WorldWideScience

Sample records for early sexual initiation

  1. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood.

  2. Macro-level age norms for the timing of sexual initiation and adolescents' early sexual initiation in 17 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margreet; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092) a

  3. Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adulthood: Broadening the Scope Beyond Early Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. E...

  4. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  5. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thai Son

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design: A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791. Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results: Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8 at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2 at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions: The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life.

  6. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  7. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  8. Friendships and early relationships : Links to sexual initiation among American adolescents born to young mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooksey, EC; Mott, FL; Neubauer, SA

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT. Preadolescent friendships and early teenage dating relationships have implications for adolescent sexual initiation that may differ by race and gender, METHODS: Data on participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children are used to profile friendship and dating

  9. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  10. Friendships and early relationships : Links to sexual initiation among American adolescents born to young mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooksey, EC; Mott, FL; Neubauer, SA

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT. Preadolescent friendships and early teenage dating relationships have implications for adolescent sexual initiation that may differ by race and gender, METHODS: Data on participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children are used to profile friendship and dating pat

  11. Protective and risk factors of early sexual initiation in youth subcultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between subculture affiliation (Hip-hop, Technoscene, Metal, Punk, Skinheads) and early sexual initiation, and whether gender, family affluence, peer influence, lack of parental bonding and lack of parental monitoring explain this association. Methods We collecte

  12. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  13. Early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and sex-related risks among female undergraduates in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong; Xu, Delong; Xiao, Han; Cao, Yue; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the association between early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and risks among Chinese female undergraduates. Of 4769 participants, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse. The mean age of sexual debut was 19.3 (±1.7) years. Females initiating sex earlier were more likely to have first sex with men who were not their "boyfriends" and less likely to take contraception, to use a condom at first encounter, to use contraception consistently in past year, and/or to use condom consistently during the course of a sexual intercourse. They were more likely to have multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partners, to report pregnancy, and be diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases. Comprehensive early sex education should be advocated for young people, not only teaching knowledge of physical health but also providing practical skills training for making them consciously delay start of sexual activity or protecting themselves during sexual intercourse.

  14. Reasons for delaying or engaging in early sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Fatima Mamman-Daura2, Godpower Omoregie1, Jennifer Anyanti11Society for Family Health, Abuja; 2Pathfinder International/Nigeria, Kaduna Field Office, Kaduna, NigeriaBackground: Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay.Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups.Results: Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors. Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a "good" husband in the future.Conclusion: The differences

  15. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  16. Predictors of Early Initiation of Sexual Intercourse among High-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the characteristics that predicted the timing of first sexual intercourse in high-risk adolescents. Employed event history analyses and defined predictor variables using multimethod and multiagent assessments. Found that precocious sexual initiative can be understood using models of the etiology of other problem behavior, and that…

  17. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Jean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods: We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136. Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0 to 12-month (M12 and 24-month (M24 visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART. Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1 sexual activity in the past year, 2 multiple partnership in the past year, 3 unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4 risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status at last intercourse. Results: Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3. Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92, multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79, unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75 and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76. Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions: In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry

  18. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  19. Sources of Information on Sex and Antecedents of Early Sexual Initiation among Urban Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…

  20. Sources of Information on Sex and Antecedents of Early Sexual Initiation among Urban Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…

  1. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  2. Sexual Initiation, Parent Practices, and Acculturation in Hispanic Seventh Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.; Markham, Christine; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hispanic youths have high rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies, yet little research has targeted multiple protective/risk factors for early sexual initiation in this group. This study examined two main factors--parenting practices and acculturation--on early sexual initiation among Hispanic middle school students in…

  3. The socio-political context of migration and reproductive health disparities: The case of early sexual initiation among Mexican-origin immigrant young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes. I integrate data from qualitative interviews with 21 first and second generation Mexican-origin women in 2013-2014 with data from discrete time hazard models with 798 Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Qualitative results demonstrate that gender inequality and sexual expectations in Mexican-origin immigrant households are associated with structural factors. Gender inequality occurs more often in households with family instability, greater poverty, and among parents who migrated independently. Qualitative data also demonstrate that parental gendered expectations are sometimes at odds to what parents are actually doing in the household. Finally, contrary to assumptions that a patriarchal "traditional Latino culture" protects against early sexual initiation, qualitative and multivariate quantitative data suggest that household gender inequality increases risk of early sexual initiation. These findings challenge the utility of a culturalist approach that views culture as determining health behavior among immigrants and demonstrate the need to incorporate an intersectional framework that includes structural factors. This approach may reduce stereotypes and identify meaningful interventions to reduce reproductive health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling early sexual initiation among young adolescents using quantum and continuous behavior change methods: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9-12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.06, R² = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24-1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported 'very likely to have sex.' The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the usp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R² varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  6. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  7. Early sexual experience as a factor in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1978-01-01

    Using the literature of the early sexual histories of "normal" women and two recent studies on the sexual histories of prostitutes, this article examines the pattern of early sexual experience among prostitutes and how it differs from that common to nonprostitute women. Some significant differences found between the samples of prostitutes and the samples of "normal" women were that the prostitute samples, on the whole, learned less about sex from parents and more from personal experiences, as children experienced more sexual advances by elders, were more victimized by incest, generally initiated sexual activity at a younger age, more often had no further relationship with their first coital partner, and experienced a higher incidence of rape. The analysis of these data on early sexual history concentrates on abusive sexual experiences such as incest and rape. The authors believe that an abusive sexual self-identity relates to the development of an adult female pattern of occupational deviance such as prostitution.

  8. Early sexual experience and prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1977-12-01

    The authors compared several aspects of early sexual experience found in two earlier studies of prostitutes with results of research on "normal" women. The prostitutes had in common many negative experiences not found or found less often in other populations of young women. These include incestuous and/or coerced sex, lack parental guidance, intercouse at a young age, and few or no meaningful relationships with males. These women had discovered that sex could lead to a kind of status, even though that status is negatively labeled by the wider culture. In a society that values women on the basis of their sexuality, a woman who views herself as "debased" may see prostitution as a viable alternative--perhaps the only alternative.

  9. Determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce de jovens pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados em 2004-5 os indivíduos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas (RS, em 1982 (N=4.297. A iniciação sexual precoce (OBJETIVO: Analizar las determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz de jóvenes pertenecientes a una cohorte de nacimientos. MÉTODOS: Fueron entrevistados en 2004-5 los individuos de la cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas (Sur de Brasil, en 1982 (N= 4.297. La iniciación sexual precoz (OBJECTIVE: To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297 were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (<13 years of age was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult's level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5. Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS: Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health

  10. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Is Your Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Understanding Early Sexual Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Early Sexual Development Print ...

  11. Initiation, Desistance, and Persistence of Men's Sexual Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Degarmo, David S.; Eap, Sopagna; Teten, Andra L.; Sue, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of sexually coercive behavior were examined among 266 Asian American and 299 European American men over 1 year. Noncoercer (n = 358), desister (n = 120), initiator (n = 39), and persistent (n = 48) sexually coercive groups were identified. The strongest predictor of sexual coercion was past sexual coercion. Persistent sexual coercers were…

  12. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  13. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  14. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Graaf, H.; Schoot, A.G.J. van de; Woertman, L.; Hawk, S.T.; Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12–17 at Wave 1, completed questionnair...

  15. Rap Music Use, Perceived Peer Behavior, and Sexual Initiation Among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Baker, Kimberly A; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth; Swain, Honora; Emery, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that rap music use is associated with risky sexual behavior in ethnic minority youth; however, it is unknown whether rap music use impacts sexual initiation specifically and, if so, which factors mediate this impact. Thus, we investigated the longitudinal relationship between hours spent listening to rap music in seventh grade and sexual initiation in ninth grade. We also examined the role of perceived peer sexual behavior as a potential mediator of this relationship. We analyzed data from students (n = 443) enrolled in a school-based randomized controlled trial of a sexual health education curriculum collected at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Rap music use and perceived peer sexual behavior were assessed in seventh grade, whereas sexual initiation was assessed in ninth grade. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. At baseline, rap music use was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, parental music rules, and sexual behavior, but not with gender or parental education. Rap music use was a significant predictor of sexual initiation on univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. Mediation analysis showed that the association between hours spent listening to rap music and sexual initiation was significantly mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. Rap music use in early adolescence significantly impacts sexual initiation in late adolescence, partially mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. More research is needed to understand how rap music influences perceptions of peer sexual behavior, which, in turn, influence early sexual initiation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual initiation and emotional/behavioral problems in Taiwanese adolescents: a multivariate response profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.

  17. Mother– and Father–Adolescent Relationships and Early Sexual Intercourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Wijtzes, A.; Raat, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prospective associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality and early sexual intercourse initiation (ie, ≤16 years) among a large sample of Dutch adolescents. METHODS: Two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study

  18. An Abstinence Program's Impact on Cognitive Mediators and Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Stan E.; Ericksen, Irene H.; Lewis, Allen; Grant, Gale E.; Wibberly, Kathy H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of an abstinence education program on sexual intercourse initiation and on possible cognitive mediators of sexual initiation for virgin seventh graders in suburban Virginia. Methods: Measures of sexual behavior and 6 mediating variables were compared at 3 time periods for program participants and a matched…

  19. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in early anthropoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, J G; Kay, R F; Simons, E L

    1980-09-25

    Sexual dimorphism in canine/premolar tooth size and in body size is found among many species of living primates and has been shown to be correlated with social organization. Among extant higher primate species that normally live in the nuclear families consisting of a mated pair with their offspring, adult males and females are similar in body size and in the size of canine and anterior premolar teeth. In contrast, higher primate species living in more 'complex' polygynous groups (either single-male harems or multi-male groups) are characterized by sexual dimorphism in the size of canine/premolar teeth and frequently by body size dimorphism as well. We provide here the first evidence for sexual dimorphism in three species of primates from the Oligocene of Egypt--Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, Propliopithecus chirobates, and Apidium phiomense. This is the earliest record of sexual dimorphism among higher primates and suggests, by analogy with living species, that the earliest known fossil Old World anthropoids lived in polygynous (either single-male harems or multi-male groups) rather than monogamous social groups.

  1. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  2. Migration experience and premarital sexual initiation in urban Kenya: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2012-06-01

    Migration during the formative adolescent years can affect important life-course transitions, including the initiation of sexual activity. In this study, we use life history calendar data to investigate the relationship between changes in residence and timing of premarital sexual debut among young people in urban Kenya. By age 18, 64 percent of respondents had initiated premarital sex, and 45 percent had moved at least once between the ages of 12 and 18. Results of the event history analysis show that girls and boys who move during early adolescence experience the earliest onset of sexual activity. For adolescent girls, however, other dimensions of migration provide protective effects, with greater numbers of residential changes and residential changes in the last one to three months associated with later sexual initiation. To support young people's ability to navigate the social, economic, and sexual environments that accompany residential change, researchers and policymakers should consider how various dimensions of migration affect sexual activity.

  3. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  4. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  5. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  6. Attachment style, early sexual intercourse, and dating aggression victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkovsky, Nicole; Timmons Fritz, Patti A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined relations between attachment style, age at first sexual intercourse, and dating aggression (DA) victimization. In all, 137 heterosexual female undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age (M = 20.76, SD = 1.87) completed an online questionnaire that included questions regarding sexual history, attachment style (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale), and DA (Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations revealed that women reported higher rates of DA victimization if they were more anxiously attached (r = .30, p = .000), had an earlier age at vaginal sexual debut (r = -.19, p = .015), and had an earlier age at oral sexual debut (r = -.15, p = .046); however, when entered into a predictive multivariate model, neither the addition of anxious attachment nor an early age at sexual debut accounted for a significant amount of variance above and beyond control variables. Although we were unable to affirm anxious attachment and an early age at first intercourse as risk factors for DA victimization, posthoc analyses emphasized the need to control for social desirability when gathering information on sensitive topics in clinical and research settings.

  7. Influence of Older Siblings on Initiation of Sexual Intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether older siblings (as orientational others) influence the timing of younger siblings' first intercourse. Results, based on 183 pairs of independent interviews, indicate that older brothers' sexual behavior has a significant influence on the timing of young siblings' initiation of sexual intercourse. Addresses the interaction of these…

  8. The Role of Communication with Friends in Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Peter; Fishbein, Martin; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism through which communication with friends about sex influences sexual initiation in a sample of adolescents. The Integrative Model was used to assess the effect of attitudes, normative pressure and self efficacy on intentions to have sex in a sample of virgin adolescents. Results show that the constructs of the theory partially mediated the effect of communication with friends on subsequent sexual initiation. The effect of communication with friend...

  9. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections. Initiatives for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Parsons, Amanda; Kang, Melissa; Williams, Henrietta; Fairley, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are responsible for a significant burden of disease in both developed and developing countries and young people are disproportionately affected by STIs and their consequences. STI rates in young people are determined by a wide range of well documented influences. These include physiological, cognitive and behavioural factors, as well as environmental factors such as the social, and cultural context in which young people live. Despite the erecognition of these influences, their complex inter-relationships are less well documented and the evidence for interventions to reduce STIs in young people is similarly less clear. This paper explore tht most important factors that impact STI rates in young people in Australia and reviews interventions that have shown success, in Australia and elsewhere. In addition, promising strategies for the promotion of sexual health and reduction of STIs in young Australians, are discussed.

  11. Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2014-10-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally.

  12. The Effects of Early first Sexual Intercourse amongst Lesotho Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Effects of Early Sexual Debut ... Abstract. Age at first sexual intercourse may be a predictor of future sexual behaviour and an important indicator for exposure to HIV transmission. ... technology in mobile phones is improving on a daily basis, children are able to download ... had not received sex education before first sex11.

  13. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Johnson, BS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward sexual health among participating medical students. Potential benefits to undergraduate medical educators are reviewed. Johnson K, Rullo J, and Faubion S. Student-initiated sexual health selective as a curricular tool. Sex Med 2015;3:118–127.

  14. "Saving Sex for Later": Developing a Parent-Child Communication Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…

  15. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  16. Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: a global review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-03-01

    Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman's risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n = 21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection.

  17. Uganda: early marriage as a form of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that early marriage is a form of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV with detrimental physical, social and economic effects. Policymakers need to focus on the complex interactions between education, early marriage and sexual violence.

  18. When Two Isn't Better than One: Predictors of Early Sexual Activity in Adolescence Using a Cumulative Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age…

  19. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  20. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  1. Early adolescent sexual debut in peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickaite, Ruta; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adolescent sexual activity is considered a normative aspect of adolescent development and the transition to adulthood, however, there are potential risks involved when adolescents start having sex, such as teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and undesirable long-term

  2. Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: A global review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2013-01-01

    Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most s...

  3. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naive males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naive animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naive animals.

  4. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  5. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  6. Rethinking sexual initiation: pathways to identity formation among gay and bisexual Mexican male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups.

  7. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  8. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA's data analysis on sexuality and contraception

  9. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  10. Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex att...

  11. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…

  12. Early sexual intercourse: Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avelar e Silva, R.N. (Raquel Nogueira); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); Van De Bongardt, D. (Daphne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); R. Bannink (Rienke); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study c

  13. Early sexual intercourse : Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; Wijtzes, A.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Bannink, R.; Raat, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in

  14. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T.; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  15. Internal migration and health: premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna; White, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The high rates of youth migration to urban and economic centers, in the context of persistent poverty and devastating HIV/AIDS burden, have raised intricate social policy challenges in developing countries. Using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and discrete-time hazard regression models, this study examines the patterns of internal migration and sexual initiation among never-married Nigerian youth aged 15-24. We find that migrants generally show stronger association than non-migrants, and urban-rural and rural-rural migrants particularly show the strongest independent association with premarital sexual initiation. Other significant covariates are age, religion, ethnic origin, educational attainment, independent living arrangement, formal employment and exposure to the mass media. The findings highlight the direct importance of youth migration in understanding and addressing the challenges of premarital sexual behavior and the need for behavior change policies and programs to be sensitive to the complex contextual nuances across youth groups in one country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent sexual dysfunction after early exposure to SSRIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anders Lykkemark; Danborg, Pia Brandt; Gøtzsche, Peter Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is a common adverse effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and there is a concern that the sexual harms might persist after discontinuation of therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the use of SSRIs in animals can lead to persistent sexual dysfunct.......74; 95% CI = 0.60-0.92) and no ejaculation behaviour (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.24-1.00). CONCLUSION: Our results showed substantial and lasting effects on sexual behaviour in rats after exposure to an SSRI early in life on important sexual outcomes.......BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is a common adverse effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and there is a concern that the sexual harms might persist after discontinuation of therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the use of SSRIs in animals can lead to persistent sexual...... dysfunction. METHODS: Systematic review of animal studies measuring sexual behaviour after end of treatment with SSRIs or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: We included 14 studies. The general quality of the studies was poor. Only four studies...

  17. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  18. Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Råberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'.

  19. Heterosexual daters' sexual initiation behaviors: use of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior.

  20. Membrane–initiated estradiol signaling regulating sexual receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Micevych

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.

  1. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  2. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Initiation into New-Type Drug Use among a Sample of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; He, Na; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between adolescent sexual debut and age at new-type drug initiation among a sample of young adult new-type drug users. A total of 276 participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Shanghai, China. The analyses were restricted to a total of 201 participants aged between 18 and 30 years. The average age at sexual debut and age at first new-type drug use were 18.8 and 20.9 years, respectively. About 94% of participants reported having sexual experience (n=188); of those, 137 (72.9%) had sexual debut before they first used new-type drugs, while 32 (17.0%) initiated both events at the same age. After adjustment for age, income, education, and sexual orientation, adolescent sexual debut was independently associated with younger age at new-type drug initiation. Adolescent sexual debut is associated with early onset of new-type drug use. Our findings underscore the importance of implementing sex-education programs for adolescents in schools in China.

  3. Maternal Influences on Asian American–Pacific Islander Adolescents’ Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents’ sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American–Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and model. Maternal perceived connectedness and adolescents’ perceived maternal sexual expectations in sexual timing are found to be protective for delaying...

  4. Change in sexual activity 12 months after ART initiation among HIV-positive Mozambicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan; Kurth, Ann E; Montoya, Pablo; Micek, Mark A; Gloyd, Stephen S

    2011-05-01

    We assessed sexual behaviors before and 12-months after ART initiation among 277 Mozambicans attending an HIV clinic. Measured behaviors included the number of sexual partners, condom use, concurrent relationships, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, and partners' serostatus. Compared to before ART initiation, increases were seen 12 months after ART in the proportion of participants who were sexually active (48% vs. 64% respondents, P initiation. Although reported correct and consist condom use increased, the number of unprotected sexual relationships remained the same (n = 45). Non-disclosure of HIV-serostatus to sexual partners was the only significant predictor of practicing unprotected sex with partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus. Sexual activity among HIV-positive persons on ART increased 12 months after ART initiation. Ongoing secondary transmission prevention programs addressing sexual activity with multiple partners, disclosure to partners and consistent condom use with serodisconcordant partners must be incorporated throughout HIV care programs.

  5. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  6. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention.

  7. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  8. Early evolution of sexual dimorphism and polygyny in Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas M; Fraser, Danielle; Rybczynski, Natalia; Schröder-Adams, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection is one of the earliest areas of interest in evolutionary biology. And yet, the evolutionary history of sexually dimorphic traits remains poorly characterized for most vertebrate lineages. Here, we report on evidence for the early evolution of dimorphism within a model mammal group, the pinnipeds. Pinnipeds show a range of sexual dimorphism and mating systems that span the extremes of modern mammals, from monomorphic taxa with isolated and dispersed mating to extreme size dimorphism with highly ordered polygynous harem systems. In addition, the degree of dimorphism in pinnipeds is closely tied to mating system, with strongly dimorphic taxa always exhibiting a polygynous system, and more monomorphic taxa possessing weakly polygynous systems. We perform a comparative morphological description, and provide evidence of extreme sexual dimorphism (similar to sea lions), in the Miocene-aged basal pinniped taxon Enaliarctos emlongi. Using a geometric morphometric approach and combining both modern and fossil taxa we show a close correlation between mating system and sex-related cranial dimorphism, and also reconstruct the ancestral mating system of extant pinnipeds as highly polygynous. The results suggest that sexual dimorphism and extreme polygyny in pinnipeds arose by 27 Ma, in association with changing climatic conditions. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Changes in the timing of sexual initiation among young Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail

    2009-12-01

    Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with

  10. Military Personnel: DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault During Initial Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    supervisory or command position who uses or condones any form of sexual behavior to control, influence , or affect the career, pay, or job of a military...in the armed forces must have signed parental consent prior to age 18. Page 37 GAO-14-806 Sexual Assault during Initial Training...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault during Initial Military Training

  11. Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Beth A; Perfect, Michelle M; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2007-06-01

    We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves.

  12. Immigrant Generation and Sexual Initiation Among a Diverse Racial/Ethnic Group of Urban Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana

    2016-04-21

    Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.

  13. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Sexual Initiation Among East Asian Youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Wong, Sabrina T; Zumbo, Bruno D; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    Despite the large number of East Asian youth in Canada, little is known about their health and risk behaviors. We examined the relationship between ethnic identity and sexual initiation among East Asians. This secondary analysis of a population-based survey selected 4,311 students in 7-12th grades who described themselves as East Asian (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Gender-stratified logistic regression analyses examined whether ethnic identity was associated with sexual initiation, controlling for age, living situation, and cultural exposure. Boys with stronger commitment to their ethnic groups were less likely to have ever had sexual intercourse (aOR 0.80). Girls with higher levels of ethnic identity exploration were less likely to report sexual initiation (aOR 0.71). Stronger ethnic identity was associated with not having sexual intercourse among East Asian adolescents. The findings suggest the need to consider ethnocultural factors in future research and practice.

  15. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published in Polish…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  17. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  18. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents’ initiation of romantic and sexual activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; Beyens, I.; Vangeel, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2016-01-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting

  19. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents’ initiation of romantic and sexual activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; Beyens, I.; Vangeel, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2016-01-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting

  20. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  1. Basic instinct undressed: early spatiotemporal processing for primary sexual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Lore B; Del Zotto, Marzia; Tyrand, Rémi; Pegna, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations) or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations). The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success.

  2. Sexual Reproduction in Higher Plants Ⅰ: Fertilization and the Initiation of Zygotic Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Feng Fan; Li Jiang; Hua-Qin Gong; Chun-Ming Liu

    2008-01-01

    Sexual plant reproduction is a critical developmental step in the life cycle of higher plants, to allow maternal and paternal genes to be transmitted in a highly regulated manner to the next generation. During evolution, a whole set of signal transduction machinery is developed by plants to ensure an error-free recognition between male and female gametes and initiation of zygotic program. In the past few years, the molecular machineries underlying this biological process have been elucidated, particularly on the importance of synergid cells in pollen tube guidance, the Ca++ spike as the immediate response of fertilization and the epigenetic regulation of parental gene expressions in early zygotic embryogenesis. This review outlines the most recent development in this area.

  3. Sexuality (and Lack Thereof) in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin

    2016-03-17

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward.

  4. Sexuality (and Lack Thereof) in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward. PMID:26999225

  5. Initial psychometric properties of a treatment planning and progress inventory for adolescents who sexually abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Brent J; Burns, G Leonard; Kahn, Timothy J; Rich, Phil; Worling, James R

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the initial psychometric properties of a treatment planning and progress inventory for adolescents with sexual behavior problems, the Treatment Progress Inventory for Adolescents Who Sexually Abuse (TPI-ASA). The TPI-ASA was designed to monitor common elements of specialized treatment for youth with sexual behavior problems. The TPI-ASA measures nine dimensions relevant to the evaluation and treatment of adolescents with sexual behavior problems (inappropriate sexual behavior, healthy sexuality, social competency, cognitions supportive of sexual abuse, attitudes supportive of sexual abuse, victim awareness, affective/behavioral regulation, risk prevention awareness, and positive family caregiver dynamics). Members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers completed the TPI-ASA with 90 male adolescents with sexual behavior problems as part of a psychosexual evaluation. The preliminary findings provided support for the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the dimensions. Suggestions are offered for additional research on the TPI-ASA and its potential as a clinical tool.

  6. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  8. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  9. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  10. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  11. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  12. Unwanted Sexual Activity among Peers during Early and Middle Adolescence: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell

    1993-01-01

    Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…

  13. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children.

  14. Basic instinct undressed: early spatiotemporal processing for primary sexual characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore B Legrand

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations. The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success.

  15. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  16. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors as Predictors of Sexual Onset in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boislard, Marie-Aude P.; Dussault, Frédéric; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study had three goals: (a) assessing the predictive association of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during childhood with sexual onset during early adolescence; (b) examining the interactive link of externalizing and internalizing behaviors with early sexual onset; and (c) investigating the moderating effect of gender in this…

  17. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  18. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  19. Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

    2008-05-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.

  20. The association between sequences of sexual initiation and the likelihood of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bianka M; Haydon, Abigail A; Herring, Amy H; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have examined the health and developmental consequences, including unintended pregnancy, of different sexual behavior initiation sequences. Some work suggests that engaging in oral-genital sex first may slow the transition to coital activity and lead to more consistent contraception among adolescents. Using logistic regression analysis, we investigated the association between sequences of sexual initiation (i.e., initiating oral-genital or vaginal sex first based on reported age of first experience) and the likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy among 6,069 female respondents who reported vaginal sex before age 20 years and participated in waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among female respondents initiating vaginal sex first, 31.4% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating two behaviors at the same age, 20.5% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating oral-genital sex first, 7.9% reported a teen pregnancy. In multivariate models, initiating oral-genital sex first, with a delay of at least 1 year to vaginal sex, and initiating two behaviors within the same year were each associated with a lower likelihood of adolescent pregnancy relative to teens who initiated vaginal sex first (odds ratio = .23, 95% confidence interval: .15-.37; and odds ratio = .78, 95% confidence interval: .60-.92, respectively). How adolescents begin their sexual lives may be differentially related to positive and negative health outcomes. To develop effective pregnancy prevention efforts for teens and ensure programs are relevant to youths' needs, it is important to consider multiple facets of sexual initiation and their implications for adolescent sexual health and fertility. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a scale to measure adolescents' beliefs and attitudes about postponing sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jessica A; Huang, Bin; Austin, S Bryn; Aweh, Gideon N; Colditz, Graham A; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2004-11-01

    To develop a scale to measure adolescent beliefs and attitudes about postponing sexual initiation (PSI). A theory-based, 12-item scale measuring beliefs about PSI was developed and administered via a mailed questionnaire to those participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of adolescents who had not yet initiated sexual intercourse. Internal consistency reliability, content validity, factorial validity, and construct validity were assessed using cross-sectional data. Mean age for boys was 14.4 (+/- 1.6) years and for girls 14.3 (+/-1.6) years (range 11 to 19 years), and 93% of respondents were white. The beliefs about PSI rated as most important by both girls and boys were concern about pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Cronbach alpha for the scale was 0.83 for girls and 0.88 for boys. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the items loaded on four factors consistent with the theoretical basis of the model and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit of the overall model. The PSI scale score was associated with hypothesized sociodemographic, psychological, and behavioral variables, supporting construct validity of the scale. A higher score was associated with female gender; age global and social self-esteem; more frequent attendance at religious services; less peer pressure to have sexual intercourse; nonuse of alcohol, illicit drugs, and cigarettes; and no intention to initiate sexual intercourse in the next year. The PSI scale demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties. Future research is needed to evaluate the utility of this scale in predicting sexual initiation and in interventions aimed at postponing sexual initiation.

  2. Factors predicting the probability of initiating sexual intercourse by context and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Despite men initiating sex more than women there is considerable variance within the sexes. This study is the first to consider the impact of multiple predictors from the literature, and investigates how factors, such as relationship length, sociosexuality, and different aspects of self-perceived mate value among others, independently and interactively predict initiation of sexual intercourse in both short-term sexual and long-term romantic mating contexts, testing predictions from Sexual strategies theory. For long-term relationships, positive partner bond increased initiative to sexual intercourse for women. For men, self-perceived independence increased probability of taking the initiative, while relationship attachment decreased probability. For short-term relations, the desire component of the sociosexual orientation inventory increased probability of initiation for both sexes, while male initiative was increased by pleasure reasons for sex. The impact of individual predictors on initiating intercourse is influenced by being included in a multidimensional model, and relationship context affects the impact of the predictors.

  3. Neighborhood Poverty and Early Transition to Sexual Activity in Young Adolescents: A Developmental Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15…

  4. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  5. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Khanal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2% reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices.

  6. Sexual Initiation and Complex Recent Polydrug Use Patterns Among Male Sex Workers in Vietnam: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gary; Goldsamt, Lloyd A; Clatts, Michael C; Giang, Lê Minh

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the age of onset of sexual and drug risk and their association with complex patterns of recent drug use among male sex workers (MSW) in a developing country, such as Vietnam. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis (LCA) would aid in the detection of current individual and polydrug use combinations to predict how different trajectories of sexual and drug initiation contribute to different patterns of current illicit drug use. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey administered to young MSWs between 2010 and 2011 in Vietnam (N = 710). LCA clustered participants into recent drug use groups, incorporating both the specific types and overall count of different drugs used. Men reported drug use within a 1 month period from an 11-item drug use list. LCA identified three distinct drug use classes: (1) alcohol use, (2) alcohol and tobacco use, and (3) high polydrug use. The current drug use classes are associated with sex worker status, housing stability, income level, educational attainment, marital status, sexual identity, and sexual preferences. High levels of drug use are strongly associated with being a recent sex worker, not having recent stable housing, higher than median income, more than a high school education, less likely to be currently in school and more likely to have non-homosexual preferences and heterosexual partners. An event history analysis approach (time-event displays) examined the timing of the age of onset of drug and sexual risks. Early ages of drug and sexual initiation are seen for all three classes. High current drug users show earlier onset of these risks, which are significantly delayed for moderate and low current drug users. LCA incorporating an overall count of different drugs detected three distinct current drug use classes. The data illustrates that the complexity of drug factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity

  7. Does early sexual debut reduce teenagers' participation in tertiary education? Evidence from the SHARE longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion; West, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Negative effects of early sexual debut on academic outcomes can extend beyond secondary school, although concurrent changes in other psychosocial risk factors have not been investigated. Data from three waves of a longitudinal survey of Scottish teenagers were used to examine associations between early sexual debut (first heterosexual intercourse) and both expectations for (N = 5,061) and participation in (N = 2,130) tertiary education at college or university. Early debut was associated with...

  8. Factors of early trauma in the development of sexual anomalies in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselova M.L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the activities of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, in 2013 reports have been published on investigations of sexual offenses (Article 131 and 132 of the Criminal Code at 10,228 cases. [12] In 2002, 8117 cases were investigated on these articles. [3] During the decade, the number of such offenses increased by more than 20 percent. Increasing the number of sexual offenses, their frequency and risk of relapse necessitated studying the problems of people with sexual disorders. But, in spite of numerous studies, currently not all subjects in this sphere have received the same attention. The problem of sexual assault has been relatively recently considered with the use of modern achievements of psychiatry and sexuality. In this regard, the influence of factors such as early trauma is currently still poorly understood. Our paper is devoted to the study of early trauma factors and their role in the development of sexual anomalies in men. The article contains a review of contemporary Russian and foreign literature on this topic. We also carried out an analytical and theoretical study of cases of subjects who have committed crimes of a sexual nature. This review helped to assess the role of factors of early trauma and showed how these factors can influence the development of various sexual abnormalities. In addition, we revealed the main biologically conditioned factors of early trauma and traced their influence on the development of sexual paraphilias.

