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Sample records for early seventeenth century

  1. Understandings of Colors: Varieties of Theories in the Color Worlds of the Early Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventeenth century, there existed a myriad of theories to account for color phenomena. The status, goal, and content of such accounts differed as well as the range of phenomena they explained. Starting with the journal of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), this essay inquires into the

  2. Memorializing the Wars of Religion in Early Seventeenth-Century French Picture Galleries : Protestants and Catholics Painting the Contested Past

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    van der Linden, David

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how Protestant and Catholic elites in early seventeenth-century France memorialized the Wars of Religion in purpose-built picture galleries. Postwar France remained a divided nation, and portrait galleries offered a sectarian memory of the conflict, glorifying party heroes.

  3. 'Most Rare Workmen': Optical Practitioners in Early Seventeenth-Century Delft

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    Zuidervaart, Huib J.; Rijks, Marlise

    2015-01-01

    A special interest in optics among various seventeenth-century painters living in the Dutch city of Delft has intrigued historians, including art historians, for a long time. Equally, the impressive career of the Delft microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has been studied by many historians of

  4. Paolo Sarpi’s vow of obedience: catholic political thought in early seventeenth-century Venice

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    Kainulainen, Jaska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the idea of obedience in early-modern Catholic political thought. I focus on early seventeenth-century Venice and on one of its leading political thinkers, Paolo Sarpi. I argue that for Sarpi and the Venetian nobility obedience was a religious, Catholic concept, which they nonetheless applied to a secular system of governance; notwithstanding their refusal to obey the papal ban during the interdict of Venice in 1606-1607, Venetians regarded obedience as an act of piety and an indispensable element of civic life.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la idea de obediencia en el pensamiento político católico de la edad moderna, en particular en Venecia en el siglo XVII y en Paolo Sarpi, uno de sus pensadores políticos más importantes. Este artículo argumenta que para Sarpi y la nobleza la obediencia era un concepto católico, que a pesar de ello, aplicaron a un sistema de gobierno secular. A pesar de su negativa a obedecer la prohibición papal durante el interdicto de Venecia en 1606-1607, los venecianos consideraban la obediencia como un acto de piedad y un elemento indispensable de la vida cívica.

  5. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  6. The absent body: representations of dying early modern women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the absence of the body in the depiction of dying women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries. It considers the cultural forces that made this absence inevitable, and the means by which the physical body was replaced in death by a spiritual presence. The elevation of a dying woman from physical carer to spiritual nurturer in the days before death ensured that gender codes were not broken. The centrality of the body of the dying woman, within a female circle of care and support, was paradoxically juxtaposed with an effacement of the body in descriptions of a good death. In death, a woman might achieve the stillness, silence and compliance so essential to perfect early modern womanhood, and retrospective diary entries can achieve this ideal by replacing the body with images that deflect from the essential physicality of the woman.

  7. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

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    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  8. A Case of Epilepsy and Psychosis in the Seventeenth Century

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    F. Ovsiew

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A seventeenth-century painter left an account of his seizures, trances and visions; in 1923 Freud commented on this “demonological neurosis” without discussing the seizures. Attention is drawn to the concurrence of epilepsy and psychosis in this early autobiographical source.

  9. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  10. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century.

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    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  11. Kabbalah, Education, and Prayer: Jewish Learning in the Seventeenth Century

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    Necker, Gerold

    2018-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the Jewish mystical tradition which is known as Kabbalah was integrated into the curriculum of studying the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Kabbalah became popular in these times in the wake of the dissemination of Isaac Luria's teachings, in particular within the Jewish communities in Prague and Amsterdam, where members…

  12. Seventeenth century drawings of Brazilian animals in Leningrad

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    Boeseman, M.; Holthuis, L.B.; Hoogmoed, M.S.; Smeenk, C.

    1990-01-01

    Manuscript pictures of NE. Brazilian animals, related to seventeenth century originals described by Marcgrave and Piso (1648, 1658), validated by Linnaeus (1758-59, 1766-68), are studied and identified, comments are supplied, partly based on much neglected old sources, with evaluations of current

  13. Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Plague Mortality in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries

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    Curtis, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. However, a data set comprised of burial information from the seventeenth-century Low Countries suggests that plague’s impact on the countryside was far more

  14. Doctors and Their Patients in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries.

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    Baschin, Marion; Dietrich-Daum, Elisabeth; Ritzmann, Iris

