenchyma in smokers with COPD as well as in mice treated with CSE. Overexpression of PRMT6 was detected in the CSE + Lenti-PRMT6 group of mice, which reversed the expression of H3R2me2a and H3K4me3

  11. Early smoking initiation and associated factors among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.

  12. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Zahraa; El Nemr, Shaza; Sinjab, Ansam; Chami, Hassan; Tfayli, Arafat; Kadara, Humam

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic) effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke) consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs), with Lebanon as an exemplar. This "cocktail" of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  13. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Rahal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs, with Lebanon as an exemplar. This “cocktail” of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  14. Bilirubin treatment suppresses pulmonary inflammation in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Guoquan; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-09-18

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for emphysema, which is characterized by airway inflammation and oxidative damage. To assess the capacity of bilirubin to protect against smoke-induced emphysema. Smoking status and bilirubin levels were recorded in 58 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 71 non-COPD participants. The impact of smoking on serum bilirubin levels and exogenous bilirubin (20 mg/kg/day) on pulmonary injury was assessed in a rat model of smoking-induced emphysema. At sacrifice lung histology, airway leukocyte accumulation and cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung were analyzed. Oxidative lipid damage and anti-oxidative components was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione. Total serum bilirubin levels were lower in smokers with or without COPD than non-smoking patients without COPD (P pulmonary injury by suppressing inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and anti-oxidant SOD activity in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  17. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  18. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  19. Exercise Inhibits the Effects of Smoke-Induced COPD Involving Modulation of STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Alves Rodrigues Brandao-Rangel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the participation of STAT3 in the effects of aerobic exercise (AE in a model of smoke-induced COPD. Methods. C57Bl/6 male mice were divided into control, Exe, COPD, and COPD+Exe groups. Smoke were administered during 90 days. Treadmill aerobic training begun on day 61 until day 90. Pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, the level of lung emphysema, and the airway remodeling were evaluated. Analysis of integral and phosphorylated expression of STAT3 by airway epithelial cells, peribronchial leukocytes, and parenchymal leukocytes was performed. Results. AE inhibited smoke-induced accumulation of total cells (p<0.001, lymphocytes (p<0.001, and neutrophils (p<0.001 in BAL, as well as BAL levels of IL-1β (p<0.001, CXCL1 (p<0.001, IL-17 (p<0.001, and TNF-α (p<0.05, while increased the levels of IL-10 (p<0.001. AE also inhibited smoke-induced increases in total leukocytes (p<0.001, neutrophils (p<0.05, lymphocytes (p<0.001, and monocytes (p<0.01 in blood, as well as serum levels of IL-1β (p<0.01, CXCL1 (p<0.01, IL-17 (p<0.05, and TNF-α (p<0.01, while increased the levels of IL-10 (p<0.001. AE reduced smoke-induced emphysema (p<0.001 and collagen fiber accumulation in the airways (p<0.001. AE reduced smoke-induced STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 expression in airway epithelial cells (p<0.001, peribronchial leukocytes (p<0.001, and parenchymal leukocytes (p<0.001. Conclusions. AE reduces smoke-induced COPD phenotype involving STAT3.

  20. Novel and Reversible Mechanisms of Smoking-Induced Insulin Resistance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Bryan C.; Perreault, Leigh; Hunerdosse, Devon; Kerege, Anna; Playdon, Mary; Samek, Ali M.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, in part because it is an independent risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, mechanisms responsible for smoking-induced insulin resistance are unclear. In this study, we found smokers were less insulin sensitive compared with controls, which increased after either 1 or 2 weeks of smoking cessation. Improvements in insulin sensitivity after smoking cessation...

  1. Exposure to neonatal cigarette smoke causes durable lung changes but does not potentiate cigarette smoke–induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Malhotra, Deepti; Lauer, Thomas; Collaco, J. Michael; Mitzner, Wayne; Neptune, Enid; Wise, Robert; Biswal, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    The impact of early childhood cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on CS-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of neonatal and adult CS exposure on lung structure, function, and gene expression in adult mice. To model a childhood CS exposure, neonatal C57/B6 mice were exposed to 14 days of CS (Neo CS). At 10 weeks of age, Neo CS and control mice were exposed to 4 months of CS. Pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung morphometry were measured and gene expression profiling was performed on lung tissue. Mean chord lengths and lung volumes were increased in neonatal and/or adult CS-exposed mice. Differences in immune, cornified envelope protein, muscle, and erythrocyte genes were found in CS-exposed lung. Neonatal CS exposure caused durable structural and functional changes in the adult lung but did not potentiate CS-induced COPD changes. Cornified envelope protein gene expression was decreased in all CS-exposed mice, whereas myosin and erythrocyte gene expression was increased in mice exposed to both neonatal and adult CS, suggesting an adaptive response. Additional studies may be warranted to determine the utility of these genes as biomarkers of respiratory outcomes. PMID:21649527

  2. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase α subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

  3. Cigarette smoke-induced blockade of the mitochondrial respiratory chain switches lung epithelial cell apoptosis into necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Koeter, Gerard H.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Kauffman, Henk F.

    Increased lung cell apoptosis and necrosis occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD). Mitochondria are crucially involved in the regulation of these cell death processes. Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for development of COPD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke

  4. Changes in circulating peptide YY and ghrelin are associated with early smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48h of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session. Results showed that relapsers experienced greater levels of distress (ps <0.01). While nonsmokers and abstainers showed no change in ghrelin across the initial 48h, relapsers declined (p <0.01). With PYY, relapsers increased (p <0.05) across the early abstinent phase. PYY and ghrelin may be useful predictors of relapse, specifically in reference to early withdrawal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Where there's smoke : health effects of wood smoke and risk reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, B. [New Brunswick Lung Association, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of a discussion at a former workshop on smoke from both forest fires and wood stoves. Climate change is forecasted to increase the occurrence of forest fires in Canada and climate change mitigation measures may increase the use of wood stoves for home heating, resulting in an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms in the Canadian population. These health effects of wood smoke include: headaches and allergies; breathing difficulties; reduced lung function; aggravated heart disease; and increased susceptibility to lower respiratory tract infections. This paper also presented information on health effects of wood smoke and research recommendations for improved policies to protect human health. tabs., figs.

  6. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Baeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure compromises health through damaging multiple physiological systems, including disrupting metabolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of oral gingiva in mediating the deleterious metabolic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on skeletal muscle metabolic function. Using an in vitro conditioned medium cell model, skeletal muscle cells were incubated with medium from gingival cells treated with normal medium or medium containing suspended cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Following incubation of muscle cells with gingival cell conditioned medium, muscle cell mitochondrial respiration and insulin signaling and action were determined as an indication of overall muscle metabolic health. Skeletal muscle cells incubated with conditioned medium of CSE-treated gingival cells had a profound reduction in mitochondrial respiration and respiratory control. Furthermore, skeletal muscle cells had a greatly reduced response in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. Altogether, these results provide a novel perspective on the mechanism whereby cigarette smoke affects systemic metabolic function. In conclusion, we found that oral gingival cells treated with CSE create an altered milieu that is sufficient to both disrupted skeletal muscle cell mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity.

  7. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  9. [Respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in Tunisian woman exposed to biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwas, H; Rahmouni, N; Zendah, I; Ghédira, H

    2017-06-01

    In some Tunisian cities, especially semi-urbanized, the exposure to the smoke produced during combustion of the biomass, main source of pollution of indoor air, remains prevalent among non-smoking women. To assess the relationship between exposure to biomass smoke and the presence of obstructive ventilatory disorder in the non-smoking women in semi-urban areas of Tunisia. Cross etiological study, using a questionnaire, including 140 non-smoking women responsible for cooking and/or exposed during heating by traditional means with objective measurement of their respiratory functions. We found 81 women exposed to biomass for a period > or equal to 20 hours-years and 59 unexposed women. Exposed women reported more respiratory symptoms namely exertional dyspnea and/or chronic cough than unexposed. Of the 140 women, 14 women have an FEV/FEV6 biomass. We found a correlation between respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in exposed women. The air pollution inside the home during the traditional activities of cooking and/or heating is a respiratory risk factor for non-smoking women over the age of 30 years. Exposure to biomass smoke can cause chronic respiratory symptoms and persistent obstructive ventilatory disorder that can be consistent with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Suppresses the Unfolded Protein Response upon Cigarette Smoke Exposure

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    Patrick Geraghty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress provokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD subjects. The antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, counters oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we investigate whether GPx-1 expression deters the UPR following exposure to cigarette smoke. Expression of ER stress markers was investigated in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells isolated from nonsmoking, smoking, and COPD donors and redifferentiated at the air liquid interface. NHBE cells from COPD donors expressed heightened ATF4, XBP1, GRP78, GRP94, EDEM1, and CHOP compared to cells from nonsmoking donors. These changes coincided with reduced GPx-1 expression. Reintroduction of GPx-1 into NHBE cells isolated from COPD donors reduced the UPR. To determine whether the loss of GPx-1 expression has a direct impact on these ER stress markers during smoke exposure, Gpx-1−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 year. Loss of Gpx-1 expression enhanced cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Equally, induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced antioxidant expression in mouse precision-cut lung slices. Smoke inhalation also exacerbated the UPR response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Therefore, ER stress may be an antioxidant-related pathophysiological event in COPD.

  11. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Macatee, Richard J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Sarawgi, Shivali

    2014-09-01

    Hostility has emerged as an important predictor of smoking cessation difficulties, though the mechanisms underlying the hostility and smoking relationship are poorly understood. Further, research has yet to explore relations between hostile interpretation biases and different aspects of smoking behavior. In the present study, current daily smokers (N = 106) were administered measures of smoking characteristics, smoking motivation, reasons for quitting, hostility, and hostile interpretation bias. Neither trait hostility nor hostile interpretation bias were uniquely associated with motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, nicotine dependence, or problematic symptoms following past cessation attempts. However, hostility and hostile interpretation biases were uniquely associated with different reasons for smoking. Additionally, greater hostile interpretation bias (but not hostility) was uniquely associated with early relapse following past cessation attempts. The current findings add uniquely to the growing, but still relatively small, literature on hostility and smoking and implicate hostile interpretation bias as a potential treatment target in smoking cessation interventions.

  12. Risk of chronic bronchitis in twin pairs discordant for smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Harmsen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample.......It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample....

  13. Short-Term Effects of Nose-Only Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Glutathione Redox Homeostasis, Cytochrome P450 1A1/2 and Respiratory Enzyme Activities in Mice Tissues

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    Haider Raza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The components of cigarette smoke (CS have been implicated in the development of cancer as well as in cardiopulmonary diseases. We have previously reported increased oxidative stress in rat tissues induced by tobacco-specific toxins nicotine and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. Recently, we have also shown increased oxidative stress and associated inflammatory responses in various tissues after exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods: In this study, we have further investigated the effects of nose-only cigarette smoke exposure on mitochondrial functions and glutathione-dependent redox metabolism in tissues of BALB/C mice. Liver, kidney, heart and lung tissues were analyzed for oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH and cytochrome P450 dependent enzyme activities and mitochondrial functions after exposure to smoke generated by 9 cigarettes/day for 4 days. Control mice were exposed to air only. Results: An increase in oxidative stress as observed by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and altered GSH metabolism was apparent in all the tissues, but lung and heart appeared to be the main targets. Increased expression and activity of CYP450 1A1 and 1A2 were also observed in the tissues after exposure to cigarette smoke. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in the tissues, as observed by alterations in the activities of Complex I and IV enzymes, was also observed after exposure to cigarette smoke. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results also indicate that alterations in the expression of enzyme proteins were in accordance with the changes in their catalytic functions. Conclusion: These results suggest that even short term exposure of cigarette smoke have adverse effects on mitochondrial functions and redox homeostasis in tissues which may progress to further complications associated with chronic smoking.

  14. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  15. Life course exposure to smoke and early menopause and menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hebatullah; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at the menopausal transition. Using data from two US birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal exposure, childhood exposure to parental smoking, and adult smoke exposure) and menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 to 49 years at follow-up. We used logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age at follow-up) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and the menopausal transition. The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders among (i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke on adult follow-up (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.8-9.4) and (ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.9-9.0). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing earlier natural menopause (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3) compared with women without smoke exposure in either period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 y) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging.

  16. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

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    Stephen V Mahler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? METHODS: We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers. Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. RESULTS: Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. CONCLUSIONS: In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  17. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Stephen V; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-11-10

    Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers). Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  18. Determinants of Chronic Respiratory Symptoms among Pharmaceutical Factory Workers

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    Sahle Asfaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic respiratory symptoms including chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain are manifestations of respiratory problems which are mainly evolved as a result of occupational exposures. This study aims to assess determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers. Methods. A case control study was carried out among 453 pharmaceutical factory workers with 151 cases and 302 controls. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analysis. Result. Previous history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.85–6.12, family history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51–4.32, previous dusty working environment (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.07–4.78, ever smoking (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.05–12.72, and service years (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.16–2.99 showed statistically significant association with chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion. Previous history of respiratory diseases, family history of chronic respiratory diseases, previous dusty working environment, smoking, and service years were determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms. Public health endeavors to prevent the burden of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers should target the reduction of adverse workplace exposures and discouragement of smoking.

  19. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  20. Smoking induces long-lasting effects through a monoamine-oxidase epigenetic regulation.

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    Jean-Marie Launay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulating that serotonin (5-HT, released from smoking-activated platelets could be involved in smoking-induced vascular modifications, we studied its catabolism in a series of 115 men distributed as current smokers (S, never smokers (NS and former smokers (FS who had stopped smoking for a mean of 13 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 5-HT, monoamine oxidase (MAO-B activities and amounts were measured in platelets, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA--the 5-HT/MAO catabolite--in plasma samples. Both platelet 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA levels were correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular Framingham relative risk (P<0.01, but these correlations became non-significant after adjustment for smoking status, underlining that the determining risk factor among those taken into account in the Framingham risk calculation was smoking. Surprisingly, the platelet 5-HT content was similar in S and NS but lower in FS with a parallel higher plasma level of 5-HIAA in FS. This was unforeseen since MAO-B activity was inhibited during smoking (P<0.00001. It was, however, consistent with a higher enzyme protein concentration found in S and FS than in NS (P<0.001. It thus appears that MAO inhibition during smoking was compensated by a higher synthesis. To investigate the persistent increase in MAO-B protein concentration, a study of the methylation of its gene promoter was undertaken in a small supplementary cohort of similar subjects. We found that the methylation frequency of the MAOB gene promoter was markedly lower (P<0.0001 for S and FS vs. NS due to cigarette smoke-induced increase of nucleic acid demethylase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is one of the first reports that smoking induces an epigenetic modification. A better understanding of the epigenome may help to further elucidate the physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction. The results could have a larger impact than cardiovascular

  1. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    provided in this update, an increase of eight countries from the original review. The nature of the intervention precludes randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies used an interrupted time series study design, 23 studies use a controlled before-and-after design and 18 studies are before-and-after studies with no control group; six of these studies use a cohort design. Seventy-two studies reported health outcomes, including cardiovascular (44), respiratory (21), and perinatal outcomes (7). Eleven studies reported national mortality rates for smoking-related diseases. A number of the studies report multiple health outcomes. There is consistent evidence of a positive impact of national smoking bans on improving cardiovascular health outcomes, and reducing mortality for associated smoking-related illnesses. Effects on respiratory and perinatal health were less consistent. We found 24 studies evaluating the impact of national smoke-free legislation on smoking behaviour. Evidence of an impact of legislative bans on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption is inconsistent, with some studies not detecting additional long-term change in existing trends in prevalence. Since the first version of this review was published, the current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to improved health outcomes through reduction in SHS for countries and their populations. The clearest evidence is observed in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence of reduced mortality from smoking-related illnesses at a national level. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

  3. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    , and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. In particular, sensitivity on LRI was 96%. There was no evidence of bias from concurrent asthmatic disease or socioeconomic status. In conclusion, the study confirmed that COPSAC data is a valid source for investigating childhood......Lower respiratory infections (LRI) in childhood are common and account for considerable morbidity and health care utilization. The frequency of LRI varies significantly between otherwise healthy children, but extrinsic and intrinsic triggers of such variation are poorly understood. Traditionally...... neonatal airway colonization and risk of the LRI in a validated study cohort, and whether a possible association could be reflected in the early immune response to airway pathogens. In study I we aimed to ascertain the quality of information on child’s health, including asthma, allergy, eczema, respiratory...

  4. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium ABSTRACTFormaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  5. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Longitudinal study of parental smoking habits and development of asthma in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Hara, Megumi; Harada, Shohei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental smoking habits and the development of asthma in early childhood by using representative samples. The survey subjects included all of the 53,575 babies born in Japan during the periods January 10-17 and July 10-17, 2001. The families of the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires that were delivered by post at 6 months, 1 year 6 months, 2 years 6 months, 3 years 6 months, and 4 years 6 months postpartum. The first survey contained questions regarding the smoking habits of the parents. The second to fifth surveys asked if the child had needed medical attention for the treatment of asthma. Data from 36,888 subjects (collection rate: 68.9%) were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidence of asthma was 12.0%. Maternal indoor smoking significantly increased the risk of asthma development in children, 4-year risk 14.4% vs. 11.7%, risk ratio=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.38. No statistically significant association was found between paternal smoking and asthma development in children. In order to prevent the development of asthma in early childhood, it is necessary to formulate measures to stop or discourage maternal smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  8. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  9. Reward dependence moderates smoking-cue- and stress-induced cigarette cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p'scues (pcues (pcues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  11. Changes in hospitalizations for chronic respiratory diseases after two successive smoking bans in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Galán

    Full Text Available Existing evidence on the effects of smoke-free policies on respiratory diseases is scarce and inconclusive. Spain enacted two consecutive smoke-free regulations: a partial ban in 2006 and a comprehensive ban in 2011. We estimated their impact on hospital admissions via emergency departments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma.Data for COPD (ICD-9 490-492, 494-496 came from 2003-2012 hospital admission records from the fourteen largest provinces of Spain and from five provinces for asthma (ICD-9 493. We estimated changes in hospital admission rates within provinces using Poisson additive models adjusted for long-term linear trends and seasonality, day of the week, temperature, influenza, acute respiratory infections, and pollen counts (asthma models. We estimated immediate and gradual effects through segmented-linear models. The coefficients within each province were combined through random-effects multivariate meta-analytic models.The partial ban was associated with a strong significant pooled immediate decline in COPD-related admission rates (14.7%, 95%CI: 5.0, 23.4, sustained over time with a one-year decrease of 13.6% (95%CI: 2.9, 23.1. The association was consistent across age and sex groups but stronger in less economically developed Spanish provinces. Asthma-related admission rates decreased by 7.4% (95%CI: 0.2, 14.2 immediately after the comprehensive ban was implemented, although the one-year decrease was sustained only among men (9.9%, 95%CI: 3.9, 15.6.The partial ban was associated with an immediate and sustained strong decline in COPD-related admissions, especially in less economically developed provinces. The comprehensive ban was related to an immediate decrease in asthma, sustained for the medium-term only among men.

  12. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  13. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  14. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-08-17

    Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal respiratory function and symptoms in older, non-smoking, long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness. The study included 563 officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness living in Kurashiki, Okayama who were aged ≥ 65 years in 2009. Data were retrospectively collected from yearly respiratory symptom questionnaires and spirometry examinations conducted from 2000 to 2009. Respiratory function declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 (p pollutants around 1970 resulted in a decrease in respiratory function and an increase in respiratory symptoms in the study population. From 2000 to 2009, the mean annual changes in respiratory function were within the normal range, even though the severity of dyspnea worsened. The changes in respiratory function and symptoms over the study period were probably due to aging. The laws governing air pollution levels and providing compensation for officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness in Japan may be effective for respiratory disease cause by pollution.