  9. Are female orphans at risk for early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tia; Peterman, Amber

    2009-06-01

    Female orphans are widely cited as being at risk for early marriage, early childbearing, and risky sexual behavior; however, to date no studies have examined these linkages using population-level data across multiple countries. This study draws from recent Demographic and Health Surveys from ten sub-Saharan African countries to examine the relationship between orphanhood status and measures of early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy among adolescent girls aged 15 to 17. Results indicate that, overall, little association is found between orphanhood and early marriage or teen pregnancy, whereas evidence from seven countries supports associations between orphanhood and early sexual debut. Findings are sensitive to the use of multivariate models, type of orphan, and country setting. Orphanhood status alone may not be a sufficient targeting mechanism for addressing these outcomes in many countries; a broader, multidimensional targeting scheme including orphan type, schooling, and poverty measures would be more robust in identifying and aiding young women at risk.

  10. Psychosocial Processes and Sexual Initiation among Ghanaian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Posner, Jessica; Williams, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study models primary abstinence and age at first sex in a cross-sectional sample of Ghanaian youth aged 17 to 22 years. The aim is to examine how reproductive knowledge and social cognitive factors jointly affect the choice to initiate sex. Among males, the authors find that reproductive knowledge is negatively associated with abstinence. Its…

  11. Psychosocial Processes and Sexual Initiation among Ghanaian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Posner, Jessica; Williams, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study models primary abstinence and age at first sex in a cross-sectional sample of Ghanaian youth aged 17 to 22 years. The aim is to examine how reproductive knowledge and social cognitive factors jointly affect the choice to initiate sex. Among males, the authors find that reproductive knowledge is negatively associated with abstinence. Its…

  12. Early stage cervical cancer, radical hysterectomy and sexual function: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine

    Background: Limited knowledge exists regarding the impact of treatment on the sexual function of early stage cervical cancer patients. We investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after radical hysterectomy (RH) alone. Methods: 173 patients with lymph node-negative early......-surgery, the patients completed an extended version of the questionnaire with additional items assessing the patient’s perception of changes in sexual function compared with before the cancer diagnosis. Results: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual...... intercourse due to a reduced vaginal size during the first 6 months after RH, severe dyspareunia during the first 3 months, and sexual dissatisfaction during the first 5 weeks after RH. A persistent lack of sexual interest and insufficient vaginal lubrication were reported throughout the first 2 years after...

  13. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  14. Sexuality (and lack thereof) in adolescence and early adulthood: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Aude Boislard; Daphne van de Bongardt; Martin Blais

    2016-01-01

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside ...

  15. Sexual experience promotes adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus despite an initial elevation in stress hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Leuner

    Full Text Available Aversive stressful experiences are typically associated with increased anxiety and a predisposition to develop mood disorders. Negative stress also suppresses adult neurogenesis and restricts dendritic architecture in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with anxiety regulation. The effects of aversive stress on hippocampal structure and function have been linked to stress-induced elevations in glucocorticoids. Normalizing corticosterone levels prevents some of the deleterious consequences of stress, including increased anxiety and suppressed structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Here we examined whether a rewarding stressor, namely sexual experience, also adversely affects hippocampal structure and function in adult rats. Adult male rats were exposed to a sexually-receptive female once (acute or once daily for 14 consecutive days (chronic and levels of circulating glucocorticoids were measured. Separate cohorts of sexually experienced rats were injected with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine in order to measure cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, brains were processed using Golgi impregnation to assess the effects of sexual experience on dendritic spines and dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. Finally, to evaluate whether sexual experience alters hippocampal function, rats were tested on two tests of anxiety-like behavior: novelty suppressed feeding and the elevated plus maze. We found that acute sexual experience increased circulating corticosterone levels and the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. Chronic sexual experience no longer produced an increase in corticosterone levels but continued to promote adult neurogenesis and stimulate the growth of dendritic spines and dendritic architecture. Chronic sexual experience also reduced anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest that a rewarding experience not only buffers against the deleterious actions of early elevated

  16. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  17. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  18. Contextual and Developmental Predictors of Sexual Initiation Timing among Mexican-Origin Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Greene, Kaylin M.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Noah, Aggie J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin girls (ages 11-17 at Time 1), we examined sociocultural (i.e., family structure, nativity, and acculturation), interpersonal (i.e., supportive parenting and conflict), and developmental (i.e., menarche timing and autonomy expectations) predictors of sexual initiation. Using Cox proportional…

  19. Antecedents of the initiation of watching sexually explicit Internet material: A longitudinal study among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; Peter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Little research to date has focused on adolescents’ initiation of watching sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and its antecedents. Based on 400 adolescents who had never watched SEIM at baseline (in a three-wave panel study among 1,467 13–17-year-old Dutch adolescents), we examined

  20. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared

  1. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared to

  2. Preadolescent Parenting Strategies and Teens' Dating and Sexual Initiation: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines effects of preadolescent parenting strategies on timing of adolescents' dating and sexual initiation using data from two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988 and 1992-1994). Findings suggest parental monitoring prior to the onset of adolescence is important as a basic foundation for young people…

  3. Disruptive behaviors and early sexual intercourse: The GAZEL Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-05-30

    Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.

  4. Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence in Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Mimi H.; Pines, Ayala M.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 200 female street prostitutes to determine whether they were sexually exploited during childhood. Results showed 60 percent of the subjects were sexually exploited. The few girls who discussed their abuse with others were met with shame and most often inaction. Only 10 percent were abused by strangers. (JAC)

  5. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  6. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2014-01-01

    : Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS...

  7. Early-stage cervical carcinoma, radical hysterectomy, and sexual function. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Groenvold, Mogens; Klee, Marianne C

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists concerning the impact of radical hysterectomy (RH) alone on the sexual function of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. The authors investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after RH. METHODS: The current study was comprised...... with an age-matched control group from the general population. RESULTS: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual intercourse due to a reduced vaginal size during the first 6 months after RH, severe dyspareunia during the first 3 months, and sexual...

  8. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  10. Sexual Dimorphism in the Early Embryogenesis in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhsud Tagirov

    Full Text Available Sex-specific gene expression before the onset of gonadogensis has been documented in embryos of mammals and chickens. In several mammalian species, differences in gene expression are accompanied by faster growth of pre-implantation male embryos. Here we asked whether avian embryos before gonadal differentiation are also sex-dimorphic in size and what genes regulate their growth. We used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata whose freshly laid eggs were artificially incubated for 36-40 hours. Analyses controlling for the exact time of incubation of 81 embryos revealed that males were larger than females in terms of Hamburger and Hamilton stage and number of somites. Expression of 15 genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth, metabolic activity, steroidogenic pathway and stress modulation were measured using RT-PCR in 5 male and 5 female embryos incubated for exactly 36 h. We found that in the presence of equal levels of the growth hormone itself, the faster growth of male embryos is most likely achieved by the overexpression of the growth hormone receptor gene and three other genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and metabolism, all of them located on the Z chromosome. Autosomal genes did not show sex-specific expression, except for the steroidogenic factor 1 which was expressed only in female embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report of sexual size dimorphism before gonadogenesis in birds. The finding suggests that faster growth of early male embryos is conserved through the mammalian and bird phyla, irrespective of their differential sex chromosome systems.

  11. Sexual Dimorphism in the Early Embryogenesis in Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagirov, Makhsud; Rutkowska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific gene expression before the onset of gonadogensis has been documented in embryos of mammals and chickens. In several mammalian species, differences in gene expression are accompanied by faster growth of pre-implantation male embryos. Here we asked whether avian embryos before gonadal differentiation are also sex-dimorphic in size and what genes regulate their growth. We used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose freshly laid eggs were artificially incubated for 36-40 hours. Analyses controlling for the exact time of incubation of 81 embryos revealed that males were larger than females in terms of Hamburger and Hamilton stage and number of somites. Expression of 15 genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth, metabolic activity, steroidogenic pathway and stress modulation were measured using RT-PCR in 5 male and 5 female embryos incubated for exactly 36 h. We found that in the presence of equal levels of the growth hormone itself, the faster growth of male embryos is most likely achieved by the overexpression of the growth hormone receptor gene and three other genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and metabolism, all of them located on the Z chromosome. Autosomal genes did not show sex-specific expression, except for the steroidogenic factor 1 which was expressed only in female embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report of sexual size dimorphism before gonadogenesis in birds. The finding suggests that faster growth of early male embryos is conserved through the mammalian and bird phyla, irrespective of their differential sex chromosome systems.

  12. The Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2010-01-01

    We determine an absolute calibration of the initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies, by studying a sample of 56 gravitational lenses identified by the Sloan Lenses ACS Survey. Under the assumption of standard Navarro, Frenk, and White dark matter halos, a combination of lensing, dynamical

  13. Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: an initial meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Moore, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of bystander education programs for preventing sexual assault in college communities. Undergraduates trained in bystander education for sexual assault were expected to report more favorable attitudes, behavioral proclivities, and actual behaviors relative to untrained controls. Data from 12 studies of college students (N = 2,926) were used to calculate 32 effect sizes. Results suggested moderate effects of bystander education on both bystander efficacy and intentions to help others at risk. Smaller but significant effects were observed regarding self-reported bystander helping behaviors, (lower) rape-supportive attitudes, and (lower) rape proclivity, but not perpetration. These results provide initial support for the effectiveness of in-person bystander education training. Nonetheless, future longitudinal research evaluating behavioral outcomes and sexual assault incidence is needed.

  14. A systematic review on identifying risk factors associated with early sexual debut and coerced sex among adolescents and young people in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina Lai Tong; Yuen Loke, Alice; Hung, Tsz Man Tommy; Sobel, Howard

    2017-06-21

    To review literature on identifying the risk factors associated with early sexual coerced debut with the aim to facilitate the health care workers' planning of relevant health services to improve intervention strategies for delaying of early coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in the communities. Identifying the risk factors associated with coercion at first sex is crucial for developing appropriate sexual and reproductive health information and health promotion in response. However, current knowledge about the risk factors associated with coercion, sexual debut (SD), and delayed SD among young people is limited. Health information programs are important during adolescence, when young people are developing their values and beliefs about sexual activity and sexual norms. However, little is known about those risk factors on initiation of early sexual debut in order to plan relevant interventions that can delay SD and prevent coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in this population. A systematic review. An extensive literature search using Medline (PubMed), Nursing Journals (PubMed), Web of Science, PsychINFO and CINAHL. The search generated 39 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two articles passed the quality appraisal and were selected. This review identified six domains of risk factors, categorized as: (1) the individual domain, (2) the family domain, (3) the partner/peer domain, (4) the school domain, (5) the community domain, and (6) the cultural domain. These factors highlight the influences on sexual decision-making among adolescents and young people and the timing of their first sexual intercourse. It is important to utilize the outcome of this review's categorization of identified risk factors to facilitate the health care workers and plan relevant sexual and reproductive health programs more accessible to adolescents, especially young females and their parents. There is a need to evaluate

  15. Sexual communication between early adolescents and their dating partners, parents, and best friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends--and the interaction between parent and friend communication--was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions.

  16. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-12-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14-15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  17. Early Sexual Debut and Associated Factors among In-school Adolescents in Six Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (< age 15 years) among 15-year old in-school adolescents in six Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: The total sample included 9948 school children aged primarily 13–16 years from nationally representative samples from six Caribbean countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and substance use, unintentional injuries and violence, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socio-economic status variables. Results: Approximately one-fourth of the sample (26.9%) had experienced sexual debut before age 15 years, 37.2% among boys and 16.9% among girls. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that male gender, substance use (smoking and alcohol use), having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, sedentary behaviour, truancy and lack of parental or guardian attachment were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut. The risk factors identified were consistent with the Problem Behaviour Theory, which can be incorporated into broader sexual health promotion programmes. PMID:26624586

  18. Development and implementation of mass media campaigns to delay sexual initiation among African American and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip; Cupp, Pamela K; Floyd, Brenikki R; Mehrotra, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors' research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages.

  19. Prospective association between negative life events and initiation of sexual intercourse: the influence of family structure and family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L; John, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n=649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure.

  20. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  1. A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sexual offenders: Part 1. Early developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, D R; Marshall, W L

    2003-04-01

    This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today.

  2. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  4. Risk and Teenage Parenthood: An Early Sexual Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and

  6. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  8. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  9. Parental Interpretations of "Childhood Innocence": Implications for Early Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Laura; Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Bengry-Howell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite general recognition of the benefits of talking openly about sexuality with children, parents encounter and/or create barriers to such communication. One of the key barriers is a desire to protect childhood innocence. The purpose of this paper is to explore parental interpretations of childhood innocence and the influence this has…

  10. 5-HTTLPR status moderates the effect of early adolescent substance use on risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Lei, Man-Kit

    2010-09-01

    A longitudinal, prospective design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between early adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior 2 years later. A genetic vulnerability factor, a variable nucleotide repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, known as 5-HTTLPR, was hypothesized to moderate the link between substance use at age 14 and risky sexual behavior at age 16. This VNTR has been associated with risk-taking behavior. African American youths in rural Georgia (N = 185) provided 2 waves of data on their substance use and sexual behavior. Genetic data were obtained via saliva samples. Substance use and sexual risk behavior were assessed using youth self-report items developed for this investigation. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the short allele of the VNTR interacted with substance use to predict sexual behavior. Substance use had little effect on sexual behavior for youths without the short allele; this effect was greatly increased for youths with the short allele. Genetic vulnerability affected the implications of early onset substance use for later sexual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience...... youth in Rakai was associated with social factors particularly school enrollment. Changes in these social factors also appear to influence change over time in sexual experience....

  12. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  13. The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Aytul; Bakir, Vuslat Lale; Akbayir, Ozgur; Cilesiz Goksedef, Behiye Pinar; Akca, Aysu

    2012-07-01

    Female sexual function is negatively influenced by pregnancy due to the physical and emotional changes. Although the most significant effect is seen in the third trimester of pregnancy, a considerable decrease in the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire in the first trimester has also been shown. To investigate the factors that affect sexuality in early pregnancy and the impact of awareness of pregnancy on female sexual function in the first trimester of pregnancy using two self-reported questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, 130 healthy, married pregnant women who were admitted to the gynecology clinic between the 4th and 10th week of gestation were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and the female sexual function index (FSFI). The factors associated with FSFI score and monthly sexual activity frequency in the first trimester, as well as the differences in sexual activity frequency and FSFI scores between the women who were previously aware of their pregnancy and those who were yet unaware of their pregnancy. Women who were unaware of their pregnancy had significantly higher coitus frequency in comparison with the aware group (P = 0.002). Total FSFI score was 21.99 ± 8.13 in the aware group and 24.66 ± 3.76 in the unaware group (P = 0.02). None of the obstetric and sociodemographic variables had an influence on desire and pain scores. Arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction scores were adversely affected by awareness of pregnancy. Orgasm scores were influenced negatively by awareness and positively by love marriage; however, in multivariate linear regression analysis none of these were defined as independent factor for orgasm scores. Overall FSFI scores and monthly frequency of sexual activity were only affected by awareness. The results of this study suggest that in early gestation, awareness of pregnancy is associated with lower female sexual function. Furthermore, obstetric and sociodemographic factors seem to be

  14. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined in this quick review concerns whether attending Early College High Schools increased postsecondary outcomes. This study is a randomized experiment examining the impact of Early Colleges on a number of outcomes. The study had relatively low attrition rates (approximately 7% in the intervention group and 13% in the comparison…

  15. Sexual behavior of Pecari tajacu (Cetartiodactyla: Tayassuidae) during periovulatory and early gestation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Oba, Eunice; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; Mayor, Pedro; de Araujo Guimarães, Diva Anelie

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the sexual behavior in female and male collared peccary. Twenty females and twelve males were monitored in familiar and non-familiar units for two 60 days periods. During both phases, we recorded 2747 sexual interactions initiated by 20 different females toward males and 4461 sexual interactions initiated by 12 males toward females. The frequency of sexual interactions initiated per female significantly increased from proestrus to estrus, and they were significantly more frequently courted. Females initiated olfactory inspections 15.42 times more and were mounted 22.6 times more during estrus than during proestrus. Nulliparous and primiparous females copulated only when exposed to non-parental males. After estrus, the frequency of sexual interactions received by females sharply decreased. One mating event was recorded during the first gestation week and 31 mountings were observed after the second week. In conclusion, the behavioral monitoring is a useful procedure for the recognition of estrus. Our results suggest that ovulation may be associated with the end of the estrus, which will support future work in assisted reproduction in this species. To promote good handling practices, females of reproductive age should be removed from their family unit of origin.

  16. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. K. Jepsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.

  17. Acculturation-related variables, sexual initiation, and subsequent sexual behavior among Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Cuban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Pena, Juan; Goldberg, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among acculturation-related variables, past sexual activity, and subsequent sexual behavior was examined for a sample of Latino youth in the United States over a 12-month period. A subsample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health database was analyzed by means of a prospective design. History of sexual intercourse predicted subsequent sexual behavior over the ensuing 12 months. The acculturation-related variables were related to whether an adolescent reported being sexually active at Wave 1 but in a complex fashion. Among recent immigrants, youth from English-speaking homes were less likely to be sexually active than those from Spanish-speaking homes. The opposite was observed for youth who were born in the United States or who had resided in the United States most of their lives.

  18. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  1. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  2. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  3. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  4. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  5. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  7. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  8. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  9. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  10. Socialization Influences on Early Adolescents' Cognitive Susceptibility and Transition to Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived socialization from parents, school, peers, and media and adolescents' cognitive susceptibility to initiating sexual intercourse and transition to intercourse 2 years later. Baseline and follow-up in-home Audio-Computer Assisted Self Interview surveys were completed by 854 Black and White male…

  11. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Dawson

    Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

  12. Feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an online sexual health promotion program for LGBT youth: the Queer Sex Ed intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Greene, George J; Ryan, Daniel; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience multiple sexual health inequities driven, in part, by deficits in parental and peer support, school-based sex education programs, and community services. Research suggests that the Internet may be an important resource in the development of sexual health among LGBT youth. We examined the feasibility of recruiting youth in same-sex relationships into an online sexual health intervention, evaluated intervention acceptability, and obtained initial estimates of intervention efficacy. LGBT youth (16 to 20 years old) completed Queer Sex Ed (QSE), an online, multimedia sexual health intervention consisting of five modules. The final sample (N = 202) completed the pretest, intervention, and posttest assessments. The primary study outcomes were sexual orientation identity and self-acceptance (e.g., coming-out self-efficacy), sexual health knowledge (e.g., sexual functioning), relationship variables (e.g., communication skills), and safer sex (e.g., sexual assertiveness). Analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 outcomes were found to be significant (p LGBT youth.

  13. Revisiting the association between pornography use and risky sexual behaviors: the role of early exposure to pornography and sexual sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinković, Matija; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Among the suggested problems and harms associated with widespread pornography use among young people, risky sexual behaviors have been frequently mentioned. To further explore this public health concern, this article analyzed sexual sensation seeking (SSS) as a potential confounder of the association between pornography use and sexual risks using data collected in 2010 from a population-based sample of young Croatian adults aged 18 to 25 (n = 1,005). Significant, but small, correlations were found between the indicators of pornography use (age at first exposure, frequency of use in the past 12 months, and personal importance of pornography) and sexual risk taking. However, in a multivariate analysis, only age at first exposure to pornography remained a significant, albeit weak, predictor of sexual risk taking among both women and men. SSS, defined as the dispositional tendency toward the impulsive pursuit of sexual arousal and stimulation, neither confounded nor moderated this association. Overall, the findings do not support the notion that pornography use is substantially associated with sexual risk taking among young adults, but suggest that early exposure to sexually explicit material and high SSS are additive risk factors for sexual risk taking.

  14. ANALYSIS ON EARLY CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AND THE IMPLICATIONS IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhamwilda Erhamwilda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fulfillment of children's rights has been a concern of Indonesia stated in the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Act No. 23 of 2002 on Child Protection. However, violence against children is increasing each year. The most dominant violence emerged in recent years is sexual abuse committed against children aged 5 to 11 years, and the perpetrators of sexual abuse are close with the children. Concern about cases of sexual abuse in early childhood and their impact, should be followed by an effort to develop a variety of approaches and methods of sex education in accordance with religious and cultural values in which children live.   

  15. IMPORTANCE OF SEX EDUCATION SINCE EARLY AGE FOR PREVENTING SEXUAL HARASSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Megawati Tirtawinata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article described the notion of sex education, the impact of sexual harassment, the importance of sex education for children, and who would be responsible for sex education for the children. The research finds that through the moral education and faith to God, the children are expected to get protection from sexual abuse, so the nation's children as successor generation get mentally active.

  16. Sexuality in early childhood: pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, D M

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and patient care practices related to the sexuality of hospitalized preschool and early school-age children. Sexuality was defined as the sum of the physical, emotional, and psychologic attributes that are expressed in gender identity and behavior. For this study, a questionnaire containing 24 attitude, 20 knowledge, and 29 nursing practice Likert-scale items was used to survey 45 pediatric nurses in a southeastern tertiary care teaching hospital. Results indicated that, in general, the nurses surveyed had positive attitudes, sound knowledge, and appropriate practice with regard to the sexuality-related needs of their patients. However, there appeared to be some attitudinal biases and knowledge gaps that could adversely affect nursing practice. These findings were used to alter the content in pediatric nursing education at the study institution.

  17. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  18. Early Initiation of Antenatal Care and Factors Associated with Early Antenatal Care Initiation at Health Facilities in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Boko Geta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is care given to pregnant mothers to timely identify and mitigate pregnancy related problems that can harm mother or fetus. Most of Ethiopian mothers present late for ANC. The aim of this paper was to assess determinants of early antenatal care initiation among pregnant women. Mothers attending Shebedino District Health Centers for ANC between January 12 and February 18, 2015, were invited to the study. Multistage sampling technique and structured questionnaire were used to collect data by trained data collectors. Univariate and bivariate analysis were conducted to study the association between explanatory and outcome variable. Out of 608 women, 132 [21.71%] had their first ANC within the recommended time [before or at 3 months]. Media access [AOR = 2.11 95% CI 1.00, 3.22], knowledge about the correct time of ANC booking [AOR = 4.49 95% CI 2.47, 6.16], and having been advised to book within 12 weeks [AOR = 4.14 95% CI 3.80, 5.21] were determinants of first-trimester booking. Health professionals and care providers should provide full information, advice, and appropriate care about early ANC for every eligible mother.

  19. [Between desire and fear: female adolescents' social representation on sexual initiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marta Araújo; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses one of the emergent themes of a qualitative research carried out with female adolescents in the neighborhood of Acaba Mundo, in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, and aims at understanding their social representations on sexual initiation concerning gender. The data was collected in four workshops and analyzed on the basis of the social representation theory by means of the discourse analysis technique. Two empirical categories and their consequences emerged from the discourse: leaving childhood behind and fear of pregnancy. The understanding of the social representations and of the gender relationships made the values, ideas and practices of the adolescents and their family clear. It also made clear that those values, ideas and practices were in frequent transformation in the social field.

  20. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  1. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A pending matter in Early Childhood Education in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper stresses the need to incorporate Comprehensive Sexuality Education(CSE) during the Early Childhood and Preschool school stages in Mexico. Adetailed analysis of the content of strategies, courses of action and policies forearly education was made for both, the local and Latin-American level. Findingsindicate that there remains a need for CSE for 0 to 6-year-old Mexican children.The inclusion of a human rights and a sociocultural perspective of genderedsexuality is strongly recommend...

  2. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  3. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought.

  4. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through, school-base

  5. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,

  6. The reverse double standard in perceptions of student-teacher sexual relationships: the role of gender, initiation, and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Egan, Patrick M; Giuliano, Traci A; Ackley, Braden D

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the prediction that male teachers are judged more harshly than female teachers for engaging in heterosexual intercourse with a student. One-hundred and eighty-seven adults (116 women, 71 men) evaluated a hypothetical newspaper article describing an alleged student-teacher relationship as part of a 2 (Gender Dyad: Male Teacher/Female Student or Female Teacher/Male Student) x 2 (Initiator: Student or Teacher) between-subjects design. As expected, a reverse sexual double standard was revealed, in which participants judged situations involving male teachers more harshly than they judged situations involving female teachers, but only when the sexual contact was teacher-initiated. Participants also believed that male students received more social benefits from the sexual contact than did female students.

  7. Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Related to Sexual Assault Through Early Intervention: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Schumacher, Julie A

    2016-09-28

    Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS), early contact with formal systems (e.g., health care, criminal justice, social services) and informal responders (e.g., friends, family) might be particularly important in preventing PTS. However, the effectiveness of these early interventions is unclear. Understanding the key elements of early interventions, both formal and informal, that successfully prevent the development of PTS could help to improve community responses to sexual assault and ultimately promote survivor well-being. In this systematic review, we investigate the types of experiences with responders in the early aftermath of assault that are associated with PTS, the duration of effects on PTS, and the role of the timing of these responses in the development of PTS. Findings indicate that responder contact alone is not typically associated with significant differences in PTS, and there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the timing of seeking help is associated with PTS, but the quality of services provided and perceptions of interactions with certain responders appear to be associated with PTS. Although many effects were short-lived, interventions that were perceived positively may be associated with lower PTS up to a year postassault. These findings support the importance of offering best practice interventions that are perceived positively, rather than simply encouraging survivors to seek help.

  8. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce.......Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  9. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naïve male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to t...

  10. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute; Ottosen, Christian; Rung-Hansen, Helle; Svane, Danny; Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Jensen, Pernille Tine

    2014-02-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce. The aims of this study were to prospectively assess sexual function after RVT and to compare scores of sexual function in patients operated by RVT and radical abdominal hysterectomy (RAH) with those of age-matched control women from the general population. Eighteen patients with early stage cervical cancer operated with RVT were prospectively included and assessed preoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively using validated questionnaires. RAH patients were included consecutively and assessed once at 12 months postsurgery, while an age-matched control group of 30 healthy women was assessed once. Sexual dysfunction total score as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was the main outcome measure. During the 12 months posttreatment, RVT patients tended to have persistent sexual dysfunction as measured by FSFI (mean overall score 11). Sexual worry (P cancer experience persistent sexual dysfunction up to one year post surgery influencing negatively on their QOL. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Internalized Sexualization and Its Relation to Sexualized Appearance, Body Surveillance, and Body Shame among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah J.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually objectifying messages about girls and women are common in U.S. popular culture. As a consequence of exposure to such messages, girls may develop "internalized sexualization," or internalization of the belief that sexual attractiveness to males is an important aspect of their identity. We hypothesized that internalized…

  12. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  13. Sexualities of Initial Teacher Education Applicants in the Republic of Ireland: Addressing the Hidden Dimension of Diversity in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Manuela; Keane, Elaine; Davison, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    While research and policy recommendations internationally have pointed to the need to diversify teaching populations with regard to ethnicity, social class background and, to a lesser extent, dis/ability, there is a paucity of research addressing sexualities as a diversity dimension in teaching. This article explores initial teacher education…

  14. [Family, friends, and other sources of information associated with the initiation of sexual relations by adolescents in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Calatrava, María; Osorio, Alfonso; Irala, Jokin de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to verify the influence of messages Salvadorian youth receive about sexuality, affection, and leisure from family, friends, and the media on the initiation of sexual activity. Cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 2 615 students (from 13 to 19 years of age) in El Salvador. A random systematic sampling was used to select 30 schools. Sociodemographic aspects, lifestyles, and sources of information on sexuality and love used by the young people were collected. The average age of the young people studied was 15 (SD = 1.8). In all, 638 (24.4%) of the young people stated that they had had sexual relations. The following factors are associated with a greater probability of having had sexual relations: a perception that siblings (OR = 1.8, CI 95%: 1.2-2.7) or friends (OR = 1.7, CI 95%: 1.3-2.2) encourage them to have sex. Protective factors were found to be the supervision of parents (OR = 0.5, CI 95%: 0.4-0.7); messages received from friends that encourage abstinence (OR = 0.7, CI 95%: 0.6-1.0) or from siblings (OR = 0.7, CI 95%: 0.5-0.8); and favorable messages related to marriage received from parents (OR = 0.4, CI 95%: 0.3-0.6). Messages from family and friends are factors that seem to influence the initiation of sexual activity by young people. Sexual health promotion programs in El Salvador should take these factors into account.

  15. [Sex education and the problem of early sexual relations among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanous Simons, B; Gonzalez Hernandez, A

    1981-01-01

    Puberty today occurs about 2 years earlier than it did at the beginning of the century. The age of menarche is now usually between 11-13 years, while the establishment of spermatogenesis and appearance of the 1st ejaculation usually occurs between 13-15 years. The ages at which adolescents feel mature, want to behave like adults, and initiate sexual activity are now lower than in the past. Sexual relations may occur between adolescents before they are fully capable of recognizing their consequences as autonomous and responsible acts guided by a system of moral convictions. Both marriage and parenthood may have unfavorable consequences for future personality development, sexual adjustment, and the personal-social adaptation of the individual. In Cuba, the persistence of traces of bourgeois mentality can be seen in the tendency to teach young girls false concepts of female behavior. Traits such as submissiveness, passivity, and fragility are stressed, and girls are taught to inhibit their sexuality from a very young age. Adolescent boys are expected to display virility and machismo. Adolescent boys may be so interested in the physical aspects of sexual activity that they deprecate the aspects, considering them to be weak female traits. Boys are more likely to separate the sexual object and the love object, while such duality is unusual in girls. Among the most serious problems of adolescent sexual activity in Cuba is a high rate of abortions among young adolescents. Some adolescents are promiscuous and have frequent changes of partner. The age group 15-19 years has the 3rd highest rate of syphilis and the 2nd highest of gonorrhea. The proportion of births to minors has increased from 22% in 1973 to almost half in some provinces. Divorce rates have been in constant increase in Cuba, and psychosocial immaturity of very young spouses is a principal factor in divorce. The widening temporal gap between attainment of puberty and marriage, which is likely to be postponed

  16. Early exposure to parents' relationship instability: implications for sexual behavior and depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Kelly L; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Bates, John E; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2010-12-01

    Examine the effects of the timing of parents' relationship instability on adolescent sexual and mental health. We assessed whether the timing of parents' relationship instability predicted adolescents' history of sexual partnerships (SP) and major depressive episodes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses controlled for potential mediators related to parenting and the family, including parent knowledge of activities, parent-child relationship quality, number of parents' post-separation relationship transitions, and number of available caregivers. Participants were assessed annually from age 5 through young adulthood as part of a multisite community sample (N = 585). Participants who experienced parents' relationship instability before age 5 were more likely to report SP at age 16 (odds ratio [OR](adj) = 1.58) or an episode of major depression during adolescence (OR(adj) = 2.61). Greater parent knowledge at age 12 decreased the odds of SP at age 16, but none of the hypothesized parenting and family variables statistically mediated the association between early instability and SP or major depressive episode. These results suggest that experiencing parents' relationship instability in early childhood is associated with sexual behavior and major depression in adolescence, but these associations are not explained by the parenting and family variables included in our analyses. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientat...