    2016-01-01

    How can these finings be interpreted in conclusion? Analysis has revealed firstly that, depending on the chosen period, the socio-geographical situation and the profile of the individual doctor's practice, the clientele varied widely in terms of gender, age and social rank. The consultation behaviour of men and women changed noticeably. Findings overall suggest that up until t8o the gender distribution varied in the individual practices. There was a trend for women to be overrepresented in urban practices during the earlier period. But in general, from the mid-nineteenth century they predominated - in towns as well as in the country in allopathic as well as homeopathic practices. The absence of children, which was bemoaned by many physicians, did not apply to the practices under investigation. On the contrary: the percentage is consistently high while older patients remained underrepresented right up until the end of the period under investigation, even though their proportion increased in the individual practices during the course of the nineteenth century In each of the nineteenth century practices investigated - and increasingly among the lower and middle classes - the physicians' services were used by several members of the same family. We have found no evidence to support the thesis that up until the nineteenth century academic physicians were mainly consulted by aristocratic or wealthy bourgeois patients. The theory probably applies only to early modern urban doctors. In the practices examined here, from the middle of the eighteenth century, patients from all social strata went to consult physicians. The participation of members of the lower classes or from an artisanal, (proto) industrial or agricultural background clearly increased over time 'despite ubiquitous economic and cultural barriers. That the annual numbers of consultations per physician increased - despite the growing number of physicians available - suggests that for economically disadvantaged

  15. Christian Ideas in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.

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    Gregory, Brad

    2014-10-01

    The revival of intellectual history in recent years, to which the series Ideas in Context has contributed, owes much to showing how ideas, beliefs, and aspirations inform all areas of human life. In the Reformation era, disagreements about Christian ideas disrupted society at large. Nearly all studies of Western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries must address the consequences of these disagreements, including the books noted here by Todd, Van Gelderen, Tuck, Kusukawa, and Hoepfl.

  16. Flower Style on Seventeenth Century Agra Buildings

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    Ali Fuat BAYSAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions. The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness. Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration. Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era. Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style. Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable.

  17. Nominalism and constructivism in seventeenth-century mathematical philosophy

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    Sepkoski, David

    2013-01-01

    What was the basis for the adoption of mathematics as the primary mode of discourse for describing natural events by a large segment of the philosophical community in the seventeenth century? In answering this question, this book demonstrates that a significant group of philosophers shared the belief that there is no necessary correspondence between external reality and objects of human understanding, which they held to include the objects of mathematical and linguistic discourse. The result is a scholarly reliable, but accessible, account of the role of mathematics in the works of (

  18. Niels Hemmingsen and the Construction of a Seventeenth-Century Protestant Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Mattias Skat

    2017-01-01

    Danish reformer Niels Hemmingsen was a Lutheran, but owing to Pan-Protestant sentiments that became apparent in his later writings, he found an appreciative audience in non-Lutheran Western Europe during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. This article argues that the early modern...... European reception of Hemmingsen and his theology should be seen as an attempt to construct him as part of a Protestant memory. It also argues that in order to understand the dynamics behind the reception of Hemmingsen’s ideas, one has to consider the geopolitics of early modern Denmark. Due to her...

  19. A Blend of Traditions: The Lute’s Influence on Seventeenth-Century Harpsichord Repertoire

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    Audrey S. Rutt

    2017-01-01

    The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Often, texts covering the early harpsichord literature will limit discussion of the lute’s influence to a brief mention of the style brisé, if the important connection between the two traditions is even mentioned all. The lute’s impact on the harpsichordists of the seventeenth century is not a fac...

  20. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

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    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  1. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    OpenAIRE

    d'Arcy, Sing

    2014-01-01

    When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray L...

  2. A Blend of Traditions: The Lute’s Influence on Seventeenth-Century Harpsichord Repertoire

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    Audrey S. Rutt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Often, texts covering the early harpsichord literature will limit discussion of the lute’s influence to a brief mention of the style brisé, if the important connection between the two traditions is even mentioned all. The lute’s impact on the harpsichordists of the seventeenth century is not a facet that can be ignored; rather, an understanding of the lute tradition is essential to an understanding of the harpsichord tradition. Neither can the relationship be isolated to the style brisé, as the influence extends also to other textures, rhythms, harmonic devices, sonorous effects, and genres found within the solo literatures of both the lute and harpsichord. This connection is especially evident in the solo harpsichord works of Francois Couperin, D’Anglebert, Froberger, and Chambonnieres. Ornamentation and broken textures, elements that were evocative of the lute, were incorporated into the already existing keyboard tradition represented by the organ. However, although composers for the harpsichord imitated the style of lutenists such as Gaultier and Pinel, they also transformed it; they developed these lute-like elements in a manner that became distinctly idiomatic to the harpsichord. In this way, the harpsichord idiom that emerged in the seventeenth century was formed by a unique blend of the organ and lute styles.