  15. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  16. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  17. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cell Death Causes Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Ueha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to cigarette smoke is a cause of olfactory dysfunction. We previously reported that in young mice, cigarette smoke damaged olfactory progenitors and decreased mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, then, mature ORNs gradually recovered after smoking cessation. However, in aged populations, the target cells in ORNs by cigarette smoke, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs the regenerative ORNs, and the degree of ORN regeneration after smoking cessation remain unclear.Objectives: To explore the effects of cigarette smoke on the ORN cell system using an aged mouse model of smoking, and to investigate the extent to which smoke-induced damage to ORNs recovers following cessation of exposure to cigarette smoke in aged mice.Methods: We intranasally administered a cigarette smoke solution (CSS to 16-month-old male mice over 24 days, then examined ORN existence, cell survival, changes of inflammatory cytokines in the olfactory epithelium (OE, and olfaction using histological analyses, gene analyses and olfactory habituation/dishabituation tests.Results: CSS administration reduced the number of mature ORNs in the OE and induced olfactory dysfunction. These changes coincided with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF expression and a decrease in Il6 expression. Notably, the reduction in mature ORNs did not recover even on day 28 after cessation of treatment with CSS, resulting in persistent olfactory dysfunction.Conclusion: In aged mice, by increasing ORN death, CSS exposure could eventually overwhelm the regenerative capacity of the OE, resulting in continued reduction in the number of mature ORNs and olfactory dysfunction.

  18. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Antioxidant intervention of smoking-induced lung tumor in mice by vitamin E and quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Lu; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Min; Wang, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Yufei; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-feng

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that antioxidants such as quercetin and vitamin E (VE) can prevent lung tumor caused by smoking; however, there is limited evidence from animal studies. In the present study, Swiss mouse was used to examine the potential of quercetin and VE for prevention lung tumor induced by smoking. Our results suggest that the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity were 43.5% and 1.00 ± 0.29 in smoking group; Quercetin has limited effects on lung tumor prevention in this in vivo model, as measured by assays for free radical scavenging, reduction of smoke-induced DNA damage and inhibition of apoptosis. On the other hand, vitamin E drastically decreased the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity which were 17.0% and 0.32 ± 0.16, respectively (p < 0.05); and demonstrated prominent antioxidant effects, reduction of DNA damage and decreased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Combined treatment with quercetin and VE in this animal model did not demonstrate any effect greater than that due to vitamin E alone. In addition, gender differences in the occurrence of smoke induced-lung tumor and antioxidant intervention were also observed. We conclude that VE might prevent lung tumor induced by smoking in Swiss mice

  20. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  1. Do parents who smoke underutilize health care services for their children? A cross sectional study within the longitudinal PIAMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-van der Bruggen, Monique A M; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C; Baan, Caroline A; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A

    2007-06-12

    A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and an associated increase in health care utilization among children with parents who smoke is to be expected. From previous studies however, it appears that parents who smoke may underutilize health services for their children, especially with respect to respiratory care. This study explores the validity and generalizability of the previous assumption. Data were obtained from a Dutch birth-cohort study; the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) project. Information regarding parental smoking, the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use and potential confounders were obtained by postal questionnaires. Multivariate logistic models were used to relate parental smoking to the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use. The study comprised 3,564, 4-year old children. In the crude analysis, respiratory symptoms were more frequent among children with a parent who smoked, while health care utilization for respiratory symptoms was not significantly different between children with or without a parent who smoked. In the multivariate analyses, maternal smoking had a larger impact on the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use as compared to paternal smoking. Maternal smoking was positively associated with mild respiratory symptoms of the child, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.50 (1.19-1.91), but not with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 1.03 (0.75-1.40). Among children with mild respiratory symptoms, children with a mother who smoked were less likely to be taken to the general practitioner (GP) for respiratory symptoms, than children with mothers who did not smoke, AOR 0.58 (0.33-1.01). This finding was less pronounced among children with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 0.86 (0.49-1.52). Neither GP visits for non-respiratory symptoms nor specialized care for respiratory disease were significantly associated with parental smoking. Mothers who smoke appear to underutilize health care for their

  2. Do parents who smoke underutilize health care services for their children? A cross sectional study within the longitudinal PIAMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baan Caroline A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and an associated increase in health care utilization among children with parents who smoke is to be expected. From previous studies however, it appears that parents who smoke may underutilize health services for their children, especially with respect to respiratory care. This study explores the validity and generalizability of the previous assumption. Methods Data were obtained from a Dutch birth-cohort study; the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA project. Information regarding parental smoking, the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use and potential confounders were obtained by postal questionnaires. Multivariate logistic models were used to relate parental smoking to the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use. Results The study comprised 3,564, 4-year old children. In the crude analysis, respiratory symptoms were more frequent among children with a parent who smoked, while health care utilization for respiratory symptoms was not significantly different between children with or without a parent who smoked. In the multivariate analyses, maternal smoking had a larger impact on the child's respiratory symptoms and health care use as compared to paternal smoking. Maternal smoking was positively associated with mild respiratory symptoms of the child, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.50 (1.19–1.91, but not with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 1.03 (0.75–1.40. Among children with mild respiratory symptoms, children with a mother who smoked were less likely to be taken to the general practitioner (GP for respiratory symptoms, than children with mothers who did not smoke, AOR 0.58 (0.33–1.01. This finding was less pronounced among children with severe respiratory symptoms AOR 0.86 (0.49–1.52. Neither GP visits for non-respiratory symptoms nor specialized care for respiratory disease were significantly associated with parental smoking

  3. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress in a rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: ...

  5. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  6. Student seminar on smoking: A novel way to introduce different perspectives on smoking to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima P Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory module at Shifa College of Medicine (SCM is delivered in third year with emphasis on respiratory pathophysiology and respiratory medicine. Smoking as a topic was introduced to emphasize the preventive aspects of respiratory illnesses. An innovative approach to involve students in their learning was developed. To determine whether this innovation would be well received and effective for students′ learning about smoking, we carried out this study. Materials and Methods: This is a one group post-test quasi-experiment. Two days were assigned for a smoking seminar. The class of 106 students was divided into 10 batches, and each batch was assigned a theme related to smoking. These themes were developed by the faculty, and each theme was related to a different perspective on smoking. A post-test questionnaire was distributed at the end of the seminar for feedback to see what aspects of students′ learning were highlighted and what needed to be improved upon. Questions related to the usefulness of the activity were incorporated into the questionnaire and the students were asked to agree or disagree on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Most (68.3% students agreed that this activity improved their knowledge regarding smoking, and 54.8% agreed that it also helped in application of this knowledge. Improvement in presentation and counseling skills (59.8%, evidence-based medicine (47.6%, and softer skills, such as teamwork (72% and creativity (63.4%, were also reported to be enhanced. Conclusion: Seminars led by the students have shown to be effective in breaking the monotony and generating an interest of the topic. Such an activity serves as a small step to make our graduates more empathic, humane, competent, and skilful.

  7. Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carslake

    Full Text Available Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (45,000 offspring, we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI.

  8. Dotriacontane-16,17-14C distribution pattern in the respiratory system of two hamster species after passive exposure to radioactive labelled smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmoch, N.; Mohr, U.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative distribution of 14 C labeled dotriacontane (DOT- 14 C) determined by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography in the respiratory system, the digestive tract, liver and kidneys of Syrian golden and European hamsters, males and females, is described after they had been exposed to radioactive labeled cigarette smoke. The different DOT- 14 C distributions are discussed in detail with special attention given to the respiratory tract, related species differences and the topographic subdivisions of apex nasi, fundus nasi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. It is apparent that the absolute amount of activity in the respiratory tract related to body size of the Syrian golden hamster is greater than in the European hamster but that the percentual distribution exhibits a greater filtering action of the upper respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamster than of the European hamster so that a larger percentual amount of total inhaled particulate matter reaches the lungs. The European hamster might be a more useful model for the investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis due to the possibility of a longer life time exposure and a higher sensitivity to respiratory tract carcinogens

  9. The NF-κB family member RelB regulates microRNA miR-146a to suppress cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression in lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Rico de Souza, Angela; Hecht, Emelia; Rousseau, Simon; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2014-04-21

    Diseases due to cigarette smoke exposure, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, are associated with chronic inflammation typified by the increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. RelB is an NF-κB family member that suppresses cigarette smoke induction of COX-2 through an unknown mechanism. The ability of RelB to regulate COX-2 expression may be via miR-146a, a miRNA that attenuates COX-2 in lung fibroblasts. In this study we tested whether RelB attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein is due to miR-146a. Utilizing pulmonary fibroblasts deficient in RelB expression, together with siRNA knock-down of RelB, we show the essential role of RelB in diminishing smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression despite robust activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and subsequent induction of Cox-2 mRNA. RelB did not regulate COX-2 protein expression at the level of mRNA stability. Basal levels of miR-146a were significantly lower in Relb-deficient cells and cigarette smoke increased miR-146a expression only in Relb-expressing cells. Inhibition of miR-146a had no effects on Relb expression or induction of Cox-2 mRNA by cigarette smoke but significantly increased COX-2 protein. These data highlight the potential of a RelB-miR-146a axis as a novel regulatory pathway that attenuates inflammation in response to respiratory toxicants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of COPD and respiratory symptoms associated with biomass smoke exposure in a suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Venegas A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,1 Mónica Velázquez-Uncal,1 Rosaura Pérez-Hernández,2 Nicolás Eduardo Guzmán-Bouilloud,1 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia,3 María Eugenia Mayar-Maya,4 Adrian Aranda-Chávez,1 Raúl H Sansores5 1Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Research Department of Tobacco Smoking, Centro de Investigacion de Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico; 3HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Medical Attention Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 5Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Biomass smoke exposure (BSE is a recognized cause of COPD particularly in rural areas. However, little research has been focused on BSE in suburban areas. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD, respiratory symptoms (RS and BSE in women living in a suburban area of Mexico City exposed to BSE. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a female population aged >35 years was performed using a multistage cluster sampling strategy. The participants completed questionnaires on RS and COPD risk factors. The COPD prevalence was based on the postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio. Of the 1,333 women who completed the respiratory questionnaires, spirometry data were obtained from 1,190, and 969 of these were scored as A–C. Results: The prevalence of BSE was 47%, and the estimated prevalence of COPD was 2.5% for the total population (n=969 and 3.1% for those with BSE only. The spirometry and oximetry values were significantly lower in women with greater exposure levels. The prevalence of RS (cough, phlegm, wheezing and dyspnea was significantly higher in the

  11. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  12. Mechanism and Clinical Importance of Respiratory Failure Induced by Anticholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivosevic Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is the predominant cause of death in humans and animals poisoned with anticholinesterases. Organophosphorus and carbamate anticholinesterases inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and reversibly, respectively. Some of them contain a quaternary atom that makes them lipophobic, limiting their action at the periphery, i.e. outside the central nervous system. They impair respiratory function primarily by inducing a desensitization block of nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular synapse. Lipophilic anticholinesterases inhibit the acetylcholinesterase both in the brain and in other tissues, including respiratory muscles. Their doses needed for cessation of central respiratory drive are significantly less than doses needed for paralysis of the neuromuscular transmission. Antagonist of muscarinic receptors atropine blocks both the central and peripheral muscarinic receptors and effectively antagonizes the central respiratory depression produced by anticholinesterases. To manage the peripheral nicotinic receptor hyperstimulation phenomena, oximes as acetylcholinesterase reactivators are used. Addition of diazepam is useful for treatment of seizures, since they are cholinergic only in their initial phase and can contribute to the occurrence of central respiratory depression. Possible involvement of central nicotinic receptors as well as the other neurotransmitter systems – glutamatergic, opioidergic – necessitates further research of additional antidotes.

  13. Association of established smoking among adolescents with timing of exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Titus, Linda J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-04-04

    It is not known whether exposure to smoking depicted in movies carries greater influence during early or late adolescence. We aimed to quantify the independent relative contribution to established smoking of exposure to smoking depicted in movies during both early and late adolescence. We prospectively assessed 2049 nonsmoking students recruited from 14 randomly selected public schools in New Hampshire and Vermont. At baseline enrollment, students aged 10-14 years completed a written survey to determine personal, family, and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to depictions of smoking in the movies (early exposure). Seven years later, we conducted follow-up telephone interviews to ascertain follow-up exposure to movie smoking (late exposure) and smoking behavior. We used multiple regression models to assess associations between early and late exposure and development of established smoking. One-sixth (17.3%) of the sample progressed to established smoking. In analyses that controlled for covariates and included early and late exposure in the same model, we found that students in the highest quartile for early exposure had 73% greater risk of established smoking than those in the lowest quartile for early exposure (27.8% vs 8.6%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14 to 2.62). However, late exposure to depictions of smoking in movies was not statistically significantly associated with established smoking (22.1% vs 14.0%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.44). Whereas 31.6% of established smoking was attributable to early exposure, only an additional 5.3% was attributable to late exposure. Early exposure to smoking depicted in movies is associated with established smoking among adolescents. Educational and policy-related interventions should focus on minimizing early exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

  14. A Correlative Study of Smokeless Tobacco induced Lesion and Smoke-induced Leukoplakia in Various Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parita K Chitroda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various oral mucosal lesions are attributed to tobacco use. The presence of these conditions vanes with particular type of tobacco used (smoking or smokeless and the form in which it is used, such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars and chewing moist snuff. The frequency and duration of use as well as the ways in which the tobacco product is used also contributes to the clinical presentation and seventy of the lesion. The present study is mainly focused on the correlation between the smokeless tobacco-induced lesion and smoke-induced leukoplakia on various aspects with an objective to determine smokeless tobacco as a possible cause for leukoplakia.

  15. Respiratory health issues in the Asia-Pacific region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Musk, Arthur William

    2011-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is home to a large heterogeneous population whose respiratory health is influenced by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Despite this variability, the most prevalent causes of respiratory morbidity and mortality are tobacco smoking, infection, and air pollution. This review aims to summarize current respiratory health issues in the region including smoking-related diseases especially COPD, lung cancer and infectious problems such as pandemic influenza, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis, as well as the contribution of air pollution to respiratory disease. Published data on trends in the epidemiology and management of respiratory diseases and are summarized; finally, the limitations of available data and projections for the future of respiratory health in the region are discussed. © 2010 Commonwealth of Australia. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo, as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro. Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001 and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05; as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05, which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs or bone marrow (BM-MSCs might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected for exposure to either sham air (SA as control or 4% CS for 1 h per day for 56 days. On day 29 and 43, human adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs or PBS were administered intravenously to CS-exposed rats. Results from echocardiography, serum and cardiac lipid profiles, cardiac antioxidant capacity, cardiac pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cardiac morphological changes were evaluated at the end of treatment. iPSC-MSC-treated group showed a greater effect in the improvement of CS-induced cardiac dysfunction over BM-MSCs-treated group as shown by increased percentage left ventricular ejection fraction and percentage fractional shortening, in line with the greater reversal of cardiac lipid abnormality. In addition, iPSC-MSCs administration attenuated CS-induced elevation of cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as restoration of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative markers, leading to ameliorate cardiac morphological abnormalities. These data suggest that iPSC-MSCs on one hand may restore CS-induced cardiac lipid abnormality and on the other hand may attenuate cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation via inhibition of CS-induced NF-κB activation, leading to improvement of cardiac remodeling and

  19. Influence of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Hao Enzhu; Ni Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation, and to provide scientific information for prevention and treatment of radiation damage. Methods: There were 8 groups in the factorial experiment design with 3 factors at 2 levels. Mice were randomly divided into each group. There were 8 mice in each group. Mice in seven experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke, green tea, radiation or their mixtures respectively. One group was treated as the blank control group. The frequencies of micrnucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) were scored by single blinded method. The data were analyzed with factorial experiments analysis of variance using SAS 8.0. Results: Analysis of variance showed that radiation, cigarette smoke and green tea were independently significant factors (P<0.01). Interactions between cigarette smoke and radiation or between green tea and radiation were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation and cigarette smoke can cause bone marrow cell mutations independently. There is synergistic effect between cigarette smoke and radiation. Green tea can inhibit radiation-induced cell mutation. (authors)

  20. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain-Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude 50 msec and sum of area phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure.

  1. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain–Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. Objective: To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. Methods: 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Results: Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude 50 msec and sum of area phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Conclusion: Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure. PMID:29720799

  2. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  4. Mortality in women and men in relation to smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Per Kragh

    1998-01-01

    characteristics differed considerably with gender, particularly in the older subjects. Overall mortality rates in smokers were approximately twice those in people who never smoked. Positive associations with smoking in both men and women were confirmed for all-cause mortality as well as mortality from respiratory...... disease, vascular disease, lung cancer, and other tobacco-related cancers. Despite large gender differences in age at smoking debut, total and cause-specific relative mortality in smokers was similar in men and women. After excluding non-inhalers, relative risks associated with smoking for respiratory......BACKGROUND: Mortality from smoking-related diseases in women is increasing worldwide. Studies comparing hazards associated with smoking in women and men based on a sufficient number of heavy smokers of both genders are lacking. METHODS: We used pooled data from three prospective population studies...

  5. Smoking and Tobacco Use Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth. CANCER Tobacco use increases the risk for many types of cancer, such as lung cancer. More HEART DISEASE Studies show a direct link between cigarette smoking ...

  6. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, Renata; Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (psmoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  7. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified...... with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four...... groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds...

  8. An early-stage epidemic: a systematic review of correlates of smoking among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women.

  9. Effect of simvastatin on MMPs and TIMPs in cigarette smoke-induced rat COPD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jiawei Sun,1,* Jie Bao,2,* Yanan Shi,3 Bin Zhang,4 Lindong Yuan,5 Junhong Li,1 Lihai Zhang,1 Mo Sun,6 Ling Zhang,2 Wuzhuang Sun1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chest Hospital of Hebei Province, 3Maternal and Child Health Care Center of Hebei Province, 4Department of Emergency, First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, People’s Hospital of Liaocheng, Liaocheng, 6Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Proteases may play an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema in response to cigarette smoke exposure (CSE. The current study was designed to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1, and TIMP-4 in rat lung tissues in response to CSE, and assessed the effect of simvastatin in regulating expression of MMPs and TIMPs.Methods: Thirty normal Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into control (n=10, CSE (n=10, and CSE plus simvastatin (n=10 groups. Animals were whole-body exposed to the cigarette smoke in the box for 1 hour each time, twice a day, 5 days a week for 16 weeks. Animals of CSE + simvastatin group were intra-gastrically administered simvastatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day followed by CSE. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was harvested for inflammatory cell count and lung tissues were stained for morphologic examination. Expression of mRNA and protein level of MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, and TIMP-4 was assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively.Results: CSE resulted in a significant increase of mean linear intercept (MLI: 34.6±2.0 µm and bronchial wall thickness and diameter (BWT/D, 0.250±0.062 compared to control (MLI: 24.0±1.7 µm, BWT

  10. Exercise Prevents Diaphragm Wasting Induced by Cigarette Smoke through Modulation of Antioxidant Genes and Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Vieira Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  11. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  12. Longitudinal changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Canadian grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A

    2006-06-01

    To determine longitudinal changes in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among Canadian grain workers. Data on respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and pulmonary function were obtained approximately every 3 years (termed cycle) over 15 years beginning in 1978 from five regions of Canada. The number of grain workers participating in each cycle were as follows: cycle 1 (n = 5,702); cycle 2 (n = 5,491); cycle 3 (n = 3,713); cycle 4 (n = 2,847); and cycle 5 (n = 3,079). A procedure based on generalized estimating equations (PROC GENMOD; SAS Institute; Cary, NC) was used to fit marginal models to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms (wheeze, dyspnea, sputum, and cough). The prevalence (predicted probability based on the final model) of chronic respiratory symptoms had an increasing trend with increasing number of years in the grain industry from cycle 1 to cycle 3 (before dust control) for all three smoking categories (current smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers). For cycle 4 and cycle 5 (after dust control), there was a reduction in the prevalence of these respiratory symptoms. For example, in cycle 1, the prevalence of chronic wheeze among current smoking grain workers increased from 12% (for those in the industry for 35 years); in cycle 5, the prevalence of chronic wheeze among current smoking grain workers increased from 9% (for those in the industry for 35 years). Similar trends were observed for ex-smokers and nonsmokers and for other chronic respiratory symptoms. Our results indicate that grain dust control was effective in reducing the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among grain workers in all smoking and exposure categories.