  18. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceiv...

  19. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  20. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Woertman, L.; Hawk, S.T.; Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link

  1. Correlates of Precoital Behaviors, Intentions, and Sexual Initiation among Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…

  2. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant 'target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)' interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general.

  3. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant ‘target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)’ interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general. PMID:28203216

  4. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  5. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  6. Relações de gênero e iniciação sexual de mulheres adolescentes Relaciones de genero e iniciación sexual de mujeres adolescentes Gender relations and sexual initiation among adolescent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2007-12-01

    -sectional study con-ducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors to the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.

  7. Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

  8. Sexual orientation identity disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination initiation and completion among young adult US women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Gordon, Allegra R; Charlton, Brittany M; Haneuse, Sebastien; Potter, Jennifer; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between sexual orientation identity and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation and completion among both women and men. Using data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey, we estimated logistic regression models for the association between sexual orientation identity and HPV vaccination initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among US women and men in relation to sociodemographic and healthcare factors. Analyses were restricted to individuals for whom the HPV vaccine was recommended at some point in their lives, namely women aged 18-34 years (n = 9,734) and men aged 18-31 years (n = 6,812). Among all women, bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of HPV vaccination initiation [(odds ratio) 1.71; (95 % confidence interval) 1.20-2.45] and completion (1.59; 1.05-2.42) than heterosexual women. No difference was observed in the odds of HPV vaccination initiation or completion between lesbian and heterosexual women. Among women who had initiated HPV vaccination, lesbians had lower adjusted odds of completion than heterosexual women (0.41; 0.19-0.90). Among all men, gay men had higher adjusted odds of initiating (2.07; 1.17-3.52) and completing (3.90; 1.68-9.06) HPV vaccination than heterosexual men. No difference was observed in the odds of HPV vaccination initiation or completion between bisexual and heterosexual men. Among men who had initiated HPV vaccination, gay (4.36; 1.28-14.83) and bisexual (20.92; 2.34-186.73) men had higher adjusted odds of completion than heterosexual men, although these results are unreliable and should be interpreted with caution. Interventions are needed to promote HPV vaccination among all US women and men, regardless of sexual orientation identity.

  9. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.

  10. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  11. Highlights from PHENIX-I: initial state and early times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We will review the latest physics developments from PHENIX concentrating on cold nuclear matter effects, the initial state for heavy-ion collisions, and probes of the earliest stages of the hot-dense medium created in those collisions. Recent physics results from p + p and d + Au collisions; and from direct photons, quarkonia and low-mass vector mesons in A+A collisions will be highlighted. Insights from these measurements into the characteristics of the initial state and about the earliest times in heavy-ion collisions will be discussed.

  12. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV......-positive adults who had a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter to start antiretroviral therapy immediately (immediate-initiation group) or to defer it until the CD4+ count decreased to 350 cells per cubic millimeter or until the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS...

  13. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment in the workplace: A model for early identification and effective management thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramsaroop

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and, assesses the impact of supervisory relations, levels of interaction, appearance and personality and types of behaviour. The study was undertaken at a tertiary institution using a sample of 74 employees, drawn by means of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which was statistically tested and, analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that the sub-dimensions of the study impact significantly on sexual harassment. Based on the findings, a model for early identification and effective management of sexual harassment in the workplace was generated.

  14. Infant Toddler Services through Community Collaboration: Oklahoma's Early Childhood Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated services for infants, toddlers, and families are essential for optimal child development, and collaboration across systems is increasingly important to maximize limited resources. The authors describe three successful initiatives in Oklahoma that use a collaborative systems approach to providing direct services to young…

  15. To Converse with the Devil? Speech, Sexuality, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Rose Dye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.

  16. Differential brain processing of audiovisual sexual stimuli in men: comparative positron emission tomography study of the initiation and maintenance of penile erection during sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Takasawa, Masashi; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Shigeo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    The human male psychosexual cycle consists of four phases: excitation, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Identification of the specific neural substrates of each phase may provide information regarding the brain's pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction. We previously analyzed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)15O-positron emission tomography (PET) during the excitation phase (initiation of penile erection) induced by audiovisual sexual stimuli (AVSS) and identified activation of the cerebellar vermis, the bilateral extrastriate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting a role of cognition/emotion in the excitement phase. In the present study, we analyzed rCBF of the same six healthy volunteers during the plateau phase (maintenance of penile erection) induced by AVSS and compared the results with those of the excitation phase. Penile rigidity was monitored in real time with RigiScan Plus during PET scanning. Images were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, and rCBF in the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate, and insula was measured. During the plateau phase, primary subcortical activation was noted in the right ventral putamen, indicating motivational factors in the sexual response via the limbic reward circuit. A significant increase in rCBF in the left hypothalamus was also observed during the plateau phase. The right anterior cingulate and left insula were specifically activated during the excitation phase but not during the plateau phase. These results indicate a significant role of the ventral putamen and the hypothalamus in the plateau phase and confirm that paralimbic and limbic components of the human brain differentially coordinate the sexual response in a psychosexual phase-dependent manner.

  17. Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Desrosiers

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The literature is limited to the evaluation of explicit curricula. The wider cultural competence literature offers further insight by highlighting the importance of broad and embedded forces including social influences, the institutional climate, and the implicit, or hidden, curriculum. A combined interpretation of the complementary cultural competence and sexual and gender diversity literature provides a novel understanding of the optimal content and context for the delivery of a successful curricular initiative.

  18. Early sex work initiation and condom use among alcohol-using female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Early initiation of sex work is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) worldwide. The objectives of this study were to investigate if early initiation of sex work was associated with: (1) consistent condom use, (2) condom negotiation self-efficacy or (3) condom use norms among alcohol-using FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. In-person interviews were conducted with 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Sample participants were: recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centres, 18 years or older and moderate risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as first engaging in sex work at 17 years or younger. Logistic regression modelled outcomes as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in centre, years in sex work, supporting others and HIV status. FSWs who initiated sex work early were significantly less likely to report consistent condom use with paying sex partners compared with those who initiated sex work in adulthood. There was no significant difference between groups in consistent condom use with non-paying sex partners. FSWs who initiated sex work early endorsed less condom negotiation self-efficacy with paying sex partners compared with FSWs who did not initiate sex work early. Findings highlight a need for early intervention for at-risk youth and adolescent FSWs, particularly in relation to HIV sexual risk behaviours. Evidence-based interventions for adolescent FSWs or adult FSWs who began sex work in adolescence should be developed, implemented and evaluated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Early mortality and AIDS progression despite high initial antiretroviral therapy adherence and virologic suppression in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine T Steele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse outcomes occurring early after antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation are common in sub-Saharan Africa, despite reports of high levels of ART adherence in this setting. We sought to determine the relationship between very early ART adherence and early adverse outcomes in HIV-infected adults in Botswana. METHODS: This prospective cohort study of 402 ART-naïve, HIV-infected adults initiating ART at a public HIV clinic in Gaborone, Botswana evaluated the relationship between suboptimal early ART adherence and HIV treatment outcomes in the initial months after ART initiation. Early adherence during the interval between initial ART dispensation and first ART refill was calculated using pill counts. In the primary analysis patients not returning to refill and those with adherence <0.95 were considered to have suboptimal early adherence. The primary outcome was death or loss to follow-up during the first 6 months of ART; a secondary composite outcome included the primary outcome plus incident opportunistic illness (OIs and virologic failure. We also calculated the percent of early adverse outcomes theoretically attributable to suboptimal early adherence using the population attributable risk percent (PAR%. RESULTS: Suboptimal early adherence was independently associated with loss to follow-up and death (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.8 and with the secondary composite outcome including incident OIs and virologic failure (adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.7. However, of those with early adverse outcomes, less than one-third had suboptimal adherence and approximately two-thirds achieved virologic suppression. The PAR% relating suboptimal early adherence and primary and secondary outcomes were 14.7% and 17.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal early adherence was associated with poor outcomes, but most early adverse outcomes occurred in patients with optimal early adherence. Clinical care and research efforts should focus on

  20. Early childhood stuttering III: initial status of expressive language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R V; Yairi, E; Ambrose, N G

    1999-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the expressive language abilities of 84 preschool-age children who stuttered, 62 who recovered from stuttering, and 22 who persisted in stuttering. The participants were identical to those identified in E. Yairi and N. G. Ambrose (1999) and E. Paden, E. Yairi, and N. G. Ambrose (1999). A range of lexical, morphological, and syntactic measures--calculated from spontaneous language samples of approximately 250-300 utterances in length collected relatively near stuttering onset--were used to examine the children's expressive language skills. For the purpose of analysis and comparison to normative data, children were grouped into three age intervals, in terms of the age at which they entered the study (2- to 3-year-olds, 3- to 4-year-olds, and 4- to 5-year-olds). Findings revealed similarity in the expressive language abilities of children whose stuttering persisted as opposed to abated at all age intervals. In addition, persistent and recovered stutterers displayed expressive language abilities near or above developmental expectations, based on comparison with normative data, at all age intervals. Children who entered the study at the youngest age level consistently demonstrated expressive language abilities well above normative expectations; this pattern was found for both persistent and recovered groups. These findings provide relatively limited information to assist in the early differentiation of persistence in or recovery from stuttering, but they do shed light on theoretical issues regarding the nature and character of early stuttering and potential associations with language learning.

  1. Syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis as initial presentation of early neurosyphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Sócola, F E; López-Herrero, F; Medina-Tapia, A; Rueda-Rueda, T; Contreras-Díaz, M; Sánchez-Vicente, J L

    2016-12-07

    A 36 year-old male with a recent HIV diagnosis, presented with loss of vision of his left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion in the macula. After fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, syphilis serology, and cerebrospinal fluid results, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is a rare ocular manifestation of syphilis. All patients with characteristic clinical and angiographic findings of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis should be tested for a neurosyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Early treatment with intravenous penicillin is usually effective with good visual results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Initiation of Breastfeeding Among Maya Mothers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyeo, Natalie N; Frank, Tahvi D; Vail, Emma F; Sperduto, William A L; Boyd, David L

    2017-01-01

    Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants. Understanding beliefs and practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding in Maya Guatemala may provide an avenue to guide nutrition interventions in indigenous communities. Research aim: This study aimed to determine major beliefs and practices associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Maya mothers in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala. As part of a larger study to assess child nutrition in the Lake Atitlán region, we created a series of semistructured interview questions to document breastfeeding practices and beliefs among mothers. We conducted and audio-recorded in-person interviews that were translated from Kaqchikel, the local language, to Spanish by a community assistant. We conducted 178 interviews with mothers; 76% practiced early initiation. Early initiation was associated with the village and complementary feeding practices. Mothers held a variety of beliefs about the value of colostrum, and these beliefs were associated with the village. Mothers who held negative beliefs toward colostrum were more likely to delay breastfeeding initiation. Although most Maya mothers practice early initiation, the intervillage disparity in breastfeeding practices demonstrates a need to geographically focus breastfeeding interventions. Our novel insights into the breastfeeding beliefs among Maya mothers will serve as a guide to structure culturally competent breastfeeding education interventions in indigenous communities.

  3. NOX4 is an early initiator of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Christian; Geuss, Eva; Sommer, Claudia; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain remains challenging as the etiology is heterogeneous and pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. One possible mechanism is oxidative stress due to unphysiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The only know dedicated enzymatic source of ROS are NADPH oxidases of which the type 4 isoform (NOX4) has been suggested to be involved in the subacute and chronic phase of neuropathic pain. Here, we aim to translate this finding into a treatment strategy by examining the efficacy of the NOX1/4-specific inhibitor GKT136901 using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) mouse model of neuropathic pain. Unexpectedly, post-nerve lesion treatment using GKT136901 was ineffective to reduce pain-related behavior after CCI. We therefore re-investigated the role of NOX4 using an independent KO mouse model. Early after CCI we found an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS formation and the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine in the lesioned nerve together with an upregulated Nox4 gene expression. In NOX4 KO mice, mechanical allodynia was markedly reduced from day 4 after nerve injury as were all ROS related and acute biomarkers. In addition, we observed a reduction in the CCI-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia along with NOX4-deficiency. Thus, we conclude that NOX4 is involved in the development of neuropathic pain states by producing oxidative stress and subsequent cytokine dysregulation at the lesion site. This appears at very early stages immediately after nerve injury explaining ineffectiveness of post-acute pharmacological NOX inhibition. We suggest that future target validation of NOX4 should now focus on defining the possible therapeutic window in human neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual risk during initial months in US among Latina young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Melissa M; Dillon, Frank R; Cabrera Tineo, Yajaira A; Verile, Michael; Jurkowski, Janine M; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-08-28

    Latina young adults are disproportionately at risk for sexually transmitted infections (e.g., HIV). However, little is known about social and cultural factors contributing to sexual health disparities among young adult Latina recent immigrants. The present study examined social and cultural factors contributing to sexual risk behaviors among 530 Latina women (ages 18-23) who immigrated to Miami-Dade County, Florida, approximately 12 months before assessment. At the cultural/macrosystemic level, participants who reported more sexual risk behaviors tended to (a) be less acculturated; (b) use less positive religious coping; (c) endorse to a greater extent the marianismo belief that Latinas should be the pillar of the family; and (d) endorse less of the marianismo belief that Latinas should be virtuous and chaste (i.e., abstain from premarital sex). As for individual-level factors, participants who reported more sexual risk behaviors also indicated (e) older age, (f) being married/partnered, (g) being employed, (h) living in the US longer, and (i) drinking more alcohol. Findings indicate areas for HIV/STI prevention for this underserved population.

  5. The Effectiveness of Participatory Theatre with Early Adolescents in School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetti, James J., Jr.; Selman, Jan; Munro, Brenda; Esmail, Shaniff; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Public concern about adolescent sexuality has garnered considerable interest in recent decades. Most teenagers are either thinking about or acting on their sexual impulses. Yet notable controversy exists regarding sexual education among youth. Adolescents report sexuality education must speak to issues of interest to them and be delivered in a…

  6. The Effectiveness of Participatory Theatre with Early Adolescents in School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetti, James J., Jr.; Selman, Jan; Munro, Brenda; Esmail, Shaniff; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Public concern about adolescent sexuality has garnered considerable interest in recent decades. Most teenagers are either thinking about or acting on their sexual impulses. Yet notable controversy exists regarding sexual education among youth. Adolescents report sexuality education must speak to issues of interest to them and be delivered in a…

  7. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  8. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  9. Children's Emotional and Behavioral Reactions Following the Disclosure of Extrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Initial Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligezinska, Malgorzata; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 41 children (ages 5-15) within the first 3 months following disclosure of extrafamilial sexual abuse. Findings indicated that children's perceptions of self-blame and guilt for the abuse and the extent of traumatization predicted their self-reported symptomatology of depression,…

  10. The influence of early sexual debut and pubertal timing on psychological distress among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.

  11. Gender differences? Internet use and parent-child communication about sex toward sexual attitudes among early adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Weng, Chia-Sui; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-06-01

    With the progress of information technology, early adolescents are able to access sex-related information through the Internet easily. This information has been shown to have a significant influence on the sexual health of this population. In addition, parent-child communications about sex affect the sexual health of adolescents. Few empirical studies have focused on early adolescents and gender differences. This study explores gender differences between early adolescents in terms of the use of the Internet to obtain sex-related information, parent-child communication, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. This cross-sectional and comparative study uses an analysis of covariance and a hierarchical regression for data analysis. The researchers recruited 457 sixth-grade boys (n = 204) and girls (n = 253) in southern Taiwan as participants and used a structured questionnaire to collect data. Participants exhibited significant differences in terms of Internet usage behavior, parent-child communications about sex, and sex-related knowledge and sexual attitudes. The male participants spent more time on "recreation and entertainment" activities on the Internet, whereas their female peers spent significantly more time searching for information. Regarding parent-child communications about sex, girls had better mother-child communications than boys. In addition, no gender-based difference was found for father-child communications about sex. The knowledge of physical changes occurring during puberty and of menstrual healthcare among female participants was superior to their male counterparts. Girls had a more informed sexual attitude, particularly with regard to issues of gender roles, relationships with the opposite gender, and the social aspects of sex. Sex-related knowledge and parent-child communication about sex were the two major predictors of sexual attitudes for boys and girls, respectively. To develop healthy sexual attitudes among early adolescents, nursing

  12. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  13. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  14. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  15. Longitudinal Associations Among Relationship Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction, and Frequency of Sex in Early Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Wenner, Carolyn A; Fisher, Terri D

    2016-01-01

    The current research used two 8-wave longitudinal studies spanning the first 4-5 years of 207 marriages to examine the potential bidirectional associations among marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and frequency of sex. All three variables declined over time, though the rate of decline in each variable became increasingly less steep. Controlling for these changes, own marital and sexual satisfaction were bidirectionally positively associated with one another; higher levels of marital satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in sexual satisfaction from that assessment to the next and higher levels of sexual satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in marital satisfaction from that assessment to the next. Likewise, own sexual satisfaction and frequency of sex were bidirectionally positively associated with one another. Additionally, partner sexual satisfaction positively predicted changes in frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction among husbands, yet partner marital satisfaction negatively predicted changes in both frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction. Controlling these associations, marital satisfaction did not directly predict changes in frequency of sex or vice versa. Only the association between partner sexual satisfaction and changes in own sexual satisfaction varied across men and women and none of the key effects varied across the studies. These findings suggest that sexual and relationship satisfaction are intricately intertwined and thus that interventions to treat and prevent marital distress may benefit by targeting the sexual relationship and interventions to treat and prevent sexual distress in marriage may benefit by targeting the marital relationship.

  16. ASSOCIATED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INITIATION OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS VILLA SAN FRANCISCO SCHOOL SANTA ANITA, LIMA-PERU, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Tenorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual, familiar and sociocultural factors that could associate to initiation of sexual activity in adolescents of schools of Villa San Francisco-Santa Anita, Lima-Peru in 2009 were determined. The research was quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational in a population of 90 school adolescents between 14 and 19 years-old of two mixed schools. A survey was applied and validated by expert judgements submitted to a pilot assay for its validity and statistical reliability. For determinate statistical significance was employed a binomial assay and Crombach Alpha coefficient. The best predictors for the initiation of sexual activity in adolescents were: at individual level (school repeating, attitude to initiation of sexual activity and self-appreciation, at familiar level (structure and familiar function and socio-cultural (lack of an adult, knowledge of sexuality and peer groups.

  17. Early Alcohol Initiation Increases Risk Related to Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…

  18. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences Between African-American and European- American Women in the Association of Childhood Sexual Abuse With Initiation of Marijuana Use and Progression to Problem Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated risk of early marijuana use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Both the prevalence of CSA and the course of marijuana use differ between African Americans and European Americans. The current study aimed to determine whether these differences manifest in racial/ ethnic distinctions in the association of CSA with early and problem use of marijuana. Method: Data were derived from female participants in a female twin study and a high-risk family study of substance use (n = 4,193, 21% African-American). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses using CSA to predict initiation of marijuana use and progression to CUD symptom(s) were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Sibling status on the marijuana outcome was used to adjust for familial influences. Results: CSA was associated with both stages of marijuana use in African-American and European-American women. The association was consistent over the risk period (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.37, 1.79] for initiation; HR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.21, 1.88] for CUD symptom onset) in European-American women. In African-American women, the HRs for initiation were 2.52 (95% CI [1.52, 4.18]) before age 15, 1.82 (95% CI [1.36, 2.44]) at ages 15–17, and nonsignificant after age 17. In the CUD symptom model, CSA predicted onset only at age 21 and older (HR = 2.17, 95% CI [1.31, 3.59]). Conclusions: The association of CSA with initiation of marijuana use and progression to problem use is stable over time in European-American women, but in African-American women, it varies by developmental period. Findings suggest the importance of considering race/ethnicity in prevention efforts with this high-risk population. PMID:26098032

  20. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  1. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  2. Sexualization in digital advertising of fashion brands for kids: initiatives and ways to report the complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Diaz-Bustamante Ventisca; Carmen Llovet Rodríguez; Beatriz Patiño Alves

    2016-01-01

    Los niños son presentados como objetos sexuales en gran parte, según el debate social, debido a la actividad de marcas y medios vinculados a la moda. La metodología llevada a cabo combina un análisis de contenido de los catálogos de publicidad de moda infantil en Internet en el contexto español, con el objetivo de ver si las marcas de moda infantil sexualizan a los niños en Internet; una revisión de las iniciativas de denuncia en Internet para conocer si la sociedad civil está concienciada; y...

  3. Early cannabis initiation and educational attainment: is the association causal? Data from the French TEMPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Bolze, Camille; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J; Pryor, Laura; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie

    2017-05-18

    : Adolescent cannabis use has been reported to predict later educational attainment; however, results of past studies may be confounded by inappropriate control for factors that make some youths more likely to use cannabis precociously than others. We aimed to test the possibility of a causal relationship between early cannabis initiation and later academic achievement. : Analyses are based on data collected among TEMPO cohort study participants (France, 2009, n  = 1103, 22-35 years). Participants were previously assessed in childhood (1991) and adolescence (1999); additionally, their parents had taken part in a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study (GAZEL). Early cannabis initiation was defined as use at age 16 or earlier. Educational attainment was defined as the completion of a high-school degree ('Baccalauréat'). Early (up to and including age 16 years) and late (after age 16 years) cannabis-use initiators were compared with non-users using logistic regression models controlled for inverse probability weights (IPWs) of exposure calculated based on participants' socio-demographic, juvenile and parental characteristics. : In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, early cannabis initiators were more likely than non-users to have low educational attainment [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.55]. In IPWs-controlled analyses, this association somewhat decreased (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.40). Late cannabis initiators did not have lower educational attainment than non-users. Early cannabis use and educational attainment appeared more strongly associated in young women than in young men. : Early cannabis can cause low educational attainment. Youths who initiate cannabis use early require attention from addiction and education specialists to reduce their odds of poor long-term outcomes.

  4. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  5. Physical and sexual abuse and early-onset bipolar disorder in youths receiving outpatient services: frequent, but not specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60% male, 69% African American, and 18% with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21%, sexual abuse in 20%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11% of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16%, sexual abuse in 15%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5% of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.

  6. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical fram...

  7. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  8. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  9. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  10. Sexuality (and lack thereof) in adolescence and early adulthood: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boislard, M.A.; van de Bongardt, D.; Blais, M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre

  11. Charting New Territories: Re-Assembling Childhood Sexuality in the Early Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Since the moral panic discourse is shutting down discussions about how children are making meaning of gender and sexuality, this paper argues that a new logic is needed for understanding childhood sexuality. A postdevelopmental logic is created by working with Deleuze and Guattari's ["Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizoprhenia."…

  12. Sexuality (and lack thereof) in adolescence and early adulthood: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boislard, M.-A.; van de Bongardt, D.; Blais, M.

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either

  13. Charting New Territories: Re-Assembling Childhood Sexuality in the Early Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Since the moral panic discourse is shutting down discussions about how children are making meaning of gender and sexuality, this paper argues that a new logic is needed for understanding childhood sexuality. A postdevelopmental logic is created by working with Deleuze and Guattari's ["Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizoprhenia."…

  14. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles

  15. On early starters and late bloomers : The development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles

  16. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  17. The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Iline P.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

  18. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2015-04-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.

  19. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  20. Práticas contraceptivas e iniciação sexual entre jovens de três capitais brasileiras Contraceptive practices and sexual initiation among young people in three Brazilian State capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian F. B. Marinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o uso de contraceptivos na primeira relação sexual de 2.790 homens e mulheres. Trata-se de inquérito domiciliar em três capitais brasileiras, com entrevistas de amostra probabilística (Pesquisa GRAVAD. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística. As variáveis foram agrupadas em: determinantes macrossociais, socialização e entrada na sexualidade, contexto da iniciação sexual e características da/o jovem e da/o parceira/o. A prevalência de foi de 68,3% e de 65,3% na dos homens. Entre elas, a contracepção associou-se à: renda familiar per capita, cor/raça e revistas femininas como fontes de informação sobre gravidez e contracepção. Para ambos os sexos, o uso foi mais freqüente quando houve conversa prévia sobre o tema entre parceiros, a iniciação sexual foi mais tardia e em motel, e o/a parceiro/a paciente. O tempo entre o início do relacionamento e a iniciação sexual mostrou-se associado ao uso na iniciação sexual dos rapazes. Fatores macrossociais parecem determinar a contracepção mais freqüente na iniciação sexual das mulheres, enquanto para os homens o contexto rela-cional é mais importante.This study investigated contraceptive use during first sexual intercourse among 2.790 young men and women. The GRAVAD household survey in three Brazilian capital cities involved interviews in a probabilistic sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used. Variables grouped as: macro-social, socialization and sexual initiation, context of sexual initiation, and characteristics of the interviewee and his or her partner. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 68.3% for women and 65.3% for men. Among women, contraception use was associated to: per capita monthly family income, color/race, and the use of women's magazines as a source of information on pregnancy and contraception. For both genders, use was more frequent when partners discussed pregnancy prevention before intercourse, when

  1. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexually dimorphic effects of unpredictable early life adversity on visceral pain behavior in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2013-03-01

    Visceral pain is the hallmark feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a gastrointestinal disorder, which is more commonly diagnosed in women. Female IBS patients frequently report a history of early life adversity (ELA); however, sex differences in ELA-induced visceral pain and the role of ovarian hormones have yet to be investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ELA induces visceral hypersensitivity through a sexually dimorphic mechanism mediated via estradiol. As a model of ELA, neonatal rats were exposed to different pairings of an odor and shock to control for trauma predictability. In adulthood, visceral sensitivity was assessed via a visceromotor response to colorectal distension. Following ovariectomy and estradiol replacement in a separate group of rats, the visceral sensitivity was quantified. We found that females that received unpredictable odor-shock developed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. In contrast, visceral sensitivity was not significantly different following ELA in adult males. Ovariectomy reversed visceral hypersensitivity following unpredictable ELA, whereas estradiol replacement reestablished visceral hypersensitivity in the unpredictable group. This study is the first to show sex-related differences in visceral sensitivity following unpredictable ELA. Our data highlight the activational effect of estradiol as a pivotal mechanism in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity. This article directly implicates a critical role for ovarian hormones in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity following ELA, specifically identifying the activational effect of estradiol as a key modulator of visceral sensitivity. These data suggest that ELA induces persistent functional abdominal pain in female IBS patients through an estrogen-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Timing of First Antenatal Care (ANC and Inequalities in Early Initiation of ANC in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuba Raj Paudel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe provision and uptake of quality and timely antenatal care (ANC is an essential element of efforts to improve health outcomes for women and newborn babies. Antenatal consultations assist in early identification and treatment of complications during pregnancy. This study aimed to provide an information on distribution and inequalities in early initiation of ANC in Nepal.MethodsThe distribution and inequalities in the early initiation of ANC were examined using Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess inequalities.FindingsOverall, 70% of the women had started their first ANC at 4 month or earlier. Among participants who had never attended school, just more than half (52% received first ANC at 4 months or earlier, while majority of participants (97% who had received higher education received first ANC at recommended time. Similarly, 89% of those from richest quintile and 48% of those from poorest quintile received first ANC at recommended time. In adjusted analysis, women from richest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to initiate ANC early (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.31–6.05 compared to the poorest. Similarly, women with higher level education were significantly more likely (AOR: 11.40, 95% CI: 5.05–25.73 to initiate ANC early compared to women who had never attended school. A significantly lower odds of early ANC take up was observed among madhesi other caste (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90 compared to brahmin/chhetri women. Women whose pregnancy was unwanted were significantly less likely to attend first ANC at 4 months or early (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58–0.93 in comparison to women whose pregnancy was wanted.ConclusionThe differences in the recommended timing of initiation of ANC were evident among women with different educational, economic levels, and caste/ethnic groups. Rural women were less likely to have checkups as per guidelines. The findings

  4. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  5. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  6. Cost-effectiveness of early initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempa Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ugandan national guidelines recommend initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART at CD4+ T cell (CD4 count below 350 cell/μl, but the implementation of this is limited due to availability of medication. However, cART initiation at higher CD4 count increases survival, albeit at higher lifetime treatment cost. This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of initiating cART at a CD4 count between 250–350 cell/μl (early versus Methods Life expectancy of cART-treated patients, conditional on baseline CD4 count, was modeled based on published literature. First-line cART costs $192 annually, with an additional $113 for patient monitoring. Delaying initiation of cART until the CD4 count falls below 250 cells/μl would incur the cost of the bi-annual CD4 count tests and routine maintenance care at $85 annually. We compared lifetime treatment costs and disability adjusted life-expectancy between early vs. delayed cART for ten baseline CD4 count ranges from 250-350 cell/μl. All costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Results Treatment delay varied from 6–18 months. Early cART initiation increased life expectancy from 1.5-3.5 years and averted 1.33–3.10 disability adjusted life years (DALY’s per patient. Lifetime treatment costs were $4,300–$5,248 for early initiation and $3,940–$4,435 for delayed initiation. The cost/DALY averted of the early versus delayed start ranged from $260–$270. Conclusions In HIV-positive patients presenting with CD4 count between 250-350 cells/μl, immediate initiation of cART is a highly cost-effective strategy using the recommended one-time per capita GDP threshold of $490 reported for Uganda. This would constitute an efficient use of scarce health care funds.

  7. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  8. Sexual reproduction in plagiogrammacean diatoms: First insights into the early pennates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Irena; Gray, Benjamin S; Ehrman, James M; Thaler, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The genera Plagiogramma and Dimeregramma are members of a small, but evolutionarily important group of diatoms, the "basal" araphids. They are sister to all other pennates, both araphid and raphid taxa. Thus, their phylogenetic position carries the potential for providing insights into the earliest pennates. We documented sexual reproduction, mating system and sex cell development in the first members of the "basal" araphid clade ever investigated. The mating system in all these species involved heterothally. It was, however, more complex in P. tsawwassen, where in addition to heterothallic clones, intraclonal and polysexual clones also exist. Auxospore development and wall structure was similar in all three species and demonstrated several characters also reported from "core" araphids. Of these, vigorous, pseudopodial motility of male secondary spermatocytes and gametes was most notable because it indicates that this character was likely present in the last common ancestor of all the pennates. Pseudopodial motility of the male sex cells might have afforded sufficient compensation and/or benefits to the emerging pennates for replacing flagellated sperm, present in centrics. The characters thus far uniquely present among our plagiogrammaceans but not reported from other pennates were: the "gametic" fusion between sex-compatible secondary spermatocytes, in some cases before completion of Meiosis II in males, transverse perizonial bands produced all together or in quick succession rather than being added to the auxospore apex one at a time, and expanding auxospores with 3-4 nuclei. An initial epivalve, similar in morphology to what in some diatoms had been interpreted as a "longitudinal" perizonium, may be more widespread among pennates than thus far appreciated. In addition, we discovered two species new to science (D. acutumontgo, P. tsawwassen), and refined delineation of P. staurophorum by including metric data from the original material.