  3. Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

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    José Antonio MATEOS ROYO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe. Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product and labour markets as the region’s economy contracted. Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

  4. Clashes of discourses: Humanists and Calvinists in seventeenth-century academic Leiden

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    Kromhout, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using Michel Foucault's concept of discursive change and Stephen Greenblatt's ideas about social poetics and self-fashioning, 'Clashes of Discourses: Calvinists and Humanists in Seventeenth-Century Academic Leiden' explains developments in the literary works of leading Leiden humanists against the

  5. Sexuality, Elites, and Court Life in the Late Seventeenth Century: The Diaries of Constantijn Huygens, Jr.

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    R.M. Dekker (Rudolf)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn the last quarter of the seventeenth century, the following joke circulated in the Dutch Republic: A very fat nobleman married a lady-in-waiting of the Princess of Orange. Because of his big belly, he was afraid that he would not be able to manage intercourse with her. However, she

  6. Public Finance and Economic Growth. The Case of Holland in the Seventeenth Century

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    Gelderblom, O.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19265473X; Jonker, J.P.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075034638

    2011-01-01

    The debate over the institutions that link economic growth to public finance tends to disregard the need for savings to finance growing public debt. In seventeenth-century Holland the structure, size, and issuing rates of the debt were determined by investors’ preferences, wealth accumulation, and

  7. Scholasticism revisited: methodological reflections on the study of seventeenth-century reformed thought

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    Asselt, W.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Historical theologians have commonly held that a rather negative connection exists between the two major intellectual movements in the Protestant world of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries – the Reformation and Protestant scholasticism. These scholars have condemned the writings of the

  8. Education for Francisation: The Case of New France in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the seventeenth-century French missionary and bureaucratic attempt to "francisize" (to make French) Canadian Indian children, so they would eventually be assimilated into the French expatriate colony, an effort based on the idea that contact with Europeans and education would convert Amerindians to Catholicism and make them…

  9. Lenses and Waves - Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century

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    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of nature knowledge.

  10. “Wherefore She Made Suit”: African Women’s Religious and Spiritual Determinism in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England

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    Tamara Lewis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidence of early modern English religious communities demonstrate that culturally negative perceptions of skin color and ethnicity contributed to theological notions of black inferiority which supported societal hierarchies based on racial and gender discrimination. This essay analyzes three accounts of a group typically ignored by religious scholars on early modern England: sixteenth and seventeenth century African women. Despite living in a period that arguably witnessed the ideological birth and development of the racial construct in tandem with British colonialist and imperialist expansionism, these women defiantly crafted their own brand of spiritual determinism to wield personal agency in the face of racist theological discourse, ecclesiastical institutions, and legal authorities.

  11. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeenth Century English Literature

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    Mustafa Bal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  12. Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater

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    Natalia Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater, Waco (Texas, Baylor University Press, 2012, 173 pp. ISBN: 9781602586451.

  13. The Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca during the seventeenth century: constitutions and collegials

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    Rafael RAMIS BARCELÓ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to make known the Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca throughout their sources since its founding in 1633 until 1700. Some especial attention is deserved to the Constitutions of the Centre, compared with the Constitutions of Presentation College of Valencia. The article discusses particularly College life, Studies and Visits. The document is intended as a contribution to the academic and ecclesiastical history that provides a better understanding of Majorcan training institutions in the seventeenth century.

  14. THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY CRISIS REVISITED. THE CASE OF THE SOUTHERN ITALIAN SILK INDUSTRY: REGGIO CALABRIA, 1547-1686

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    Antonio Calabria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the silk trade in Southern Italy through a quantitative study of exports from the dry-customs port of Reggio Calabria. It traces the experience of Reggio’s silk industry from its heyday in the sixteenth century to its collapse in the seventeenth, and it places that experience in the context of the economic decline of Southern Italy and of the literature on the crisis of the seventeenth century.