  13. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, Anette; Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-01-01

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 μg/cm 2 of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-α, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-α and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent

  14. Air pollution and respiratory infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J W.B.; Waller, R E

    1966-01-01

    Air pollution, as estimated by domestic coal consumption was categorized into 4 groups; very low, low, moderate, and high. The predicted pollution categories were later compared with measured smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations and found to be as expected. The smoke concentration was found to be 67, 138, 217, and 281 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ while the SO/sub 2/ concentration was 90, 130, 191, and 257 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in the very low, low, moderate, and high pollution groups respectively. These values excluded the greater London area which had somewhat lower smoke but similar SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The air pollution had no effect on upper-respiratory illness in British children but had a highly significant effect on lower-respiratory illness. The percent of children experiencing the first lower-respiratory tract infection during the first 9 months of life in the 4 pollution groups were 7.2 in the very low, 11.4 in the low, 16.5 in the moderate and 17.1 in the high.

  15. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  16. Persistence of smoking-induced dysregulation of miRNA expression in the small airway epithelium despite smoking cessation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    Full Text Available Even after quitting smoking, the risk of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer remains significantly higher compared to healthy nonsmokers. Based on the knowledge that COPD and most lung cancers start in the small airway epithelium (SAE, we hypothesized that smoking modulates miRNA expression in the SAE linked to the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease, and that some of these changes persist after smoking cessation. SAE was collected from 10th to 12th order bronchi using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 arrays were used to assess miRNA expression in the SAE from 9 healthy nonsmokers and 10 healthy smokers, before and after they quit smoking for 3 months. Smoking status was determined by urine nicotine and cotinine measurement. There were significant differences in the expression of 34 miRNAs between healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers (p1.5, with functions associated with lung development, airway epithelium differentiation, inflammation and cancer. After quitting smoking for 3 months, 12 out of the 34 miRNAs did not return to normal levels, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway being the top identified enriched pathway of the target genes of the persistent dysregulated miRNAs. In the context that many of these persistent smoking-dependent miRNAs are associated with differentiation, inflammatory diseases or lung cancer, it is likely that persistent smoking-related changes in SAE miRNAs play a role in the subsequent development of these disorders.

  17. Genetic variants and early cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence phenotypes in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O'Loughlin

    Full Text Available While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes.In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12-13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7-8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator.The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1 were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value <0.01 using linear mixed models. After permutation and FDR adjustment, none of the associations remained statistically significant, although the p-values for the association between rs557748 in OPRM1 and the ND/craving and self-medication phenotypes were both 0.076.Because the genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3.Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the development of ND.

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, Eva; Wickman, Magnus; Pershagen, Goran; Nordvall, Lennart

    2006-01-05

    Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respiratory disease in children up to two years of age. A birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for two years using parental questionnaires. When the infant was two months old the parents completed a questionnaire on various lifestyle factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and after birth. At one and two years of age information was obtained by questionnaire on symptoms of allergic and respiratory diseases as well as on environmental exposures, particularly exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Adjustments were made for potential confounders. When the mother had smoked during pregnancy but not after that, there was an increased risk of recurrent wheezing up to two years' age, ORadj = 2.2, (95% CI 1.3-3.6). The corresponding OR was 1.6, (95% CI 1.2-2.3) for reported exposure to ETS with or without maternal smoking in utero. Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS also increased the risk of doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age, ORadj = 2.1, (95% CI 1.2-3.7). Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in utero is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing, as well as doctor's diagnosed asthma in children up to two years of age.

  19. Benefits of smoking bans on preterm and early-term births: a natural experimental design in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Dratva, Julia; Röösli, Martin; Perez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Birth outcomes are relevant for future children's heath. Capitalising on a natural experimental design in Switzerland, we evaluated how regional smoking bans introduced at different time points affected birth outcomes, including preterm and early-term births. We used birth registry data of all singleton neonates born in Switzerland (2007-2012). We developed canton-specific interrupted time-series followed by random meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits of smoking bans on preterm (Switzerland with cantons that adopted more comprehensive smoking bans achieving greater benefits. Early-term births constitute a previously ignored though important group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Nitrofurantoin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome during pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. Wahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a rarely seen complication with nitrfurantoin. We report improvement of a parturient who was admitted to our hospital’s obstetrical unit with life threatening nitrofurantoin-induced acute respiratory failure. She had been taking nitrofurantoin for one week for urinary tract infection (UTI. Her chest radiography showed bilateral parenchymal infiltrates of the lung. The patient responded well to nitrofurantoin discontinuation and methylprednisolone infusion 1 mg/kg/day.

  1. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  2. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  3. High correlation of the response of upper and lower lobe small airway epithelium to smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Gary Harvey

    Full Text Available The distribution of lung disease induced by inhaled cigarette smoke is complex, depending on many factors. With the knowledge that the small airway epithelium (SAE is the earliest site of smoking-induced lung disease, and that the SAE gene expression is likely sensitive to inhaled cigarette smoke, we compared upper vs. lower lobe gene expression in the SAE within the same cigarette smokers to determine if the gene expression patterns were similar or different. Active smokers (n = 11 with early evidence of smoking-induced lung disease (normal spirometry but low diffusing capacity underwent bronchoscopy and brushing of the upper and lower lobe SAE in order to compare upper vs lower lobe genome-wide and smoking-responsive gene expression by microarray. Cluster and principal component analysis demonstrated that, for each individual, the expression of the known SAE smoking-responsive genes were highly correlated in upper and lower lobe pairs, although, as expected, there were differences in the smoking-induced changes in gene expression from individual to individual. These observations support the concept that the heterogeneity observed among smokers in the anatomic distribution of smoking-induced disease are not secondary to the topographic differences in the effects of cigarette smoke on the airway epithelium.

  4. Effects of passive smoking on health of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.B. Jr.; Ware, J.H.; Berkey, C.S.; Dockery, D.W.; Spiro, A. III; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of data on the effects of passive smoking obtained in preadolescent children from the Harvard Six-Cities Study demonstrates an exposure-response relationship between the number of smokers in the household and the reporting rates for doctor-diagnosed respiratory illness before age 2, history of bronchitis, wheeze most days and nights apart from colds, and a composite of symptoms defined as the lower respiratory index. Similarly, when only the amount currently smoked by the mother was used, the data indicated a relatively uniform increase in each of the reported diseases and symptoms. FEV/sub 1/ was lower in children with smoking mothers compared to children of nonsmoking mothers. Rate of increases in FEV/sub 1/ after adjusting for normal growth was significantly smaller in children of smoking mothers and was related also to amount smoked. Although children of smoking mothers were shorter on the average than children of nonsmoking mothers, no on-going passive smoking effect on height growth can be ascertained. All these differences are small and their medical significance remains to be defined.

  5. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  6. Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, D P

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. While delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unique to marijuana and nicotine to tobacco, the smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gases and particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lung. Although far fewer marijuana than tobacco cigarettes are generally smoked on a daily basis, the pulmonary consequences of marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater deposition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular marijuana smoking produces a number of long-term pulmonary consequences, including chronic cough and sputum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway inflammation and injury and immunohistochemical evidence of dysregulated growth of respiratory epithelial cells, that may be precursors to lung cancer. The THC in marijuana could contribute to some of these injurious changes through its ability to augment oxidative stress, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibit apoptosis. On the other hand, physiologic, clinical or epidemiologic evidence that marijuana smoking may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory cancer is limited and inconsistent. Habitual use of marijuana is also associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, including impairment in microbial phagocytosis and killing that is associated with defective production of immunostimulatory cytokines and nitric oxide, thereby potentially predisposing to pulmonary infection. In view of the growing interest in medicinal marijuana, further epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the true risks of regular marijuana smoking on respiratory health.

  7. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46% and cough (n: 52, 14.98% were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%, chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%, and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01% . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91% by chi-square test (P: 0.001. To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

  8. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  9. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  10. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, D P

    1990-01-01

    After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...

  11. Management of methylergonovine induced respiratory depression in a newborn with naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Nelsen, J; Duggineni, S; Holland, M

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a female neonate who developed respiratory depression following the unintentional administration of methylergonovine. The respiratory depression appeared to improve after the administration of bag mask ventilation, stimulation, and naloxone; and the baby was able to be managed without endotracheal intubation and prolonged positive-pressure ventilation. A full-term female neonate was delivered vaginally without issue. Approximately 10 min after delivery, the infant was inadvertently administered 0.1 mg of methylergonovine intramuscularly instead of vitamin K. Thirty minutes later the child developed cyanotic extremities and respiratory depression with an oxygen saturation of 75%. Naloxone, 0.4 mg IM, was recommended to mitigate respiratory depression. Within 5 min the patient's respirations improved to 40 breaths per minute, cyanosis improved, and she began resisting ventilations and crying loudly. The child continued to improve and was back to baseline that evening. Methylergonovine toxicity in neonates has been commonly associated with respiratory depression necessitating ventilatory support. In consideration of chemical structural similarity between methylergonovine and morphine, as well as signs/symptoms consistent with opioid-induced respiratory depression, naloxone was suggested. It appears that naloxone may reverse methylergonovine toxicity in neonates. The identification of a safe and potentially useful antidote to mitigate respiratory depression, potentially avoiding the need for intubation and more invasive interventions in this patient population is important.

  12. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P respiratory neural drive ( P respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an

  13. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoke exposure increases the risk of lower respiratory infection (LRI in infants, but the extensive literature on this association has not been systematically reviewed for nearly ten years. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between passive smoking and LRI, and with diagnostic subcategories including bronchiolitis, in infants aged two years and under. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to November 2010, reference lists from publications and abstracts from major conference proceedings to identify all relevant publications. Random effect pooled odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Results We identified 60 studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Smoking by either parent or other household members significantly increased the risk of LRI; odds ratios (OR were 1.22 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.35 for paternal smoking, 1.62 (95% CI 1.38 to 1.89 if both parents smoked, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.69 for any household member smoking. Pre-natal maternal smoking (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.38 had a weaker effect than post-natal smoking (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.73. The strongest effect was on bronchiolitis, where the risk of any household smoking was increased by an OR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.96 to 3.21. Conclusions Passive smoking in the family home is a major influence on the risk of LRI in infants, and especially on bronchiolitis. Risk is particularly strong in relation to post-natal maternal smoking. Strategies to prevent passive smoke exposure in young children are an urgent public and child health priority.

  14. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; Hashim, Ahmed; McKeever, Tricia; Cook, Derek G; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-10

    Passive smoke exposure increases the risk of lower respiratory infection (LRI) in infants, but the extensive literature on this association has not been systematically reviewed for nearly ten years. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between passive smoking and LRI, and with diagnostic subcategories including bronchiolitis, in infants aged two years and under. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to November 2010), reference lists from publications and abstracts from major conference proceedings to identify all relevant publications. Random effect pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. We identified 60 studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Smoking by either parent or other household members significantly increased the risk of LRI; odds ratios (OR) were 1.22 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.35) for paternal smoking, 1.62 (95% CI 1.38 to 1.89) if both parents smoked, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.69) for any household member smoking. Pre-natal maternal smoking (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.38) had a weaker effect than post-natal smoking (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.73). The strongest effect was on bronchiolitis, where the risk of any household smoking was increased by an OR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.96 to 3.21). Passive smoking in the family home is a major influence on the risk of LRI in infants, and especially on bronchiolitis. Risk is particularly strong in relation to post-natal maternal smoking. Strategies to prevent passive smoke exposure in young children are an urgent public and child health priority.

  15. Smoke pH”: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical methods developed since the 1950s to determine the “smoke pH” of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS are reviewed. Most of the methods involve averaging the values obtained with all the puffs from a cigarette or averaging values from the total number of puffs from several cigarettes plus solution of the MSS in various quantities of water prior to pH determination. “Smoke pH” values thus obtained have little relevance to the situation involving a smoker who smokes a cigarette one puff at a time. In the human biological situation, the smoke components must traverse a layer of buffered fluid separating the smoke-filled respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue. Seldom is the effect of either the volume or the pH of the buffered fluid taken into account in determining the “smoke pH” of cigarette MSS taken one puff at a time. While numerous recent discussions have dealt with the effect of pH on the nature (degree of protonation of nicotine in cigarette MSS and its rate of absorption by the smoker, seldom is the volume and/or pH of oral cavity saliva or of the fluid coating the lung surface considered in the assessment of either the nature or absorption of nicotine by the smoker. If the degree of protonation of nicotine be pH dependent, then the degree of protonation of nicotine as it traverses the film of fluid separating the respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue must be dependent on the pH of the buffered fluid and not on the “smoke pH” per se. Statements that adjustment of the “smoke pH” by ammoniation of one or more tobacco blend components increases both the level of MSS nicotine and its rate of absorption, thus resulting in greater consumer acceptance and continuation of smoking, fail to take into account the other changes that occur in the MSS composition to enhance its consumer acceptability. Inclusion of modest percentages of ammoniated tobacco in the blend increases the “smoke pH” of

  16. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  17. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  18. Exercise training attenuated chronic cigarette smoking-induced up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα in lung of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-li; Cai, Peng-cheng; Xiong, Xian-zhi; Ye, Hong

    2013-02-01

    FIZZ/RELM is a new gene family named "found in inflammatory zone" (FIZZ) or "resistin-like molecule" (RELM). FIZZ1/RELMα is specifically expressed in lung tissue and associated with pulmonary inflammation. Chronic cigarette smoking up-regulates FIZZ1/RELMα expression in rat lung tissues, the mechanism of which is related to cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. To investigate the effect of exercise training on chronic cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα, rat chronic cigarette smoking model was established. The rats were treated with regular exercise training and their airway responsiveness was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of lung tissues were performed to detect the expression of FIZZ1/RELMα. Results revealed that proper exercise training decreased airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation in rat chronic cigarette smoking model. Cigarette smoking increased the mRNA and protein levels of FIZZ1/RELMα, which were reversed by the proper exercise. It is concluded that proper exercise training prevents up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα induced by cigarette smoking, which may be involved in the mechanism of proper exercise training modulating airway hyperresponsiveness.

  19. Vegetation fire smoke, indigenous status and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia, 1996–2005: a time-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanigan Ivan C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10 and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases for each fire season from 1996 to 2005. We also investigated whether the relationship differed in indigenous Australians; a disadvantaged population sub-group. Methods Daily PM10 exposure levels were estimated for the population of the city from visibility data using a previously validated model. We used over-dispersed Poisson generalized linear models with parametric smoothing functions for time and meteorology to examine the association between admissions and PM10 up to three days prior. An interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was included to examine differences in the impact on indigenous people. Results We found both positive and negative associations and our estimates had wide confidence intervals. There were generally positive associations between respiratory disease and PM10 but not with cardiovascular disease. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in same-day estimated ambient PM10 was associated with a 4.81% (95%CI: -1.04%, 11.01% increase in total respiratory admissions. When the interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was assessed a statistically different association was found between PM10 and admissions three days later for respiratory infections of indigenous people (15.02%; 95%CI: 3.73%, 27.54% than for non-indigenous people (0.67%; 95%CI: -7.55%, 9.61%. There were generally negative estimates for cardiovascular conditions. For non-indigenous admissions the estimated association with total cardiovascular admissions for same day ambient PM10 and admissions was -3.43% (95%CI: -9.00%, 2.49% and the estimate for indigenous admissions was -3.78% (95%CI: -13.4%, 6

  20. A mouse model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Adam S; Yount, Boyd L; Scobey, Trevor; Jensen, Kara; Douglas, Madeline; Beall, Anne; Tang, Xian-Chun; Marasco, Wayne A; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S

    2016-11-28

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV. Therefore, we used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to modify the mouse genome to encode two amino acids (positions 288 and 330) that match the human sequence in the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor, making mice susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and replication. Serial MERS-CoV passage in these engineered mice was then used to generate a mouse-adapted virus that replicated efficiently within the lungs and evoked symptoms indicative of severe ARDS, including decreased survival, extreme weight loss, decreased pulmonary function, pulmonary haemorrhage and pathological signs indicative of end-stage lung disease. Importantly, therapeutic countermeasures comprising MERS-CoV neutralizing antibody treatment or a MERS-CoV spike protein vaccine protected the engineered mice against MERS-CoV-induced ARDS.

  1. Does the duration of smoking cessation have an impact on hospital admission and health-related quality of life amongst COPD patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan HA

    2014-05-01

    4.5, confidence interval 1.91–10.59; P<0.005. Conclusion: A longer duration of quitting smoking will increase the benefits to COPD patients, even if they experience increased episodic respiratory symptoms in the early period of the cessation. Thus, the findings of this study show the benefits of early smoking cessation. Keywords: HRQoL, hospital admission and hospital stay, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

  2. New insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension: potential role of the phenotypic plasticity and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAO HENRIQUE eDA COSTA SILVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects worldwide population. Current environment including life style coupled with genetic programming have been attributed to the rising incidence of hypertension. Besides, environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal malnutrition can program changes in the integration among renal, neural and endocrine system leading to hypertension. This phenomenon is termed phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in response to environmental input without genetic change, following a novel or unusual input during development. Human and animal studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may alter the renal morphology and physiology that contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been shown that the maternal protein restriction alter the central control of SAH by a mechanism that include respiratory dysfunction and enhanced sympathetic-respiratory coupling at early life, which may contribute to adult hypertension. This review will address the new insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension that include the potential role of the phenotypic plasticity, specifically the perinatal protein malnutrition, and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity.

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickman Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respiratory disease in children up to two years of age. Methods A birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for two years using parental questionnaires. When the infant was two months old the parents completed a questionnaire on various lifestyle factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and after birth. At one and two years of age information was obtained by questionnaire on symptoms of allergic and respiratory diseases as well as on environmental exposures, particularly exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results When the mother had smoked during pregnancy but not after that, there was an increased risk of recurrent wheezing up to two years' age, ORadj = 2.2, (95% CI 1.3 – 3.6. The corresponding OR was 1.6, (95% CI 1.2 – 2.3 for reported exposure to ETS with or without maternal smoking in utero. Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS also increased the risk of doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age, ORadj = 2.1, (95% CI 1.2 – 3.7. Conclusion Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in utero is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing, as well as doctor's diagnosed asthma in children up to two yearsof age.