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Maya; Cohen-Serrins, Julian; Knight, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families. PMID:28122018

  10. Development of a theory-based sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention program for Chinese early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Fongkaew, Warunee; Senaratana, Wilawan; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based program for Chinese early adolescents in order to promote their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent HIV infection. The program was designed based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and a needs assessment among the stakeholders. A technical collaborative action research approach was applied. The study's participants were 102 early adolescents in a public middle school in mainland China, with the involvement of other key stakeholders, including 15 teachers and 12 parents. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the scores of sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills after the program's implementation. Meanwhile, qualitative data from the early adolescents' reflection indicated that the content was useful and comprehensive, the trainers were friendly and knowledgeable, and participatory learning with an "edutainment" style was especially impressive. Additionally, the early adolescents expressed that they could apply the knowledge and skills in their daily life, which would benefit themselves and their family and peers. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model could be explored in a non-Western context and the program was shown to be acceptable for use in a Chinese middle school setting.

  11. Parental interpretations of “childhood innocence”: implications for early sexuality education

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:- \\ud Despite general recognition of the benefits of talking openly about sexuality with children, parents encounter and/or create barriers to such communication. One of the key barriers is a desire to protect childhood innocence. This study explores parental interpretations of childhood innocence and the influence this has on their reported practices relating to sexuality-relevant communication with young children.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach:- \\ud One hundred and ten UK paren...

  12. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were performed on biographical and symptom items. Odds ratios for men and women were determined separately.Results. Associations between sexual adverse events, and current sexual health complaints, as estimated by OR coefficients, showed to be statistically significant. In the subgroups of patients who reported two categories of sexual adversities e.g. were both punished for masturbation and were not educated about sex, the risk of sexual complaints was further increased.Discussion. Both self-reported traumatic sexual events and sexual problems are quite common in the patient population and are strongly associated. Our study has replicated other’s findings in a large sample of outpatients suffering from neurotic disorders.Conclusions. Deficits in sex education, the trauma of incest, punishment for sexual play or masturbation, or too early or unwanted sexual initiation, are important risk factors of sexual symptoms accompanying neurotic syndromes. Results strongly suggest that studies focusing on the effects of sexual traumatic events should take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple adversities.

  13. Effects of Oral vs Transdermal Estrogen Therapy on Sexual Function in Early Postmenopause: Ancillary Study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hugh S; Tal, Aya; Pal, Lubna; Li, Fangyong; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Matthew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Du, Wei; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, JoAnn E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Frederick; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F; Harman, Sherman M

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction, an important determinant of women's health and quality of life, is commonly associated with declining estrogen levels around the menopausal transition. To determine the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen therapy vs placebo on sexual function in postmenopausal women. Ancillary study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), a 4-year prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of menopausal hormone therapy in healthy, recently menopausal women. Of 727 KEEPS enrollees, 670 agreed to participate in this multicenter ancillary study. Women were 42 to 58 years old, within 36 months from last menstrual period. Data were collected from July 2005 through June 2008 and analyzed from July 2010 through June 2017. Women were randomized to either 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE), 50 µg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2), or placebo. Participants also received 200 mg oral micronized progesterone (if randomized to o-CEE or t-E2) or placebo (if randomized to placebo estrogens) for 12 days each month. Aspects of sexual function and experience (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI; range, 0-36 points; higher scores indicate better sexual function). Low sexual function (LSF) was defined as an FSFI overall score of less than 26.55. Distress related to low FSFI score (required for the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) was not evaluated. The 670 participants had a mean (SD) age of 52.7 (2.6) years. The t-E2 treatment was associated with a significant yet moderate improvement in the FSFI overall score across all time points compared with placebo (average efficacy, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.11-4.10; adjusted P = .002). With o-CEE treatment, there was no significant difference in FSFI overall score compared with placebo (mean efficacy, 1.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 2.8; adjusted P = .13). There was no difference in FSFI overall score

  14. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  16. Association between age of early sexual debut and high-risk sexual behaviors among college students in China%中国大学生首次性行为年龄与危险性行为关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋逸; 季成叶; 星一; 胡佩瑾; 陈天娇; 张琳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索首次性行为发生年龄对大学生危险性行为的影响,为制定适宜的生殖健康教育策略提供科学依据.方法 采取无记名自填问卷方式,按照分层整群抽样方法,对我国18个省、市、自治区33 653名大学生进行健康危险行为问卷调查,对其中3 305名回答了首次性行为年龄大学生的问卷进行分析.结果 在有性行为的大学生中,17.9%的大学生报告首次性行为发生在14岁前.大学生首次性行为的发生年龄与危险性行为存在较强的关联,首次性行为发生年龄≤14岁、首次性行为发生年龄在15~18岁之间的学生比首次性行为发生年龄≥19岁者发生多性伴侣、被迫性行为和意外怀孕的概率更高.结论 首次性行为过早易导致危险性行为的发生.在初中和高中阶段对青少年进行性教育,推迟青少年首次性行为发生的年龄,对预防危险性行为的发生是十分必要的.%Objective To explore the association between early sexual debut and high-risk sexual behaviors among college students in China,and to make suggestion for providing appropriate sexual education.Methods An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 33 653 college students selected by using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method in 18 provinces and cities of China.Information of 3 305 students who reported the age of sexual debut were analyzed.Results The percentage of students who had initiated sexual intercourse before age 14 was 17.9% among students who had experienced sexual intercourse.The age of sexual debut was significantly associated with high-risk sexual behaviors.The sexual initiators aged≤ 14 had more likelihood to having had multiple sex partners, forced a partner to have sex and been involved in a pregnancy than the elders.Conclusion Students who initiate sexual activity early had high risks for negative health outcomes.In order to postpone the age of sexual debut and prevent high

  17. What do we know about the initiation and early stages of brittle faulting in crystalline rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    The styles of initiation and subsequent growth of faults control fault length-slip scaling, the internal structure of fault zones, and fault-rock properties, influencing seismogenic behavior and fluid flow along the faults. Observations by many researchers over the last several decades have illustrated that faults in the upper crust initiate on pre-existing (inherited) or precursory (early-formed) structures and grow by the mechanical interaction and linkage of these structures. These pre-existing and precursory structures are typically mode I fractures (joints, veins, dikes) but may also be semi-brittle shear zones (such as deformation bands in porous sandstone). Research in the granitic outcrops of the central Sierra Nevada (California) has provided significant insight into the geometry and fundamental mechanics of the early stages of fault development. This work has shown that faults in plutonic rocks initiate on pre-existing or precursory joints or dikes and that the discontinuous nature of early mode I fractures has a strong influence on the subsequent development of the fault zone. In basalt, we have similarly observed the important influence of preexisting joints, and, at a broader scale, precursory, semi-brittle shear zones in the form of fault-tip monoclines. In metamorphic rocks, foliation appears to control the initial development of faults, influencing fault orientation, or enabling precursory structures such as kink bands. Kink bands, like deformation bands in porous sandstone, accommodate only small strains before locking, but then become strong inclusions in the material, serving to localize brittle fractures. The quasi-static mechanics of isotropic, isothermal linear-elastic materials in two and three dimensions provides first order understanding of controls on interaction and linkage of early structures, including the concentration of stresses and local stress reorientation. Fruitful research directions important to faulting in crystalline rock

  18. Electronic health record project initiation and early planning in a community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Noblin, Alice; Martin, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Community health centers exist to help their constituents become proactive in addressing their own health care needs and to improve the overall well-being of the community. However, they pose a different set of challenges when implementing an electronic health record system. This article applies 2 project management principles, initiation and early planning, to the electronic health record implementation in a community health center. Issues such as planning, financial considerations, and quality improvement are discussed.

  19. Urticaria as the initial presentation of early stage Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-hui; YING Ke-jing; WU Xiao-hong; CHAI Ying

    2012-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a subtype of the lung adenocarcinoma.Early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is usually asymptomatic,especially in the peripheral lung.Rarely,urticaria has been described occurring with lung cancer,usually small-cell lung cancer,but no case has been reported of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma yet.We report here a unique and initial urticaria on a patient,lasting for 6 months,who finally was diagnosed as early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (T1aNOMo).After treatment of surgery,the symptom of urticaria disappeared and did not recur.Therefore,we consider that utricaria is a oossibly clinical manifestation in early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

  20. Treatment outcomes after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C K; Wong, K H; Leung, C C; Tam, C M; Chan, K C W; Pang, K W; Chan, W K; Mak, I K Y

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the optimal timing for initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis in Hong Kong. Historical cohort. SETTING. Tuberculosis and Chest Service and Special Preventive Programme, Public Health Service Branch, Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, Hong Kong. Consecutive patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in a territory-wide TB-HIV registry encountered from 1996 to 2009. Of the 260 antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis, 32 (12%) had antiretroviral therapy initiated within 2 months after starting anti-tuberculosis treatment (early antiretroviral therapy). Early antiretroviral therapy was associated with a more favourable outcome (cure or treatment completion without relapse) at 24 months (91% vs 67%; P=0.007) than those with antiretroviral therapy started later or not initiated, and remained an independent predictor of a favourable outcome after adjustment for potential confounders. Adverse effects from anti-tuberculosis drugs tended to occur more frequently in patients with early antiretroviral therapy (13/32 or 41%) compared with the remainder (59/228 or 26%; P=0.08). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the former group experienced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome than in the latter group (7/32 or 22% vs 9/228 or 4%; Ptuberculosis treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis with a low CD4 count (tuberculosis treatment outcomes to a significant extent.

  1. Impact of an educational initiative on applied knowledge and attitudes of physicians who treat sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabsigh, R; Sadovsky, R; Rosen, R C; Carson, C C; Seftel, A D; Noursalehi, M

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, blinded, multicenter, controlled study was undertaken to assess the impact of a multiyear continuing medical education (CME) initiative on physician knowledge and behavior in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of CME and compare applied knowledge and attitude scores of participants in the Consortium for Improvement in Erectile Function (CIEF), to non-CIEF participants. Subjects were selected randomly and contacted anonymously, by mail, email and fax and requested to enroll in this study. A blinded, validated questionnaire and series of standardized patient (SP) case studies and attitude questions were given to CIEF participants, defined as those who showed an interest in learning more about ED and who took at least one CME-certified program on ED from the CIEF website and non-CIEF participants, defined as those who showed interest in learning more about ED and who took at least one CME-certified program on ED from any organization other than CIEF. The primary outcome was a comparison of subjects' scores who participated in at least one CIEF program to non-participants in CIEF programs. Subjects were also compared based on SP case scores, attitude scores, specialty, years in practice, age and gender. Answers were ranked from best to worst and assigned a corresponding value of 10...3, 2, 1 and 0 (10 being the best), assuming that there may be more than one correct answer to each question in clinical practice. SAS version 9.1 analysis of variance model was used by an independent consultant. A total of 120 physicians completed the questionnaire: 87 urologists (UROs) and 33 primary care physicians (PCPs). UROs scored higher on SP cases compared with PCPs (P=0.0039); however, as a result of participating in CIEF programs, PCPs trended toward more comparable scores to UROs; P=0.23 for SP case 2 that was clinically less complex and P=0.19 for SP case 3 that was more complex. In the other two

  2. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  3. Who's afraid in Virginia Woolf? Clues to early sexual abuse in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L C

    1990-01-01

    Virginia Woolf, by self-admission, was a victim of repeated sexual abuses. At age 5 or 6 she was sexually mishandled by her older half brother, Gerald Duckworth. In her teenage years another older half brother, George Duckworth, misused her repeatedly. As a result of these abuses, Woolf suffered the special signs and symptoms of long-standing childhood psychic trauma--sexual numbing, emotional distancing, self-hypnosis, splitting, and dissociation. She also suffered some of the more ordinary signs and symptoms common to most childhood traumas--fears, perceptual repetitions, and repetitions in behavior (in this case, in writing). Interestingly, Virginia Woolf's fictional characters manifest the very same signs and symptoms Woolf manifested all of her life. The occasional reader may treat Woolf's fiction, because of these "symptoms," in much the same way that an actual childhood sex abuse victim is often treated--with boredom, disbelief, and failure to respond.

  4. Predictors of initiation of early sex in black and white adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Gwen M; Bartoces, Monina

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which problem solving, self-image, and other health-related factors predict age at first intercourse among Black and White adolescent females. The volunteer sample was 16 to 19 years old; 52% were Black (n=105), and 48% (n=97) were White. Adolescents were recruited from family planning clinics throughout South Carolina. Stratified analyses identified race as a modifier of the relationship between problem solving and time of first intercourse (early or delayed). Logistic regression revealed three predictors of early age at first intercourse in Black girls, but only one predictor in White girls. There were no race differentials in either age or the proportion of girls initiating early intercourse. However, Black girls who had less problem solving skill than their peers were five times more likely to have early intercourse, three times more likely to practice fewer health-promoting behaviors, and seven times more likely to have 10 or fewer years of education. Early intercourse was significantly associated with unprotected first intercourse. Our findings suggest that interventions may need to be tailored for different risk groups within Black populations of adolescent girls.

  5. Early male partnership patterns, social support, and sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16-30) into a 1-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first three partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17 % of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15 % were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support-including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education-may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population.

  6. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Female sexual dysfunction with combined oral contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jean Jasmin M L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ang, Seng Bin

    2017-06-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) remain one of the most popular forms of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women. While it is known that COCs can cause sexual dysfunction in women, there is currently no recommendation to screen for sexual function before and after initiation of COCs. We propose that, based on the evidence available, assessment of sexual function should be done at initiation of COCs, as well as at regular intervals thereafter. This would allow COC-related sexual dysfunction to be managed early, such as by switching the patient to newer-generation COCs or other forms of contraception. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Parents as Sexual Health Educators Resulting in Delayed Sexual Initiation and Increased Access to Condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E.; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention for parents of first year high school students in the State of Morelos, Mexico, whose aim was to impact adolescents' sexual behavior, knowledge and access to contraception. Material and methods: Quasi-experimental prospective study with eleven control and eleven intervention…

  9. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling.

  10. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  11. Early initiation of alcohol consumption by adolescents in reconstructed families may be explained by parenting style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakunchykova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Literature about risk factors of alcohol use points at the association between alcohol use and parenting style. This study investigates the relationship between family structure of adolescents in Ukraine and their initiation of alcohol use with parenting style as a mediating variable.METHODS: Pooled data from the repeated cross-sectional nationally representative survey of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools with target group of all 15-16 year old students, held in 1999, 2003, and 2007, were used for this analysis. Complete data were available for 11019 participants. Main exposures were family structure (full, single parent and reconstructed and perceptions of the relationships with mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measure was age when students started consuming alcohol.RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, children in reconstructed families had higher risk for initiating alcohol use at age of 13 or younger (odds ratio 1.37, confidence interval 1,15-1,63 compared to full families. In reconstructed families, adolescents were more likely to be dissatisfied with their relationships with mother compared to intact family structure (8.7% vs. 4.7% and dissatisfied with their relationships with father compared to intact family structure (19,8% vs. 9,1%. Parental support was lacking in higher proportion of reconstructed families, compared to intact family structure (20.7% vs. 15.1%. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for relationship with mother and father, support received from parents, and socio-demographic characteristics, the association between family structure and alcohol drinking initiation was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS: Children in reconstructed families have higher risk of early drinking initiation. This study also supports the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with relationships with parents and lack of support received from parents may mediate the association between family structure

  12. A dynamic stochastic model for DNA replication initiation in early embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arach Goldar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells seem unable to monitor replication completion during normal S phase, yet must ensure a reliable replication completion time. This is an acute problem in early Xenopus embryos since DNA replication origins are located and activated stochastically, leading to the random completion problem. DNA combing, kinetic modelling and other studies using Xenopus egg extracts have suggested that potential origins are much more abundant than actual initiation events and that the time-dependent rate of initiation, I(t, markedly increases through S phase to ensure the rapid completion of unreplicated gaps and a narrow distribution of completion times. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies this increase has remained obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using both previous and novel DNA combing data we have confirmed that I(t increases through S phase but have also established that it progressively decreases before the end of S phase. To explore plausible biochemical scenarios that might explain these features, we have performed comparisons between numerical simulations and DNA combing data. Several simple models were tested: i recycling of a limiting replication fork component from completed replicons; ii time-dependent increase in origin efficiency; iii time-dependent increase in availability of an initially limiting factor, e.g. by nuclear import. None of these potential mechanisms could on its own account for the data. We propose a model that combines time-dependent changes in availability of a replication factor and a fork-density dependent affinity of this factor for potential origins. This novel model quantitatively and robustly accounted for the observed changes in initiation rate and fork density. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides a refined temporal profile of replication initiation rates and a robust, dynamic model that quantitatively explains replication origin usage during early embryonic S phase

  13. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  14. Early sexual maturity among Pumé foragers of Venezuela: fitness implications of teen motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    Because humans have slow life histories, discussions of the optimal age at first birth have stressed the benefits of delayed reproduction. However, given the diversity of ecological, fertility, and mortality environments in which humans live, reproductive maturity is expected to be highly variable. This article uses reproductive histories to examine a pattern of early menarche and first birth among the Pume, a group of South American foragers. Age at menarche and first birth are constructed using both retrospective and cross-sectional data for females over the age of 10 (n = 83). The objectives are first to define these patterns and then discuss their reproductive consequences. On average, Pume girls reach menarche at age 12.9, and give birth to their first child at age 15.3-15.5 (retrospective and cross-sectional data, respectively). This populational average falls several years prior to what often is considered the human norm. Two questions are then considered. What are the infant mortality costs across a mother's reproductive career? How does surviving fertility vary with age at first birth? Results indicate that the youngest of first-time mothers ( or =17). Given parity-specific mortality rates, the optimal strategy to minimize infant mortality and maximize reproductive span is to initiate childbearing in the midteens. Women gain no additional advantage in surviving fertility by delaying childbearing until their late teens.

  15. Asymptomatic early acute appendicitis initiated and diagnosed during colonoscopy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michelle Petro; Anil Minocha

    2005-01-01

    Colonoscopic diagnosis of asymptomatic early acute appendicitis is exceedingly rare. Although obstruction of the lumen due to various causes is believed to be the most common physiologic mechanism of acute appendicitis, all of the previously documented cases in the literature have only shown a patent appendiceal lumen with pus flowing into the cecum. We present the case of a patient undergoing colonoscopy for colorectal cancer evaluation with no abdominal symptoms. An obstructed, swollen appendix was seen. The process was probably initiated during the colonoscopy, documenting perhaps the earliest stage of acute appendicitis for the first time. Endoscopic, CT and microscopic documentation of the case is also presented.

  16. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in labor: does it increase the risk of cesarean section? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohel, Gonen; Gonen, Roni; Vaida, Sonia; Barak, Shlomi; Gaitini, Luis

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether early initiation of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women affects the rate of cesarean sections and other obstetric outcome measures. A randomized trial in which 449 at term nulliparous women in early labor, at less than 3 cm of cervical dilatation, were assigned to either immediate initiation of epidural analgesia at first request (221 women), or delay of epidural until the cervix dilated to at least 4 cm (228 women). At initiation of the epidural the mean cervical dilatation was 2.4 cm in the early epidural group and 4.6 cm in the late group (P labor, the women indicated a preference for early epidural. Initiation of epidural analgesia in early labor, following the first request for epidural, did not result in increased cesarean deliveries, instrumental vaginal deliveries, and other adverse effects; furthermore, it was associated with shorter duration of the first stage of labor and was clearly preferred by the women.

  17. A prospective test of distal and proximal determinants of smoking initiation in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C; Granillo, Teresa M

    2006-04-01

    This study tests a broad array of determinants of utility for developing smoking preventive interventions using a population-based cohort of early adolescents. Multivariable logistic regressions using never-smokers at baseline (N=1137; age 11-14) showed a model of distal determinants was more predictive of initiation within the approximate 10 month follow up period than one of proximal determinants. When all determinants were simultaneously considered, lesser academic achievement and fewer environmental impediments to smoking most strongly predicted initiation. The findings are consistent with some current smoking prevention programs, however such programs may be further potent by using theory-based social development approaches and through reducing tobacco availability or social contexts where youth can smoke without another adult knowing.

  18. Early versus late initiation of dialysis and nutrition: does a transition mean a change in dietary protein intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Woo, Jean

    2013-05-01

    Over the last 15 to 20 years, there has been an increasing trend toward early initiation of dialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This was based on early retrospective studies suggesting better clinical outcomes with an early start of dialysis, resulting in guidelines advocating an early start of dialysis in stage 5 CKD patients. However, this clinical practice came into question when more recent observational cohort studies reported higher mortality rates among CKD patients who started dialysis early. In this article, we review the current controversies relating to the timing of initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced CKD. More importantly, we provide a discussion on whether the transition between early and late initiation of dialysis treatment may mean a change in dietary protein intake prescription in patients with advanced CKD.

  19. Trends in early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and characteristics of persons with HIV initiating therapy in San Francisco, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling Chin; Truong, Hong-Ha M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Zhi, Qi; Scheer, Susan; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    In 2010, the San Francisco Department of Public Health offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all its patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regardless of CD4 count. We assessed trends in time from diagnosis to ART initiation and factors associated with ART initiation among San Francisco residents living with HIV between 2007 and 2011. Time to ART initiation decreased among those diagnosed with higher CD4 count. ART initiation rate was significantly higher in recent years and lower among African Americans, men who have sex with men who also inject drugs, and persons aged ≥50 years. We found a trend toward early treatment. However, racial and social disparities persist.

  20. Misalignments of purpose and power in an early Canadian interprofessional education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sarah; Paradis, Elise; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Boon, Heather; Hart, Corinne; Razack, Saleem; Pipher, Mandy; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-01-03

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada. We asked how IPE was promoted and received, by whom, for what purposes, and to what effects. Our analysis demonstrates that IPE was promoted as a response to local challenges for the Faculty of Medicine as well as national challenges for Canada's emerging public healthcare system. These dual exigencies enabled the IPE initiative, but they shaped it in somewhat divergent ways: the former gave rise to its core component (a health sciences centre) and the latter its ultimate purpose (increasing the role of non-medical professions in primary care). Reception of the initiative was complicated by a further tension: nurses and allied health professionals were sometimes represented as independent experts with unique knowledge and skills, and sometimes as assistants or substitutes for medical doctors. We relate the successes and frustrations of this early initiative to particular (mis)alignments of purpose and relationships of power, some of which continue to enable and constrain IPE today.

  1. Initial design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies: developing an mHealth intervention for young sexual minority men with generalized anxiety disorder and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

    2013-12-05

    To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users' ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities.

  2. Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is a relatively young yet rapidly developing scientific field. Assessing the potential response(s of marine organisms to projected near-future OA scenarios has been at the forefront of scientific research, with a focus on ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs and processes (e.g., calcification that are deemed particularly vulnerable. Recently, a heightened emphasis has been placed on evaluating early life history stages as these stages are generally perceived to be more sensitive to environmental change. The number of acidification-related studies focused on early life stages has risen dramatically over the last several years. While early life history stages of corals have been understudied compared to other marine invertebrate taxa (e.g., echinoderms, mollusks, numerous studies exist to contribute to our status of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment dynamics. To synthesize this information, the present paper reviews the primary literature on the effects of acidification on sexual reproduction and early stages of corals, incorporating lessons learned from more thoroughly studied taxa to both assess our current understanding of the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment and to inform and guide future research in this area.

  3. Analysis of Early Severe Accident Initiated by LBLOCA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xing-Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to simulate an early Severe Accident (SA scenario more detail through transferring the thermal-hydraulic status of the plant predicted by RELAP5 computer code to SA Program (SAP. Based on the criterion of date extract time, the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic calculation data is extracted to form a file for SAP input card at 1477K of cladding surface. Relying on the thermal-hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of early SA initiated by the Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA without mitigation measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II performed by SAP through finding the key events of accident sequence, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding and evaluating the relocation order of the materials collapsed in the central region of the core. The results of this study are expected to improve the SA analysis methodology more detail through analyzing early SA scenario.

  4. Initiating Characteristics of Early-onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yu; Li-Fang Xie; Kang Chen; Gang-Yi Yang; Xiao-Yan Xing; Jia-Jun Zhao; Tian-Pei Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has traditionally been considered to affect mainly the elderly;however,the age at diagnosis has gradually reduced in recent years.Although the incidence of young-onset T2DM is increasing,it is still not fully clear the onset characteristics and risk factors of early-onset T2DM.The aim of this study was to describe the initiating characteristics of early-onset T2DM in Chinese patients and evaluate the risk factors for diabetes mellitus.Methods:This cross-sectional controlled study was performed using a questionnaire survey method in outpatients of multiple centers in China.A total of 1545 patients with T2DM with an age at onset of<40 years were included,and the control group consisted of subjects aged <40 years with normal blood glucose level.Results:In patients with young-onset T2DM,the mean age and initial hemoglobin 1Ac at diagnosis were 32.96 ± 5.40 years and 9.59 ± 2.71%,respectively.Most of the patients were obese,followed irregular diet pattern and sedentary lifestyle,had life or work pressure,and had a family history of diabetes mellitus.Compared with subjects with normal blood glucose level,logistic regression analysis showed that waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] 446.99,95% confidence interval [CI] 42.37-4714.87),family history of diabetes mellitus (OR 23.46,CI14.47-38.03),dyslipidemia (OR 2.65,CI 1.54-4.56),diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.02,CI 1.00-1.04),and body mass index (OR 0.95,CI 0.92-0.99) are independent factors for early-onset T2DM.Conclusions:We observed that abdominal obesity,family history of diabetes mellitus,and medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for early-onset T2DM.It is,therefore,necessary to apply early lifestyle intervention in young people with risk of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Holcombe

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  6. Amplification of the 20q chromosomal arm occurs early in tumorigenic transformation and may initiate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Tabach

    Full Text Available Duplication of chromosomal arm 20q occurs in prostate, cervical, colon, gastric, bladder, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, suggesting that 20q amplification may play a causal role in tumorigenesis. According to an alternative view, chromosomal imbalance is mainly a common side effect of cancer progression. To test whether a specific genomic aberration might serve as a cancer initiating event, we established an in vitro system that models the evolutionary process of early stages of prostate tumor formation; normal prostate cells were immortalized by the over-expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT, and cultured for 650 days till several transformation hallmarks were observed. Gene expression patterns were measured and chromosomal aberrations were monitored by spectral karyotype analysis at different times. Several chromosomal aberrations, in particular duplication of chromosomal arm 20q, occurred early in the process and were fixed in the cell populations, while other aberrations became extinct shortly after their appearance. A wide range of bioinformatic tools, applied to our data and to data from several cancer databases, revealed that spontaneous 20q amplification can promote cancer initiation. Our computational model suggests that 20q amplification induced deregulation of several specific cancer-related pathways including the MAPK pathway, the p53 pathway and Polycomb group factors. In addition, activation of Myc, AML, B-Catenin and the ETS family transcription factors was identified as an important step in cancer development driven by 20q amplification. Finally we identified 13 "cancer initiating genes", located on 20q13, which were significantly over-expressed in many tumors, with expression levels correlated with tumor grade and outcome suggesting that these genes induce the malignant process upon 20q amplification.

  7. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  8. Initiating an Action Research Programme for University EFL Teachers: Early Experiences and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Burns

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of how teacher educators begin to plan, develop, and support action research programmes for language teachers are rare, as are descriptions of the responses of the teachers who participate. This article documents and analyses the initial processes of introducing and supporting a new programme of action research for language teachers at the Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura (UCBC in Santiago, Chile. To evaluate the setting up of the programme and how the teachers have perceived it in its early stages, the authors, who are the programme facilitators, have conducted a meta- study. Data include workshop and meeting recordings, workshop observation notes, a reflective account, and a teacher questionnaire. The findings indicate that the teachers value the input and collaboration provided by an initial workshop, and subsequent meetings and discussions, very highly, but that issues of time, student involvement, and academic literature are areas for further debate and development. The article ends by drawing out the broader implications for UCBC and for others wishing to initiate similar action research programmes.

  9. [Childhood sexual traumatic events and sexual life and relationship of a patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Krzysztof, Rutkowski; Mielimaka, Michał; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of links between traumatic events of sexual nature recollected from the past and patients' later functioning in sexual life and relationships. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and adolescence in patients with the features of their current partner relationships was analysed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, undergoing treatment between the years 1980-2002, before they were admitted to a day ward of neurotic disorder department. The existence of numerous significant links was observed e.g. the information regarding incest or incest attempt experience was related with a significant risk ofa sexual life assessment as completely dissatisfying in women (OR = 2.71) and almost completely dissatisfying in men (OR = 2.38). Sexual initiation by rape was related with women's more frequent incidence of getting married as a result of social pressure (OR = 3.77) and a feeling of hatred towards a partner (OR = 5.41). Men and women who considered themselves completely sexually uneducated (before the age of 18) assessed their sexual life as completely dissatisfying (OR = 2.48 and OR = 2.07), which was similar to men who would get punished for masturbation or sexual plays by their guardians (OR=2.68). Traumatic events and circumstances relating to sexuality, indicated in the questionnaire interview, turned out to be connected with the risk of dysfunctions in a sexual life and relationship. The traumas included, among others, rape during initiation, early initiation, incest, but also unfavourable circumstances of less traumatic nature such as a lack of sexual education, punishment for masturbation, "mostly undesired initiation". Their likely effects were rooted in relationship dysfunctions: reasons for their formation, power division, instability, problems with resolving conflicts and, most of all, sexual life dysfunctions. The results were obtained on the basis of simple questionnaire questions

  10. Effects of Companies’ Initiatives to Reduce Early Retirement Among Older Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Midtsundstad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although active ageing policy and practice vary between countries, we believe that knowledge about the effects of Norwegian companies’ initiatives to delay early retirement is of interest for all countries striving to increase the employment rates of older workers. Since the agreement on a more inclusive working life (IW agreement was signed in 2001, the Norwegian government and social partners have encouraged companies to develop a more senior-friendly policy and implement special measures to retain older workers. In this article, we evaluate the effects of such measures. Our research question is, have preventive measures offered by companies to employees aged 62 years and older contributed to reduced rates of early retirement? We use a ‘difference-in-differences’ approach and examine whether measures at the company level to counteract early retirement actually affect older employees’ retirement decisions, controlling for different individual and enterprise factors. This is done by comparing changes and differences in the individual likelihood of early retirement on the contractual pension (AFP scheme and disability pension in the period 2002–2007 among employees 62 years of age in businesses with and without the corresponding preventive measures/instruments. The analyses show that the likelihood that a 62-year-old worker will retire on the AFP scheme has increased from 2002 to 2007. This applies equally to 62-year-old employees in enterprises that have enacted special measures to retain older workers as well as 62-year-olds in enterprises that have not enacted any such measures. On the other hand, the likelihood that a 62-year-old worker will retire because of disability decreased from 2002 to 2007, among employees in both the intervention enterprises and the control enterprises. However, when controlling for other relevant characteristics of individuals and enterprises, the analysis indicates that the measures as such have had no

  11. The Effect of Motivational Interviewing-Based Counseling During Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing on High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Bateganya, Moses H; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2016-09-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) has rapidly expanded in many countries including Uganda. However, because it provides HIV prevention information without individualized risk assessment and risk reduction counseling it may create missed opportunities for effective HIV prevention counseling. Our objective was to assess the effect of a brief motivational interviewing-based intervention during outpatient PITC in rural Uganda compared to Uganda's standard-of-care PITC at reducing HIV transmission-relevant sexual risk behavior. We enrolled 333 (160 control, 173 intervention) participants in a historical control trial to test the intervention vs. standard-of-care. Participants received PITC and standard-of-care or the intervention counseling and we assessed sexual risk behavior at baseline and 3 and 6 months follow-up. The intervention condition showed 1.5-2.4 times greater decreases in high risk sexual behavior over time compared to standard-of-care (p = 0.015 and p = 0.004). These data suggest that motivational interviewing based counseling during PITC may be a promising intervention to reduce high-risk sexual behavior and potentially reduce risk of HIV infection.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in human and canine spinal cord: role of early androgen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forger, N G; Breedlove, S M

    1986-10-01

    Onuf's nucleus, located in the sacral spinal cord of dogs, cats, and primates, innervates perineal muscles involved in copulatory behavior. A sexual dimorphism in Onuf's nucleus was found in humans and dogs: males have significantly more motoneurons in this nucleus than do females. Prenatal androgen treatment of female dogs eliminated the dimorphism. In the homologous nucleus in rats, a similar effect of androgen has been shown to involve sparing of motoneurons from cell death. These results establish a morphological sex difference in a human central nervous system region of known function; well-studied animal models suggest explanations of the development of this dimorphism.