  15. The haunting of Susan Lay: servants and mistresses in seventeenth-century England.

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    Gowing, Laura

    2002-01-01

    At Easter 1650, Susan Lay, a servant in an Essex alehouse, saw the ghost of her mistress, who had been buried three days before. This article explores the history that lay behind her experience: of sexual relationships with both her master and his son, the births and deaths of two bastard children, and beneath it all, a relationship of antagonism, competition, and intimacy with her mistress. It uses this and other legal records to examine the relationship between women in early modern households, arguing that, while antagonisms between women are typically part of effective patriarchies, the domestic life and social structures of mid seventeenth-century England bound servants and mistresses peculiarly tightly together, giving servants licence to dream of replacing their mistresses and mistresses cause to feel threatened by their servants, and making the competitive relations between women functional to patriarchal order. It suggests, finally, that at this moment in time and in this context, seeing a ghost was the best, perhaps the only, way this servant had to tell a suppressed story and stake a claim to a household that had excluded her.

  16. An Astrological Diary of the Seventeenth Century - Samuel Jeake of Rye 1652-1699

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    Hunter, Michael; Gregory, Annabel

    1988-04-01

    A seventeenth-century merchant and nonconformist from Rye in Sussex, Samuel Jeake had a passionate interest in astrology. In his diary--recently recovered in Los Angeles and published here for the first time--Jeake not only recorded the events of his life; he subjected them to astrological scrutiny, interspersing his text with horoscopes. The result is one of the most interesting 17th-century diaries to be published in many years, throwing important light on the history of astrology, commerce, medicine, and religion. An illuminating introduction by the editors places the diary in the context of the preoccupations and priorities of Jeake's age.

  17. The oratory in the seventeenth-century Low Countries

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    Frijhoff, W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the particular context of the early modern low Countries, subject to political divisions and confessional dissensions, the Catholic Reform movement found its primary expression in missionary work for which the new institutes of secular priests proved to he an appropriate instrument. They fostered

  18. Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3: Its Origin and Contents, and the Stemmata of Late-Sixteenth- and Early-Seventeenth- Century Portuguese Sources

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    d’Alvarenga, João Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3 is a small volume made up of two originally independent manuscripts datable respectively to c.1615 and c.1575, which were bound together sometime in the seventeenth century. The second part of the volume contains what is possibly the oldest, most persistent and widely-circulated of Holy Week series of responsories in extant late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Portuguese sources of polyphony. The first part is dominated by the works of Manuel Mendes, a composer whose considerable reputation rested especially on his abilities as a teacher, but whose works are among the most widespread pieces in Portuguese and American colonial manuscripts in the years around 1600. In this paper I will determine the origin of Évora Cód. CLI/1-3 by following the steps of Mendes’s career, and establish the relationship between this source and several other important manuscripts as to the transmission of two exemplary pieces through the study of variant readings and the rates of agreement of the sources in the points of variation, proposing a general stemmata for pieces in late-sixteenth and earlyseventeenth- century Portuguese sources of polyphony.

    El Cód. CLI/1-3 de la Biblioteca Pública de Évora es un pequeño volumen compuesto por dos manuscritos originalmente independientes fechados hacia 1615 y 1575, respectivamente, los cuales fueron encuadernados juntos en algún momento del siglo XVII. La segunda parte del volumen contiene una serie de responsorios de Semana Santa, posiblemente la más antigua, duradera y de mayor circulación de entre las fuentes portuguesas de polifonía de finales del siglo XVI y del siglo XVII conservadas. En la primera parte sobresalen las obras de Manuel Mendes, un compositor cuya considerable reputación se debe sobre todo a sus habilidades como maestro, pero cuyas obras se encuentran entre las piezas más difundidas en los manuscritos portugueses y

  19. From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting

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    Juan Pablo Cruz Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The image of “The Virgin with the Child”, within the post Tridentine context, stood as a place of origin of a discourse modeling the women behavior, giving specific roles in relation with their children. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

  20. Sexuality, Elites, and Court Life in the Late Seventeenth Century: The Diaries of Constantijn Huygens, Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn the last quarter of the seventeenth century, the following joke circulated in the Dutch Republic: A very fat nobleman married a lady-in-waiting of the Princess of Orange. Because of his big belly, he was afraid that he would not be able to manage intercourse with her. However, she knew how to remedy this with some cushions and body movements. Surprised, he asked her where she had learned this. She answered, "Ho, ho, don't you know that you can learn anything at court." 1 This j...