  4. Pulmonary emphysema and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Katashi; Murota, Makiko [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Mitani, Masahiro (and others)

    2001-12-01

    We assessed the relation between PE and smoking in 1,563 cases (1,068 men and 495 women) who underwent CT scaring for suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. There were 2 subtypes of pulmonary emphysema: centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in males smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) in female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) in female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and severity would progress with advancing age and smoking. Both types of emphysema progress with age and amount of cigarette smoking. (author)

  5. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  6. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  7. Carcinogenic effects of radon daughters, uranium ore dust and cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of pulmonary lesions in beagle dogs was studied following chronic inhalation exposures to radon (at 105 +- 20 nCi/l), radon daughters (at 605 +- 169 WL), uranium ore dust (at 12.9 +- 6.7 mg/m 3 ) and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposures to mixtures of these agents caused significant lifespan shortening compared with controls. Survival times of controls and smoke-exposed dogs were equivalent during the 4 to 5-yr mean survival time of the dogs exposed to radon-daughter and ore-dust mixtures (with or without added cigarette smoke). Animals with tumors of the respiratory tract generally has cumulative radon-daughter exposures exceeding 13,000 WLM; their survival time was longer than that of nontumor-bearing animals. Exposure to cigarette smoke had a mitigating effect on radon daughter-induced tumors. Exposures to smoke from 10 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk produced no significant respiratory tract lesions. Exposure to 20 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk resulted in pulmonary emphysema, fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Emphysema and fibrosis were much more prevalent and severe in the dogs exposed to mixtures including radon daughters and uranium/ore dust. These dogs also had adenomatous lesions which progressed to squamous metaplasia of alveolar epithelium, epidermoid carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Pathologic changes in the airways of these dogs were most prominent in the nasal mucosa, and included a few squamous carcinomas in the nasal cavity. (author)

  8. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  9. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  10. Lifestyle factors and contact to general practice with respiratory alarm symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Elnegaard, Sandra; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prerequisite for early lung cancer diagnosis is that individuals with respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS) contact a general practitioner (GP). This study aims to determine the proportion of individuals in the general population who contact a GP with RAS and to analyse the association...... between lifestyle factors and contact to GPs with RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and prolonged hoarseness), GP contacts......, and lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake, and body mass index) were included. RESULTS: In total 49 706 (52.5 %) individuals answered the questionnaire. Overall 7870 reported at least one respiratory alarm symptom, and of those 39.6 % (3 080) had contacted a GP. Regarding specific symptoms...

  11. Impact of smoking on early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Hang; Mei, YunQing; Shi, YunQing; Ma, RunHua; Ding, WenJun

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of persistent smoking versus smoking cessation over one month prior to surgery on early clinical outcomes in Chinese patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in a retrospective study. Methods The peri-operative data of consecutive well-documented patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery from January 2007 to December 2013 were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. All included patients were divided into either a non-smo...

  12. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  13. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  14. Early increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Willem A.; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.; Dekker, Tamara; Naber, Brigitta A. E.; Janssen, Daphne J.; Kroon, A. A.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Versnel, Marjan A.; Lutter, René

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an eminent role in airway injury and remodelling. We explored the hypothesis that pulmonary MMP levels would differ early after birth (2-4 days) between infants with resolving respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and infants developing chronic lung disease

  15. Does smoking in pregnancy modify the impact of antenatal steroids on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? Results of the Epipage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, A; Kaminski, M; Truffert, P; Menget, A; Marpeau, L; Voyer, M; Roze, J C; Escande, B; Cambonie, G; Hascoet, J M; Grandjean, H; Breart, G; Larroque, B

    2005-01-01

    To assess the relation between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very preterm birth, and to analyse the differential effect of antenatal steroids on RDS among smokers and non-smokers. A population based cohort study (the French Epipage study). Regionally defined births in France. A total of 858 very preterm liveborn singletons (27-32 completed weeks of gestation) of the French Epipage study were included in this analysis. The odds ratio for RDS in relation to smoking in pregnancy was estimated using a logistic regression to control for gestational age. The odds ratio for RDS in relation to antenatal steroids was estimated taking into account an interaction between antenatal steroids and cigarette smoking, using multiple logistic regression to control for gestational age, birthweight ratio, main causes of preterm birth, mode of delivery, and sex. The odds ratio for RDS in relation to smoking in pregnancy adjusted for gestational age (aOR) was 0.59 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 0.79). The aOR for RDS in relation to antenatal steroids was 0.31 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.49) in babies born to non-smokers and 0.63 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.05) in those born to smokers; the difference was significant (p = 0.04). Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a decrease in the risk of RDS in very preterm babies. Although antenatal steroids reduce the risk of RDS in babies born to both smokers and non-smokers, the reduction is smaller in those born to smokers.

  16. Murine lung tumor response after exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke or its particulate and gas/vapor phase fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinn, W.; Arts, J.H.E.; Buettner, A.; Duistermaat, E.; Janssens, K.; Kuper, C.F.; Haussmann, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on mechanisms of smoking-induced tumorigenesis and on active smoke constituents may improve the development and evaluation of chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions, early diagnostic markers, and new and potentially reduced-risk tobacco products. A suitable laboratory animal disease

  17. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture

  18. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals

  19. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  20. Cigarette smoke-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition is mediated by Rac1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-juan; Sun, Yan-hong; Zhang, Shui-juan; Jiang, Jun-xia; Dong, Xin-wei; Jia, Yong-liang; Shen, Jian; Guan, Yan; Zhang, Lin-hui; Li, Fen-fen; Lin, Xi-xi; Wu, Xi-mei; Xie, Qiang-min; Yan, Xiao-feng

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major pathophysiological process in lung fibrosis observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for developing EMT, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Rac1 in cigarette smoke (CS) induced EMT. EMT was induced in mice and pulmonary epithelial cells by exposure of CS and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) respectively. Treatment of pulmonary epithelial cells with CSE elevated Rac1 expression associated with increased TGF-β1 release. Blocking TGF-β pathway restrained CSE-induced changes in EMT-related markers. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of Rac1 decreased the CSE exposure induced TGF-β1 release and ameliorated CSE-induced EMT. In CS-exposed mice, pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced TGF-β1 release and prevented aberrations in expression of EMT markers, suggesting that Rac1 is a critical signaling molecule for induction of CS-stimulated EMT. Furthermore, Rac1 inhibition or knockdown abrogated CSE-induced Smad2 and Akt (PKB, protein kinase B) activation in pulmonary epithelial cells. Inhibition of Smad2, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or Akt suppressed CSE-induced changes in epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression. Altogether, these data suggest that CS initiates EMT through Rac1/Smad2 and Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our data provide new insights into the fundamental basis of EMT and suggest a possible new course of therapy for COPD and lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short.

  2. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  3. Impaired Transcriptional Response of the Murine Heart to Cigarette Smoke in the Setting of High Fat Diet and Obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Lee, K. M.; Corley, Richard A.; Pounds, Joel G.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2013-07-01

    Smoking and obesity are each well-established risk factors for cardiovascular heart disease, which together impose earlier onset and greater severity of disease. To identify early signaling events in the response of the heart to cigarette smoke exposure within the setting of obesity, we exposed normal weight and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to repeated inhaled doses of mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke administered over a two week period, monitoring effects on both cardiac and pulmonary transcriptomes. MS smoke (250 μg wet total particulate matter (WTPM)/L, 5 h/day) exposures elicited robust cellular and molecular inflammatory responses in the lung with 1466 differentially expressed pulmonary genes (p < 0.01) in normal weight animals and a much-attenuated response (463 genes) in the hearts of the same animals. In contrast, exposures to SS smoke (85 μg WTPM/L) with a CO concentration equivalent to that of MS smoke (250 CO ppm) induced a weak pulmonary response (328 genes) but an extensive cardiac response (1590 genes). SS smoke and to a lesser extent MS smoke preferentially elicited hypoxia- and stress-responsive genes as well as genes predicting early changes of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, precursors of cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive smoke-induced cardiac transcriptional changes of normal weight mice were largely absent in DIO mice after smoke exposure, while genes involved in fatty acid utilization were unaffected. At the same time, smoke exposure suppressed multiple proteome maintenance genes induced in the hearts of DIO mice. Together, these results underscore the sensitivity of the heart to SS smoke and reveal adaptive responses in healthy individuals that are absent in the setting of high fat diet and obesity.

  4. The toxicity of E-cigarettes and children's respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Skjerven, Håvard O; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2018-02-10

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. Adverse effects may be ascribed to the nicotine itself, to the accompanying substances in the aerosol (often referred to as vapour) or to temperature modifications of the content. There is a lack of human studies to assess respiratory effects of nicotine exposure to the unborn or young child. Also assessing the effects of the vaping content apart from nicotine is challenging, with the huge variety of exposure by frequency, duration and content, but experimental studies are on the way that may indicate the level of harm by such products. This article will summarize what is currently known about the use of E-cigs in children and in pregnancy, and discuss adverse effects of direct or in utero exposure to E-cig on the respiratory health of children. We thereby hope to provide a background for discussing potential harms to the respiratory system of children by E-cig exposure in pregnancy and early post-natal life, in a setting where an increasing proportion of adolescent and young adults use E-cigs, marketed to be 95% less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. NF-κB inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m 3 tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-κB activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK), accumulation of IκBα, decrease of NF-κB DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-κB pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis

  6. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Siddhartha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung injury are not clear. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing long-lived radicals, including p-benzosemiquinone that causes oxidative damage. Earlier we had reported that oxidative protein damage is an initial event in smoke-induced lung injury. Considering that p-benzosemiquinone may be a causative factor of lung injury, we have isolated p-benzosemiquinone and compared its pathophysiological effects with cigarette smoke. Since vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, we have also determined the modulatory effect of vitamin C for preventing the pathophysiological events. Methods Vitamin C-restricted guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke (5 cigarettes/day; 2 puffs/cigarette for 21 days with and without supplementation of 15 mg vitamin C/guinea pig/day. Oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury were assessed in vitro, ex vivo in A549 cells as well as in vivo in guinea pigs. Inflammation was measured by neutrophilia in BALF. p-Benzosemiquinone was isolated from freshly prepared aqueous extract of cigarette smoke and characterized by various physico-chemical methods, including mass, NMR and ESR spectroscopy. p-Benzosemiquinone-induced lung damage was examined by intratracheal instillation in guinea pigs. Lung damage was measured by increased air spaces, as evidenced by histology and morphometric analysis. Oxidative protein damage, MMPs, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by western blot analysis, and formation of Michael adducts using MALDI-TOF-MS. Apoptosis was evidenced by TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, degradation of PARP and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio using immunoblot analysis and confocal microscopy. Results Exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke resulted in progressive protein damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury up to 21 days of the experimental period. Administration of 15 mg of vitamin C/guinea pig/day prevented all these

  7. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  8. "Shotgunning" as an illicit drug smoking practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, D C; Perkins, M P; Paone, D; Kochems, L; Salomon, N; Friedmann, P; Des Jarlais, D C

    1997-01-01

    There has been a rise in illicit drug smoking in the United States. "Shotgunning" drugs (or "doing a shotgun") refers to the practice of inhaling smoke and then exhaling it into another individual's mouth, a practice with the potential for the efficient transmission of respiratory pathogens. Three hundred fifty-four drug users (239 from a syringe exchange and 115 from a drug detoxification program) were interviewed about shotgunning and screened for tuberculosis (TB). Fifty-nine (17%; 95% CI 12.9%-20.9%) reported shotgunning while smoking crack cocaine (68%), marijuana (41%), or heroin (2%). In multivariate analysis, age alcohol to intoxication (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), having engaged in high-risk sex (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.04-6.7), and crack use (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0-12) were independently associated with shotgunning. Shotgunning is a frequent drug smoking practice with the potential to transmit respiratory pathogens, underscoring the need for education of drug users about the risks of specific drug use practices, and the ongoing need for TB control among active drug users.

  9. Radiation-induced increase in hyaluronan and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from breast cancer patients is suppressed by smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Nilsson, K.; Haellgren, R.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Sandstroem, T.; Saernstrand, B.

    1992-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analysed from 21 patients with breast cancer, stage T 1 N 0 M 0 , who had undergone tumour resection and postoperative local irradiation (accumulated dose 56 Gy). The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation. The patients had significantly increased concentrations of fibronectin (FN) (p<0.001), hyaluronan (HA) (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) in BAL fluid compared with the healthy controls (n=19). However, when the patients were separated, according to smoking history, it was obvious that the inflammatory reaction occurred entirely in the nonsmoking patient group (n=10), whilst no difference could be found between the smoking patients (n=11) and the controls. In the nonsmoking patient group, there was a sevenfold increase in BAL concentrations of FN and a threefold increase in HA. Moreover, four patients had detectable levels of procollagen III peptide in BAL, all were nonsmokers. The smoking habits of the controls had no influence on the BAL measurements. These findings indicate that smoking interferes with the radiation-induced early inflammatory connective tissue reaction of the lung. Finally, the results justify further investigation of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapy effectiveness and reduction of adverse effects. (au)

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  11. Toward Primary Prevention of Asthma. Reviewing the Evidence for Early-Life Respiratory Viral Infections as Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Amy S.; He, Yuan; Moore, Martin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts. PMID:25369458

  12. Acute secondhand smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is diminished in RAGE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tyler T; Winden, Duane R; Marlor, Derek R; Wright, Alex J; Jones, Cameron M; Chavarria, Michael; Rogers, Geraldine D; Reynolds, Paul R

    2014-11-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has increasingly been demonstrated to be an important modulator of inflammation in cases of pulmonary disease. Published reports involving tobacco smoke exposure have demonstrated increased expression of RAGE, its participation in proinflammatory signaling, and its role in irreversible pulmonary remodeling. The current research evaluated the in vivo effects of short-term secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in RAGE knockout and control mice compared with identical animals exposed to room air only. Quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed elevated RAGE expression in controls after 4 wk of SHS exposure and an anticipated absence of RAGE expression in RAGE knockout mice regardless of smoke exposure. Ras activation, NF-κB activity, and cytokine elaboration were assessed to characterize the molecular basis of SHS-induced inflammation in the mouse lung. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was procured from RAGE knockout and control animals for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. As a general theme, inflammation coincident with leukocyte recruitment was induced by SHS exposure and significantly influenced by the availability of RAGE. These data reveal captivating information suggesting a role for RAGE signaling in lungs exposed to SHS. However, ongoing research is still warranted to fully explain roles for RAGE and other receptors in cells coping with involuntary smoke exposure for prolonged periods of time. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden--before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz; Boëthius, Göran; Axelsson, Sara; Montgomery, Scott M

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation. A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the pre-ban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out. The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk ( <0.5 microg/m3) while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest pre-ban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers. The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  14. Smoking-induced dopamine release studied with [11C]raclopride PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Do Hoon

    2005-01-01

    It has been postulated that dopamine release in the striatum underlies the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Substantial evidence in the animal studies demonstrates that nicotine interacts with and regulates the activation of the dopaminergic neuron. The aim of this study was to visualize the dopamine release by smoking in human brain using PET scan with [ 11 C]raclopride. Four male non-smokers or ex-smokers with an abstinence period longer than 1 year (mean age of 24.3±2.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Dopamine D2 receptor radioligand, [ 11 C]raclopride was administrated with bolus-plus-constant infusion. Dynamic PET was performed during 120 minutes (3x20s, 2x60s, 2x120s, 1x180s and 22x300s). Following the 50 minute-scanning, subjects smoked a cigarette containing 1 mg of nicotine while in the scanner. Blood samples for the measurements of plasma nicotine levels were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minute after smoking. Regions for striatal structures were drawn on the coronal summed PET images guided with co-registered MRI. Binding potential, calculated as striatal-cerebellar/cerebellar activity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and smoking session. The mean change in binding potential between the baseline and smoking in caudate, Putamen and ventral striatum was 3.7 % , 4.0 % and 8.6 %, respectively. This indicated the striatal dopamine release by smoking. The reduction in binding potential in the ventral striatum was significantly correlated with the cumulated plasma level of the nicotine (r 2 =0.91, p=0.04). These data demonstrate that in vivo imaging with [ 11 C]raclopride PET could measure nicotine-induced dopamine release in the human brain, which has a significant positive correlation with the amount of nicotine administered by smoking

  15. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Donnelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n=5 or CPAP (Group 2, n=5 as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations.

  16. Critical role of aldehydes in cigarette smoke-induced acute airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Gras, Renee; Rezayat, Delaram; Jorge, Lucie; Sandra, Koen; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking (CS) is the most important risk factor for COPD, which is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. We hypothesize, that highly reactive aldehydes are critical for CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Methods: BALB/c mice were exposed to CS, water

  17. Setting the Record Straight: Secondhand Smoke is a Preventable Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  18. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  19. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan; Wen Fuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  1. Effects of Early Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration on E-Selectin, Hemodynamic Stability, and Ventilatory Function in Patients with Septic-Shock-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-biao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of 72-hour early-initiated continuous venovenous hemofiltration (ECVVH treatment in patients with septic-shock-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (not acute kidney injury, AKI with regard to serum E-selectin and measurements of lung function and hemodynamic stability. Methods. This prospective nonblinded single institutional randomized study involved 51 patients who were randomly assigned to receive or not receive ECVVH, an ECVVH group (n=24 and a non-ECVVH group (n=27. Besides standard therapies, patients in ECVVH group underwent CVVH for 72 h. Results. At 0 and 24 h after initiation of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI, and E-selectin level were not significantly different between groups (all P>0.05. Compared to non-ECVVH group, PaO2/FiO2 is significantly higher and EVLWI and E-selectin level are significantly lower in ECVVH group (all P<0.05 at 48 h and 72 h after initiation of treatment. The lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in intensive care unit (ICU were shorter in ECVVH group (all P<0.05, but there was no difference in 28-day mortality between two groups. Conclusions. In patients with septic-shock-induced ARDS (not AKI, treatment with ECVVH in addition to standard therapies improves endothelial function, lung function, and hemodynamic stability and reduces the lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in ICU.

  2. Smoking and airway hyperresponsiveness especially in the presence of blood eosinophilia increase the risk to develop respiratory symptoms - A 25-year follow-up study in the general adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, DF; Schouten, JP; Vonk, JM; Rijcken, B; Timens, W; Kraan, J; Weiss, ST; Postma, DS

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) constitutes a risk for development of respiratory symptoms. We assessed whether blood eosinophilia (greater than or equal to 275 eosinophils/mu l), skin test positivity (sum score greater than or equal to 3) and cigarette smoking (never, ex-smoker, 1-14 cig/d, 15-24

  3. Intergenerational Relationships Between the Smoking Patterns of a Population-Representative Sample of US Mothers and the Smoking Trajectories of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeremy N. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed intergenerational transmission of smoking in mother-child dyads. Methods. We identified classes of youth smoking trajectories using mixture latent trajectory analyses with data from the Children and Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 6349). We regressed class membership on prenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal smoking, including social and behavioral variables, to control for selection. Results. Youth smoking trajectories entailed early-onset persistent smoking, early-onset experimental discontinued smoking, late-onset persistent smoking, and nonsmoking. The likelihood of early onset versus late onset and early onset versus nonsmoking were significantly higher among youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus either postnatally alone or unexposed. Controlling for selection, the increased likelihood of early onset versus nonsmoking remained significant for each exposure group versus unexposed, as did early onset versus late onset and late onset versus nonsmoking for youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus unexposed. Experimental smoking was notable among youths whose mothers smoked but quit before the child's birth. Conclusions. Both physiological and social role-modeling mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are evident. Prioritization of tobacco control for pregnant women, mothers, and youths remains a critical, interrelated objective. PMID:21852646

  4. Influence of parental education, childhood adversities, and current living conditions on daily smoking in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo

    2006-12-01

    To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.