  13. Sexual polymorphisms of vomeronasal 1 receptor family gene expression in bulls, steers, and estrous and early luteal-phase heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Haruna; Otsuka, Midori; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-02-01

    Vomeronasal 1 receptors (V1R) are a family of receptors for intraspecies chemosignals, including pheromones, and are expressed in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VO). Even in the well-studied rodents, it is unclear which members of the V1R family cause sexual polymorphisms, as there are numerous genes and it is difficult to quantify their expressions individually. Bovine species carry only 34 V1R homologs, and the OE and VOs are large enough to sample. Here, V1R expression was quantified in the OE and VOs of individual bovines. Based on the 34 gene sequences, we obtained a molecular dendrogram consisting of four clusters and six independent branches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to obtain gene expression profiles in the VOs and OE of 5 Japanese Black bulls, 5 steers, 7 estrous heifers and 6 early luteal-phase heifers. Ten genes showed significant between-group differences, and 22 showed high expression in VOs than in OE. The bulls showed higher expression of one gene more in OE and another in VOs (both Pexpressed more abundantly in steers than in bulls. The estrous heifers showed higher expression of a gene of the second cluster in OE, and a gene of the third cluster in VOs (both Pexpression exhibits sexual polymorphisms in cattle.

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Early Substance Use Initiation: A Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Olivia E; Conger, Rand D; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    Substance use initiation in adolescence is a critical issue, given its association with substance dependency and associated problems in adulthood. However, due to the dearth of fine-grained, longitudinal studies, the factors associated with early initiation are poorly understood, especially in minority youth. The present study examined substance use initiation in a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N=674) assessed annually from age 10 to 16. Using discrete-time survival analyses, we found that initiation escalated rapidly from late childhood to adolescence, and we identified a wide range of factors, from the individual to the cultural level of analysis, that significantly increased or decreased risk for early initiation. These findings have important implications for programs aimed at preventing early substance use by Mexican-origin youth.

  15. Sustainable Professional Learning for Early Childhood Educators: Lessons from an Australia-Wide Mental Health Promotion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    New policy initiatives, such as those concerned with promoting young children's positive mental health, highlight the need for good quality professional education in the early childhood education and care sector. However, although a wealth of literature exists from the school sector, little is known about professional education in early childhood…

  16. Child Developmental Impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in High-Risk Communities: First-Phase Authentic Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Brickley, Dale; Smith-Jones, Janell; Dettore, Ernie

    2002-01-01

    This study used an "enhanced constructed comparison group" statistical model to conduct longitudinal research on the child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's early childhood initiative (ECI), a partnership to provide high-quality early care and education for children in high-risk neighborhoods. First-phase findings indicate that…

  17. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Patrick; Shrestha, Roman; Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-12-07

    Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.

  18. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  19. Initiatives on early detection and intervention to proactively identify health and social problems in older people : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lette, Manon; Baan, C.A.; van den Berg, Matthijs; de Bruin, Simone R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the last years, several initiatives on early detection and intervention have been put in place to proactively identify health and social problems in (frail) older people. An overview of the initiatives currently available in the Netherlands is lacking, and it is unknown whether they

  20. Association of Khat and alcohol use with HIV infection and age at first sexual initiation among youths visiting HIV testing and counseling centers in Gamo-Gofa Zone, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaju Marelign Tilahun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is the major problem and an obstacle to both the health and development of people in Ethiopia today. It is also indicated that the use of substances have dramatically increased despite the serious concern about HIV infection. Methods Unmatched case control study was conducted in South West Ethiopia using a sample of 105 cases and 305 controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. Result HIV infection was positively associated with being in the age of 20 – 24 years [OR & (95% CI = 2.892 (1.266, 6.607], being female [OR & (95% CI = 2.013 (1.061, 3.822], alcohol use [OR & (95% CI = 5.883 (3.034, 11.408], having no education [OR & (95% CI = 3.193 (1.523, 6.695] and primary education level [OR & (95% CI = 3.160 (1.351, 7.388]. Early sexual initiation was also positively associated with being not employed Adj. HR & (95% CI = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357], not having comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016]. Conclusion Strategies should be designed to control the use of alcohol and khat which were found to be predictors of HIV infection and early sexual initiation in this study.

  1. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  2. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.

  3. Early Paleozoic subduction initiation volcanism of the Iwatsubodani Formation, Hida Gaien belt, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Koshi; Gantumur, Onon; Nuramkhaan, Manchuk

    2017-01-01

    In placing Japanese tectonics in an Asian context, variation in the Paleozoic geological environment is a significant issue. This paper investigates the geochemistry of the lower Paleozoic basalt formation (Iwatsubodani Formation) in the Hida Gaien belt, Japan, to consider its tectonic setting. This formation includes the following two types of rock in ascending order: basalt A with sub-ophitic texture and basalt B with porphyritic texture. Basalt A has a high and uniform FeO*/MgO ratio, moderate TiO2, high V, and low Ti/V. The HFSE and REE are nearly the same as those in MORB, and all the data points to basalt A being the "MORB-like fore-arc tholeiitic basalt (FAB)" reported, for example, from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. By contrast, basalt B has a low FeO*/MgO ratio, low TiO2, and low V and Ti/V. It has an LREE-enriched trend and a distinct negative Nb anomaly in the MORB-normalized multi-element pattern and a moderately high LREE/HREE. All these factors suggest that basalt B is calc-alkaline basalt. It is known that FAB is erupted at the earliest stage of arc formation—namely, subduction initiation—and that boninitic/tholeiitic/calc-alkaline volcanism follows at the supra-subduction zone (SSZ). Thus, the occurrence of basalts A (FAB) and B (calc-alkaline rock) is strong evidence of early Paleozoic arc-formation initiation at an SSZ. Evidence for an early Paleozoic SSZ arc is also recognized from the Oeyama, Hayachine-Miyamori, and Sergeevka ophiolites. Hence, both these ophiolites and the Iwatsubodani Formation probably coexisted in a primitive SSZ system in the early Paleozoic.

  4. Impact of Early Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with Acute HIV Infection in Vienna, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Herout

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether antiretroviral therapy (ART should be initiated during acute HIV infection. Most recent data provides evidence of benefits of early ART.We retrospectively compared the clinical and immunological course of individuals with acute HIV infection, who received ART within 3 months (group A or not (group B after diagnosis.Among the 84 individuals with acute HIV infection, 57 (68% received ART within 3 months (A whereas 27 (32% did not receive ART within 3 months (B, respectively. Clinical progression to CDC stadium B or C within 5 years after the diagnosis of HIV was less common in (A when compared to (B (P = 0.002. After twelve months, both the mean increase in CD4+ T cell count and the mean decrease in viral load was more pronounced in (A, when compared to (B (225 vs. 87 cells/μl; P = 0.002 and -4.19 vs. -1.14 log10 copies/mL; P<0.001. Twenty-four months after diagnosis the mean increase from baseline of CD4+ T cells was still higher in group A compared to group B (251 vs. 67 cells/μl, P = 0.004.Initiation of ART during acute HIV infection is associated with a lower probability of clinical progression to more advanced CDC stages and significant immunological benefits.

  5. Beyond neighborhood poverty: family management, neighborhood disorder, and adolescents' early sexual onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Leventhal, Tama

    2009-12-01

    The authors examined how neighborhood disorder modifies associations between family management practices and youth transitions to sex among low-income African American and Latino urban families. The sample included 846 young adolescents and their mothers who participated in Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study. Results from multilevel logistic regression models indicated no main effects of family management practices or neighborhood-level conditions on transitions to sex once accounting for demographics. However, higher levels of family routines and parental knowledge (i.e., awareness of youths' friends, whereabouts, and activities) were more strongly associated with a lower probability of youth sexual onset as neighborhood disorder increased. Results provide further evidence for the contextually specific nature of parenting impacts on adolescent adjustment.

  6. Performance of the Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire During Initiation of Epidural Analgesia in Early Active Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Pamela J; Kurtz Landy, Christine; Djordjevic, Jasmine; Barrett, Jon; Kibbe, Alanna; Sriparamananthan, Saiena; Lee, Yuna; Hamata, Lydia; Zaki, Pearl; Kiss, Alex

    2016-12-01

    The Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire (A-LPQ) is a new, 22-item multidimensional psychometric questionnaire that measures the 5 most important dimensions of women's childbirth pain experiences using 5 subscales: The Enormity of the Pain, Fear/Anxiety, Uterine Contraction Pain, Birthing Pain, and Back Pain/Long Haul. Previous work showed that the A-LPQ has overall good psychometric properties and performance during early active labor in women without pain relief. The current study assessed the tool's sensitivity to change during initiation of labor epidural analgesia with the standardized response mean (SRM, primary outcome). Two versions of the A-LPQ were administered once, in each of 2 test sessions, by the same trained interviewer during early active labor. The sequence of administration was randomized (ie, standard question order version [Test 1] followed by mixed version [Test 2] or vice versa). Test 1 was completed before epidural insertion; Test 2 commenced 20 to 30 minutes after the test dose. Providers assessed/treated pain independently of the study. Sensitivity to change was assessed using SRMs, Cohen's d, and paired t tests. Overall pain intensity was concurrently examined using Numeric Rating Scale and the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); coping was assessed with the Pain Mastery Scale. Changes in pain were measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity with other tools was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A total of 51 complete datasets were analyzed. Most women reported moderate (63%, 32/51) or severe (18%, 9/51) baseline pain on VRS scores during Test 1; 29% (15/51) reported mild pain, and 6% (3/51) reported moderate pain during Test 2. Approximately 90% (46/51) of women reported much or very much improved pain at the end of testing. Cronbach's α for A-LPQ summary scores was excellent (0.94) and ranged from 0.78 (acceptable) to 0.92 (excellent) for

  7. Progress Developing the Kansas Early Childhood Special Education Accountability System: Initial Findings Using ECO and COSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Hornbeck, Marguerite; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Policy decision makers, early educators, and early interventionists face numerous challenges as they develop and implement statewide accountability systems to evaluate and improve children's early intervention and early childhood special education outcomes. Kansas was an early adopter of the Child Outcomes Summary Form (COSF) developed by the…

  8. Sexual Orientation Identity Disparities in Awareness and Initiation of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among U.S. Women and Girls: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gordon, Allegra R; Haneuse, Sebastien; Potter, Jennifer E; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-07-21

    Lesbians and bisexual women are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection from female and male sexual partners. To examine the association between sexual orientation identity and HPV vaccination among U.S. women and girls. Cross-sectional, using 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data. U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth used stratified cluster sampling to establish a national probability sample of 12,279 U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 44 years. Analyses were restricted to 3253 women and girls aged 15 to 25 years who were asked about HPV vaccination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain prevalence estimates of HPV vaccine awareness and initiation adjusted for sociodemographic and health care factors for each sexual orientation identity group. Among U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 25 years, 84.4% reported having heard of the HPV vaccine; of these, 28.5% had initiated HPV vaccination. The adjusted prevalence of vaccine awareness was similar among heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian respondents. After adjustment for covariates, 8.5% (P = 0.007) of lesbians and 33.2% (P = 0.33) of bisexual women and girls who had heard of the vaccine had initiated vaccination compared with 28.4% of their heterosexual counterparts. Self-reported, cross-sectional data, and findings may not be generalizable to periods after 2006 to 2010 or all U.S. lesbians aged 15 to 25 years (because of the small sample size for this group). Adolescent and young adult lesbians may be less likely to initiate HPV vaccination than their heterosexual counterparts. Programs should facilitate access to HPV vaccination services among young lesbians. National Cancer Institute.

  9. The Association between Students' Perceptions of a Caring Teacher and Sexual Initiation. a Study among South African High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.; Onya, Hans; Mathews, Catherine; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2011-01-01

    This paper has the following aims: (i) to explore the extent to which students who received an intervention involving HIV/AIDS and sexuality perceived that their teacher cared for their health and well-being, (ii) to investigate the characteristics of students who reported to have caring teachers and (iii) to document the association between…

  10. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, Helmut; Tomek, Wolfgang; Kovárová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-12-01

    The binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mediated by the protein complex eIF4F in conjunction with eIF4B (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and 4B). EIF4F is a three subunit complex consisting of eIF4A (RNA helicase), eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein), and eIF4G (bridging protein). The crucial role is played by eIF4E, which directly binds the 5'-cap structure of the mRNA and facilitates the recruitment to the mRNA of other translation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF4E binding to mRNA and to other initiation factors is regulated on several levels, including its phosphorylation on Ser-209, and association with its regulatory protein 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). In this study we document that both the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its regulator 4E-BP1 become dephosphorylated in the early stage porcine zygotes already 8 hr post-activation. Similarly, the activities of ERK1/2 MAP and Mnk1 kinases, which are both involved in eIF4E phosphorylation, gradually decrease during this period with the timing similar to that of eIF4E dephosphorylation. The formation of an active eIF4F complex is also diminished after 9-15 hr post-activation, although substantial amounts of this complex have been detected also 24 hr post-activation (2-cell stage). The overall protein synthesis in the parthenotes decreases gradually from 12 hr post-activation reaching a minimum after 48 hr (4-cell stage). Although the translation is gradually decreasing during early preimplantation development, the eIF4F complex, which is temporarily formed, might be a premise for the translation of a small subset of mRNAs at this period of development.

  11. The EGU Seismology Division Early Career Scientist Representative team and its initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Ermert, Laura; Gualtieri, Lucia; Spieker, Kathrin; Van Noten, Koen; Agius, Matthew R.; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014, the Seismology Division (SM) of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) has its Early Career Scientist (ECS) representative to reach out to its numerous 'younger' members. In April 2016, a new team of representatives joined the Division. We are a vivid team of early career scientists, representing both (either) PhD students and post-doctoral researchers working in different seismological disciplines and different countries. The initiatives of the SM ECS-rep team have various aims: (1) to motivate the ECSs to get involved in activities and initiatives of the EGU and the Seismology Division, (2) to promote the research of ECSs, (3) to discuss issues concerning seismologists during this particular stage of their career, (4) to share ideas on how to promote equality between scientists and (5) to improve on the public dissemination of scientific knowledge. In an effort to reach out to experienced and ECS seismologists more effectively and to continuously encourage to voice their ideas by contributing and following our initiatives, a blog and social media pages dedicated to seismology and earthquake trivia are run by the team. Weekly posts are published on the blog and shared on the social media regarding scientific and social aspects of seismology. One of the major contributions recently introduced to the blog is the "Paper of the Month" series where experienced seismologists write about recent or classical - must read - seismology articles. We also aim to organise and promote social and scientific events. During the EGU General Assembly 2016 a social event was held in Vienna allowing ECS to network with peers in an informal environment. Given the success of this event, a similar event will be organized during the General Assembly 2017. Also, similar to previous years, a short course on basic seismology for non seismologists will be requested and offered to all ECSs attending the General Assembly. Finally, a workshop dedicated entirely to ECSs seismologists

  12. Early ambulance initiation versus in-hospital initiation of high dose clopidogrel in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Dambrink, J.H.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Koopmans, P.C.; Berg, J.M. van den; Suryapranata, H.; Hof, A.W. van 't

    2014-01-01

    Pre-hospital infarct diagnosis gives the opportunity to start anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents before arrival at the PCI centre. However, more evidence is necessary to demonstrate whether high dose (HD) clopidogrel (600 mg) administered in the ambulance is associated with improved initial pa

  13. Contratransferência no atendimento inicial de vítimas de violência sexual e urbana: uma pesquisa qualitativa/quantitativa Countertransference in the initial care of victims of sexual and urban violence: a qualitative-quantitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Eizirik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contratransferência dos terapeutas durante o atendimento inicial de pacientes mulheres vítimas de violência sexual e urbana, investigando a influência do gênero do terapeuta e da natureza e momento do trauma. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 36 relatos redigidos por médicos residentes de psiquiatria do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, oriundos do atendimento de 36 pacientes. Este estudo utilizou métodos qualitativos e quantitativos para a análise dos seus dados. Os relatos foram classificados em seis grupos, conforme o gênero do terapeuta e a natureza do trauma. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo dos relatos. Associou-se uma análise estatística dos dados. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação nos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento de vítimas de violência sexual. Entre terapeutas mulheres, a natureza do trauma (sexual ou urbano não influenciou os padrões contratransferenciais (p = 0,7. Entre os terapeutas homens, ao contrário, a natureza do trauma influenciou de forma significativa (p = 0,044 o padrão contratransferencial, havendo um número elevado de sentimentos de distanciamento nos relatos de atendimentos de vítimas de violência urbana. CONCLUSÕES: Houve um predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação dos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento inicial de pacientes vítimas de violência sexual. Foi observado um predomínio de sentimentos de distanciamento nos terapeutas homens que atenderam vítimas de violência urbana. Mais estudos são necessários para uma melhor compreensão das relações terapêuticas nos atendimentos de vítimas de trauma psíquico.OBJECTIVE: To assess therapists' countertransference during initial care of female victims of sexual and urban violence with the aim of investigating influence of therapist's gender, type and moment of trauma. METHODS: The sample comprised 36 reports written by psychiatry residents at Hospital de Cl

  14. How can parents make a difference? Longitudinal associations with adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Daneen P; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E

    2010-12-01

    Parents have the potential to protect against adolescent sexual risk, including early sexual behavior, inconsistent condom use, and outcomes such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Identification of the specific parenting dimensions associated with sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood is necessary to inform and focus prevention efforts. The current study examined the relation of proximal (e.g., discussions of sexual costs) and distal (e.g., parental involvement, relationship quality) parenting variables with concurrent and longitudinal adolescent sexual behavior. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) provided a nationally representative sample with information about the family using adolescent and parent informants. Longitudinal information about sexual risk included adolescent condom use and adolescent sexual initiation, as well as young adult unintended pregnancy, reports of STIs, and biological assay results for three STIs. Higher parent-adolescent relationship quality was associated with lower levels of adolescent unprotected intercourse and intercourse initiation. Better relationship quality was also associated with lower levels of young adult STIs, even when accounting for prior sexual activity. Unexpectedly, more parent reports of communication regarding the risks associated with sexual activity were negatively associated with condom use and greater likelihood of sexual initiation. These results demonstrate that parents play an important role, both positive and negative, in sexual behavior, which extends to young adulthood, and underscores the value of family interventions in sexual risk prevention.

  15. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Ellen K K; Langeland, Willie; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    .... The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first...

  16. Relações de gênero e iniciação sexual de mulheres adolescentes Relaciones de genero e iniciación sexual de mujeres adolescentes Gender relations and sexual initiation among adolescent women

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2007-01-01

    Trata-se de estudo transversal conduzido com 222 adolescentes mulheres, entre 15 e 19 anos de idade, moradoras da área de uma unidade de saúde da família na zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, cujo objetivo foi descrever as motivações para iniciar ou não a vida sexual e os fatores associados a tal evento. As adolescentes que já haviam iniciado a vida sexual eram mais velhas, não coabitavam com os pais, estavam ausentes do sistema educacional, habitavam domicílios ocupados e namoravam em maior ...

  17. Correlates of Early versus Later Initiation into Sex Work in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Amaro, Hortensia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine correlates of early initiation into sex work in two Mexico–U.S. border cities. Methods Female sex workers (FSWs) ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent baseline interviews. Correlates of initiation into sex work before age 18 were identified with logistic regression. Results Of 920 FSWs interviewed in Tijuana (N=474) and Ciudad Juarez (N=446), 9.8% (N=90) were early initiators (<18 years) into sex work. Median age of entry into sex work was 26 years (range: 6–58). After adjusting for age, compared to older initiators, early initiators were more likely to use inhalants (21.1% vs 9.6%, p=0.002), initiate sex work to pay for alcohol (36.7% vs 18.4%, p<.001), report abuse as a child (42.2% vs 18.7%, p<.0001), and they were less likely to be migrants (47.8% vs 62.3%, p=0.02). Factors independently associated with early initiation included inhalant use (adjOR=2.39), initiating sex work to pay for alcohol (adjOR=1.88) and history of child abuse (adjOR=2.92). Factors associated with later initiation included less education (adjOR=0.43 per 5-year increase), migration (adjOR=0.47), and initiating sex work for better pay (adjOR=0.44) or to support children (adjOR=0.03). Conclusions Different pathways for entering sex work are apparent among younger versus older females in the Mexico–U.S. border region. Among girls, interventions are needed to prevent inhalant use and child abuse and to offer coping skills; among older initiators, income-generating strategies, childcare, and services for migrants may help to delay or prevent entry into sex work. PMID:20123256

  18. Countertransference in the initial visit of women victims of sexual violence Contratransferência no atendimento inicial de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Eizirik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. METHOD: Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was evaluated with the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Defense Style Questionnaire. RESULTS:The therapists showed a predominance of feelings of closeness (Mean = 5.42, SD = 1.25 in relation to the feelings of indifference (Mean = 1.82, SD = 1.22 and distance (Mean = 1.57, SD = 1.08 [p OBJETIVO: Identificar os correlatos demográficos e clínicos associados com sentimentos contratransferenciais de terapeutas na primeira consulta de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram atendidas por 26 terapeutas, ao longo de dois anos consecutivos, no Núcleo de Estudos e Tratamento do Trauma Psíquico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Após a primeira consulta com a paciente, o terapeuta preenchia a Escala para Avaliação da Contratransferência. Os pacientes foram avaliados com a Escala Davidson de Trauma, a Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck, e a versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire. RESULTADOS: Os terapeutas apresentaram predominantemente sentimentos de proximidade (Mean = 5,42, SD = 1,25 em comparação aos sentimentos de indiferença (Mean = 1,82, SD = 1,22 e de distanciamento (Mean = 1,57, SD = 1,08 [p < 0,001]. As análises multivariadas revelaram a ausência de associações entre os sentimentos contratransferenciais e características clínicas dos

  19. Predictors of Early First Sexual Intercourse among Adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Flisher, Alan J.; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Wubs, Annegreet G.; Schaalma, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Early coital debut is a risk factor for HIV. In this paper we investigate the predictors of young adolescents' transition to first intercourse using a social cognition theoretical framework. The analyses reported here were based on a longitudinal study of 2360 students in the schools allocated to the control arm of a cluster-randomized controlled…

  20. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  1. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  2. A systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars. It depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) describing the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed. Consequently knowledge of the IMF is critical to virtually every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than half a century after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal in different galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot be both universal, but they could not break the degeneracy between the two effects. Only recently indications were found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as our Milky Way. Here we report unambiguous evidence for a strong systematic variation of the IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratio, producing differences up to a factor of three in mass. This was inferred from detailed dynamical models of the two-dimensional ...

  3. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...... extension, mean (sd): 28.9 (8.5), 36.3 (7.5), 39.4 (8.4), kg, p=0.02. Hip flexion, mean (sd): 32.4 (9.7), 43.8 (11.5), 53.6 (12.9), kg, p=0.001. Isometric strength in Nm/kg: Preoperative, 4 weeks postoperative, p- value (diff): Hip abduction, mean (sd): 0.86 (0.28), 0.85 (0.16) Nm/kg, p=0.94. Hip flexion......, mean (sd): 0.98 (0.26), 1.03 (0.29) Nm/kg, p=0.52. Conclusions: It seems feasible to commence PRT within the first week after THR, as hip pain remained the same or decreased, while the training load increased progressively. The included patients reached their preoperative hip-strength levels after 4...

  4. Inventorying the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Crescenzo; Napolitano, Nicola R

    2012-01-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out a novel inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar-populations synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on ~4500 early-type galaxies from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, delta_IMF, correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, sigma_*. For the SPIDER sample, we find a strong correlation between delta_IMF and sigma_*, independently of assumptions on the dark matter (DM) profile. The overall normalization of delta_IMF, and the detailed DM profile, are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold-DM halos, and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with sigma_*. For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results ...

  5. The impact of early environmental interventions on structural plasticity of the axon initial segment in neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Masoumeh; Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Rosa, Marcello G P; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Atapour, Nafiseh

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) is a newly discovered type of structural plasticity that regulates cell excitability. AIS plasticity has been reported to happen during normal development of neocortex and also in a few pathological conditions involving disruption of the inhibition/excitation balance. Here we report on the impact of early environmental interventions on structural plasticity of AIS in the mouse neocortex. C57BL/6 mice were raised in standard or enriched environment (EE) from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg] on postnatal days (P) 6-10. We used Ankyrin G immunoreactivity to mark the AIS of cortical neurons in two sub-regions of frontal cortex (frontal association area, FrA and secondary motor cortex, M2) and in the secondary visual cortex (V2). In 1-month-old mice, the mean AIS length differed between three areas, with the shortest AISs being observed in V2. Postnatal MK-801 or EE led to shortening of AIS only in the frontal areas. However, exposure to EE restored AIS shortening induced by MK-801. Chronic postnatal MK-801 results in structural plasticity of AIS exclusive to the frontal cortex. EE may modify underlying neuronal mechanisms resulting in restoration of AIS length. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of empirical relationship between P wave initial slopes and epicentral distance for early warning in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Sheen, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake early warning aims to rapidly provide the information of an earthquake to minimize earthquake damage. The location accuracy of an earthquake is crucial for the accurate estimation of the source property. While standard location procedure can take the advantages of using combined P-wave and S-wave information, early warning information should be given before arriving S-wave. Odaka et al. (2003) found that P-wave initial slopes decrease almost linearly with increasing epicentral distance and proposed a method for estimating epicentral distance from P-wave initial slope. The early warning system in the Japan Meteorological Agency uses this method for locating an earthquake when only one station triggers. For developing the empirical relationship for earthquake early warning in South Korea, we investigate the relationship from 585 local earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and 147 regional earthquakes over magnitude 6.0 that occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula from 2005 to 2015.

  7. Married men's first time experiences of early childbearing and their role in sexual and reproductive decision making: a qualitative study from rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Berggren, Vanja; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Bijay, Bharati; Johansson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Male partners' involvement in women's sexual and reproductive health has been increasingly emphasised in international health. A qualitative approach with open-ended qualitative interviews was used to explore young, married men's first time experiences of early childbearing, their sexual and reproductive decision making and the meanings they make of their role as husbands and fathers. The results offer a nuanced picture of the men's vulnerability in becoming young fathers and having to assume their role as family decision-makers, while still being inexperienced in matters related to the health of their wives and newborn child. Constraints to gender equality and traditional norms and values continue to pose barriers to both young men and women making independent decisions in relation to marriage and childbearing. Men's involvement is necessary in healthcare programmes designed to improve women's sexual and reproductive health and the health of the newborn. Young, first-time fathers, in particular, need support and empowerment.

  8. Cultural, contextual, and intrapersonal predictors of risky sexual attitudes among urban African American girls in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, F Z; Van Oss Marin, B; Chambers, D B

    2000-08-01

    The role of cultural factors in explaining sexual attitudes among African American urban girls, aged 10-13 years, was investigated in this study. The authors predicted that girls with higher school interest, family cohesion, religiosity, and behavioral self-esteem would endorse less risky sexual attitudes. Also, older girls were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes than younger girls, and girls from 1- rather than 2-parent households were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes. The authors hypothesized that ethnic identity and gender role orientations would contribute to explaining variability in sexual attitudes after controlling for contextual and intrapersonal variables. A questionnaire containing measures of the study constructs was administered to 214 girls who were participants in a substance abuse prevention program. Pretest data were used in analyses. A final regression model accounted for 23% of the variance in sexual attitudes. Age and behavioral self-esteem were significant predictors, with younger teens and teens with higher behavioral self-esteem having less risky sexual attitudes. Cultural variables contributed to explaining variation in sexual attitudes after other variables were controlled for. Higher levels of ethnic identity were associated with less risky sexual attitudes. A masculine gender role orientation was associated with more risky sexual attitudes.