  5. Intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity elicit spinal TNF-α-independent, atypical PKC-dependent inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, Nathan A; Baker-Herman, Tracy L

    2015-04-15

    In many neural networks, mechanisms of compensatory plasticity respond to prolonged reductions in neural activity by increasing cellular excitability or synaptic strength. In the respiratory control system, a prolonged reduction in synaptic inputs to the phrenic motor pool elicits a TNF-α- and atypical PKC-dependent form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Although iPMF may be elicited by a prolonged reduction in respiratory neural activity, iPMF is more efficiently induced when reduced respiratory neural activity (neural apnea) occurs intermittently. Mechanisms giving rise to iPMF following intermittent neural apnea are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that iPMF following intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity requires spinal TNF-α and aPKC. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated rats exposed to brief intermittent (5, ∼1.25 min), brief sustained (∼6.25 min), or prolonged sustained (30 min) neural apnea. iPMF was elicited following brief intermittent and prolonged sustained neural apnea, but not following brief sustained neural apnea. Unlike iPMF following prolonged neural apnea, spinal TNF-α was not required to initiate iPMF during intermittent neural apnea; however, aPKC was still required for its stabilization. These results suggest that different patterns of respiratory neural activity induce iPMF through distinct cellular mechanisms but ultimately converge on a similar downstream pathway. Understanding the diverse cellular mechanisms that give rise to inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat devastating respiratory control disorders when endogenous compensatory mechanisms fail. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80 + macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206 + TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer

  7. Tabagismo no domicílio e doença respiratória em crianças menores de cinco anos Household smoking and respiratory disease in under-five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. V. Gonçalves-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A fumaça do tabaco no ambiente doméstico é o principal irritante do trato respiratório de crianças. Avaliaram-se os fatores associados aos sintomas e às enfermidades respiratórias, assim como a principal fonte de exposição ao tabagismo no domicílio de 2.037 crianças menores de cinco anos atendidas para vacinação em 10 dos 38 postos de saúde de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil (aproximadamente duzentas crianças por posto. Exposição ao tabagismo, a morbidade respiratória e as características sócio-demográficas foram obtidas por entrevista com o responsável pela criança. A prevalência de sintomáticos respiratórios foi de 59,9%, sendo maior para os que convivem com fumantes. A asma/bronquite foi a patologia que esteve mais fortemente associada com o tabagismo, sendo as variáveis que permaneceram associadas em modelo logístico hierarquizado: nível socioeconômico (OR = 2,93; IC95%: 1,57-5,45, escolaridade (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,08-1,98 e ocupação da mãe (OR = 1,68; IC95%: 1,04-2,74, distrito sanitário (RP = 1,47; IC95%: 1,06-2,02, faixa etária (OR = 3,38; IC95%: 2,31-4,95 e sexo da criança (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,09-1,94, aleitamento natural (OR = 1,66; IC95%: 1,15-2,40 e tabagismo dos moradores (OR = 1,58; IC95%: 1,18-2,11. Crianças pertencentes aos níveis socioeconômicos mais baixos e expostas ao tabagismo dos moradores do domicílio apresentam maior associação com a doença respiratória.Environmental tobacco smoke is an important respiratory tract irritant in young children. To identify factors associated with respiratory disease and determine the main source of smoking exposure in the household, a cross-sectional study of 2,037 children who were immunized in primary health care clinics was conducted (in a sample of 10 out of 38 clinics with 200 children each. Parents answered a questionnaire about children's birth, passive smoking, former and current respiratory morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics, and

  8. Hyperthermic-induced hyperventilation and associated respiratory alkalosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increased environmental heat leads to hyperthermic-induced hypocapnia and associated alkalosis during prolonged self-paced cycling. Nine male cyclists completed three 100 km stochastic time trials in hot (34 degrees C), neutral (22 degrees C) and cold (10 degrees C) environments. Intermittent measurements of rectal and skin temperature, expired gases, blood pH, PaCO(2), PaO(2), and bicarbonate were made throughout. Rectal temperature increased significantly throughout all trials (P respiratory alkalosis.

  9. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...... to characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  10. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Do electronic cigarettes impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional tobacco cigarettes? Review on E-cigarette vapor versus tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Anne Y; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2014-12-01

    Development and utilization of electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted from the search for healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCs) and the search for alternative methods for quitting TCs. This review compares the potential disease burden presented by TC smoke to that of EC vapor. Potential disease burden of EC vapor versus TC smoke was assessed by reviewing clinical studies that measured inhaled components. Chemicals and carcinogens produced by vapor versus smoke were compared. Studies show that EC vapors contain far less carcinogenic particles than TC smoke. Whereas ECs have the ability to reach peak serum cotinine/nicotine levels comparable to that of TCs, ECs do not cause an increase in total white blood cell count; thus, ECs have the potential to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and systemic inflammation. Use of ECs has been shown to improve indoor air quality in a home exposed to TC smoke. This reduces secondhand smoke exposure, thus having the potential to decrease respiratory illness/asthma, middle-ear disease, sudden infant death syndrome, and more. However, some studies claim that propylene glycol (PG) vapor can induce respiratory irritation and increase chances for asthma. To minimize risks, EC manufacturers are replacing PG with distilled water and glycerin for vapor production. Based on the comparison of the chemical analysis of EC and TC carcinogenic profiles and association with health-indicating parameters, ECs impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional TCs. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents

  13. Cigarette smoke induces an unfolded protein response in the human lung: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G; Duan, Xunbao; Ji, Rong; Perez, Oscar; Liu, Chunli; Merali, Salim

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, which exposes the lung to high concentrations of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies indicate that ROS interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and elicit a compensatory response termed the "unfolded protein response" (UPR). The importance of the UPR lies in its ability to alter expression of a variety of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. The present study used comparative proteomic technology to test the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking induces a UPR in the human lung. Studies were performed on lung tissue samples obtained from three groups of human subjects: nonsmokers, chronic cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Proteomes of lung samples from chronic cigarette smokers demonstrated 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, GRP78 and the UPR-regulated basic leucine zipper, transcription factors, ATF4 and Nrf2, which enhance expression of important anti-oxidant genes, increased rapidly (< 24 h) with cigarette smoke extract. These data indicate that cigarette smoke induces a UPR response in the human lung that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and at least partially reversible with smoking cessation. We speculate that activation of a UPR by cigarette smoke may protect the lung from oxidant injury and the development of COPD.

  14. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema and Pulmonary Hypertension Can Be Prevented by Phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 Inhibition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichl, Alexandra; Bednorz, Mariola; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating) and a combination of both. Methods C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor), Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor) or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics) and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry) as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted. Results Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice. PMID:26058042

  15. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  16. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  17. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-10-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our

  18. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  20. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  1. Pollution and respiratory consequences--Have we done enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihălţan, Florin; Danciu, Lucia; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the second major cause for many respiratory diseases, after smoking. For every country it is a challenging problem to diminish the exposure of their citizens. The authors are discussing the history of progressing of pollution in different countries, the interactions with some respiratory diseases, the influence on mortality and morbidity and the strategies in developing and developed countries for diminishing the level of the polluted particles.

  2. The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle L; Brook, Jeffrey R; Lee, Elizabeth Y; Omana, Vanessa; Daniel, Nadia M; Steacy, Lisa M; Evans, Greg J; Diamond, Miriam L; Ellis, Anne K

    2017-04-01

    The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC) is a prenatally recruited cohort initiated to study the developmental origins of allergic disease. Kingston General Hospital was chosen for recruitment because it serves a population with notable diversity in environmental exposures relevant to the emerging concept of the exposome. To establish a profile of the KABC using the exposome framework and examine parentally reported respiratory symptoms to 2 years of age. Data on phase 1 of the cohort (n = 560 deliveries) were compiled, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine associations with respiratory symptoms. The KABC exhibits diversity within the 3 exposome domains of general external (socioeconomic status, rural or urban residence), specific external (cigarette smoke, breastfeeding, mold or dampness), and internal (respiratory health, gestational age), as well as significant associations between exposures from different domains. Significant associations emerged between parental reports of wheeze or cough without a cold and prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, mold or dampness in the home, and the use of air fresheners in the early-life home environment. Breastfeeding, older siblings, and increased gestational age were associated with decreased respiratory symptoms. The KABC is a unique cohort with diversity that can be leveraged for exposomics-based studies. This study found that all 3 domains of the exposome had effects on the respiratory health of KABC children. Ongoing studies using phase 1 of the KABC continue to explore the internal exposome through allergy skin testing and epigenetic analyses and the specific external domain through in-home environmental analyses, air pollution modeling, and ultimately potential convergences within and among domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg −1 , mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles ( 210 Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m −3 , while in smoke-free air 210 Po concentration was about 30 μBq m −3 . The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210 Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210 Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and sensitisation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, E; Wickman, M; van Hage, M; Bergström, A; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of respiratory illness in children but data are inconclusive regarding the risk of IgE sensitisation. To elucidate whether exposure to smoking prenatally and/or postnatally is related to IgE sensitisation in children at 4 years of age. As part of a prospective birth cohort study (BAMSE), a total of 4089 families with children answered questionnaires when the child was 2 months, 1, 2 and 4 years old on environmental factors and symptoms of allergic disease. Blood collected at age 4 years from 2614 children was analysed for IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression with adjustments for potential confounders. There was no evident association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of IgE sensitisation. In contrast, a dose-response effect was found for exposure to ETS from parental smoking during the first few months of life and IgE sensitisation. There was an increased risk of sensitisation to inhalant and/or food allergens (OR(adj) 1.28 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.62)) among children exposed to ETS at 2 months of age. The risk appeared particularly elevated for indoor inhalant allergens, such as cat (OR(adj) 1.96 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.99)) and for food allergens (OR(adj) 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.93)). The IgE sensitising effect of ETS seemed to be confined to infants of parents without allergic diseases and to ETS exposure during early infancy. Our data indicate that exposure in early infancy to ETS increases the risk of IgE sensitisation to indoor inhalant and food allergens.

  5. Sulforaphane?induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC?05

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yun?chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan?qiong; Fan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non?smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane?induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL?05) to explore the value of s...

  6. Ibuprofen prevents synthetic smoke-induced pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozawa, Y.; Hales, C.; Jung, W.; Burke, J.

    1986-12-01

    Multiple potentially injurious agents are present in smoke but the importance of each of these agents in producing lung injury as well as the mechanisms by which the lung injury is produced are unknown. In order to study smoke inhalation injury, we developed a synthetic smoke composed of a carrier of hot carbon particles of known size to which a single known common toxic agent in smoke, in this case HCI, could be added. We then exposed rats to the smoke, assayed their blood for the metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, and intervened shortly after smoke with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or ibuprofen to see if the resulting lung injury could be prevented. Smoke exposure produced mild pulmonary edema after 6 h with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 5.6 +/- 0.2 SEM (n = 11) compared with the non-smoke-exposed control animals with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 4.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 12), p less than 0.001. Thromboxane B, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha rose to 1660 +/- 250 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) and to 600 +/- 100 pg/ml (p greater than 0.1), respectively, in the smoke-injured animals compared with 770 +/- 150 pg/ml and 400 +/- 100 pg/ml in the non-smoke-exposed control animals. Indomethacin (n = 11) blocked the increase in both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites but failed to prevent lung edema.

  7. The effect of smoking on early chorionic villous vascularisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oppenraaij, R. H. F.; Koning, A. H. J.; van den Hoff, M. J. B.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim aim of the study was to investigate whether first trimester chorionic villous vascularisation is different in women who smoked cigarettes before and during pregnancy in comparison with women who did not smoke. Placentas of smoking (>10 cigarettes/day, n = 13) and non-smoking women (n = 13),

  8. Smoking-induced dopamine release studied with [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Do Hoon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    It has been postulated that dopamine release in the striatum underlies the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Substantial evidence in the animal studies demonstrates that nicotine interacts with and regulates the activation of the dopaminergic neuron. The aim of this study was to visualize the dopamine release by smoking in human brain using PET scan with [{sup 11}C]raclopride. Four male non-smokers or ex-smokers with an abstinence period longer than 1 year (mean age of 24.3{+-}2.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Dopamine D2 receptor radioligand, [{sup 11}C]raclopride was administrated with bolus-plus-constant infusion. Dynamic PET was performed during 120 minutes (3x20s, 2x60s, 2x120s, 1x180s and 22x300s). Following the 50 minute-scanning, subjects smoked a cigarette containing 1 mg of nicotine while in the scanner. Blood samples for the measurements of plasma nicotine levels were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minute after smoking. Regions for striatal structures were drawn on the coronal summed PET images guided with co-registered MRI. Binding potential, calculated as striatal-cerebellar/cerebellar activity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and smoking session. The mean change in binding potential between the baseline and smoking in caudate, Putamen and ventral striatum was 3.7 % , 4.0 % and 8.6 %, respectively. This indicated the striatal dopamine release by smoking. The reduction in binding potential in the ventral striatum was significantly correlated with the cumulated plasma level of the nicotine (r{sup 2}=0.91, p=0.04). These data demonstrate that in vivo imaging with [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET could measure nicotine-induced dopamine release in the human brain, which has a significant positive correlation with the amount of nicotine administered by smoking.

  9. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, D.H.; Havill, K.; Thompson, M.M.; Rittano, A.B.; Chu, J.; Glanville, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p 99m Tc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99m Tc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99m Tc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  10. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  11. Impact of chronic respiratory symptoms in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa: an in-depth qualitative study in the Masindi district of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Nabadda, Nahid; Luzige, Simon; Kirenga, Bruce; Eggermont, Celeste; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2013-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), once regarded as a disease of developed countries, is now recognised as a common disease in low- and middle-income countries. No studies have been performed to examine how the community in resource poor settings of a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa lives with chronic respiratory symptoms. To explore beliefs and attitudes concerning health (particularly respiratory illnesses), use of biomass fuels, tobacco smoking, and the use of health services. A qualitative study was undertaken in a rural area of Masindi district in Uganda, using focus group discussions with 10-15 members of the community in 10 randomly selected villages. Respiratory symptoms were common among men, women, and children. In several communities respiratory symptoms were stigmatised and often associated with tuberculosis. Almost all the households used firewood for cooking and the majority cooked indoors without any ventilation. The extent of exposure to tobacco and biomass fuel smoke was largely determined by their cultural tradition and gender, tribal origin and socioeconomic factors. Many people were unaware of the damage to respiratory health caused by these risk factors, notably the disproportionate effect of biomass smoke in women and children. The knowledge of chronic respiratory diseases, particularly COPD, is poor in the rural community in sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of knowledge has created different beliefs and attitudes concerning respiratory symptoms. Few people are aware of the relation between smoke and respiratory health, leading to extensive exposure to mostly biomass-related smoke.

  12. RSV-induced bronchiolitis but not upper respiratory tract infection is accompanied by an increased nasal IL-18 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, Inesz J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Koopman, Laurens P.; Kleinjan, Alex; van Middelkoop, Barbara C.; de Waal, Leon; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Neijens, Herman J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in the local nasal immune response between bronchiolitis and upper respiratory tract infection induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasal brush samples were obtained from 14 infants with RSV bronchiolitis and from 8 infants with

  13. Cigarette smoking decreases dynamic inspiratory capacity during maximal exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type, 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing using tracings of the flow-volume loop. Exercise capacity was compared using the percentage of predicted oxygen uptake at maximal workload (%VO2max). Respiratory variables and inspiratory capacity (IC) were compared between the two groups at rest and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximum workload. Although there was no significant difference in lung function tests between the two groups, venous carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels were significantly higher in current smokers. %VO2max was inversely correlated with CO-Hb levels. Changing patterns in respiratory rate, respiratory equivalent and IC were significantly different between the two groups. Current smokers had rapid breathing, a greater respiratory equivalent and a limited increase in IC during exercise. Cigarette smoking diminishes the increase in dynamic IC in patients with type 2 diabetes. As this effect of smoking on dynamic changes in lung volume will exacerbate dynamic hyperinflation in cases complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physicians should consider smoking habits and lung function when evaluating exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  16. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  17. Tobacco smoke exposure suppresses radiation-induced inflammation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Cai, Y.; Nilsson, K.; Hellstroem, S.; Henriksson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies on patients with breast cancer, who received postsurgical irradiation, displayed a markedly suppressed inflammatory response in the lung of smoking patients compared to nonsmokers. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in the rat. Four groups of animals were used: controls (C); those exposed to tobacco smoke (S); those irradiated but not exposed to smoke (RNS); and those irradiated and exposed to tobacco smoke (RS). The rats were exposed to a diluted main stream of cigarette smoke, at a concentration of about 0.4 mgxl -1 , in a nose-only exposure system for 1 hxday -1 , 5 daysxweek -1 for 10 weeks. Exposure to tobacco smoke started 3 weeks before irradiation. The basal one third of both lungs was exposed to a single radiation dose of 28 Gy (6 MeV photons). All animals were killed 7 weeks after irradiation. We compared findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue morphology. The alveolar tissue showed less inflammation in the RS-group than in the RNS-group. Most strikingly, mast cells were increased one hundredfold in the lung interstitium and thirty fold in the peribronchial area in the RNS-group, whereas no increase was found in the RS-group or in the controls. The alveolar septa of the RNS-group were thickened, with occurrence of inflammatory cells and mast cells, whereas the RS-group displayed no difference as compared to the non-irradiated, nonsmoking group (C). There was a marked discrepancy between the findings in BAL and tissue of the alveolar space or lung interstitium. In BAL, neutrophils, and to a lesser extent lymphocytes, were increased both in the RS- and RNS-group; however, with significantly higher numbers in the RNS-group. In contrast, the cells in the alveolar space and interstitium were dominated by mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages. Moreover, a more than twenty fold increase in total cells in the alveolar

  18. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen Signaling in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cigarette smoke (CS in active smokers and second-hand smoke exposure exacerbate respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. While women are known to experience a more asthmatic response to CS than emphysema in men, there is limited information on the mechanisms of CS-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesize that CS interferes with a normal (protective bronchodilatory role of estrogens, thus worsening airway contractility. Methods: We tested effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on 17β-estradiol (E2 signaling in enzymatically-dissociated bronchial airway smooth muscle (ASM obtained from lung samples of non-smoking female patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Results: In fura-2 loaded ASM cells, CSE increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i responses to 10µM histamine. Acute exposure to physiological concentrations of E2 decreased [Ca2+]i responses. However, in 24h exposed CSE cells, although expression of estrogen receptors was increased, the effect of E2 on [Ca2+]i was blunted. Acute E2 exposure also decreased store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibited stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 phosphorylation: effects blunted by CSE. Acute exposure to E2 increased cAMP, but less so in 24h CSE-exposed cells. 24h CSE exposure increased S-nitrosylation of ERα. Furthermore, 24h CSE-exposed bronchial rings showed increased bronchoconstrictor agonist responses that were not reduced as effectively by E2 compared to non-CSE controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that CS induces dysregulation of estrogen signaling in ASM, which could contribute to increased airway contractility in women exposed to CS.

  1. Induction of the unfolded protein response by cigarette smoke is primarily an activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Geraghty, Alison Wallace, Jeanine M D'ArmientoDepartment of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAPurpose: Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Recent studies propose a link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and emphysema, demonstrated by increased ER stress markers under smoking conditions. Here, we investigate whether cigarette smoke-induced ER stress is cell specific and correlates with acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Gene and protein expression changes in human primary lung cell cultures following cigarette smoke extract (CSE exposure were monitored by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke and ER stress markers examined in whole lung homogenates. Inflammatory cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 10 days smoke exposed mice were also examined.Results: Cigarette smoke induced a trend increase in the ER stress response through an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 mediated induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in primary small airway epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages responded similarly to CSE. Wild-type mice and guinea pigs exposed to acute levels of cigarette smoke exhibited increased levels of CHOP but not at significant levels. However, after long-term chronic cigarette smoke exposure, CHOP expression was reduced. Interestingly, inflammatory cells from smoke exposed mice had a significant increase in CHOP/ATF4 expression.Conclusion: A trend increase in CHOP levels appear in multiple human lung cell types following acute cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In vivo, inflammatory cells, predominately macrophages, demonstrate significant cigarette smoke-induced ER stress. Early induction of CHOP in cigarette smoke may play a pivotal role in early

  2. Reduced nasal IL-10 and enhanced TNFalpha responses during rhinovirus and RSV-induced upper respiratory tract infection in atopic and non-atopic infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, I. J.; van Drunen, C. M.; Koevoet, J. L. M.; Koopman, L. P.; Hop, W. C. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Neijens, H. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most prevalent inducers of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in infants and may stimulate immune maturation. To estimate the amount of immune stimulation, nasal immune responses were examined during rhinovirus and RSV-induced URTI in

  3. Numerical simulation of the effects of dilution level, depth of inhalation, and smoke composition on nicotine vapor deposition during cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J

    2006-12-01

    A numerical model of an aerosol containing vaporizable nicotine depositing to the walls of a tube was developed and applied to simulate the vapor deposition of nicotine in a denuder tube and under conditions approximating those in the respiratory tract during mainstream cigarette smoke inhalation. The numerical model was validated by comparison to data for denuder tube collection of nicotine from the smoke of three types of cigarette differing in smoke acidity and nicotine volatility. Simulations predict that the absorption of water by aerosol particles inhibits nicotine vapor deposition to tube walls, and that increased temperature, decreased tube diameter, and increased dilution enhance nicotine vapor deposition rate. The combined effect of changing these four parameters to approximate the transition from conducting to gas exchange regions of the respiratory tract was a significant net increase in predicted nicotine vapor deposition rate. Comparisons of nicotine deposition rates between conditions in the conducting airways and those in the gas exchange region were informative with regard to reported nicotine retention measurements during human smoking. Reports that vaporizable nicotine can penetrate past the conducting airways, that nicotine can be retained at near 100% efficiency from mainstream smoke, and that cigarettes with differing acidity and nicotine volatility have similar nicotine uptake rates are all shown to be consistent with the results of the model simulations.

  4. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    the first 12-18 months of age in a Spanish birth cohort of 2,199 infants. METHODS: We obtained parentally reported information on doctor-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and parental reports of wheezing, eczema, and ear infections. We estimated individual exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO...... and lower respiratory tract infections in infants.......BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during...

  5. Where is smoking research published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A.; Hughes, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify journals that have a focus on human nicotine/smoking research and to investigate the coverage of smoking in "high-impact" journals. DESIGN: The MEDLINE computer database was searched for English-language articles on human studies published in 1988-1992 using "nicotine", "smoking", "smoking cessation", "tobacco", or "tobacco use disorder" as focus descriptors. This search was supplemented with a similar search of the PSYCLIT computer database. Fifty-eight journals containing at least 20 nicotine/smoking articles over the five years were analysed for impact factor (IF; citations per article). RESULTS: Among the journals with the highest percentage of nicotine- or smoking-focused articles (that is, 9-39% of their articles were on nicotine/smoking), Addiction, American Journal of Public Health, Cancer Causes and Control, Health Psychology, and Preventive Medicine had the greatest IF (range = 1.3-2.6). Among the journals highest in impact factor (IF > 3), only American Journal of Epidemiology, American Review of Respiratory Disease, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and Journal of the American Medical Association published more than 10 nicotine/smoking articles per year (3-5% of all articles). Of these, only Journal of the American Medical Association published a large number of nicotine/smoking articles (32 per year). CONCLUSIONS: Although smoking causes 20% of all mortality in developed countries, the topic is not adequately covered in high-impact journals. Most smoking research is published in low-impact journals. 




 PMID:8795857

  6. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  7. Role of acidosis-induced increases in calcium on PTH secretion in acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Estepa, José Carlos; Rodríguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J

    2004-05-01

    Recently, we showed that both acute metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in the dog. To evaluate the specific effect of acidosis, ionized calcium (iCa) was clamped at a normal value. Because iCa values normally increase during acute acidosis, we now have studied the PTH response to acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in dogs in which the iCa concentration was allowed to increase (nonclamped) compared with dogs with a normal iCa concentration (clamped). Five groups of dogs were studied: control, metabolic (clamped and nonclamped), and respiratory (clamped and nonclamped) acidosis. Metabolic (HCl infusion) and respiratory (hypoventilation) acidosis was progressively induced during 60 min. In the two clamped groups, iCa was maintained at a normal value with an EDTA infusion. Both metabolic and respiratory acidosis increased (P acidosis, the increase in iCa was progressive and greater (P respiratory acidosis, in which iCa increased by 0.04 mM and then remained constant despite further pH reductions. The increase in PTH values was greater (P respiratory acidosis). In the nonclamped metabolic acidosis group, PTH values first increased and then decreased from peak values when iCa increased by > 0.1 mM. In the nonclamped respiratory acidosis group, PTH values exceeded (P acidosis. In conclusion, 1) both metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate PTH secretion; 2) the physiological increase in the iCa concentration during the induction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis reduces the magnitude of the PTH increase; 3) in metabolic acidosis, the increase in the iCa concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to reverse the increase in PTH values; and 4) for the same degree of acidosis-induced hypercalcemia, the increase in PTH values is greater in metabolic than in respiratory acidosis.

  8. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  9. Smoking-induced dopamine release studied with [{sup 11}C]Raclopride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Cho, Sang Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Do Hoon [Center for Clinical Services, National Cancer Certer, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    It has been postulated that dopamine release in the striatum underlies the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Substantial evidence in the animal studies demonstrates that nicotine interacts with dopaminergic neuron and regulates the activation of the dopaminergic system. The aim of this study was to visualize the dopamine release by smoking in human brain using PET scan with [{sup 11}C]raclopride. Five male non-smokers or ex-smokers with an abstinence period longer than 1 year (mean age of 24.4 {+-} 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. [{sup 1C}]raclopride, a dopamine D2 receptor radioligand, was administrated with bolus-plus-constant infusion. Dynamic PET was performed during 120 minutes (3 x 20s, 2 x 60s, 2 x 120s, 1 x 180s and 22 x 300s). Following the 50 minute-scanning, subjects smoked a cigarette containing 1 mg of nicotine while in the scanner. Blood samples for the measurement of plasma nicotine level were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minute after smoking. Regions for striatal structures were drawn on the coronal summed PET images guided with co-registered MRI. Binding potential, calculated as (striatal-cerebellar)/cerebellar activity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and smoking session. The mean decrease in binding potential of [{sup 1C}]raclopride between the baseline and smoking in caudate head, anterior putamen and ventral striatum was 4.7%, 4.0% and 7.8%, respectively. This indicated the striatal dopamine release by smoking. Of these, the reduction in binding potential in the ventral striatum was significantly correlated with the cumulated plasma level of the nicotine (Spearman's rho=0.9, {rho} =0.4). These data demonstrate that in vivo imaging with [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET could measure nicotine-induced dopamine release in the human brain, which has a significant positive correlation with the amount of nicotine administered by smoking.

  10. MicroRNAs as Potential Mediators for Cigarette Smoking Induced Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Yokoyama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking increases the risk of atherosclerosis-related events, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Recent studies have examined the expression levels of altered microRNAs (miRNAs in various diseases. The profiles of tissue miRNAs can be potentially used in diagnosis or prognosis. However, there are limited studies on miRNAs following exposure to cigarette smoke (CS. The present study was designed to dissect the effects and cellular/molecular mechanisms of CS-induced atherosclerogenesis. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mice were exposed to CS for five days a week for two months at low (two puffs/min for 40 min/day or high dose (two puffs/min for 120 min/day. We measured the area of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta, representing the expression of miRNAs after the exposure period. Two-month exposure to the high dose of CS significantly increased the plaque area in aortic arch, and significantly upregulated the expression of atherosclerotic markers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MCP1, p22phox, and gp91phox. Exposure to the high dose of CS also significantly upregulated the miRNA-155 level in the aortic tissues of ApoE KO mice. Moreover, the expression level of miR-126 tended to be downregulated and that of miR-21 tended to be upregulated in ApoE KO mice exposed to the high dose of CS, albeit statistically insignificant. The results suggest that CS induces atherosclerosis through increased vascular inflammation and NADPH oxidase expression and also emphasize the importance of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CS-induced atherosclerosis. Our findings provide evidence for miRNAs as potential mediators of inflammation and atherosclerosis induced by CS.

  11. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, pcannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  12. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  14. Grain dust and respiratory health in South African milling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, M; Myers, J E

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory health was investigated in 224 grain milling workers. The likelihood of respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation was raised for workers exposed to dust independent of the effects of smoking. Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to respond to a bronchodilator at the end of the working week. Dust was more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than was smoking. Subjective categories of exposure to dust were more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than were objective categories. The prevalence of all symptoms at the time of a survey conducted at the mill six years before was higher in workers who subsequently left the mill than in those who remained employed although the differences were not significant. PMID:1931723

  15. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  16. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The effect of denture stability, occlusion, oral hygiene and smoking on denture-induced stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimri, Gadeer Mukatash

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal clinical investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of denture wearing habit (day versus day and night), denture hygiene and cigarette smoking habit on the frequency of denture induced stomatitis. Comparisons were made between 240 complete denture wearers, half of whom were asked to wear their dentures at the daytime only and the other half to wear the denture day and night. All these participants were male patients with a mean age of 57.6 years who had received maxillary complete acrylic dentures for the first time. Fifty percent of the samples were smokers. A standard method for examination of the mouth and denture construction, insertion and follow up were employed. Putative risk factors (denture wearing habits, denture hygiene and smoking) were investigated. Subjects were recalled 12 months after insertion to examine the quality of the denture and the condition of the maxillary mucosa. No significant correlation was found between deterioration of stability or occlusion and type of habitual use of the dentures (P > 0.05). Fourteen percent of the cases reported with inflamed maxillary mucosa. Deterioration of retention or occlusion separately showed no correlation with the condition of the mucosa. However, associated deterioration of both stability and occlusion proved to be significantly correlated with the occurrence of denture stomatitis (P < 0.05). Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently with subjects wearing their dentures overnight compared with those who removed them (P < 0.05). A significant correlation was also found between cigarette smoking, poor oral hygiene and the presence of denture induced stomatitis (P < 0.05). Nocturnal denture wearing habit, deficient oral and denture hygiene, and cigarette smoking are all important predisposing factors to denture-induced stomatitis, however, none of these factors was the sole cause of mucosal inflammation. (author)

  18. [Association between indoor contamination and respiratory diseases in children living in Temuco and Padre Las Casas, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas R, Edith; Barrios C, Sara; Dorner P, Anita; Osorio S, Ximena

    2008-06-01

    Indoor air pollution, is the main cause of population exposure to polluting agents. To establish an environmental profile of indoor contamination emission sources in families of children under 5 years that assist to kindergartens in Temuco and Padre Las Casas. To associate respiratory disease episodes in children with indoor contamination. Cross sectional analysis of 355 family groups subjected to questionnaires about indoor contamination and number of respiratory disease episodes. Forty six percent of mothers or caregivers smoked, 37% smoked at home and 93% smoked one to two cigarettes per day. There was a significant association between respiratory diseases in children and drying clothes in the kitchen, using firewood for heating and the presence of humidity in the dwelling. Mothers identified as indoor contaminants the use of braziers in 76% of cases and firewood stoves in 24%. Ninety seven percent considered that these appliances were detrimental for respiratory health. The lack of awareness about indoor contamination among subjects of low socioeconomic status should prompt educational campaigns to modify behaviors in their dwellings.

  19. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  20. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  1. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  2. Modulation by metformin of molecular and histopathological alterations in the lung of cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; D'Agostini, Francesco; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Camoirano, Anna; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin is endowed with anti-cancer properties. Epidemiological and experimental studies, however, did not provide univocal results regarding its role in pulmonary carcinogenesis. We used Swiss H mice of both genders in order to detect early molecular alterations and tumors induced by mainstream cigarette smoke. Based on a subchronic toxicity study, oral metformin was used at a dose of 800 mg/kg diet, which is 3.2 times higher than the therapeutic dose in humans. Exposure of mice to smoke for 4 months, starting at birth, induced a systemic clastogenic damage, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and extensive downregulation of microRNAs in lung after 10 weeks. Preneoplastic lesions were detectable after 7.5 months in both lung and urinary tract along with lung tumors, both benign and malignant. Modulation by metformin of 42 of 1281 pulmonary microRNAs in smoke-free mice highlighted a variety of mechanisms, including modulation of AMPK, stress response, inflammation, NFκB, Tlr9, Tgf, p53, cell cycle, apoptosis, antioxidant pathways, Ras, Myc, Dicer, angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and angiogenesis. In smoke-exposed mice, metformin considerably decreased DNA adduct levels and oxidative DNA damage, and normalized the expression of several microRNAs. It did not prevent smoke-induced lung tumors but inhibited preneoplastic lesions in both lung and kidney. In conclusion, metformin was able to protect the mouse lung from smoke-induced DNA and microRNA alterations and to inhibit preneoplastic lesions in lung and kidney but failed to prevent lung adenomas and malignant tumors induced by this complex mixture

  3. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  4. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  5. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been classified as an addictive disorder in the proposed DSM 5 draft. However, whether its underlying addiction mechanism is similar to other substance use disorders has not been confirmed. The present functional magnetic resonance images study is aimed at evaluating the brain correlates of cue-induced gaming urge or smoking craving in subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence to make a simultaneous comparison of cue induced brain reactivity for gaming and smoking. For this purpose, 16 subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence (comorbid group) and 16 controls were recruited from the community. All subjects were made to undergo 3-T fMRIs scans while viewing images associated with online games, smoking, and neutral images, which were arranged according to an event-related design. The resultant image data was analyzed with full factorial and conjunction analysis of SPM5. The results demonstrate that anterior cingulate, and parahippocampus activates higher for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. The conjunction analysis demonstrates that bilateral parahippocampal gyrus activates to a greater degree for both gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. Accordingly, the study demonstrates that both IGA and nicotine dependence share similar mechanisms of cue-induced reactivity over the fronto-limbic network, particularly for the parahippocampus. The results support that the context representation provided by the parahippocampus is a key mechanism for not only cue-induced smoking craving, but also for cue-induced gaming urge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal smoking and risk of obesity in school children: Investigating early life theory from the GRECO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella Magriplis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Early Life Theory, maternal smoking may be a factor affecting child weight status, adiposity level and blood pressure later in life. The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy with overweight and obesity, central and total adiposity in school children. Secondarily, to assess the effect of maternal smoking, with children's blood pressure (BP.Data from the Greek Childhood Obesity cross sectional study (GRECO, conducted from October 2008 to May 2009, were used. A total of 2400 questionnaires gathered from children and their parents were analysed. Maternal and gestational data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire. Women were categorized as non-smokers or smokers if they smoked ≥1 cigarettes/day during pregnancy. Children's body weight, height, waist circumference and BP were measured. Multiple logistic and linear regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for covariates. Four models were used in the process.The study found that children of maternal-smokers were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR: 1.6 to 1.82 and to have a larger waist circumference (OR: 1.73 to 1.85, compared to children of non-smokers in all models used. Total fat percentage was not significantly associated with maternal smoking when adjusted. Systolic and diastolic BP was not associated with maternal smoking. Results of this study strengthen the need for smoking cessation during pregnancy in order to possibly reduce the childhood obesity epidemic. Creating public health awareness of the potential risk of maternal-smoking on children's weight status later in life is warranted. Keywords: Maternal smoking, Central adiposity, Childhood obesity, Blood pressure, Public health

  7. Andrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, SP; Tee, W; Ng, DSW; Chan, TK; Peh, HY; Ho, WE; Cheng, C; Mak, JC; Wong, WSF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cigarette smoke is a major cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Andrographolide is an active biomolecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide has been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive antioxidant transcription factor. As Nrf2 activity is reduced in COPD, we hypothesize that andrographolide may have therapeutic value for COPD. Experimental Approach Andrographolide was given i.p. to BALB/c mice daily 2 h before 4% cigarette smoke exposure for 1 h over five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs were collected for analyses of cytokines, oxidative damage markers and antioxidant activities. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and used to study the antioxidant mechanism of action of andrographolide. Key Results Andrographolide suppressed cigarette smoke-induced increases in lavage fluid cell counts; levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 and KC; and levels of oxidative biomarkers 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine in a dose-dependent manner. Andrographolide promoted inductions of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in lungs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. In BEAS-2B cells, andrographolide markedly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, promoted binding to antioxidant response element (ARE) and total cellular glutathione level in response to CSE. Andrographolide up-regulated ARE-regulated gene targets including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, GCL modifier (GCLM) subunit, GPx, GR and heme oxygenase-1 in BEAS-2B cells in response to CSE. Conclusions Andrographolide possesses antioxidative properties against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury probably via augmentation of Nrf2 activity and may have therapeutic potential for treating COPD. PMID:23146110

  8. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  9. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  10. Social position and mortality from respiratory diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    ). Although smoking rates were inversely associated with the level of education, the social gradient was not affected by adjustment for smoking. In males, but not in females, there was an additional effect of other indicators of social position, i.e. employment grade (white collar versus blue collar...... disease, which is independent of smoking and is stronger in males. Social disadvantage is a potentially avoidable cause of death from respiratory disease and further research is needed to explain the excess risk in the socioeconomically disadvantaged....

  11. INTERACTION BETWEEN DELTA OPIOID RECEPTORS AND BENZODIAZEPINES IN CO2- INDUCED RESPIRATORY RESPONSES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Anne H.; Barnes, Dylan C.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Klein, Donald F.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The false-suffocation hypothesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993) suggested δ-opioid receptors as a possible source of the respiratory dysfunction manifested in panic attacks occurring in panic disorder (Preter and Klein, 2008). This study sought to determine if a lack of δ-opioid receptors in a mouse model affects respiratory response to elevated CO2, and whether the response is modulated by benzodiazepines, which are widely used to treat panic disorder. In a whole-body plethysmograph, respiratory responses to 5% CO2 were compared between δ-opioid receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice after saline, diazepam (1 mg/kg), and alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg) injection. The results show that lack of δ-opioid receptors does not affect normal response to elevated CO2, but does prevent benzodiazepines from modulating that response. Thus, in the presence of benzodiazepine agonists, respiratory responses to elevated CO2 were enhanced in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. This suggests an interplay between benzodiazepine receptors and δ-opioid receptors in regulating the respiratory effects of elevated CO2, which might be related to CO2 induced panic. PMID:21561601

  12. Effects of ongoing smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in breast cancer and oesophagus cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Bjermer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in patients treated for breast and oesophagus cancer. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study on 405 females diagnosed with primary unilateral breast cancer stages 1 and 2 and 201 oesophagus carcinoma patients. The possibilities in Sweden to obtain detailed information from different medical records were used to collect data on smoking habits, radiation treatment and spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Radiation-induced pneumonitis was defined as a combination of roentgenographic infiltrate in the lung field involving an irradiated area on the chest X-ray and clinical symptoms such as non-productive cough and dyspnoea. Results: Six breast cancer patients had spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Five of them were non-smokers (P=0.182) and the other was a former smoker. Eight of the oesophagus cancer patients had spontaneously reported radiation-induced clinical pneumonitis and they were all non-smokers (P=0.022), except one, who was a pipe smoker. None of the patients who were cigarette smokers were recorded as developing clinical pneumonitis after irradiation. Conclusion: These data could support the previous clinical observations and experimental studies that smoking depresses the frequency of radiation-induced pneumonitis. The present study as well as earlier observations could justify further studies concerning the possibility of an interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapeutic failures and reduced adverse effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals......(-1) and 95.1 +/- 7.8 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). Neither IMBF was different across hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia (53.6 +/- 8.5, 49.9 +/- 5.9 and 52.9 +/- 5.9 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). We conclude that when respiratory muscle energy requirement is not different between...