  9. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  10. The Early Intervention Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (EIPSES): Scale Construction and Initial Psychometric Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Amy B.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Lamorey, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure parenting efficacy within the context of early intervention, the Early Intervention Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (EIPSES), were explored. One hundred seventeen caregivers of children receiving early intervention services completed the 20-item EIPSES. The scale was reduced to 16…

  11. Early evolution and dynamics of Earth from a molten initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro Lourenço, Diogo; Tackley, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    It is now well established that most of the terrestrial planets underwent a magma ocean stage during their accretion. On Earth, it is probable that at the end of accretion, giant impacts like the hypothesised Moon-forming impact, together with other sources of heat, melted a substantial part of the mantle. The thermal and chemical evolution of the resulting magma ocean most certainly had dramatic consequences on the history of the planet. Considerable research has been done on magma oceans using simple 1-D models (e.g.: Abe, PEPI 1997; Solomatov, Treat. Geophys. 2007; Elkins-Tanton EPSL 2008). However, some aspects of the dynamics may not be adequately addressed in 1-D and require the use of 2-D or 3-D models. Moreover, new developments in mineral physics that indicate that melt can be denser than solid at high pressures (e.g.: de Koker et al., EPSL 2013) can have very important impacts on the classical views of the solidification of magma oceans (Labrosse et al., Nature 2007). The goal of our study is to understand and characterize the influence of melting on the long-term thermo-chemical evolution of rocky planet interiors, starting from an initial molten state (magma ocean). Our approach is to model viscous creep of the solid mantle, while parameterizing processes that involve melt as previously done in 1-D models, including melt-solid separation at all melt fractions, the use of an effective diffusivity to parameterize turbulent mixing, coupling to a parameterized core heat balance and a radiative surface boundary condition. These enhancements have been made to the numerical code StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). We present results for the evolution of an Earth-like planet from a molten initial state to present day, while testing the effect of uncertainties in parameters such as melt-solid density differences, surface heat loss and efficiency of turbulent mixing. Our results show rapid cooling and crystallization until the rheological transition then much slower

  12. Early initiation of enteral feeding in cancer patients after outpatient percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided gastrostomy catheter placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sharjeel H; Armstrong, Ryan; Elting, Linda S; Wallace, Michael J; Gupta, Sanjay; Tam, Alda L

    2014-04-01

    To report the results of early enteral feeding in patients with cancer after outpatient placement of a percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided gastrostomy (PFG). From January 2008 through December 2008, 121 consecutive patients with cancer underwent outpatient placement of a PFG for nutrition. Of these patients, 118 patients met criteria for early feeding, and 113 were successfully fed early (after at least 3 hours). Of the patients fed early, 5 had insufficient follow-up for further analysis leaving 108 patients for outcomes analysis. After placement of the PFG, patients were put on low-wall suction via the PFG for 1 hour followed by feeding via the PFG at least 3 hours after placement. Follow-up evaluation was done the next business day. The medical records were reviewed for 30-day outcomes of early feeding, technical aspects of the procedures, and complications. After placement of the PFG, 98% (118 of 121) of patients met criteria for early feeding, and 93% (113 of 121) of patients were successfully fed early. The median time between the end of the procedure and initiation of feeding was 4 hours (interquartile range, 3.7-4.4 h). The 30-day minor complication rate was 14% (15 of 108), and the 30-day major complication rate was 1% (1 of 108). No complications were directly attributable to early feeding. Early initiation of tube feedings after outpatient placement of a PFG was well tolerated in patients with cancer and carried comparable risks to previously reported results using traditional delayed feeding protocols. Early feeding provided patients with prompt enteral nutrition and eliminated the need for routine hospital admission after the procedure. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CSF biomarkers associated with disease heterogeneity in early Parkinson's disease: the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Mollenhauer, Brit; Coffey, Christopher S; Toledo, Jon B; Weintraub, Daniel; Galasko, Douglas R; Irwin, David J; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Shah, Nirali; Pan, Sarah; Zero, Pawel; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Tanner, Caroline M; Simuni, Tanya; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W; Chowdhury, Sohini; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M

    2016-06-01

    The development of biomarkers to predict the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) from its earliest stage through its heterogeneous course is critical for research and therapeutic development. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is an ongoing international multicenter, prospective study to validate biomarkers in drug-naïve PD patients and matched healthy controls (HC). We quantified cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at Thr181 (p-tau) in 660 PPMI subjects at baseline, and correlated these data with measures of the clinical features of these subjects. We found that CSF α-syn, t-tau and p-tau levels, but not Aβ1-42, were significantly lower in PD compared with HC, while the diagnostic value of the individual CSF biomarkers for PD diagnosis was limited due to large overlap. The level of α-syn, but not other biomarkers, was significantly lower in PD patients with non-tremor-dominant phenotype compared with tremor-dominant phenotype. In addition, in PD patients the lowest Aβ1-42, or highest t-tau/Aβ1-42 and t-tau/α-syn quintile in PD patients were associated with more severe non-motor dysfunction compared with the highest or lowest quintiles, respectively. In a multivariate regression model, lower α-syn was significantly associated with worse cognitive test performance. APOE ε4 genotype was associated with lower levels of Aβ1-42, but neither with PD diagnosis nor cognition. Our data suggest that the measurement of CSF biomarkers in early-stage PD patients may relate to disease heterogeneity seen in PD. Longitudinal observations in PPMI subjects are needed to define their prognostic performance.

  14. AN INVENTORY OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Romanowsky, A. J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Napolitano, N. R., E-mail: ctortora@physik.uzh.ch [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-03-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out the first inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar population synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on {approx}4500 early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, {delta}{sub IMF}, correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub *}. We find a strong correlation between {delta}{sub IMF} and {sigma}{sub *}, for a wide set of dark matter (DM) model profiles. These results are robust if a uniform halo response to baryons is adopted across the sample. The overall normalization of {delta}{sub IMF} and the detailed DM profile are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold DM halos and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with {sigma}{sub *}. For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results are found. Studies based solely on spectroscopic line diagnostics agree on a Salpeter-like IMF at high {sigma}{sub *} but differ at low {sigma}{sub *}. Overall, we find that multiple independent lines of evidence appear to be converging on a systematic variation in the IMF, such that high-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs have an excess of low-mass stars relative to spirals and low-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs. Robust verification of super-Salpeter IMFs in the highest-{sigma}{sub *} galaxies will require additional scrutiny of scatter and systematic uncertainties. The implications for the distribution of DM are still inconclusive.

  15. An Inventory of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2013-03-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out the first inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar population synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on ~4500 early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, δIMF, correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, σsstarf. We find a strong correlation between δIMF and σsstarf, for a wide set of dark matter (DM) model profiles. These results are robust if a uniform halo response to baryons is adopted across the sample. The overall normalization of δIMF and the detailed DM profile are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold DM halos and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with σsstarf. For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results are found. Studies based solely on spectroscopic line diagnostics agree on a Salpeter-like IMF at high σsstarf but differ at low σsstarf. Overall, we find that multiple independent lines of evidence appear to be converging on a systematic variation in the IMF, such that high-σsstarf ETGs have an excess of low-mass stars relative to spirals and low-σsstarf ETGs. Robust verification of super-Salpeter IMFs in the highest-σsstarf galaxies will require additional scrutiny of scatter and systematic uncertainties. The implications for the distribution of DM are still inconclusive.

  16. Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Schooling among Young People in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2008-01-01

    This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy for adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. The study analyzes data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. South African youth have high school enrollment rates through their teenage years, combined with relatively early sexual initiation, with most young people becoming sexually active while they are en...

  17. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of early-initiated treatment for advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, T.; Bekkers, R.L.; Gooszen, H.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Rovers, M.M.; Grutters, J.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Between diagnosis and primary treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), gaps of several weeks exist. Reducing these time intervals may benefit the patient and may lead to a reduction of costs. We explored the cost-effectiveness of early-initiated treatment of patients wi

  19. Scrutinising the Final Judging Role in Assessment of Practicum in Early Childhood Initial Teacher Education in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qilong; Cown, Paula; Hayes, Joanne; Werry, Sue; Barnes, Ruth; France, Lois; TeHau-Grant, Rawhia

    2015-01-01

    Practicum is the cornerstone of teacher education. Triadic assessment of practicum is an established model in early childhood initial teacher education in New Zealand. Based on a phenomenographic study on assessment of practicum, this paper presents a new perspective on triadic assessment. Interview data are collected from 35 participants (20…

  20. Are Persistent Early Onset Child Conduct Problems Predicted by the Trajectories and Initial Levels of Discipline Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation we focused on 2 broad sets of questions: Do parental overreactivity, laxness, and corporal punishment show evidence of normative change in early to middle childhood? Are persistently elevated child conduct problems (CPs) associated with deviations from normative changes in, as well as high initial levels of, discipline…

  1. 78 FR 53187 - Early Scoping Notification for the Alternatives Analysis of the GA 400 Transit Initiative in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., and can be sent or emailed to the MARTA project manager at the address below. Comments may also be... Federal Transit Administration Early Scoping Notification for the Alternatives Analysis of the GA 400 Transit Initiative in Fulton County, Georgia AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), United States...

  2. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  3. Sexual functioning in women after mastectomy versus breast conserving therapy for early-stage breast cancer: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, L; Christiaens, M R; Enzlin, P; Neven, P; Amant, F

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer (BC) and/or its treatments may affect sexual functioning based on physiological and psychosocial mechanisms. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate sexual adjustment of BC patients during a follow-up period of one year after mastectomy (ME) or breast conserving therapy (BCT). In this prospective controlled study, women with BC and an age-matched control group of healthy women completed the Beck Depression Inventory Scale, World Health Organization 5 Well-being scale, Body Image Scale, EORTC QLQ questionnaire, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Short Sexual Functioning Scale and Specific Sexual Problems Questionnaire to assess various aspects of sexual and psychosocial functioning before surgery, six months and one year after surgical treatment. In total, 149 women with BC and 149 age-matched healthy controls completed the survey. Compared to the situation before surgery, significantly more BCT women reported problems with sexual arousal six months after surgery and significantly more women of the ME group reported problems with sexual desire, arousal and the ability to achieve an orgasm six months and one year after surgery. While in comparison with healthy controls, no significant differences in sexual functioning were found after BCT surgery, significantly more women who underwent ME reported problems with sexual desire, arousal, the ability to achieve an orgasm and intensity of the orgasm. Although little differences were seen in sexual functioning in the BCT group during prospective analyses and in comparison with healthy controls, analyses revealed that women who underwent a ME were at risk for post-operative sexual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Sexually dimorphic gene expressions in eels: useful markers for early sex assessment in a conservation context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, Benjamin; Guilbaud, Florian; Amilhat, Elsa; Beaulaton, Laurent; Vignon, Matthias; Huchet, Emmanuel; Rives, Jacques; Bobe, Julien; Fostier, Alexis; Guiguen, Yann; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) has been detected in a range of vertebrate reptile and fish species. Eels are characterized by an ESD that occurs relatively late, since sex cannot be histologically determined before individuals reach 28 cm. Because several eel species are at risk of extinction, assessing sex at the earliest stage is a crucial management issue. Based on preliminary results of RNA sequencing, we targeted genes susceptible to be differentially expressed between ovaries and testis at different stages of development. Using qPCR, we detected testis-specific expressions of dmrt1, amh, gsdf and pre-miR202 and ovary-specific expressions were obtained for zar1, zp3 and foxn5. We showed that gene expressions in the gonad of intersexual eels were quite similar to those of males, supporting the idea that intersexual eels represent a transitional stage towards testicular differentiation. To assess whether these genes would be effective early molecular markers, we sampled juvenile eels in two locations with highly skewed sex ratios. The combined expression of six of these genes allowed the discrimination of groups according to their potential future sex and thus this appears to be a useful tool to estimate sex ratios of undifferentiated juvenile eels.

  5. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  6. Postpartum Resumption of Sexual Activity, Sexual Morbidity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time taken to resume sexual activity, prevalence and pattern of sexual problems ... sexual intercourse included husband's request, initiation by self, cultural demand, and ... disclosure of sexual issues in some ethnic groups may also be responsible. ..... and use among postpartum adolescents in El Salvador. Am. J Obstet ...

  7. Exploring co-parent experiences of sexuality in the first 3 months after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Research on postpartum sexuality has focused primarily on mothers, though new findings suggest that relational perceptions may have a strong influence over sexual desire and behavior. Little investigation exists regarding sexuality in partners of postpartum women. Additionally, recent findings point to the importance of a partner's sexuality for postpartum women's perceptions of their own sexuality in this time. The goal of this research was to explore women's partners' sexuality in the early postpartum phase taking into account psychosocial context. Partners (N = 114; 95 men, 18 women, 1 unspecified) of postpartum women completed a retrospective online questionnaire about their sexuality during the 3 months following their youngest child's birth. Primary measures included sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to sexual behavior, and enjoyment and initiation of sexual behavior. Other psychosocial variables were investigated: partners' perceptions of the birth mother's sexual desire, perceptions of the birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), postpartum stress (Perceived Stress Scale), body image self-consciousness (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), fatigue, and experiences surrounding breastfeeding. Partners reported most frequent engagement in intercourse in the postpartum period, earliest engagement in masturbation, and highest enjoyment of receiving oral sex compared with other sexual activities. Partners' sexual desire was not correlated with the psychosocial variables measured in the study. Findings for partners' sexuality were similar by gender, except for perceptions of social support and likelihood to engage in intercourse. This study provided a novel perspective on the study of postpartum sexuality by investigating physical and psychosocial influences on the experiences of partners of parous women. Given parallels between sexuality

  8. Strategic Financing: Making the Most of the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    As states build comprehensive early childhood systems, policy leaders will need to be attentive to the funding streams available to communities to achieve desired returns. Most public funding for early care and education, as well as for other health and social services for young children and their families is categorical. Categorical funding…

  9. The factors affecting early death after the initial therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Yayar, Okan; Aydin, Seda; Demiroglu, Haluk; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Goker, Hakan; Aksu, Salih; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    There are some improvements in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, induction-induced deaths still remain as a major problem. The aim of this study is to assess clinical parameters affecting early death in patients with AML. 199 AML patients, who were treated with intensive, non-intensive or supportive treatment between 2002 and 2014 in Hacettepe Hematology Department, were analyzed retrospectively. In our study early death rate for elderly was found to be lower than previous reports whereas it was similar for those who were under age of 60. Better ECOG performance (ECOG performance score 0 and 1) and non-intensive treatment associated with lower early death rates, however APL-type disease associated with higher early death rates. ECOG performance score at diagnosis was found to be the most related independent factor with higher rate of early death in 15 days after treatment (P<0.001). Therefore we decided to understand the factors which were related with ECOG. WBC count at diagnosis was found to be the only related parameter with ECOG performance score. Leucocyte count at diagnosis appears like to have an indirect effect on early death in AML patients. It maybe suggested that in recent years there is an improvement in early death rates of elderly AML patients. The currently reported findings require prospective validation and would encourage the incorporation of other next generation genomics for the prediction of early death and overall risk status of AML. PMID:26885243

  10. Misoprostol versus curettage in women with early pregnancy failure after initial expectant management : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; Mol, BWJ; Reuwer, PJH; Drogtrop, A; Bruinse, HW

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least

  11. The Influence of Initial Exposure on Lexical Representation: Comparing Early and Simultaneous Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Galles, N.; Echeverria, S.; Bosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of L2 words and non-words was analysed in a series of three experiments. Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, differing in terms of their L1 and the age of exposure to their L2 (since birth-simultaneous bilinguals-or starting in early childhood-early sequential bilinguals), were asked to perform a lexical decision task on Catalan words…

  12. Entre a modernidade e a tradição: a iniciação sexual de adolescentes piauienses universitárias Entre la modernidad y la tradición: la inicialización sexual de los adolescentes de las universidades de Piauí Between modernity and tradition: sexual initiation of university teens originally from Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosilene Cândido Moreira

    2011-09-01

    noviembre de 2009. Se han revelado cosas en común entre el comportamiento sexual y cultural permitiendo visualizar el poder ejercido por los sistemas de representación social. Es importante poner en punto sobre la necesidad de mirar meticulosamente sobre el asunto, pues son emergentes en los varios escenarios del existir humano.Sexuality as a phenomenon that provides unique moments for people discover each other, it means oneself and another, allowing the realization of permeated practices by acquired symbolizations in adolescence. Being influenced by genetic, social and cultural rights factors, adolescent sexual behavior is often permeated by conflict situations. This study aimed to disclose sexual behaviors of Nursing University female students from Federal University of Piauí, as well as their mechanisms of influence and understanding the aspect that surrounds sexual initiation, considering the obstacles caused by the traditional training and modernizing aspirations. We adopted an ethnography method, by applying profound interviews with twelve students in the months of October and November, 2009. Interviews stood out intersection between sexual behavior and culture, allowing you to see the power exercised by the systems of social representation. It is important to emphasize the need for more importance and attention to the subject for being emergent in several scenes of human existence.

  13. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Holm Bramsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5. Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions: Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.

  14. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  15. Evaluation of a Randomized Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Fifth-Graders Followed through the Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Yao, Qing; Jenkins, Renee R.; Anderson, Karen M.; Davis, Maurice; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    US adolescents initiate sex at increasingly younger ages, yet few pregnancy prevention interventions for children as young as 10-12 years old have been evaluated. Sixteen Washington, DC schools were randomly assigned to intervention versus control conditions. Beginning in 2001/02 with fifth-grade students and continuing during the sixth grade,…

  16. Initial application of the maximum likelihood earthquake location method to early warning system in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D. H.; Seong, Y. J.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    From the early of this year, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) began to operate the first stage of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) and provide early warning information to the general public. The earthquake early warning system (EEWS) in the KMA is based on the Earthquake Alarm Systems version 2 (ElarmS-2), developed at the University of California Berkeley. This method estimates the earthquake location using a simple grid search algorithm that finds the location with the minimum variance of the origin time on successively finer grids. A robust maximum likelihood earthquake location (MAXEL) method for early warning, based on the equal differential times of P arrivals, was recently developed. The MAXEL has been demonstrated to be successful in determining the event location, even when an outlier is included in the small number of P arrivals. This presentation details the application of the MAXEL to the EEWS of the KMA, its performance evaluation over seismic networks in South Korea with synthetic data, and comparison of statistics of earthquake locations based on the ElarmS-2 and the MAXEL.

  17. Early Surgery versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients with Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STITCH[Trauma]): The First Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, A David; Gregson, Barbara A; Rowan, Elise N; Francis, Richard; McColl, Elaine; McNamee, Paul; Chambers, Iain R; Unterberg, Andreas; Boyers, Dwayne; Mitchell, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Intraparenchymal hemorrhages occur in a proportion of severe traumatic brain injury TBI patients, but the role of surgery in their treatment is unclear. This international multi-center, patient-randomized, parallel-group trial compared early surgery (hematoma evacuation within 12 h of randomization) with initial conservative treatment (subsequent evacuation allowed if deemed necessary). Patients were randomized using an independent randomization service within 48 h of TBI. Patients were eligible if they had no more than two intraparenchymal hemorrhages of 10 mL or more and did not have an extradural or subdural hematoma that required surgery. The primary outcome measure was the traditional dichotomous split of the Glasgow Outcome Scale obtained by postal questionnaires sent directly to patients at 6 months. The trial was halted early by the UK funding agency (NIHR HTA) for failure to recruit sufficient patients from the UK (trial registration: ISRCTN19321911). A total of 170 patients were randomized from 31 of 59 registered centers worldwide. Of 82 patients randomized to early surgery with complete follow-up, 30 (37%) had an unfavorable outcome. Of 85 patients randomized to initial conservative treatment with complete follow-up, 40 (47%) had an unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.35, 1.21; p=0.17), with an absolute benefit of 10.5% (CI, -4.4-25.3%). There were significantly more deaths in the first 6 months in the initial conservative treatment group (33% vs. 15%; p=0.006). The 10.5% absolute benefit with early surgery was consistent with the initial power calculation. However, with the low sample size resulting from the premature termination, we cannot exclude the possibility that this could be a chance finding. A further trial is required urgently to assess whether this encouraging signal can be confirmed.

  18. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For antiretroviral therapy (ART naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB, there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT, in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. Methods In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. Findings A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045. Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05. Rates of adverse events were similar. Interpretation Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. Trial registration CTRI/2011/12/002260

  19. The Effect of Early Initiation of Rehabilitation after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Lisa Gregersen; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Bünger, Cody E;

    2012-01-01

    examined patients' subsequent rehabilitation. Group-based rehabilitation is both efficient and cost-effective in rehabilitation of lumbar spinal fusion patients.Methods: Patients with degenerative disc diseases undergoing instrumented lumbar spinal fusion were randomly assigned to initiate...

  20. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.

  1. Predictors of time to initiation of symptomatic therapy in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuni, Tanya; Long, Jeffrey D; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S; Lasch, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M; Jennings, Danna; Kieburtz, Karl D; Marek, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    To determine clinical and biological variables that predict time to initiation of symptomatic therapy in de novo Parkinson's disease patients. Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is a longitudinal case-control study of de novo, untreated Parkinson's disease participants at enrolment. Participants contribute a wide range of motor and non-motor measures, including biofluids and imaging biomarkers. The machine learning method of random survival forests was used to examine the ability of baseline variables to predict time to initiation of symptomatic therapy since study enrollment (baseline). There were 423 PD participants enrolled in PPMI and 33 initial baseline variables. Cross-validation results showed that the three-predictor subset of disease duration (time from diagnosis to enrollment), the modified Schwab and England activities of daily living scale, and the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) total score modestly predicted time to initiation of symptomatic therapy (C = 0.70, pseudo-R (2) = 0.13). Prediction using the three variables was similar to using the entire set of 33. None of the biological variables increased accuracy of the prediction. A prognostic index for time to initiation of symptomatic therapy was created using the linear and nonlinear effects of the three top variables based on a post hoc Cox model. Our findings using a novel machine learning method support previously reported clinical variables that predict time to initiation of symptomatic therapy. However, the inclusion of biological variables did not increase prediction accuracy. Our prognostic index constructed, based on the group-level survival curve can provide an indication of the risk of initiation of ST for PD patients based on functions of the three top predictors.

  2. Ion channel clustering at the axon initial segment and node of Ranvier evolved sequentially in early chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis S Hill

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many mammalian neurons, dense clusters of ion channels at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier underlie action potential generation and rapid conduction. Axonal clustering of mammalian voltage-gated sodium and KCNQ (Kv7 potassium channels is based on linkage to the actin-spectrin cytoskeleton, which is mediated by the adaptor protein ankyrin-G. We identified key steps in the evolution of this axonal channel clustering. The anchor motif for sodium channel clustering evolved early in the chordate lineage before the divergence of the wormlike cephalochordate, amphioxus. Axons of the lamprey, a very primitive vertebrate, exhibited some invertebrate features (lack of myelin, use of giant diameter to hasten conduction, but possessed narrow initial segments bearing sodium channel clusters like in more recently evolved vertebrates. The KCNQ potassium channel anchor motif evolved after the divergence of lampreys from other vertebrates, in a common ancestor of shark and humans. Thus, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels was a pivotal early innovation of the chordates. Sodium channel clusters at the axon initial segment serving the generation of action potentials evolved long before the node of Ranvier. KCNQ channels acquired anchors allowing their integration into pre-existing sodium channel complexes at about the same time that ancient vertebrates acquired myelin, saltatory conduction, and hinged jaws. The early chordate refinements in action potential mechanisms we have elucidated appear essential to the complex neural signaling, active behavior, and evolutionary success of vertebrates.

  3. Initial high-dose prednisolone combination therapy using COBRA and COBRA-light in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Linda A; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Lems, Willem F; Boers, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with initial high-dose prednisolone and a combination of methotrexate (MTX) and sulfasalazine (SSZ) according to the COBRA regimen (Dutch acronym for combinatietherapie bij reumatoide artritis, 'combination therapy for rheumatoid arthritis'), has repeatedly been demonstrated to be very effective in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). COBRA combination therapy is superior to initial monotherapy of SSZ and MTX, is also associated with a good long-term outcome, is as safe as other treatment regimes, and performs as well as the combination of high-dose MTX and the tumor necrosis factor antagonist infliximab. A pilot study with an intensified version of the COBRA combination therapy showed that strict monitoring and aggressive treatment intensification based on the Disease Activity Score can result in a remission rate of 90% in patients with active early RA. Also, the first results indicate that an attenuated variation on COBRA combination therapy, called 'COBRA-light', is effective in decreasing disease activity and is generally well tolerated. Based on these results, we conclude that initial high-dose prednisolone in combination with MTX and SSZ could or should be the first choice in early active RA since it is effective and safe, and the cost price of the drugs is low.

  4. The role of scheduled second TACE in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with complete response to initial TACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hee Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims We investigated the outcomes of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients who showed a complete response (CR to initial transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, with a focus on the role of scheduled TACE repetition. Methods A total of 178 patients with early-stage HCC who were initially treated with TACE and showed a CR based on the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST criteria on one month follow-up computed tomography (CT were analyzed. Among them, 90 patients underwent scheduled repetition of TACE in the absence of viable tumor on CT. Results During a median follow-up period of 4.6 years (range: 0.4-8.8 years, mortality was observed in 71 patients (39.9%. The overall recurrence-free and local recurrence-free survival rates at 1 year were 44.4% and 56.2%. In the multivariable model, scheduled repetition of TACE was an independent factor associated with survival (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.56 [0.34-0.93], P=0.025. When stratified using Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC stage, scheduled repetition of TACE was associated with a favorable survival rate in BCLC stage A patients, but not in BCLC 0 patients. Conclusions Scheduled repetition of TACE was associated with better survival for early-stage HCC patients showing a CR after initial TACE, especially in BCLC stage A patients.

  5. Prevalence of sexual activity and outcome among female secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anochie, I C; Ikpeme, E E

    2001-08-01

    Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual intercourse before 11 years. The frequency of sexual exposure was high, with 34.3% of the students having intercourse more than once in a week. Pregnancy rate among sexually active females was 27.0%, with 24.8% rate of induced abortion. Early sexual health education starting from primary school would be helpful in influencing the reproductive decisions and sexual behaviour of the students, including contraceptive acceptance and usage, to avoid teenage pregnancy. Education of parents is also recommended in order to overcome the cultural barriers that discourage parents from providing sex education to their children at home.

  6. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, Maarten; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital. Earlie

  7. The Initial Stages of First-Language Acquisition Begun in Adolescence: When Late Looks Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Naja Ferjan; Lieberman, Amy M.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    Children typically acquire their native language naturally and spontaneously at a very young age. The emergence of early grammar can be predicted from children's vocabulary size and composition (Bates et al., 1994; Bates, Bretherton & Snyder, 1998; Bates & Goodman, 1997). One central question in language research is understanding what…

  8. Global Initiatives for Early Childhood Care and Education: Global Guidelines and Global Guidelines Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) Global Guidelines (GG) and Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA), which were developed in response to and in keeping with the prominence that the issue of quality early childhood care, development, and education has reached globally. Further, the paper positions the…

  9. The Initial Stages of First-Language Acquisition Begun in Adolescence: When Late Looks Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Naja Ferjan; Lieberman, Amy M.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    Children typically acquire their native language naturally and spontaneously at a very young age. The emergence of early grammar can be predicted from children's vocabulary size and composition (Bates et al., 1994; Bates, Bretherton & Snyder, 1998; Bates & Goodman, 1997). One central question in language research is understanding what…

  10. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, Maarten; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital. Earlie

  11. ESEM drying tests: microcracking initiation in thin cement paste due to early age drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Scattered and discontinues microcracking as a subsequent side-effect of deformations due to early age drying, occurs in thin (approximately 1 mm thick) cement paste samples, when stepwise dried in ESEM. Microcracking of cement paste and restrains appear to be practically unavoidable. They are relate

  12. Uma contribuição ao entendimento da iniciação sexual feminina na adolescência Una contribución a la comprensión de la iniciación sexual femenina en la adolescencia Understanding female sexual initiation in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O início da atividade sexual com envolvimento genital acontece, em geral, durante a adolescência e, na atualidade, tem ocorrido em idades mais precoces, o que pode resultar em gestações não esperadas e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de entender alguns aspectos da iniciação sexual feminina entre adolescentes de baixa renda, grupo social mais vulnerável às suas conseqüências indesejáveis. O método utilizado foi qualitativo por meio de reuniões em grupo e entrevistas individuais semi-estruturadas, e a população alvo composta por trabalhadoras da indústria calçadista da cidade de Franca - SP. Os resultados indicam que as adolescentes com investimento afetivo familiar se apropriam mais de sua sexualidade, agem com maior proteção e não se submetem meramente à satisfação dos desejos de outrem.El inicio de la actividad sexual con envolvimiento genital tiene lugar, en general, durante la adolescencia y, en la actualidad, ha ocurrido en edades más precoces, lo que puede resultar en gestaciones no esperadas y enfermedades transmisibles sexualmente. Este estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de entender algunos aspectos de la iniciación sexual femenina entre adolescentes de baja renda, grupo social más vulnerable a sus consecuencias indeseables. El método utilizado fue el cualitativo por medio de reuniones en grupo y encuestas individuales semiestructuradas, y la población blanco compuesta por trabajadoras de la industria del calzado de la ciudad de Franca - en el estado de São Paulo, en Brasil. Los resultados señalan que las adolescentes con inversión afectiva familiar se apropian más de su sexualidad, se manejan con mayor protección y no se someten meramente a la satisfacción de los deseos del otro.Articles that essentialize the difference between feminine and masculine characteristics have obtained especial attention in The initiation of sexual activity involving

  13. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  14. Human eye-head gaze shifts in a distractor task. II. Reduced threshold for initiation of early head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneil, B D; Munoz, D P

    1999-09-01

    This study was motivated by the observation of early head movements (EHMs) occasionally generated before gaze shifts. Human subjects were presented with a visual or auditory target, along with an accompanying stimulus of the other modality, that either appeared at the same location as the target (enhancer condition) or at the diametrically opposite location (distractor condition). Gaze shifts generated to the target in the distractor condition sometimes were preceded by EHMs directed either to the side of the target (correct EHMs) or the side of the distractor (incorrect EHMs). During EHMs, the eyes performed compensatory eye movements to keep gaze stable. Incorrect EHMs were usually between 1 and 5 degrees in amplitude and reached peak velocities generally EHMs initially followed a trajectory typical of much larger head movements. These results suggest that incorrect EHMs are head movements that initially were planned to orient to the peripheral distractor. Furthermore gaze shifts preceded by incorrect EHMs had longer reaction latencies than gaze shifts not preceded by incorrect EHMs, suggesting that the processes leading to incorrect EHMs also serve to delay gaze-shift initiation. These results demonstrate a form of distraction analogous to the incorrect gaze shifts (IGSs) described in the previous paper and suggest that a motor program encoding a gaze shift to a distractor is capable of initiating either an IGS or an incorrect EHM. A neural program not strong enough to initiate an IGS nevertheless can initiate an incorrect EHM.