  15. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  16. Tobacco use among designated air pollution victims and its association with lung function and respiratory symptoms: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Kenji; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Yano, Yudai; Miyamoto, Naomi; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagita, Yorihide; Asai, Masaharu; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Sawai, Terumitsu; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-07-31

    We sought to elucidate the long-term association of tobacco use and respiratory health in designated pollution victims with and without obstructive pulmonary defects. A retrospective cross-sectional study. The register of pollution victims in Kurashiki, Japan. 730 individuals over 65 years of age previously diagnosed with pollution-related respiratory disease. Patients were classified into four groups according to their smoking status and whether they had obstructive pulmonary disease. We then compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function over time between groups. Spirometry was performed and a respiratory health questionnaire completed in the same season each year for up to 30 years. Rates of smoking and respiratory disease were high in our sample. Although respiratory function in non-smoking patients did not completely recover, the annual rate of change in lung function was within the normal range (prespiratory function did not fully recover despite improved air quality. Our results suggest that, in the context of exposure to air pollution, tobacco use causes additional loss of lung function and exacerbates respiratory symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo

    2002-01-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  18. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-02-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  19. Smoking and early retirement due to chronic disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the long-term effects of smoking on disability retirement in Sweden. Smoking is known to have damaging effects on health, but there is limited evidence on how the effects of smoking translate into worse labour market outcomes, such as the inability to work. In contrast to the few previous studies on smoking and disability retirement, we use a large population sample with registry information on smoking, which is recorded for all women who give birth in Sweden. Thanks to these comprehensive data, we are able to account for a much broader range of potential confounders. In particular, by the use of sibling and twin fixed effects, we account for unobserved heterogeneity in childhood environment and family characteristics. Given that smoking is often initiated in adolescence, one would suspect such factors to play important roles. Among individuals aged 50-64 in 2011, a simple model suggested smokers to have a 5 percentage point higher probability of receiving (full) disability pension, making them more than twice as likely as non-smokers to receive this. However, in a model with sibling fixed effects, the size of the effect was reduced by more than a third. The results point to the importance of confounders, such as childhood circumstances or behaviours, which were not accounted for by previous studies. We also consider effects on disability due to different health conditions. In relative terms, effects are the largest for circulatory conditions and tumours. Results are largely driven by health problems severe enough to merit hospitalization, and there is no evidence of a role played by financial incentives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Flay, Brian; Nichter, Mark; Giovino, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies, encompassing community trials and field experiments, and evaluates government-funded anti-smoking campaigns, ecologic studies of population impact of anti-smoking advertising, and qualitative studies that have examined the effects of anti-smoking advertising on teenagers. We conclude that anti-smoking advertising appears to have more reliable positive effects on those in pre-adolescence or early adolescence by preventing commencement of smoking. It is unclear whether this is due to developmental differences, or is a reflection of smoking experience, or a combination of the two. In addition, it is evident that social group interactions, through family, peer and cultural contexts, can play an important role in reinforcing, denying, or neutralizing potential effects of anti-smoking advertising. Although there is some research to suggest that advertising genres that graphically depict the health effects of smoking, emphasize social norms against smoking, and portray the tobacco industry as manipulative can positively influence teenagers, these findings are far from consistent. Finally, the effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking can be enhanced by the use of other tobacco control strategies, and may be dampened by tobacco advertising and marketing. Overall, the findings of this review indicate that there is no single "recipe" for anti-smoking advertising that leads to reductions in youth smoking. Anti-smoking advertising can influence youth smoking, but whether it does in the context of individual anti-smoking campaigns needs to be the subject of careful evaluation.

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  2. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory performance in workers exposed to grain and grain based food dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S P; Paddle, G M

    1998-05-01

    A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most common symptom with 37% of those reporting rhinitis describing this as work-related. A case-control analysis of workers reporting rhinitis did not identify any specific occupational activities associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Smoking habit and all respiratory symptoms apart from rhinitis had a significant effect upon ventilatory performance. Occupational exposure to raw grains, flour, ingredients and finished food was categorized as high, medium or low in either continuous or intermediate patterns. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the effects of height, age and smoking upon ventilatory performance. However, occupational exposure to grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts had no effect upon ventilatory performance. It is concluded that smoking habit is the major determinant of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The excess complaints of rhinitis warrant further study but it would appear that the current occupational exposure limits for grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts are adequate to protect workers against impairment of ventilatory performance.

  3. Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE maintains pulmonary structure and regulates the response to cigarette smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wolf

    Full Text Available The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE is highly expressed in the lung but its physiological functions in this organ is still not completely understood. To determine the contribution of RAGE to physiological functions of the lung, we analyzed pulmonary mechanics and structure of wildtype and RAGE deficient (RAGE-/- mice. RAGE deficiency spontaneously resulted in a loss of lung structure shown by an increased mean chord length, increased respiratory system compliance, decreased respiratory system elastance and increased concentrations of serum protein albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Pulmonary expression of RAGE was mainly localized on alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Primary murine alveolar epithelial cells isolated from RAGE-/- mice revealed an altered differentiation and defective barrier formation under in vitro conditions. Stimulation of interferone-y (IFNy-activated alveolar macrophages deficient for RAGE with Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands resulted in significantly decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Exposure to chronic cigarette smoke did not affect emphysema-like changes in lung parenchyma in RAGE-/- mice. Acute cigarette smoke exposure revealed a modified inflammatory response in RAGE-/- mice that was characterized by an influx of macrophages and a decreased keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC release. Our data suggest that RAGE regulates the differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells and impacts on the development and maintenance of pulmonary structure. In cigarette smoke-induced lung pathology, RAGE mediates inflammation that contributes to lung damage.

  4. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  5. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric

  6. Quercetogetin protects against cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in epithelial cells by inhibiting mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Suk; Kim, Se-Hee; Ryter, Stefan W; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kyung, Sun Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jeong-Woong

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria (mitophagy) mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure, and contributes to emphysema development in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS)-exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of mitophagy in regulating apoptosis in CSE-exposed human lung bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the polymethoxylated flavone antioxidant quercetogetin (QUE) to inhibit CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that CSE induces mitophagy in epithelial cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, and causes increased expression levels of the mitophagy-regulator protein PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1) and the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-1-like protein (DRP-1). CSE induced epithelial cell death and increased the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE, and decreased by siRNA-dependent knockdown of DRP-1. Treatment of epithelial cells with QUE inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting phospho (p)-DRP-1 and PINK1 expression. QUE suppressed mitophagy-dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 and downregulating caspase activity in human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that QUE may serve as a potential therapeutic in CS-induced pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  8. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  9. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age…

  10. Children Deserve Smoke Free World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesh Kumar, R; Jayakumar, P R; Krishna Mohan, R

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases. All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. M POWER- Package by WHO is a novel global initiative taking us closer to the target of achieving tobacco free environment for children in the near future.

  11. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldred Tunde Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI. This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82 and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13, respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  12. [Did household parental smoking attitude change over the last 15 years? A survey among primary school children in the city of Agrigento, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Serena; de Gregorio, Cesare; Magro, Laura; Fernandez, Dalila; Sacchi, Gabriella; Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Magro, Francesco; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Exposure of children to passive tobacco smoking in the household setting has been demonstrated to cause respiratory diseases. Early atherosclerosis has also been demonstrated in young people previously exposed to passive tobacco smoking. Functional damage can initiate at the fetal age due to maternal smoking, with a tendency towards over-time progress. To date only scant data are available about indoor parental smoking attitudes and their changes after campaigns against smoke and risk factors in exposed youths. Questionnaires are useful tools in order to search for information on cigarette smoking and parental household lifestyle. In this study, we asked pupils of primary schools for providing information on their relatives' every 5 years throughout the period 1994-2009. A multiple-choice answer questionnaire about sharing household parental smoking was administered to all primary school children (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) of the city of Agrigento (Sicily, Italy). A total of 2221 questionnaires were collected from 637 children in 1994, 687 in 1999, 516 in 2004, and 381 in 2009. Important findings show a significant reduction in both smoking parents and exposure to passive tobacco smoking (from 64% in 1994 to 45% in 2009, psmoking. These results likely reflect such a greater awareness about smoke-related risks in children, and the effectiveness of medical campaigns against cardiovascular risk factors as well.

  13. Gene expression signature of cigarette smoking and its role in lung adenocarcinoma development and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Landi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is responsible for over 90% of lung cancer cases, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung that develop into cancer and impact survival have remained obscure.We performed gene expression analysis using HG-U133A Affymetrix chips on 135 fresh frozen tissue samples of adenocarcinoma and paired noninvolved lung tissue from current, former and never smokers, with biochemically validated smoking information. ANOVA analysis adjusted for potential confounders, multiple testing procedure, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and GO-functional classification were conducted for gene selection. Results were confirmed in independent adenocarcinoma and non-tumor tissues from two studies. We identified a gene expression signature characteristic of smoking that includes cell cycle genes, particularly those involved in the mitotic spindle formation (e.g., NEK2, TTK, PRC1. Expression of these genes strongly differentiated both smokers from non-smokers in lung tumors and early stage tumor tissue from non-tumor tissue (p1.5, for each comparison, consistent with an important role for this pathway in lung carcinogenesis induced by smoking. These changes persisted many years after smoking cessation. NEK2 (p<0.001 and TTK (p = 0.002 expression in the noninvolved lung tissue was also associated with a 3-fold increased risk of mortality from lung adenocarcinoma in smokers.Our work provides insight into the smoking-related mechanisms of lung neoplasia, and shows that the very mitotic genes known to be involved in cancer development are induced by smoking and affect survival. These genes are candidate targets for chemoprevention and treatment of lung cancer in smokers.

  14. The impact of smoking cessation on respiratory symptoms, lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, BWM; Postma, DS; Timens, W; ten Hacken, NHT

    Smoking is the main risk factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for avoiding or reducing the progression of this disease. Despite the fact that smoking cessation is a very important health issue, information

  15. Minor interference of cross-reactive carbohydrates with the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in standard clinical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Carmen; Sanmartín, Carolina; Armisén, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    associated with age, rural residence, alcohol consumption or smoking. Only 58 patients (5.6%) showed CCD-sIgE levels =0.35 kU(A)/l. CCD-induced inhibition of pollen-sIgE or mite-sIgE in patients with respective positive SPT was minimal or absent in most cases. Conclusions: In this population of predominantly...... mite-allergic patients, CCD sensitization is relatively rare and CCD-sIgE levels are low. Thus, CCDs do not represent a major obstacle for the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in a specialized setting. Hymenoptera stings are associated with CCD sensitization....

  16. What Can Be Done to Prevent Smoking in Pregnancy? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Leona

    2003-01-01

    Smoking in pregnancy is a serious health risk to mother and baby that is associated with premature birth, low birth weight and respiratory disorders. Recently it has become apparent that smoking in pregnancy can have long-term consequences for the child, including learning difficulties, elevated risk of diabetes, obesity and asthma. Over the past…

  17. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Dozier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household smoking-ban prevalence over time and predictors among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. METHODS: Baseline (2004 and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007 (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities, with overall rates increasing from 23.9% (2004 to 45.3% (2007. Households with smokers adopted smoking bans at lower rates (6%-17% versus those without smokers (which had an adoption rate of 35%-58%. Logistic regression models demonstrated that the associations between allowing smoking in households with no members who smoked and being located in a tobacco-growing community, being a Catholic household, and having a member with a cardiovascular problem were statistically significant. The association between having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition and prohibiting smoking in the home was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those in early stages of tobacco control, basic awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities may lead to statistically significant increases in household smoking-ban adoption, particularly among households with no smokers. An increase in household smoking-ban prevalence may result in changes in community norms that can lead to a further increase in the adoption of smoking bans. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke on methacholine- and AMP-induced air trapping in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis; Palop, Julio; Llusar, Ruth; Herrera, Susana; Perez-Frances, Carmen; Lanuza, Amparo; Aguilar, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: No information is available on the effect of cigarette smoke on bronchoconstrictor-induced air trapping in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional influence of smoking on methacholine- and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-induced air trapping in subjects with asthma. Airway responsiveness to methacholine and AMP, bronchial (J'awNO) and alveolar (CANO) nitric oxide (NO) and exhaled breath condensate pH were measured in 68 adults (23 current smokers with asthma, 23 non-smokers with asthma and 22 current or former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD). The degree of air trapping induced by each bronchoconstrictor agent was expressed by the percent fall in forced vital capacity (FVC) at a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s relative to FVC after saline inhalation (ΔFVC%). The ΔFVC% for AMP was higher in both smokers with asthma and patients with COPD than in non-smokers with asthma (p<0.001). By contrast, ΔFVC% for methacholine was similar in the three groups of subjects (p=0.69). In smokers with asthma, but not in the other two groups, there was a correlation between the residual volume/total lung capacity at baseline and the ΔFVC% induced by each bronchoconstrictor agent. Mean values for J'awNO were higher in non-smokers with asthma than in the other two groups (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that factors underlying bronchoconstriction induced by indirect agonists are different in smokers and non-smokers with asthma. These observations might be clinically relevant, because triggers that frequently induce bronchial obstruction in the real world act by an indirect mechanism.

  20. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  1. Inhibition of Escherichia coli respiratory enzymes by short visible femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chieh-Han; Hsu, Yung-Yuan; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Kuan, Yung-Shu

    2014-01-01

    A visible femtosecond laser is shown to be capable of selectively inactivating a wide spectrum of microorganisms in a wavelength and pulse width dependent manner. However, the mechanism of how a visible femtosecond laser affects the viability of different microorganisms is still elusive. In this paper, the cellular surface properties, membrane integrity and metabolic rate of Escherichia coli (E. coli) irradiated by a visible femtosecond laser (λ = 415 nm, pulse width = 100 fs) with different exposure times were investigated. Our results showed that femtosecond laser treatment for 60 min led to cytoplasmic leakage, protein aggregation and alternation of the physical properties of the E. coli cell membrane. In comparison, a 10 min exposure of bacteria to femtosecond laser irradiation induced an immediate reduction of 75% in the glucose-dependent respiratory rate, while the cytoplasmic leakage was not detected. Results from enzymatic assays showed that oxidases and dehydrogenases involved in the E. coli respiratory chain exhibited divergent susceptibility after laser irradiation. This early commencement of respiratory inhibition after a short irradiation is presumed to have a dominant effect on the early stage of bacteria inactivation. (paper)

  2. A Costly Lesson: Fatal Respiratory Depression Induced by Clindamycin during Postoperative Patient Controlled Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao; Wu, Guo; Wu, Hanbin

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs can cause neuromuscular blockade. Clindamycin-related neuromuscular blockade is commonly reported, but fatal clindamycin-induced neuromuscular blockade is rarely reported. We describe a 47-year-old woman who initially presented with endometrial carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and bilateral adnexectomy under general anesthesia, secondary to antibiotic treatment with clindamycin 1.2g in 250 mL for about 30 minutes through the peripheral intravenous route during postoperative patient controlled analgesia (PCA). She became unconscious near the end of the infusion, then, despite resuscitation attempts, she died. Clindamycin appeared to have triggered delayed respiratory depression during PCA. A combination of clindamycin and fentanyl led to her respiratory depression in the fatal case.

  3. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, S E; London, S J; Stigum, H; Nafstad, P; Nystad, W

    2009-03-01

    Folate supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Maternal intake of folate supplements during pregnancy might also influence childhood immune phenotypes via epigenetic mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between folate supplements in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections and wheeze in children up to 18 months of age. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, questionnaire data collected at several time points during pregnancy and after birth on 32,077 children born between 2000 and 2005 were used to assess the effects of folate supplements during pregnancy on respiratory outcomes up to 18 months of age, while accounting for other supplements in pregnancy and supplementation in infancy. Folate supplements in the first trimester were associated with increased risk of wheeze and respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. Adjusting for exposure later in pregnancy and in infancy, the relative risk for wheeze for children exposed to folic acid supplements in the first trimester was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10), the relative risk for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and the relative risk for hospitalisations for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41). Folic acid supplements in pregnancy were associated with a slightly increased risk of wheeze and lower respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. The results suggest that methyl donors in the maternal diet during pregnancy may influence respiratory health in children consistent with epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia virus of mice, and influenza A virus differently affect respiratory allergy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, M.; de Rond, L. G. H.; Dormans, J.; van Oosten, M.; Boelen, A.; Neijens, H. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kimman, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections in early childhood may interact with the immune system and modify allergen sensitization and/or allergic manifestations. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic T helper (Th) 2 immune response,

  5. Biomarkers of Induced Active and Passive Smoking Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to thewell-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. Epidemiological evidence has reported a direct link between exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke and disease, most notably, lung cancer. Much evidence demonstrates that carcinogenic-DNA adducts are useful markers of tobacco smoke exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the DNA in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells, also provides a means of investigating passive and active tobacco exposure in healthy individuals and cancer patients. Levels of DNA adducts measured in many tissues of smokers are significantly higher than in non-smokers. While some studies have demonstrated an association between carcinogenic DNA adducts and cancer in current smokers, no association has been observed in ex or never smokers. The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of smoking related-cancer is essential. In order to establish whether smoking-related DNA adducts are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and/or its carcinogenic activity we summarized all data that associated tobacco smoke exposure and smoking-related DNA adducts both in controls and/or in cancer cases and studies where the effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and deactivation of carcinogens were also evaluated. In the future we hope we will be able to screen for lung cancer susceptibility by using specific biomarkers and that subjects of compared groups can be stratified for multiple potential modulators of biomarkers, taking into account various confounding factors.

  6. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  7. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  8. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  9. Src mediates cigarette smoke-induced resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosto, Simone; Baston, David S; Chung, Samuel; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2013-08-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) is a proto-oncogene commonly dysregulated in several cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and, thus, is targeted for treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as erlotinib. However, despite the efficacy observed in patients with NSCLC harboring oncogenic variants of the EGFR, general ineffectiveness of TKIs in patients with NSCLC who are current and former smokers necessitates identification of novel mechanisms to overcome this phenomenon. Previously, we showed that NSCLC cells harboring either wild-type (WT) EGFR or oncogenic mutant (MT) L858R EGFR become resistant to the effects of TKIs when exposed to cigarette smoke, evidenced by their autophosphorylation and prolonged downstream signaling. Here, we present Src as a target mediating cigarette smoke-induced resistance to TKIs in both WT EGFR- and L858R MT EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. First, we show that cigarette smoke exposure of A549 cells leads to time-dependent activation of Src, which then abnormally binds to the WT EGFR causing TKI resistance, contrasting previous observations of constitutive binding between inactive Src and TKI-sensitive L858R MT EGFR. Next, we show that Src inhibition restores TKI sensitivity in cigarette smoke-exposed NSCLC cells, preventing EGFR autophosphorylation in the presence of erlotinib. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative Src (Y527F/K295R) restores TKI sensitivity to A549 exposed to cigarette smoke. Importantly, the TKI resistance that emerges even in cigarette smoke-exposed L858R EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells could be eliminated with Src inhibition. Together, these findings offer new rationale for using Src inhibitors for treating TKI-resistant NSCLC commonly observed in smokers.

  10. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S

    2004-05-01

    The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.

  11. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  12. Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Tanaka, Yuriko; Chen, Nana; Liu, Lintao; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung destruction and inflammation. As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. GADD34 is known as a growth arrest and DNA damage-related gene, which can be overexpressed in adverse environmental conditions. Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing...

  13. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-07-28

    To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 +/- 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 +/- 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients.

  14. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  15. The role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Thorne, P S; Yagla, S J; Burmeister, L F; Olenchock, S A; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J

    1995-08-01

    To identify the role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional investigation among grain handlers and postal workers. The study subjects were selected by randomly sampling all grain facilities and post offices within 100 miles of Iowa City. Our study population consisted of 410 grain workers and 201 postal workers. Grain workers were found to be exposed to higher concentrations of airborne dust (p = 0.0001) and endotoxin (p = 0.0001) when compared with postal workers. Grain workers had a significantly higher prevalence of work-related (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness, and dyspnea) and chronic (usual cough or phlegm production) respiratory symptoms than postal workers. Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, work-related respiratory symptoms were strongly associated with the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol in the work setting. The concentration of total dust in the bioaerosol was marginally related to these respiratory problems. After controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, grain workers were found to have reduced spirometric measures of airflow (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75) and enhanced airway reactivity to inhaled histamine when compared with postal workers. Although the total dust concentration in the work environment appeared to have little effect on these measures of airflow obstruction, higher concentrations of endotoxin in the bioaerosol were associated with diminished measures of airflow and enhanced bronchial reactivity. Our results indicate that the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol may be particularly important in the development of grain dust-induced lung disease.

  16. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, R.J.; Franke, L.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact

  17. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-02-04

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case that non lung protective ventilator settings are applied. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in BD patients, as well as assessment of their evolution during mechanical ventilation, may lead to preclinical lung injury detection early enough, allowing thus the selection of the appropriate ventilator settings to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in BD patients along with the underlying mechanisms, and to translate the evidence of animal and clinical studies into therapeutic implications regarding the mechanical ventilation of these critically ill patients.

  18. Human airway epithelial cell cultures for modeling respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen with narrow species tropism. Limited availability of human pathologic specimens during early RSV-induced lung disease and ethical restrictions for RSV challenge studies in the lower airways of human volunteers has slowed our understanding of how RSV causes airway disease and greatly limited the development of therapeutic strategies for reducing RSV disease burden. Our current knowledge of RSV infection and pathology is largely based on in vitro studies using nonpolarized epithelial cell-lines grown on plastic or in vivo studies using animal models semipermissive for RSV infection. Although these models have revealed important aspects of RSV infection, replication, and associated inflammatory responses, these models do not broadly recapitulate the early interactions and potential consequences of RSV infection of the human columnar airway epithelium in vivo. In this chapter, the pro et contra of in vitro models of human columnar airway epithelium and their usefulness in respiratory virus pathogenesis and vaccine development studies will be discussed. The use of such culture models to predict characteristics of RSV infection and the correlation of these findings to the human in vivo situation will likely accelerate our understanding of RSV pathogenesis potentially identifying novel strategies for limiting the severity of RSV-associated airway disease.

  19. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  20. Are there health benefits associated with comprehensive smoke-free laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Patrick G; Haw, Sally; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2009-01-01

    In the past few years, comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all workplaces have been introduced in many jurisdictions in the US, Canada, and Europe. In this paper, we review published studies to ascertain if there is any evidence of health benefits resulting from the implementation of these laws. All papers relating to smoke-free legislation published in or after 2004 were considered for inclusion in this review. We used Pubmed, Google scholar, and Web of Science as the main search tools. The primary focus of the paper is on health outcomes, and thus many papers that only report exposure data are not included. Studies using subjective measures of respiratory health based on questionnaire data alone consistently reported that workers experience fewer respiratory and irritant symptoms following the introduction of smoke-free laws. Some studies also found measured improvements in the lung function of workers. However, the most dramatic health outcome associated with smoke-free laws has been the reduction in myocardial infarction in the general population. This outcome has been observed in the US, Canada, and Europe, with studies reporting reductions of between 6 and 40%, post-legislation, the larger reductions being mostly from studies with smaller population groups. The evidence as to whether these smoke-free laws have helped smokers to stop smoking or to reduce tobacco consumption is less clear. There is now significant body of published literature that demonstrates that smoke-free laws can lead to improvements in the health of both workers who are occupationally exposed and of the general population. There is no longer any reason why non-smokers should be exposed to SHS in any workplace. We recommend that all countries adopt national smoke-free laws that are in line with article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control that sets out recommendations for the development, implementation, and enforcement of national, comprehensive smoke

  1. Early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and the development of allergic diseases in 4 year old children in Malmö, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristina; Mangrio, Elisabeth; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2010-08-23

    Earlier studies have shown an association between secondhand tobacco smoke and allergy development in children. Furthermore, there is an increased risk of developing an allergy if the parents have an allergy. However, there are only few studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of secondhand tobacco smoke and allergic heredity on the development of an allergy. The study was population-based cross-sectional with retrospective information on presence of secondhand tobacco smoke during early life. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC) centres in Malmö for their 4-year health checkup during 2006-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 4,278 children). The questionnaire was distributed to parents of children registered with the CHC and invited for the 4-year checkup during the study period. There was a two to four times increased odds of the child having an allergy or having sought medical care due to allergic symptoms if at least one parent had an allergy, while there were rather small increased odds related to presence of secondhand smoke during the child's first month in life or at the age of 8 months. However, children with heredity for allergies and with presence of secondhand tobacco smoke during their first year in life had highly increased odds of developing an allergy and having sought medical care due to allergic symptoms at 4 years of age. Thus, there was a synergistic effect enhancing the independent effects of heredity and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on allergy development. Children with a family history of allergies and early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke is a risk group that prevention and intervention should pay extra attention to. The tobacco smoke effect on children is an essential and urgent question considering it not being self chosen, possibly giving life lasting negative health effects and being possible to reduce.

  2. Early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and the development of allergic diseases in 4 year old children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Kristina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier studies have shown an association between secondhand tobacco smoke and allergy development in children. Furthermore, there is an increased risk of developing an allergy if the parents have an allergy. However, there are only few studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of secondhand tobacco smoke and allergic heredity on the development of an allergy. Methods The study was population-based cross-sectional with retrospective information on presence of secondhand tobacco smoke during early life. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centres in Malmö for their 4-year health checkup during 2006-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 4,278 children. The questionnaire was distributed to parents of children registered with the CHC and invited for the 4-year checkup during the study period. Results There was a two to four times increased odds of the child having an allergy or having sought medical care due to allergic symptoms if at least one parent had an allergy, while there were rather small increased odds related to presence of secondhand smoke during the child's first month in life or at the age of 8 months. However, children with heredity for allergies and with presence of secondhand tobacco smoke during their first year in life had highly increased odds of developing an allergy and having sought medical care due to allergic symptoms at 4 years of age. Thus, there was a synergistic effect enhancing the independent effects of heredity and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on allergy development. Conclusions Children with a family history of allergies and early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke is a risk group that prevention and intervention should pay extra attention to. The tobacco smoke effect on children is an essential and urgent question considering it not being self chosen, possibly giving life lasting negative health

  3. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  5. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  6. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Howe, Laura D; Heron, Jon E; Ware, Jennifer J; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess whether associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation are due to intrauterine mechanisms. Design Comparison of associations of maternal and partner smoking behaviour during pregnancy with offspring smoking initiation using partner smoking as a negative control (n = 6484) and a Mendelian randomization analysis (n = 1020), using a genetic variant in the mothers as a proxy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Setting A longitudinal birth cohort in South West England. Participants Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Measurements Smoking status during pregnancy was self-reported by mother and partner in questionnaires administered at pregnancy. Latent classes of offspring smoking initiation (non-smokers, experimenters, late-onset regular smokers and early-onset regular smokers) were previously developed from questionnaires administered at 14–16 years. A genetic variant, rs1051730, was genotyped in the mothers. Findings Both mother and partner smoking were similarly positively associated with offspring smoking initiation classes, even after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for class membership compared with non-smokers were: experimenters: mother OR = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.67), partner OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.55), late-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.43, 2.26), partner OR = 1.86 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.28) and early-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 2.89 (95% CI = 2.12, 3.94), partner OR = 2.50 (95% CI = 1.85, 3.37). There was no clear evidence for a dose–response effect of either mother or partner smoking heaviness on class membership. Maternal rs1051730 genotype was not clearly associated with offspring smoking initiation class in pre-pregnancy smokers (P = 0.35). Conclusion The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking

  8. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  9. Association between occupational exposure to arsenic and neurological, respiratory and renal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Rabieh, Sasan; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposure by inhalation in copper smelter is associated with several subclinical health phenomena. The respiratory tract is usually involved in the process of detoxication of inhaled noxious agents which, as arsenic, can act as inductors of oxidative stress (Lantz, R.C., Hays, A.M., 2006. Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity. Drug Metab. Rev. 38, 791-804). It is also known that irritating fumes affect distal bronchioles of non-ciliated, epithelial Clara cells, which secrete anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Clara cell protein (CC16) into the respiratory tract. The study group comprised 39 smelters employed at different workplaces in a copper foundry, matched for age and smoking habits with the control group (n = 16). Subjective neurological symptoms (SNS), visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroneurographic (EneG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) results were examined in the workers and the relationships between As concentration in the air (As-Air) and urine (As-U) were assessed. Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarkers: CC16 as early pulmonary biomarker and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 M) in urine and serum and retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex immunoassay. The concentrations of arsenic exceeded about two times the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) (0.01 mg/m 3 ). The contents of lead did not exceed the TLV (0.05 mg/m 3 ). Low CC16 levels in serum (12.1 μg/l) of workers with SNS and VEP symptoms and highest level As-U (x a 39.0 μg/l) were noted earliest in relation to occupational time. Moreover, those effects were associated with increased levels of urinary and serum β 2 M and urinary RBP. Results of our study suggested the initiative key role of oxidative stress in triggering the processes that eventually lead to the subclinical effects of arsenic on the nervous system.

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects lung adenocarcinoma cells against cigarette sidestream smoke particulates-induced oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Su-Chin; Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and examined their response to an extract of cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSP). We found that overexpression of AhR in the CL1-5 cell line reduced CSSP-induced ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, whereas knockdown of AhR expression increased ROS level in CSSP-exposed H1355 cells. Oxidative stress sensor Nrf2 and its target gene NQO1 were insensitive to AhR expression level and CSSP treatment in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, induction of AhR expression concurrently increased mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes CYP1B1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 in a ligand-independent manner. It appeared that AhR accelerated xenobiotic clearing and diminished associated oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of a set of phase I and II metabolizing genes. However, the AhR-signaled protection could not shield cells from constant oxidative stress. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of CSSP induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the p53–p21–Rb1 signaling pathway. Despite no effect on DNA repair rate, AhR facilitated the recovery of cells from growth arrest when CSSP exposure ended. AhR-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells exhibited an increased anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation when recovery from exposure. In summary, our data demonstrated that AhR protected lung adenocarcinoma cells against CSSP-induced oxidative stress and promoted post-exposure clonogenicity. -- Highlights: ► AhR expression level influences cigarette sidestream smoke-induced ROS production. ► AhR reduces oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects lung adenocarcinoma cells against cigarette sidestream smoke particulates-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Su-Chin; Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-03-15

    Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and examined their response to an extract of cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSP). We found that overexpression of AhR in the CL1-5 cell line reduced CSSP-induced ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, whereas knockdown of AhR expression increased ROS level in CSSP-exposed H1355 cells. Oxidative stress sensor Nrf2 and its target gene NQO1 were insensitive to AhR expression level and CSSP treatment in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, induction of AhR expression concurrently increased mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes CYP1B1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 in a ligand-independent manner. It appeared that AhR accelerated xenobiotic clearing and diminished associated oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of a set of phase I and II metabolizing genes. However, the AhR-signaled protection could not shield cells from constant oxidative stress. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of CSSP induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the p53–p21–Rb1 signaling pathway. Despite no effect on DNA repair rate, AhR facilitated the recovery of cells from growth arrest when CSSP exposure ended. AhR-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells exhibited an increased anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation when recovery from exposure. In summary, our data demonstrated that AhR protected lung adenocarcinoma cells against CSSP-induced oxidative stress and promoted post-exposure clonogenicity. -- Highlights: ► AhR expression level influences cigarette sidestream smoke-induced ROS production. ► AhR reduces oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of

  12. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and withdrawal symptoms decrease. Overview Nicotine lozenges are tablets that contain a small amount of nicotine (2 ... Smoking hazards and cessation. In: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders ...

  13. Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Adolescents from the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the role of air quality in relation to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, wheeze, and dry cough among adolescents from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods. A survey was administered on 6,363 adolescents from 9 UAE regions. Data consists of demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and behavioural variables, such as location of residence, residing near industry/gas stations/dumpsites/construction sites, residing near overhead power line/plants, exposure to tobacco, residential exposure, ethnicity, concern over air pollution, smoking, and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine significant predictors of respiratory health. Results. Asthma prevalence was 12.3%, followed by chronic bronchitis (1.8% and emphysema (0.5%. Overall 12.2% reported wheeze and 34.8% reported a dry nocturnal cough in the past year. Multivariate analyses suggest that sex is a significant predictor of asthma and dry cough. Exposure to tobacco and arts/crafts/ceramics/stain is significant predictor of respiratory health. Tobacco smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants are significant predictors of wheeze and dry cough. Conclusions. This study suggests that exposure to air quality and behavioral factors such as smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes, glue, correctors, car exhaust, or burning black ants are significant predictors of respiratory health among UAE adolescents.

  14. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    consistent evidence that smoking bans reduced exposure to SHS in workplaces, restaurants, pubs and in public places. There was a greater reduction in exposure to SHS in hospitality workers compared to the general population. We failed to detect any difference in self-reported exposure to SHS in cars. There was no change in either the prevalence or duration of reported exposure to SHS in the home as a result of implementing legislative bans. Twenty-three studies reported measures of active smoking, often as a co-variable rather than an end-point in itself, with no consistent evidence of a reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the ban. Total tobacco consumption was reduced in studies where prevalence declined. Twenty-five studies reported health indicators as an outcome. Self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms were measured in 12 studies, with lung function measured in five of them. There was consistent evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions for cardiac events as well as an improvement in some health indicators after the ban. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to a reduction in exposure to passive smoking. Hospitality workers experienced a greater reduction in exposure to SHS after implementing the ban compared to the general population. There is limited evidence about the impact on active smoking but the trend is downwards. There is some evidence of an improvement in health outcomes. The strongest evidence is the reduction seen in admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is an increase in support for and compliance with smoking bans after the legislation.

  15. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay; Assad, Nour A; Barnes, Peter J; Churg, Andrew; Gordon, Stephen; Harrod, Kevin S; Irshad, Hammad; Kurmi, Om P; Martin, William J; Meek, Paula; Mortimer, Kevin; Noonan, Curtis W; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Smith, Kirk R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impair...

  16. Acute respiratory failure induced by bleomycin and hyperoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, M.E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent, and oxygen at concentrations greater than 20%, induce acute pulmonary damage separately and when administered together. The interaction of 5 U/kg intratracheal bleomycin and 24 hours of exposure to 80% oxygen in hamsters produces delayed onset acute respiratory distress syndrome three days after treatment. As little as 12 hours of 80% O 2 exposure, after intratracheal bleomycin, induces severe pulmonary damage. Lung lesions are characterized as diffuse alveolar damage. Significantly pulmonary edema, measured by iodine-125-bovine serum albumin and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, occurs 72 hours after treatment. Lesions progress from focal mild alveolar interstitial and air-space macrophage and granulocyte infiltrates at 24 hours to marked infiltrates and severe interstitial and air space edema with hemorrhages and hyaline membranes at 96 hours. Significant changes measured by electron microscopy morphometry are increases in volume fractions of neutrophils, alveolar tissue and mononuclear leukocytes. Surfactant assay of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid shows a marked decrease in the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio at 72 hours. Proposed mechanisms of bleomycin and hyperoxia synergism include enhanced production of superoxide radicals either directly or indirectly by increasing neutrophil activity or numbers, or by alteration of cell mediators. The pulmonary edema, without evidence of severe morphological changes, may be secondary to alterations of transalveolar transport mechanisms

  17. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 1. Smoking Prevalence and Impact on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking in the Russian Federation is 27.7%. Losses of potential years of life in working age associated with premature death due to smoking in Russia on average are 9 years for men, for women – 5.6 years. Tobacco use is a risk factor for 6 of 8 main causes of death in the world: ischemic heart disease (IHD; cerebral circulation disorders; lower respiratory tract infection; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; tuberculosis; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. The risk of developing IHD in smoking patients is increased by 2-4 times in men and women and in any age group. Myocardial infarction occurs in smoking patients at a younger age, and they have a similar risk of coronary events with patients of older age groups. The increased risk of recurrent coronary events persists with the continuation of smoking in the patient after myocardial infarction. Smoking is associated with a double risk of ischemic stroke and a 2-4-fold increase in the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk of peripheral arteries diseases in smokers is increased 3-6 times than this in non-smokers. The mechanisms of development of acute cardiovascular events during smoking include the activation of inflammation, platelet aggregation/thrombogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system, and the development of endothelial dysfunction due to exposure to tobacco smoke components.

  18. Cigarette smoke induced autophagy-impairment regulates AMD pathogenesis mechanisms in ARPE-19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Kumar Govindaraju

    Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration (AMD is one of the leading causes of blindness. Genetics, environmental insult, and age-related factors all play a key role in altering proteostasis, the homeostatic process regulating protein synthesis, degradation and processing. These factors also play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD and it has been well established that cigarette smoking (CS initiates AMD pathogenic mechanisms. The primary goal of this study is to elucidate whether CS can induce proteostasis/autophagy-impairment in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. In our preliminary analysis, it was found that cigarette smoke extract (CSE induces accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the insoluble protein fraction (p < 0.01, which was subsequently mitigated through cysteamine (p < 0.01 or fisetin (p < 0.05 treatment. Further, it was verified that these CSE induced ubiquitinated proteins accumulated in the peri-nuclear spaces (p<0.05 that were cleared- off with cysteamine (p < 0.05 or fisetin (p < 0.05. Moreover, CSE-induced aggresome-formation (LC3B-GFP and Ub-RFP co-localization and autophagy-flux impairment was significantly (p<0.01 mitigated by cysteamine (p<0.05 or fisetin (p<0.05 treatment, indicating the restoration of CSE-mediated autophagy-impairment. CSE treatment was also found to induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, p < 0.001 while impacting cell viability (p < 0.001, which was quantified using CMH2DCFDA-dye (ROS and MTS (proliferation or propodium iodide staining (cell viability assays, respectively. Moreover, cysteamine and fisetin treatment ameliorated CS-mediated ROS production (p < 0.05 and diminished cell viability (p < 0.05. Lastly, CSE was found to induce cellular senescence (p < 0.001, which was significantly ameliorated by cysteamine (p < 0.001 or fisetin (p < 0.001. In conclusion, our study indicates that CS induced proteostasis/autophagy-impairment regulates mechanisms associated with AMD pathogenesis. Moreover

  19. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly.

  20. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  1. The effects of smoking and hypertensive disorders on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irgens Lorentz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that smoking and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH are associated with decreased fetal growth. It has been reported that in preeclampsia the fetal growth deficit attributable to smoking is higher, which has been contradicted in other studies. We therefore evaluated the effects on fetal growth of early- and late onset PIH and chronic hypertension and how cigarette smoking modify these effects. We also quantified the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA cases attributable to PIH, chronic hypertension, and smoking. Methods Population-based study based on record of 215598 singleton pregnancies from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results In severe preeclampsia, mild preeclampsia, transient hypertension, and normotension in term birth, odds ratios (ORs of SGA in smokers compared with non-smokers were 1.4 (95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.2, 1.6 (1.3, 1.9, 2.3 (1.8, 3.1, and 2.0 (1.9, 2.1, respectively. For preterm births, corresponding ORs were 1.3 (0.9, 2.0, 1.8 (1.1, 3.0, 4.1 (1.9, 9.0, and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0, respectively. The effect of early onset PIH was stronger than that in term births, while the effect of smoking was equal in preterm and term newborns. Only in non-smokers who delivered at term, the rates of SGA significantly increased with the severity of PIH (ORs = 1.3 (1.1, 1.5, 1.8 (1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 (2.2, 3.0 for transient hypertension, mild-, and severe preeclampsia, respectively. The combined effects of smoking and hypertension were generally not synergistic. The effect of smoking was not stronger in women who had chronic hypertension. Nor were the effects of chronic hypertension stronger in smokers. PIH explained 21.9 and 2.5% of preterm and term cases of SGA, respectively, while smoking explained 12% of SGA cases. Conclusion The effects of hypertensive disorder and smoking were generally not synergistic, which suggest that they may exert their main actions on separate sites or work through

  2. Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenzhou, E-mail: jiangcpu@yahoo.com.cn; Bao, Qingli, E-mail: bao_ql@126.com; Sun, Lixin, E-mail: slxcpu@126.com; Huang, Xin, E-mail: huangxinhx66@sohu.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao1331@126.com; Zhang, Shuang, E-mail: cat921@sina.com; Li, Han, E-mail: hapo1101@163.com; Zhang, Luyong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn

    2013-01-15

    This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased conce