  15. Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA there are strong arguments for the provision of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH and HIV services. Most HIV transmissions are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Many of the behaviours that prevent HIV transmission also prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. There is potential for integration to increase the coverage of HIV services, as individuals who use SRH services can benefit from HIV services and vice-versa, as well as increase cost-savings. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on effective models for integrating HIV/SRH services. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations – International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – to design/implement the Integra Initiative. Integra seeks to generate rigorous evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, cost and impact of different models for delivering integrated HIV/SRH services in high and medium HIV prevalence settings in SSA. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study will be conducted in government clinics in Kenya and Swaziland – assigned into intervention/comparison groups. Two models of service delivery are investigated: integrating HIV care/treatment into 1 family planning and 2 postnatal care. A full economic-costing will be used to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/service models. Health facility assessments will be conducted at four time-periods to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time. A two-year cohort study of family planning/postnatal clients will assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown and pregnancy (planned/unintended. Household surveys within some

  16. Prospective evaluation of early postoperative male and female sexual function after radical prostatectomy with erectile nerves preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, S-N; Wirth, G J; Mayor, G; Rollini, C; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Iselin, C E

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening has led to the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer in increasingly young and sexually active men. Accordingly, the impact of cancer treatment on sexual function is gaining more attention. To prospectively evaluate the impact of radical prostatectomy (RP) on male, female and conjugal sexual function. Patients were prospectively assessed by an urologist and a sexologist before and 6 months after robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALP). RALP was performed with uni- or bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation by a single surgeon. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed tadalafil 20 mg, 3 times a week during 6 months. Male and female sexual functions were evaluated by using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT). Continuous variables were analyzed with rank-sum and t-tests, as needed, and categorical variables with chi-squared tests. All tests were two-sided, with a P-value ⩽ 0.05 considered significant. Twenty-one couples were included. Mean patient male and female age was 62.4 and 60.7 years, respectively. Bilateral nerve sparing was performed in 12/21 (57%) patients. Median preoperative IIEF-5 was 20/25, corresponding to mild erectile dysfunction (ED). Median preoperative FSFI and MAT were both within normal range (28/36 and 114/158, respectively). Six months following surgery, both IIEF-5 (11/25) and FSFI (25/36) had significantly dropped (P=0.007 and 0.003, respectively). Postoperative decreases in IIEF-5 and FSFI scores were associated within couples. MAT scores (115/158), however, remained unaffected by RALP, showing an unmodified relationship satisfaction postoperatively. Finally, bilateral nerve sparing surgery preserved not only male but also female sexual function. This study shows that the expected short-term post-RALP ED is associated with a worsening of female sexual function, whereas nerve sparing surgery has a

  17. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis,

  18. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  19. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  20. Parenting Influences on Early Sex Initiation Among Adolescents: How Neighborhood Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Mekos, Debra; Alexander, Cheryl S.; Astone, Nan Marie; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2005-01-01

    Building on social ecological research, this study considers whether neighborhood socioeconomic advantage modifies the relationship between parenting practices and sex initiation among young adolescents. Using data on a national sample of 2,559 middle school students, the authors examined two-way interactions between neighborhood socioeconomic…

  1. A role for the H4 subunit of vaccinia RNA polymerase in transcription initiation at a viral early promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L; Shuman, S

    1994-05-13

    The vaccinia virus H4 gene encodes an essential subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase holoenzyme encapsidated within virus particles (Ahn, B., and Moss, B. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 3536-3540; Kane, E. M., and Shuman, S. (1992) J. Virol. 66, 5752-5762). The role of this protein in transcription of viral early genes was revealed by the effects of affinity-purified anti-H4 antibody on discrete phases of the early transcription reaction in vitro. Anti-H4 specifically prevented the synthesis of a 21-nucleotide nascent RNA chain but had no impact on elongation of the 21-mer RNA by preassembled ternary complexes. Inhibition of initiation but not elongation was also observed with affinity-purified anti-D6 antibody directed against the 70-kDa subunit of the vaccinia early transcription initiation factor (ETF). Native gel mobility-shift assays showed that anti-H4 prevented the NTP-dependent recruitment of RNA polymerase to the preinitiation complex of ETF bound at the early promoter. Two species of ternary complexes could be resolved by native gel electrophoresis. Addition of anti-H4 to preformed complexes elicited a supershift of both ternary species but not of the preinitiation complex. Supeshift by anti-D6 revealed that the more rapidly migrating species of ternary complex did not contain immunoreactive ETF. Loss of ETF from the ternary complex was time-dependent. Thus, whereas the H4 protein was a stable constituent of the elongation complex, ETF was dissociable. We suggest that H4 functions as a molecular bridge to ETF and thereby allows specific recognition of early promoters by the core RNA polymerase. H4 is unlike bacterial sigma factor in that it remains bound to polymerase after the elongation complex is established.

  2. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  3. Expression profiling identifies genes expressed early during lint fibre initiation in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingru; Machado, Adriane C; White, Rosemary G; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2006-01-01

    Cotton fibres are a subset of single epidermal cells that elongate from the seed coat to produce the long cellulose strands or lint used for spinning into yarn. To identify genes that might regulate lint fibre initiation, expression profiles of 0 days post-anthesis (dpa) whole ovules from six reduced fibre or fibreless mutants were compared with wild-type linted cotton using cDNA microarrays. Numerous clones were differentially expressed, but when only those genes that are normally expressed in the ovule outer integument (where fibres develop) were considered, just 13 different cDNA clones were down-regulated in some or all of the mutants. These included: a Myb transcription factor (GhMyb25) similar to the Antirrhinum Myb AmMIXTA, a putative homeodomain protein (related to Arabidopsis ATML1), a cyclin D gene, some previously identified fibre-expressed structural and metabolic genes, such as lipid transfer protein, alpha-expansin and sucrose synthase, as well as some unknown genes. Laser capture microdissection and reverse transcription-PCR were used to show that both the GhMyb25 and the homeodomain gene were predominantly ovule specific and were up-regulated on the day of anthesis in fibre initials relative to adjacent non-fibre ovule epidermal cells. Their spatial and temporal expression pattern therefore coincided with the time and location of fibre initiation. Constitutive overexpression of GhMyb25 in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase in branched long-stalked leaf trichomes. The involvement of cell cycle genes prompted DNA content measurements that indicated that fibre initials, like leaf trichomes, undergo DNA endoreduplication. Cotton fibre initiation therefore has some parallels with leaf trichome development, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are clearly different.

  4. Sexual problems during early postpartum period and awareness in postpartum sexual health: a retrospective study%女性产后早期性问题及产后性健康知识知晓状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    折瑞莲; 魏晓萍; 王芳; 汪杨; 苏放明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨女性产后早期的性问题及对产后性健康知识的知晓情况.方法 选择在我院住院分娩,且于2010年10月至11月在我院产科门诊行产后检查的产妇109例,以自行设计的产后性健康情况调查表,由专人负责调查填表,分析其产后性问题发生情况及对产后性健康知识的知晓情况.结果 产后妇女首次行产后检查的时间为6~12周;产后6周内,有5.50%(6/109)的产妇恢复性生活;产后6~8周时,有15.60%(17/109)的产妇恢复性生活;产后12周时,42.20%(46/109)的产妇恢复了性生活.产后出现的性问题有:性交疼痛占76.09%(35/46)、阴道干涩占63.04%(29/46)、性欲低下占54.35%(25/46)、高潮缺失占23.91%(11/46),其中性交疼痛、阴道干涩、性欲低下为常见;产后性生活采取避孕措施的占10.87%(5/46).21.10%(23/109)的产妇知道产后恢复性生活的时间,12.84%(14/109)的产妇知道产后可能出现的性问题,13.76%(15/109)产妇知道产后避孕知识,6.42%(7/109)的产妇表示愿意在出现产后性问题时主动就医,9.17%(10/109)产妇其丈夫愿意了解产后性保健知识.结论 产后早期性问题较为普遍,应当引起医务人员的重视;产妇性健康知识普遍薄弱,应大力加强产前产后宣教,提高产后性保健知识的知晓率.%Objective To investigate the sexual problems during early postpartum period and the awareness of postpartum sexual health. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out in 109 women who received routine postpartum check-up in our outpatient department between October and November 2010 to identify postpartum sexual problems and the awareness of postpartum sexual health. Results The first postpartum check-up was received 6 to 12 weeks after the delivery. Of 109 participants,6 (5.5%), 17(15.6%) and 46 (42.2%) resumed sexual activity within 6,6 to 8,and 12 weeks after the delivery,respectively. Postpartum sexual problems included dyspareunia (35/46,76. 09

  5. The sight of the peacock’s tail makes me sick: The early arguments on sexual selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa

    2000-03-01

    Why does a peacock have a beautiful train, while a peahen is sober without such flamboyance? Darwin proposed the theory of sexual selection to explain the differences between the sexes of the same species. Recently the study of sexual selection has been one of the most flourishing areas in evolutionary biology. However, the theory met with great resistance from biologists since the publication of the idea and the history of the theory included a lot of misunderstanding and confusion. There are several reasons for this. First, classical Darwinism failed to recognize social competition as an important selective force. Second, the good-for-the-species argument, which persisted in the days after Darwin, made the sexual selection argument more difficult to understand. Compared to the discussions on animals, Darwin’s argument on human sex differences is not satisfactory. The reason probably lies in the debate over human racial differences which prevailed in the 19th century.

  6. Natural history of bleeding and characteristics of early bleeders among warfarin initiators – a cohort study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikala M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Rikala,1 Helena Kastarinen,1,2 Pekka Tiittanen,1 Risto Huupponen,1,3 Maarit Jaana Korhonen1,4,5 1Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, Turku, 2Social Insurance Institution, Regional Office for Eastern and Northern Finland, Kuopio, 3Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Turku University Hospital, 4Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 5Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA Aims: The demand for oral anticoagulant therapy will continue to increase in the future along with the aging of the population. This study aimed to determine the rate of bleeding requiring hospitalization and to characterize early bleeders among persons initiating warfarin therapy. Characterization of those most susceptible to early bleeding is important in order to increase the safety of warfarin initiation. Patients and methods: Using data from nationwide health registers, we identified persons initiating warfarin therapy between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2012, n=101,588, and followed them until hospitalization for bleeding, death, or administrative end of the study (December 31, 2012. We defined early bleeders as persons with a bleeding requiring hospitalization within 30 days since warfarin initiation. Results: The rate of hospitalization for bleeding during a median follow-up of 1.9 years was 2.6% per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%–2.7%, with a peak within the first 30 days of warfarin initiation (6.5% per person-year, 95% CI 6.0%–7.1%. In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, early bleeders were characterized by prior bleeding (<180 days before initiation, hazard ratio [HR] =13.7, 95% CI 10.9–17.1; during 180 days–7 years before initiation, HR =1.48, 95% CI 1.15–1.90, male sex (HR =1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.57, older age (HR =1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1

  7. Initiation and early development of barchan dunes: A case study of the Moroccan Atlantic Sahara desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelrhiti, Hicham

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes field measurements that document the formation of barchan dunes in the Moroccan Atlantic Sahara desert. The first mechanism described is the transformation of patches and proto-dunes at Cap Juby beach to barchan dunes of elementary size. This transformation is discussed in relation to the wind speed and saturation length. The second mechanism is the ejection of small barchans of elementary size by other small barchans in response to the perturbation of the target barchan by two other impacting small barchans. This remote initiation is discussed in relation to the bulk flux transported by the barchan dunes involved in this interaction and to their morphology. Other modes of barchan initiation observed in the field are also presented.

  8. Early, patient-initiated treatment of herpes labialis with topical 10% acyclovir.

    OpenAIRE

    Spruance, S. L.; Crumpacker, C S; Schnipper, L E; Kern, E. R.; Marlowe, S; Arndt, K A; Overall, J C

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether topical acyclovir in polyethylene glycol could reduce the severity of herpes simplex labialis if applied immediately after onset of a recurrence, 10% acyclovir in polyethylene glycol ointment or polyethylene glycol alone was prospectively dispensed to 352 patients in a double-blind, randomized trial. Sixty-nine subjects initiated treatment in the prodrome (57%) or erythema (43%) stage and were followed by clinical and virological criteria. The healing time (6.0 days), max...

  9. Seeding Entrepreneurship Across Campus Early Implementation Experiences of the Kauffman Campuses Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Hulsey; Linda Rosenberg; Benita Kim

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has long been a fundamental aspect of American society, serving as an important contributor to economic growth. However, only recently has entrepreneurship begun to develop as an academic field in U.S. colleges and universities. The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation launched the Kauffman Campuses Initiative in eight U.S. universities to encourage campuswide expansion of entrepreneurship programs and activities. This report provides a cross-site analysis of implementation exper...

  10. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AMONG RURAL THAI ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M

    2014-11-01

    Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand.

  11. Everolimus Initiation With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in De Novo Heart Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, open-label trial, de novo heart transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus (3-6 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI; cyclosporine) to weeks 7-11 after transplant, followed by increased everolimus exposure (target 6-10 ng/mL) with cyclosporine withdrawal...... events occurred in 37.3% and 19.6% of everolimus- and CNI-treated patients, respectively (p = 0.078). These results suggest that early CNI withdrawal after heart transplantation supported by everolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids with lymphocyte-depleting induction is safe at intermediate follow...

  12. Effectiveness of early antiretroviral therapy initiation to improve survival among HIV-infected adults with tuberculosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly F Franke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials examining the optimal time to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in HIV-infected adults with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB disease have demonstrated improved survival among those who initiate cART earlier during TB treatment. Since these trials incorporated rigorous diagnostic criteria, it is unclear whether these results are generalizable to the vast majority of HIV-infected patients with TB, for whom standard diagnostic tools are unavailable. We aimed to examine whether early cART initiation improved survival among HIV-infected adults who were diagnosed with TB in a clinical setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed charts for 308 HIV-infected adults in Rwanda with a CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/µl and a TB diagnosis. We estimated the effect of cART on survival using marginal structural models and simulated 2-y survival curves for the cohort under different cART strategies:start cART 15, 30, 60, or 180 d after TB treatment or never start cART. We conducted secondary analyses with composite endpoints of (1 death, default, or lost to follow-up and (2 death, hospitalization, or serious opportunistic infection. Early cART initiation led to a survival benefit that was most marked for individuals with low CD4 counts. For individuals with CD4 counts of 50 or 100 cells/µl, cART initiation at day 15 yielded 2-y survival probabilities of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: [0.76, 0.89] and 0.86 (95% confidence interval: [0.80, 0.92], respectively. These were significantly higher than the probabilities computed under later start times. Results were similar for the endpoint of death, hospitalization, or serious opportunistic infection. cART initiation at day 15 versus later times was protective against death, default, or loss to follow-up, regardless of CD4 count. As with any observational study, the validity of these findings assumes that biases from residual confounding by

  13. An initial exploration of community mental health nurses' attitudes to and experience of sexuality-related issues in their work with people experiencing mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, E M; Attenborough, J; Watson, J P

    2001-12-01

    Human sexuality is a complex dynamic concept that escapes simple definition. Within nursing there seems to be a preference for broad holistic definitions that emphasize sexuality as an aspect of the unique human character. Whilst the nursing literature mostly portrays sexuality as wholesome and good, it also notes that sexuality can be a vehicle for the expression of power, hostility or hatred. In this study, the authors did not prescribe or limit the definition of 'sexuality'. Rather the term 'sexuality' was used in a broad sense in order to embrace the range of variables within the concept and allow respondents to consider the issues according to their own perspective. Despite broad acceptance of sexuality as a legitimate focus of health care, clinicians remain ambivalent about actively broaching sexual issues and there is a potential for clients' needs to go unmet. A number of intertwining variables can influence sexuality-related nursing practice. Nurses' attitudes are regarded as major barriers that prevent open discussion on the topic. This study aims to explore a sample of community mental health nurses' views on the topic of sexuality in relation to their work with clients. The authors adapted a sexual ideology scale previously used for the purposes of teaching students and promoting discussion. The questionnaire was distributed to nurse delegates at an annual CPNA conference. Two of the authors were available throughout the conference to discuss the study. Delegates were asked to recruit CMHN colleagues following the conference in order to increase the sample. The data are described and analysed using SPSS for Windows. Respondent characteristics have been cross-tabulated with item responses and analysed using chi-square and other statistical tests of association. The respondents (n = 122) confirmed sexuality as a relevant clinical issue and there was an overwhelming affirmation of people with mental health problems as sexual beings. Sixty-three per cent (n

  14. Can clitoris-conserving surgery for early vulvar cancer improve the outcome in terms of quality of life and sexual sensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Dirk Michael; Dakhil, Reija; Lampe, Bjorn

    2013-11-01

    Vulvar carcinomas (VC) and vulvar in situ cancers (VCIS) are rare genital malignancies. Total vulvectomy as the standard of care has been replaced by local excision during the early stages of the disease. We studied whether conservation of the clitoris in vulvar surgery has a positive effect on either the quality of life (QoL) or the sexual sensation of the patient. In a retrospective study, patients with and without clitoris-sparing surgery were interviewed using the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFI) and the Short Form 12(®) questionnaire (SF-12). The frequencies of high and low levels and the medians were compared using the Cox-Mantel, Chi(2) and Fisher's exact tests. We identified 24 patients who had surgery in our department for VCIS or VC stage I/II, between 2006 and 2008. Ten of these patients required total inguinal lymphadenectomies and another five required sentinel node biopsies. In twelve patients, the clitoris had been spared, whereas in the remaining twelve, the clitoris had needed to be removed. These groups did not differ in terms of tumor size, stage, type of surgery or age of the patients. The evaluation of the SF-12 indicated high satisfaction in the physical scores for 33% of patients with clitoris-sparing surgery vs. 67% after clitoris resection (n.s.). For the mental domain, the rates were 58% and 67% (n.s.), respectively. In the FSFI, both groups showed comparable values 18 (n = 5) in sexual sensation. Reducing the surgical resection is oncologically acceptable, but improvement in the patients' quality of life or sexual sensation is not achieved solely by conserving the clitoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual and Reproductive Outcomes in Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients after Excisional Cone as a Fertility-sparing Surgery: An Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfani, Francesco; Landoni, Fabio; Gagliardi, Maria Lucia; Fagotti, Anna; Preti, Eleonora; Moruzzi, Maria Cristina; Monterossi, Giorgia; Scambia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of life in terms of sexual and reproductive outcome in patients suffering from early stage cervical cancer, submitted to an excisional cone as fertility-sparing treatment. Methods A multicenter retrospective analysis about specific dimensions of physical, psychological, reproductive and sexual functions after a cold-knife conization plus pelvic laparoscopic lymphadenectomy was conducted at Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome-Italy and at Division of Gynecology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan-Italy. The aim of this study was twofold. It aimed to analyze the quality of life in patients submitted to minimally invasive surgery and to compare these data with radical trachelectomy. Results Twenty-three patients with an average age of 30 years decided to participate in this study. After the treatment, all women (100%) had regular menstruation, 7 (30.4%) had increased not invalidating dysmenorrhea; 1 (4.4%) experienced a cervical stenosis; 6 among 10 patients that tried to conceive (60%) obtained one spontaneous pregnancy; 4 more (40%) underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and only 1 of them (25%) was successful. About sexual assessment, 1 patient (4.4%) had trouble in lubricating, 3 (13%) had anxiety about performance, 6 (26.1%) complained of dyspareunia which was resolved within 3 subsequent months. All patients (100%) obtained a complete psychological and physical recovery. Conclusion This study demonstrated preliminary encouraging data about sexual and reproductive outcome after excisional conization. A comparison with trachelectomy surely needs longer follow-ups, more cases and prospective analyses. PMID:24696793

  16. Influence of cumulated sexual trauma on sexual life and relationship of a patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The assessment of links of accumulated traumatic events of a sexual nature, recollected from the past, with the current functioning of the patients in the area of sexual life and relationship. Material and methods. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and puberty in patients with the features of their current partner relationships and sexual life were analyzed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, before treatment in day hospital (years 1980-2002. The accumulation was evaluated for a combination of two or three selected events. Results. The presence of relatively numerous traumatic events in the field of sexualityearly initiation or enforced initiation, incest or its attempt, sub-optimal sexual education and punishment for masturbation was indicated. In some patients, these events occurred simultaneously. Especially in women, the presence in the same person of two or three aggravating circumstances of life was associated with a higher risk of among others fleeting, casual sexual contacts, marriage under the influence of environment pressures, reluctance to partner. Conclusions. Increased accumulation – the presence in the same patient of more than one adverse circumstances associated with sexual development – leads to a higher incidence of interference in relationship with a partner including the elements of sexual dysfunction. The obtained results are generally consistent with clinical observations and literature despite different, simplified methodology of the study based on the analysis of single variables from questionnaire interviews. Finding fewer links in the group of men can be explained by their much lower number in the study group and less frequent burdening with certain traumatic events or different experiencing.

  17. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  18. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  20. The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy utilization, initial symptom severity, and early-treatment symptom change: a naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N; Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L

    2013-01-01

    The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy has seldom been investigated empirically, despite extensive clinical theory proposing that highly narcissistic individuals should be reluctant to engage in treatment and derive smaller benefits from therapy. In this study, we investigate the relationship between scores on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), which assesses both narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and clinical variables in a sample of outpatients (N=60) at a community mental health center. Results indicated that grandiosity, but not vulnerability, was negatively related to the use of adjunctive services and positively predicted client-initiated termination of psychotherapy. In addition, grandiosity and vulnerability were related to initial levels of different symptoms in multilevel models using a subsample (n=41) but not generally related to the linear rate of symptom change in early psychotherapy. The results highlight the clinical utility of assessing pathological narcissism in a real-world psychotherapeutic context.

  1. Initial study of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging in brain white matter of early AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Ang; WANG Guang-bin; SHI Da-peng; XU Jun-ling; LI Yong-li

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV is a neurotropic virus which can cause brain white matter demyelination,gliosis,and other pathological changes that appear as H IV encephalitis or AIDS dementia.The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of the diffused condition of water molecules in brain white matter in early acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).Methods DTI examinations were performed on a Siemens 3.0T MR scanner in 23 AIDS patients with normal brain appearance by conventional MRI and 20 healthy volunteers as the control group.Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in nine regions; corpus callosum (CC) knee,CC body,CC splenium,periventricular white matter,frontal lobe white matter,parietal lobe white matter,occipital lobe white matter,and the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule.The mean FA and ADC values from each region were compared in three groups:the symptomatic,asymptomatic and the control.Results The mean FA values were significantly lower and the mean ADC values were significantly higher in all nine regions in patients in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic and control group patients.In the asymptomatic group,the mean FA values were significantly lower and the mean ADC values were significantly higher at the CC knee,CC body,CC splenium,periventricular white matter,frontal lobe white matter and parietal lobe white matter,than in the control group.There were no significant differences at other regions between the two groups.Conclusions The diffused changes of water molecules in brain white matter in AIDS patients are related to brain white matter regions.DTI examination can detect the brain white matter lesions early in AIDS patients.

  2. Early changes in inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy with abacavir or tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormo Consuelo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients initiating abacavir or tenofovir. Methods Consecutive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine were included. Plasma levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 were measured at baseline and at different time points throughout 48 weeks. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, ART status at inclusion, viral load, lipodystrophy, Framingham score and hepatitis C virus co-infection status. Results 50 patients were analyzed, 28 initiating abacavir and 22 tenofovir. The endothelial biomarker sVCAM-1 declined significantly in both treatment groups. hsCRP tended to increase soon after starting therapy with abacavir, a trend that was not seen in those initiating tenofovir. IL-6 significantly increased only at week 24 from baseline in patients on abacavir (+225%, p Conclusion Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function are not different in viremic patients starting ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. These changes occur in the early phases of treatment and include anti- and pro-atherosclerotic effects with both drugs.

  3. Sexual imprinting leads to lateralized and non-lateralized expression of the immediate early gene zenk in the zebra finch brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshoff, Carsten; Grosse-Ophoff, Jürgen; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-05

    Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the features of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of spine densities in two forebrain areas, the lateral neo- and hyperstriatum (LNH) and the medial neo- and hyperstriatum (MNH). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immediate early gene zenk, which has been shown frequently to play a role in plastic processes in the song system of zebra finches, may also be involved in the structural changes observed in these areas. The first exposure to a female after an isolation period enhances zenk expression in a variety of brain areas including LNH, MNH, and optic tectum. In contrast to earlier results, it was only the neostriatal part of LNH which showed an enhancement on first courtship, while exposure to a nestbox enhanced the label within the entire LNH area. Unexpectedly, the IEG expression was clearly lateralized in some layers of the optic tectum. Because lateralization occurred independent of the experimental condition, our study adds to recent results which also support the idea of a lateralized organization of the avian visual system.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  5. Early age at first sex: associations with sexual health and sociodemographic factors among a sample of young music festival attendees in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alyce M; Agius, Paul A; Bowring, Anna L; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-09-01

    Background Age at first sex (AFS) is associated with adverse outcomes. We explore associated factors and correlates of 'early' AFS (<16 years). In 2009-11, participants (16-29 years) were recruited. Multivariate Cox regression explored correlates of AFS. Logistic regression analysis explored associations between early AFS and risk behaviours. Of 3563 participants, 79% were sexually active. Median AFS was 17 years. Compared with those aged 25-29 years, younger participants reported younger AFS [16-17 years: adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=1.87, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AHR=1.47, P<0.01, 20-24 years: AHR=1.19, P<0.01]. Of those sexually active, 29% reported early AFS. Early AFS was associated with being male [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.25, P<0.05], being younger (16-17 years: AOR=11.10, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AOR=3.60, P<0.01; 20-24 years: AOR=1.83, P<0.01; compared with 25-29 years), having no education after high school (AOR=1.52, P<0.01), living alone (AOR=1.84, P<0.01) or with a partner (AOR=1.57, P=0.01), having more than five lifetime sex partners (AOR=3.22, P=0.01), inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=1.43, P<0.01), ever using illicit drugs (AOR=1.69, P<0.01) and ever injecting drugs (AOR=3.45, P<0.01). The results highlight the importance of comprehensive sex education.

  6. Early radiative properties of the developments of time-symmetric conformally flat initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, Juan Antonio Valiente [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2003-03-07

    Using a representation of spatial infinity based on the properties of conformal geodesics, the first terms of an expansion for the Bondi mass for the development of time-symmetric, conformally flat initial data are calculated. As is to be expected, the Bondi mass agrees with the ADM at the sets where null infinity 'touches' spatial infinity. The second term in the expansion is proportional to the sum of the squared norms of the Newman-Penrose constants of the spacetime. On the basis of this result it is argued that these constants may provide a measure of the incoming radiation contained in the spacetime. This is illustrated by means of the Misner and Brill-Lindquist datasets. (letter to the editor)

  7. [Successful treatment of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kodai; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Deguchi, Kazushi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with HIV infection presented with lower leg dominant dysesthesia, muscle weakness and sensory ataxia of 3 month's duration. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) showed demyelination change in the median and tibial nerves and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in the sural nerve was not evoked. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) showed the delayed N9 latency. Diagnose of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was made. Although the CD4 lymphocyte counts were relatively preserved (466/μl), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) was started according to a new guideline for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents recommending early initiation of treatment. After six months, HIV1-RNA was not detected and the CD4 lymphocyte counts showed a recovering trend (585/μl). His symptoms had disappeared, except for dysesthesia in the tip of a toe. Repeated NCS demonstrated full recovery from the demyelination and appearance of SNAP in the sural nerve. The improvement of his symptoms and NCS findings has been maintained for two years. Although effectiveness of immunotherapies such as oral prednisone, high-dose immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis have been reported in HIV-associated CIDP, early initiation of HAART may be also important for favorable prognosis in HIV-associated CIDP.

  8. The impact of personal gender-typicality and partner gender-traditionality on taking sexual initiative : Investigating a social tuning hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behaviour, i.e. respectively higher and lower levels of taking

  9. Childhood sexual traumatic events and sexual life and relationship of a patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The assessment of links between traumatic events of sexual nature recollected from the past and patients’ later functioning in sexual life and relationships. Materials and methods: Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and adolescence in patients with the features of their current partner relationships was analysed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, undergoing treatment between the years 1980-2002, before they were admitted to a day ward of neurotic disorder department. Results: The existence of numerous significant links was observed e.g. the information regarding incest or incest attempt experience was related with a significant risk of a sexual life assessment as completely dissatisfying in women (OR=2.71 and almost completely dissatisfying in men (OR=2.38. Sexual initiation by rape was related with women’s more frequent incidence of getting married as a result of social pressure (OR=3.77 and a feeling of hatred towards a partner (OR=5.41. Men and women who considered themselves completely sexually uneducated (before the age of 18 assessed their sexual life as completely dissatisfying (OR=2.48 and OR=2.07, which was similar to men who would get punished for masturbation or sexual plays by their guardians (OR=2.68. Conclusions: Traumatic events and circumstances relating to sexuality, indicated in the questionnaire interview, turned out to be connected with the risk of dysfunctions in a sexual life and relationship. The traumas included, among others, rape during initiation, early initiation, incest, but also unfavourable circumstances of less traumatic nature such as a lack of sexual education, punishment for masturbation, “mostly undesired initiation”. Their likely effects were rooted in relationship dysfunctions: reasons for their formation, power division, instability, problems with resolving conflicts and, most of all, sexual life dysfunctions. The results were

  10. Sexual behavior of gender-dysphoric individuals before gender-confirming interventions: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2014-01-01

    A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who had not yet undergone gender-confirming interventions. Data originated from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence Initiative, conducted in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. Information on outcome variables was collected using self-administered questionnaires at first clinical presentation. Compared with late-onset male-to-females, early-onset individuals tended to show sexual attraction toward males more frequently (50.5%), involve genitals less frequently in partner-related sexual activity, and consider penile sensations and orgasm as more negative. Early-onset female-to-males predominantly reported sexual attraction toward females (84.0%), whereas those with a late-onset more frequently showed other sexual attractions (41.7%). The study (a) shows that early- and late-onset male-to-females differ considerably with regard to coping strategies involving their body during sexual relations and (b) reveals initial insights into developmental pathways of late-onset female-to-males.

  11. [Acute myocardial infarction in women. Initial characteristics, management and early outcome. The FAST-MI registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T; Puymirat, E; Lucke, V; Bouabdallaoui, N; Lognoné, T; Aissaoui, N; Cohen, S; Ashrafpoor, G; Roul, G; Jouve, B; Levy, G; Charpentier, S; Grollier, G; Ferrières, J; Danchin, N

    2013-08-01

    To assess gender differences in characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes in patients participating in the French FAST-MI 2010 registry. Three thousand and seventy-nine patients hospitalised for ST-elevation (STEMI) or non-ST-elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction in 213 French centres during a 1-month period at the end of 2010. Women account for 27% of the population and more frequently present with NSTEMI. They are 9 years older than men on average, although 25% of women with STEMI are less than 60 years of age. Management of STEMI is similar, after adjustment for baseline characteristics. However, fewer women are treated with primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In NSTEMI, although use of coronary angiography is similar, fewer women get treated with angioplasty. Most medications are used in a similar way in men and women, except thienopyridines, with fewer women receive prasugrel. After adjustment, in-hospital mortality is similar for men and women. Myocardial infarction is not specific to men: one out of four patients admitted for myocardial infarction is a woman. Initial management is rather similar for men and women, after taking into account differences in baseline characteristics. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty, however, remains less frequently used in women. In-hospital complications have become rarer and do not differ according to sex. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2017-07-29

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nephelinite lavas at early stage of rift initiation (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Céline; Parat, Fleurice; Denis, Carole M. M.; Mangasini, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    North Tanzanian Divergence is the first stage of continental break-up of East African Rift (alkaline lavas with zoned clinopyroxene, nepheline, andradite-schorlomite, titanite, apatite, and pyrrhotite. Lavas are low MgO-nephelinite with low Mg# and high silica content (Mg# = 22.4-35.2, SiO2 = 44.2-46.7 wt%, respectively), high incompatible element concentrations (e.g. REE, Ba, Sr) and display Nb-Ta fractionation (Nb/Ta = 36-61). Major elements of whole rock are consistent with magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization from a parental melt with melilititic composition. Although fractional crystallization occurred at 9-12 km and can be considered as an important process leading to nephelinite magma, the complex zonation of cpx (e.g. abrupt change of Mg#, Nb/Ta, and H2O) and trace element patterns of nephelinites recorded magmatic differentiation involving open system with carbonate-silicate immiscibility and primary melilititic melt replenishment. The low water content of clinopyroxene (3-25 ppm wt. H2O) indicates that at least 0.3 wt% H2O was present at depth during carbonate-rich nephelinite crystallization at 340-640 MPa and 1050-1100 °C. Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang represent an early stage of the evolution path towards carbonatitic magmatism as observed in Oldoinyo Lengai. Paragenesis and geochemistry of Hanang nephelinites require the presence of CO2-rich melilititic liquid in the southern part of North Tanzanian Divergence and carbonate-rich melt percolations after deep partial melting of CO2-rich oxidized mantle source.

  14. The initial ultrasonographic examination of hands and feet joints in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ponikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim was to assess of the morphology, intensity, and activity of changes in the first ultrasonographic (US examination of hands and feet in patients with early arthritis (lasting up to 12 months who were ultimately diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. An attempt was made to demonstrate a correlation between the intensity of lesions in US and selected laboratory parameters. Material and methods : Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a LOGIC GE 500 device on a group of 60 patients with arthritis (46 women, 14 men aged 18–80, previously untreated. In total, 3120 hand and feet joints were examined. The assessment focused on the presence of joint effusion, synovial proliferation and power Doppler signals (assessed on a semi-quantitative scale. Each patient underwent laboratory tests, necessary for making a diagnosis. In order to analyze the correlations between changes in US and laboratory parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, reactive protein test (CRP, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs were used. Results : In the study group, the average duration of arthritis symptoms until the first US examination was 5.6 months. Among the 3120 examined hand and foot joints, deviations from the norm appeared in 1093 joints, synovial hypertrophy was found in 471 joints (grade 1 synovial hypertrophy was reported most frequently, while presence of signal in Power Doppler was revealed in 261 joints (grade 1 was observed most frequently. A statistically significant correlation was found between the intensity of changes in Power Doppler and CRP concentration. Conclusions : In patients with increased concentrations of CRP, we may expect arthritis of higher intensity, therefore, in order to prevent the progression of destructive changes, it is necessary to quickly implement effective disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment. The conducted research showed that the activity of joint

  15. Does early initiation of therapeutic plasma exchange improve outcome in pediatric stem cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodele, Sonata; Laskin, Benjamin L; Goebel, Jens; Khoury, Jane C; Pinkard, Susan L; Carey, Patricia M; Davies, Stella M

    2013-03-01

    The use of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is controversial because the exact mechanism of injury in TA-TMA is not yet understood. The study objective was to retrospectively review the outcome of children receiving TPE for TA-TMA at our institution. We hypothesized that patients initiating TPE earlier in their disease course would receive a greater benefit than those starting later, regardless of the therapeutic mechanism. We identified 10 consecutive pediatric patients with TA-TMA treated with TPE. Nine of these patients showed normalization of the laboratory variables associated with microangiopathy during their TPE course, but only five patients recovered renal function and survived TA-TMA. The five survivors started TPE a median of 17 days (range, 4-25 days) after TA-TMA diagnosis while the five patients who died started TPE a median of 32 days (range, 17-73 days) after TA-TMA was diagnosed. Three of the five survivors had multiorgan failure at TA-TMA diagnosis and completely recovered with early institution of TPE. These three survivors were able to discontinue renal replacement therapy, and all achieved a normal posttreatment creatinine. The five patients with later institution of TPE progressed to end-stage renal disease and all died. There were no serious TPE-related complications in either group. This is the first report evaluating TPE response in regard to procedure initiation time after TA-TMA diagnosis. Our data suggests that early initiation of TPE might be beneficial even in patients with multiorgan failure due to TA-TMA. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  17. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious

  18. Evaluation of the Early Results of the Initial 500 Cardiac Operations Performed in a New Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Erdoğan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The initial 500 cases of a new center which is established in a province having no history of open heart surgery are evaluated with respect to mortality especially.Methods: A total of 500 patients underwent operations at our clinic between March 2008 and November 2009. Of these patients 373 (74.6% were male, 127 (25.4% were female and the mean age was 64.15±11.54. Four hundred eleven patients had coronary artery disease (19 had left ventricular aneurysm, 46 patients had coronary artery disease together with heart valve disease (of these 2 had ascending aortic aneurysm, 1 had left ventricular aneurysm, 1 had rupture of sinus valsalva aneurysm, 30 patients had valvular disease ( 1 had also patent ductus arteriosus, 4 patients had type 1 aortic dissection, 4 patients had ascending aortic aneurysm (3 had aortic valve disease, 4 patients had coarctation of the aorta, and 1 of the patients underwent surgery with the diagnosis of secundum atrial septal defect. Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 2% with 10 patients. The reasons of deaths were; low cardiac output in 3, renal insufficiency in 2, peroperative myocardial infarction in 2, bleeding in 1, lung complications in 1 and cardiac tamponade in 1. Fifteen patients (3% due to bleeding caused for surgical re-exploration. Postoperative atrial fibrillation developed in 97 patients (19.4%. Four patients (0.8% suffered wound infections on saphenous vein region, one patient (0.2% developed mediastinitis. Three patients (0.6% had neurological complications (two patients developed hemiplegia, one suffered from persistent tonic-clonic convultion. Prolonged entubation, prolonged intensive care unit stay and readmission to intensive care were other complications with rates of 20 (4%, 31(6.2% and 13(2.6% respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is a strong relationship between peroperative myocard infarction and mortality, and patients who had diminished renal functions

  19. The influence of older classmates on adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.

  20. Cell proliferation is not required for the initiation of early cleft formation in mouse embryonic submandibular epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y; Morita, T; Nogawa, H

    1987-03-01

    An X-ray irradiation method was employed to analyse the role of cell proliferation in vitro in the cleft formation of mouse embryonic submandibular epithelium at early stages. When the mid 12-day gland was exposed to 200 rad of X-rays, the growth was severely retarded. In contrast, late 12-day and early 13-day glands grew apparently in a normal fashion, as did the control gland, for up to 40 h. In either case, they formed shallow clefts within 10 h of culture. With 1000 rad irradiation, the mid 12-day gland did not grow at all, but formed clefts within 20 h of culture followed by a rapid degeneration. Under the same conditions, the growth of the late 12-day gland, which was at the stage just before branching, was retarded until 10 h of culture, followed by a slight increase in epithelial size, but cleft formation was also observed within 6-10 h, as in the control gland. When exposed to a dose of 1000 rad of X-rays, the early 13-day and the late 12-day glands exhibited similar radiosensitivity; the initial narrow clefts in the epithelium deepened and new clefts began to form within 6-10 h of culture. [3H]thymidine incorporation studies revealed that a dose of 1000 rad reduced DNA synthesis of mid and late 12-day glands by 72 and 65%, respectively. Histological examination of X-irradiated late 12-day gland showed that mitotic figures were rarely seen in the epithelium at 6 h of culture. Aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, could not halt the cleft formation of the late 12-day gland. In this experiment 89% of DNA synthesis was inhibited. Treatment of an X-ray irradiated late 12-day gland with aphidicolin blocked 92% of the DNA synthesis, but did not prevent cleft formation taking place. These results indicate that neither cell division nor DNA synthesis, is required for the initiation process of the cleft formation of the mouse embryonic submandibular epithelium at early morphogenetic stages in vitro.

  1. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  2. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Navaza

    Full Text Available Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals' experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid.We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization "5 Cs" principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality.Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of--and sometimes because of--partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma.PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but explicit extra efforts are needed

  3. AN EMPIRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ULTRAVIOLET COLOR OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando; Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K., E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de la Complutense s/n, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Using new UV magnitudes for a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) with published stellar mass-to-light ratios, Y{sub *}, we find a correlation between UV color and Y{sub *} that is tighter than those previously identified between Y{sub *} and either the central stellar velocity dispersion, metallicity, or alpha enhancement. The sense of the correlation is that galaxies with larger Y{sub *} are bluer in the UV. We conjecture that differences in the lower mass end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) are related to the nature of the extreme horizontal branch populations that are generally responsible for the UV flux in ETGs. If so, then UV color can be used to identify ETGs with particular IMF properties and to estimate Y{sub *}.

  4. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm;

    2012-01-01

    for 6 days at median 9 (range 6-14) gestational weeks and were asked to answer a semi-structured questionnaire on patient satisfaction. Results: Median HbA(1c) was 49 (range 34-86) mmol/mol) [6.6 (5.3-10.0) %] and duration of diabetes was 12 (0.5-37) years. Continuous glucose monitoring was used for 6......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...... monitoring during daytime and twelve (18%) during sleep. Many women reported improved diabetes understanding (52%) and would recommend continuous glucose monitoring to others (83%). Twenty-four patients (36%) had continuous glucose monitoring removed earlier than planned (before the intended 6 days...

  5. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  6. The relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinity and men's conceptualization of sexually coercive acts by women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Greenbaum, Bryant

    2015-03-01

    While sexual abuse against women and girls in South Africa has generated much deserved attention, the awareness of men's experiences of sexual coercion is limited, and often restricted to a homosexual context. This article illuminates men's experiences of pressurized sex in a heterosexual context, which were revealed in a broader men's sexual health study. Fifty sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with men purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-54, and 55+), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across five provinces in South Africa. Narrative interviews began with accounts of early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and explored the range of sexual relationships and experiences through adulthood. The narratives privileged the diversity of men's conceptualizations of and the impact of reportedly sexually coercive experiences by women. Many men described feeling unready for their first sexual experiences but pressured to do so by their peers and female partners, who were often older. There were also some instances of sexual coercion by women against men, some of which would constitute a criminal offense in South Africa. Due to the pressure for men to always be responsive to women's sexual desires, these experiences were often not framed as sexual coercion. Nevertheless, for many of these men, such experiences were uncomfortable and unrewarding. Men's negative responses to such experiences appeared to be linked to the fact that they did not fit social stereotypes of masculine sexuality as being initiative and dominant. Such coercive experiences could influence men's sexual risk-taking, including their use of sexual coercion against women. Research on sexual abuse should not be limited to male against male sexual abuse, but needs to explore the meanings and experiences associated with reported coercion against men by women to more comprehensively prevent and respond to sexual violence.

  7. Sustained Reduction in Sexual Behavior that May Pose a Risk of HIV Transmission Following Diagnosis During Early HIV Infection Among Gay Men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Taylor, Darlene; Michelow, Warren; Grace, Daniel; Balshaw, Robert; Kwag, Michael; Lim, Elgin; Fischer, Benedikt; Patrick, David; Ogilvie, Gina; Coombs, Daniel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Increased viral load during early HIV infection (EHI) disproportionately contributes to HIV transmission among gay men. We examined changes in sexual behavior that may pose a risk of HIV transmission (condomless anal sex (AS) with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner, CAS-SDU) in a cohort of 25 gay men newly diagnosed during EHI who provided information on 241 sexual partners at six time points following diagnosis. Twenty-two (88%) participants reported ≥1 AS partner (median time to first AS 80 days) and 12 (55%) reported ≥1 partnership involving CAS-SDU (median 116 days). In hierarchical generalized linear mixed effects models, AS was significantly less likely in all time periods following diagnosis and more likely with serodiscordant partners. The likelihood of CAS-SDU decreased three months after diagnosis and was higher in recently versus acutely infected participants. Most men in our study abstained from sex immediately after diagnosis with sustained longer-term reduction in CAS-SDU, confirming the importance of timely diagnosis during EHI.

  8. Merger-driven evolution of the effective stellar initial mass function of massive early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nipoti, Carlo; Treu, Tommaso

    2017-02-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies is the combination of the IMF of the stellar population formed in situ and that of accreted stellar populations. Using as an observable the effective IMF αIMF, defined as the ratio between the true stellar mass of a galaxy and the stellar mass inferred assuming a Salpeter IMF, we present a theoretical model for its evolution as a result of dry mergers. We use a simple dry-merger evolution model, based on cosmological N-body simulations, together with empirically motivated prescriptions for the IMF to make predictions on how the effective IMF of massive early-type galaxies changes from z = 2 to z = 0. We find that the IMF normalization of individual galaxies becomes lighter with time. At fixed velocity dispersion, αIMF is predicted to be constant with redshift. Current dynamical constraints on the evolution of the IMF are in slight tension with this prediction, even though systematic uncertainties, including the effect of radial gradients in the IMF, prevent a conclusive statement. The correlation of αIMF with stellar mass becomes shallower with time, while the correlation between αIMF and velocity dispersion is mostly preserved by dry mergers. We also find that dry mergers can mix the dependence of the IMF on stellar mass and velocity dispersion, making it challenging to infer, from z = 0 observations of global galactic properties, what is the quantity that is originally coupled with the IMF.

  9. Merger-driven evolution of the effective stellar initial mass function of massive early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies is the combination of the IMF of the stellar population formed in-situ and that of accreted stellar populations. Using as an observable the effective IMF $\\alpha_{IMF}$, defined as the ratio between the true stellar mass of a galaxy and the stellar mass inferred assuming a Salpeter IMF, we present a theoretical model for its evolution as a result of dry mergers. We use a simple dry merger evolution model, based on cosmological $N$-body simulations, together with empirically motivated prescriptions for the IMF to make predictions for how the effective IMF of massive early-type galaxies changes from $z=2$ to $z=0$. We find that the IMF normalization of individual galaxies becomes lighter with time. At fixed velocity dispersion, $\\alpha_{IMF}$ is predicted to be constant with redshift. Current constraints on the evolution of the IMF are in slight tension with this prediction, even though systematic uncertainties prevent a conclusive statement. The co...

  10. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression promotes and maintains the tumor initiating phenotype: implications for triple negative breast cancer early lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhilasha; Paul, Bibbin T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Sims, Hillary; El Bastawisy, Ahmed; Yousef, Hend F; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Bahnassy, Abeer A; ElShamy, Wael M

    2017-02-07

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are cancer cells endowed with self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, increased chemo-resistance, and in breast cancers the CD44+/CD24-/ALDH1+ phenotype. Triple negative breast cancers show lack of BRCA1 expression in addition to enhanced basal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and TIC phenotypes. BRCA1-IRIS (hereafter IRIS) is an oncogene produced by the alternative usage of the BRCA1 locus. IRIS is involved in induction of replication, transcription of selected oncogenes, and promoting breast cancer cells aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that IRIS overexpression (IRISOE) promotes TNBCs through suppressing BRCA1 expression, enhancing basal-biomarkers, EMT-inducers, and stemness-enforcers expression. IRISOE also activates the TIC phenotype in TNBC cells through elevating CD44 and ALDH1 expression/activity and preventing CD24 surface presentation by activating the internalization pathway EGFR→c-Src→cortactin. We show that the intrinsic sensitivity to an anti-CD24 cross-linking antibody-induced cell death in membranous CD24 expressing/luminal A cells could be acquired in cytoplasmic CD24 expressing IRISOE TNBC/TIC cells through IRIS silencing or inactivation. We show that fewer IRISOE TNBC/TICs cells form large tumors composed of TICs, resembling TNBCs early lesions in patients that contain metastatic precursors capable of disseminating and metastasizing at an early stage of the disease. IRIS-inhibitory peptide killed these IRISOE TNBC/TICs, in vivo and prevented their dissemination and metastasis. We propose IRIS inactivation could be pursued to prevent dissemination and metastasis from early TNBC tumor lesions in patients.

  11. LACK OF INFORMATION AND IRRESPONSIBILITY AS THE CRUCIAL RISK FACTORS OF EARLY SEXUALITY IN THE ADOLESCENT PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The periods of puberty and adolescence are the complex periods of transition from childhood to maturity during which the young are supposed to understand and control their interest in the opposite sex, gain their independence, get used to the problems that adults have, create their own opinion concerning anything that happens around them and in the world and make their own moral principles.The aim of this research is to clarify the problems of adolescent sexuality. The study includes 2000 secondary school students from Kragujevac (500 male and 1500 female students.The study has shown that young people get most information about sex not at school or from their parents but from magazines, mutual communication, and television.The majority of young people do not even think about the possible consequences of sexual intercourse and are quite irresponsible.They do not take into consideration pregnancy nor any other complications. They have no sufficent knowledge about contraceptive methods and do not apply them.Some prevention can be applied among the young by help of the family, school, and surrounding.

  12. Social norms of sexual initiation among adolescents and gender relations Normas sociales de iniciación sexual entre adolescentes y relaciones de género Normas sociais de iniciação sexual entre adolescentes e relações de gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify standards and expectations regarding sexual initiation of 14 to 18 year-old adolescents in Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, using data from four focal groups conducted in 2006. Results revealed that gender issues are clearly present in participants' reports and showed to be essential in their choices about the moment, partners and contraceptive practices in the first sexual relation. Adolescents are subordinated to gender roles, traditionally attributed to male and female genders, i.e. the notion that sex is an uncontrolled instinct for boys, and intrinsically and closely associated to love and desire for girls. Adolescents also play a preponderant role in the perpetuation of these values within the group they live in.Con el objetivo de identificar las normas y expectativas sociales que se encuentran en la iniciación sexual, fueron estudiados cuatro grupos de adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años de edad, en 2.006, en la ciudad de San Pablo, Brasil. Los datos mostraron que las cuestiones de género están claramente presentes en los discursos de los entrevistados y se mostraron fundamentales en las elecciones sobre: el momento, el compañero y las prácticas contraceptivas que se encuentran en la vivencia de la primera relación sexual. Los adolescentes están subordinados a los papeles de género, tradicionalmente atribuidos a los hombres y a las mujeres, y al concepto de que el sexo es un instinto físico e incontrolable entre los muchachos, y a la intrínseca relación entre el amor, el deseo y el sexo entre las muchachas; estas percepciones tienen también un papel preponderante para mantener estos valores en el grupo en que viven.Com o objetivo de identificar normas e expectativas sociais que cercam a iniciação sexual, foram estudados quatro grupos focais com adolescentes de 14 a 18 anos de idade, em 2006, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados mostraram que as questões de gênero estão claramente presentes nos

  13. Teenage Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teenage Sexuality Page Content Article Body Sex and sexuality ... have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to a same-sex ...

  14. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  15. Factors associated with sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, West Africa Fatores associados ao início da vida sexual e o uso de preservativo entre adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde, África Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendes Tavares

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on factors associated with sexual initiation and condom use among teenagers on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, according to gender. This was a representative, probabilistic sample of 13-to-17-year-olds (n = 768 attending public secondary schools on Santiago Island in 2007. Associations were tested by test of proportion, Pearson's chi-square, or Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Factors related to sexual initiation among boys were: age over 14 years, Catholic religion, and alcohol consumption. For girls, the factors included: > 9 years of schooling and involvement in an affective-sexual relationship. Unlike other Sub-Saharan countries, this study showed a high prevalence of condom use during initial sexual activity. Adolescents are able to safely begin sexually active life if they have access to information, sex education, and other STD prevention and contraceptive methods. This study provides insights on the development of policies to reduce the vulnerability of the young population to STD/AIDS and the limits and challenges related to the promotion of condom use and sex education, focusing on unequal gender relations.Foram analisados fatores associados ao início da vida sexual de adolescentes na Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde, segundo sexo. Estudo realizado com amostra probabilística e representativa de 768 adolescentes, age 13-17 anos, de escolas secundárias públicas da Ilha de Santiago em 2007. A associação foi testada pelo teste de proporção, qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Fisher e regressão logística. Nos rapazes, os fatores associados ao início da vida sexual foram: idade maior que 14 anos, ser católico e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. Para meninas: escolaridade maior que nove anos e ter parceiro afetivo-sexual. Ao contrário de outros contextos da África Subsaariana, foram constatadas taxas elevadas de uso de preservativo por adolescentes no início da vida sexual. Os adolescentes podem iniciar a

  16. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  17. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Veronneau, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle…

  18. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  19. Contextual factors associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Giatti, Luana; Malta, Deborah; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2013-10-01

    frequency of protected and unprotected sex (OR, 1.33 and 1.74, respectively). Family and school context factors are associated with sexual behavior. These associations are generally stronger for unprotected sex. Information about the prevention of pregnancy and STDs/AIDS has to be disseminated very early owing to the young age of sexual initiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical update in sexually transmitted diseases-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients.

  1. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  2. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  3. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators. A minireview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima eLajud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming.

  4. KINETyS: constraining spatial variations of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Padraig D.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2017-06-01

    The heavyweight stellar initial mass function (IMF) observed in the cores of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) has been linked to formation of their cores in an initial swiftly quenched rapid starburst. However, the outskirts of ETGs are thought to be assembled via the slow accumulation of smaller systems in which the star formation is less extreme; this suggests that the form of the IMF should exhibit a radial trend in ETGs. Here, we report radial stellar population gradients out to the half-light radii of a sample of eight nearby ETGs. Spatially resolved spectroscopy at 0.8-1.35 μm from the Very Large Telescope's K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument was used to measure radial trends in the strengths of a variety of IMF-sensitive absorption features (including some which are previously unexplored). We find weak or no radial variation in some of these which, given a radial IMF trend, ought to vary measurably, e.g. for the Wing-Ford band, we measure a gradient of +0.06 ± 0.04 per decade in radius. Using stellar population models to fit stacked and individual spectra, we infer that the measured radial changes in absorption feature strengths are primarily accounted for by abundance gradients, which are fairly consistent across our sample (e.g. we derive an average [Na/H] gradient of -0.53 ± 0.07). The inferred contribution of dwarf stars to the total light typically corresponds to a bottom-heavy IMF, but we find no evidence for radial IMF variations in the majority of our sample galaxies.

  5. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... is being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of ...

  6. Exposure to degrading versus nondegrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Elliott, Marc N; Strachman, Amy; Kanouse, David E; Berry, Sandra H

    2006-08-01

    Early sexual activity is a significant problem in the United States. A recent survey suggested that most sexually experienced teens wish they had waited longer to have intercourse; other data indicate that unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are more common among those who begin sexual activity earlier. Popular music may contribute to early sex. Music is an integral part of teens' lives. The average youth listens to music 1.5 to 2.5 hours per day. Sexual themes are common in much of this music and range from romantic and playful to degrading and hostile. Although a previous longitudinal study has linked music video consumption and sexual risk behavior, no previous study has tested longitudinal associations between the content of music lyrics and subsequent changes in sexual experience, such as intercourse initiation, nor has any study explored whether exposure to different kinds of portrayals of sex has different effects. We conducted a national longitudinal telephone survey of 1461 adolescents. Participants were interviewed at baseline (T1), when they were 12 to 17 years old, and again 1 and 3 years later (T2 and T3). At all of the interviews, participants reported their sexual experience and responded to measures of more than a dozen factors known to be associated with adolescent sexual initiation. A total of 1242 participants reported on their sexual behavior at all 3 time points; a subsample of 938 were identified as virgins before music exposure for certain analyses. Participants also indicated how frequently they listened to each of more than a dozen musical artists representing a variety of musical genres. Data on listening habits were combined with results of an analysis of the sexual content of each artist's songs to create measures of exposure to 2 kinds of sexual content: degrading and nondegrading. We measured initiation of intercourse and advancement in noncoital sexual activity level over a 2-year period. Multivariate regression

  7. Building Respectful Relationships Early: Educating Children on Gender Variance and Sexual Diversity. A Response to Damien Riggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry H.

    2013-01-01

    This article, which is a response to Damien Riggs' article, "Heteronormativity in Online Information about Sex: A South Australian Case Study", focuses on three main areas relevant to children's early education in this area. Firstly, it is important to increase parents', educators', and children's awareness of gender variance or gender…

  8. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-Type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. III. Radial Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Villaume, Alexa; Brodie, Jean; Romanowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    There is good evidence that the centers of massive early-type galaxies have a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) compared to the IMF of the Milky Way. Here we study the radial variation of the IMF within such galaxies, using a combination of high quality Keck spectroscopy and a new suite of stellar population synthesis models that cover a wide range in metallicity. As in the previous studies in this series, the models are fitted directly to the spectra and treat all elemental abundance ratios as free parameters. Using newly obtained spectroscopy for six galaxies, including deep data extending to ~1Re for the galaxies NGC1407, NGC1600, and NGC2695, we find that the IMF varies strongly with galactocentric radius. For all six galaxies the IMF is bottom-heavy in the central regions, with average mass-to-light ratio "mismatch" parameter a~2.5 at r=0. The IMF rapidly becomes more bottom-light with increasing radius, flattening off near the Milky Way value (a~1.1) at R>0.4Re. A consequence is that the ...

  9. SPIDER VIII - Constraints on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-type Galaxies from a Variety of Spectral Features

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; Vazdekis, A; de la Rosa, I G; de Carvalho, R R; Trevisan, M; Falcón-Barroso, J; Ricciardelli, E

    2013-01-01

    We perform a spectroscopic study to constrain the stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF) by using a large sample of 24,781 early-type galaxies from the SDSS-based SPIDER survey. Clear evidence is found of a trend between IMF and central velocity dispersion, sigma0, evolving from a standard Kroupa/Chabrier IMF at 100km/s towards a more bottom-heavy IMF with increasing sigma0, becoming steeper than the Salpeter function at sigma0>220km/s. We analyze a variety of spectral indices, corrected to solar scale by means of semi-empirical correlations, and fitted simultaneously with extended MILES (MIUSCAT) stellar population models. Our analysis suggests that sigma0, rather than [alpha/Fe], drives the IMF variation. Although our analysis cannot discriminate between a single power-law (unimodal) and a low-mass (<0.5MSun) tapered (bimodal) IMF, we can robustly constrain the fraction in low-mass stars at birth, that is found to increase from 20% at sigma0~100km/s, up to 80% at sigma0~300km/s. Additional constraints can b...

  10. Variations in the initial mass function in early-type galaxies: A critical comparison between dynamical and spectroscopic results

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    I present a comparison between published dynamical (ATLAS3D) and spectroscopic (Conroy & van Dokkum) constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies, using the 34 galaxies in common between the two works. Both studies infer an average IMF mass factor $\\alpha$ (the stellar mass relative to a Kroupa-IMF population of similar age and metallicity) greater than unity, i.e. both methods favour an IMF which is heavier than that of the Milky Way, on average over the sample. However, on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, there is no correlation between $\\alpha$ inferred from the two approaches. I investigate how the two estimates of $\\alpha$ are correlated systematically with the galaxy velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, and with the Mg/Fe abundance ratio. The spectroscopic method, based on the strengths of metal absorption lines, yields a correlation only with metal abundance ratios: at fixed Mg/Fe, there is no residual correlation with $\\sigma$. The dynamical method, applied to exactly the same ...

  11. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, J.P.; Ketting, E.; Chandra-Mouli, V.; Raudsepp, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a

  12. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, J.P.; Ketting, E.; Chandra-Mouli, V.; Raudsepp, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a

  13. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Thi-Tu Bui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective: This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design: Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results: Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11 but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01. Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13, and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of

  14. The Emory University / Grady Memorial Hospital program: Postponing Sexual Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Postponing Sexual Involvement program of Emory University's Grady Memorial Hospital began as a teen pregnancy prevention program in the early 1970s. Initially Atlanta public schools devoted 5 classroom periods to discussion of sexuality and decision making. Evaluation results indicated that adolescent sexual behavior change was not occurring, so program staff added the Postponing Sexual Involvement component in 1983. This abstinence program was based on the theory that social influence is related to the likelihood of becoming sexually involved, and not lack of knowledge. Specific age groups are targeted, so that attitudes and skills can be promoted until the maturity of handling sexuality is reached. The assumption is that teenagers are not mature enough to understand the implications of their actions and to deal with consequences. Adolescents are encouraged to explore feelings about sexual involvement and to envision how their future can be affected by such behavior. Human sexuality information, including contraception is still provided for 5 periods, with and additional 5 periods on postponing sexual involvement. 4000 8th graders in Atlanta receive this instructional program. The significant feature of the program is the coexistence of the messages that adolescents ought not to get involved sexually at an early age, and that, if sexual involvement does occur, they should use appropriate contraception. A unique feature is the teaching conducted by trained 11th and 12th grade students as teen leaders in presenting information, conducting discussions, teaching assertiveness skills, and providing a forum for practicing handling problem situations. The youth models are important for dispelling the myth that "everybody's doing it." Teen leaders received about 20 hours of training in how to guide discussions about handling social and peer pressures. Structured and guided exercises were conducted for practicing skills in resisting peer pressure. The program

  15. Surface electromyographic evaluation of jaw muscles in children with unilateral crossbite and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition. Sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguas, Leticia; Alarcón, José-Antonio; Venancio, Filipa; Kassem, Marta; Martín, Conchita

    2012-11-01

    To examine the activity of jaw muscles at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) in children with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB) and functional lateral shift in the early mixed dentition and to evaluate sex differences. The sample included 30 children (15 males, 15 females) aged 6 to 10 years old, with UPXB and functional mandibular lateral shift (≥1.5 mm) in the early mixed dentition. sEMG activity coming from the muscle areas (anterior temporalis [AT], posterior temporalis [PT], masseter [MA] and suprahyoid [SH]) were obtained from both the crossbite (XB) and noncrossbite (NONXB) sides at mandibular rest position. sEMG activity of the bilateral AT and MA muscles sides was obtained during MVC. Asymmetry and activity indexes were calculated for each muscle area at rest and during MVC; the MA/TA ratio during MVC was also determined. At rest, no differences were found between sexes for any muscle areas or asymmetry and activity indexes. No differences were found between XB and NONXB sides. During MVC, however, significant sex differences were found in AT and MA activity, with higher sEMG values in males than in females, on both XB and NONXB sides. Asymmetry indexes, activity indexes and MA/AT ratios did not show significant differences between the sexes. Activity was symmetric both in males and in females. At rest, no sex differences were found, but during MVC males showed higher activity than did females in both XB and NONXB AT and MA muscle areas. Muscular activity was symmetrical at rest and during MVC in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of UPXB and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition.

  16. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  17. Deployment of early diagnosis and mefloquine-artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria in Thailand: the Tak Malaria Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ilona Carrara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy (MAS have reduced the transmission of falciparum malaria dramatically and halted the progression of mefloquine resistance in camps for displaced persons along the Thai-Burmese border, an area of low and seasonal transmission of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We extended the same combination drug strategy to all other communities (estimated population 450,000 living in five border districts of Tak province in northwestern Thailand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Existing health structures were reinforced. Village volunteers were trained to use rapid diagnostic tests and to treat positive cases with MAS. Cases of malaria, hospitalizations, and malaria-related deaths were recorded in the 6 y before, during, and after the Tak Malaria Initiative (TMI intervention. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and during the TMI period. P. falciparum malaria cases fell by 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.5-34.4 and hospitalisations for falciparum malaria fell by 39% (95% CI, 37.0-39.9 during the TMI period, while hospitalisations for P. vivax malaria remained constant. There were 32 deaths attributed to malaria during, and 22 after the TMI, a 51.5% (95% CI, 39.0-63.9 reduction compared to the average of the previous 3 y. Cross-sectional surveys indicated that P. vivax had become the predominant species in Thai villages, but not in populations living on the Myanmar side of the border. In the displaced persons population, where the original deployment took place 7 y before the TMI, the transmission of P. falciparum continued to be suppressed, the incidence of falciparum malaria remained low, and the in vivo efficacy of the 3-d MAS remained high. CONCLUSIONS: In the remote malarious north western border area of Thailand, the early detection of malaria by trained village volunteers, using rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with mefloquine-artesunate was

  18. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  19. Strategic Financing: Making the Most of the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    Ensuring that children enter school ready to learn is now a well-established national goal. Dramatic changes over the past three decades in U.S. families and the economy, as well as emerging research on the importance of early brain development, have increased the demand for public investments in early childhood supports and services, especially…

  20. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.