  1. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t

  2. Jean-Baptiste Labat and the buccaneer barbecue in seventeenth-century Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyski, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    If, as the sociologist Pierre L. van den Berghe has suggested, cuisine is a significant expression of man's sociability, one might say that the seventeenth-century missionary Jean-Baptiste Labat was the single most social animal in the Caribbean islands in the 1690s. Although his primary responsibility on the island of Martinique was to serve the island's multiethnic population as a spiritual leader, le père Labat's memoirs chronicle the diverse culinary experiences of the missionary as he literally eats his way around the island, learning to prepare such delicacies as cocoa confit, roasted manatee, lizard en brochette, and parakeet en daube. Positing his unbridled interest in the culinary arts as a mark of his “obedience” to the duties assigned him as missionary, Labat's taxonomy of island delicacies and exotic tastes no doubt titillated the curiosity of his mainland readers while nevertheless grounding itself strongly in the values of order, authenticity, and industry so essential to Labat's apostolic mission. This article focuses on two “buccaneer barbecues” as examples of gastronomical experiences through which Labat was able to construct and negotiate new social, cultural, and symbolic meanings, exploring identity politics through the frame of the culinary arts in seventeenth-century Martinique.

  3. The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Edward

    2013-11-01

    This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Utilizing differences in the spatial geometry between the foundational theory and the theory derived from the foundational, in conjunction with nominalism and platonism, it will be argued that there are crucial similarities between seventeenth century and contemporary theories of space, and that these similarities reveal a host of underlying conceptual issues that the substantival/relational dichotomy fails to distinguish.

  4. Fernando de Almeida (d. 1660: Tradition and Innovation in Mid-Seventeenth-Century Portuguese Sacred Music

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    Vaz, João

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Library of the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa preserves three large choirbooks of polyphonic repertoire intended for Holy Week, prepared between 1735 and 1736 by a copyist of the Patriarchal Church. These choirbooks contain all the known extant works by Fernando de Almeida (died in 1660. When comparing the music of Fernando de Almeida with that of his near contemporary João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661, the different trends in Portuguese early- to mid-seventeenth-century church music become clear, especially if viewed in the light of the acknowledged aesthetic and compositional premises explained in the 1649 Defensa de la mvsica moderna by King João IV. Rebelo’s concertato works incline towards the style of north-Italian composers. The ingenuity of Fernando de Almeida’s style, which is particularly noticeable in his eight-voice Holy Week responsories, lays in the integration of prominent Baroque features within the mould of Iberian Mannerist tradition.La Biblioteca del Palacio Ducal de Vila Viçosa posee tres grandes libros de coro con repertorio polifónico destinado a la Semana Santa, preparados entre 1735 y 1736 por un copista de la Iglesia Patriarcal. Estos libros de coro contienen todas las obras de Fernando de Almeida (m. 1660 que hayan sobrevivido hasta los días de hoy. La comparación de la música de Fernando de Almeida con la de su cási contemporáneo João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661 evidencia las distintas orientaciones en la música sacra portuguesa de principios a mediados del siglo XVII, especialmente cuando observadas bajo las premisas estéticas y composicionales explanadas en la Defensa de la mvsica moderna (1649 del Rey D. João IV. El estilo concertato de Rebelo se acerca de los compositores del Norte de Italia. La inventiva del estilo de Fernando de Almeida, particularmente notable en sus Responsorios a ocho voces para la Semana Santa, incorpora prominentes características barrocas en el molde de la tradici

  5. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  6. [Jarmo T. Kotilainen. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World ] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World. XVIII. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. Oma töös vaatleb autor ka Rootsi Läänemere-provintside linnade Riia, Tallinna, Narva ja Nyeni tähtsust Venemaa väliskaubanduses.

  7. 'Beauty and Simplicity' : The power of fine art in moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.H.

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising messages was

  8. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

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    Sing d'Arcy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

  9. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  10. Brazilian Cannibals in Sixteenth-Century Europe and Seventeenth-Century Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leca, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article follows the transmission of a visual trope depicting Brazilian cannibals from accounts of travelers to Brazil in the 16th century to world maps and popular tales in 17th century Japan. The image of tribesmen roasting human limbs over a fire in woodcut illustrations (such as Theodore de

  11. Hybridizing scholastic psychology with Chinese medicine: a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic's conceptions of xin (mind and heart).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of cultural interactions between early modern China and Europe initiated by the Jesuits and other Catholic missionaries through a case study of Wang Honghan, a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic who systematically sought to integrate European learning introduced by the missionaries with pre-modern Chinese medicine. Focusing on the ways in which Wang combined his Western and Chinese sources to develop and articulate his views on xin (mind and heart), this paper argues that Wang arrived at a peculiar hybrid between scholastic psychology and Chinese medicine, not so much through a course of haphazard misunderstanding as through his conscious and patterned use and abuse of his Western sources, which was motivated most possibly by a wish to define a theoretical position that most suited his social roles as a Catholic convert and a Chinese medical doctor. Thus, rather than seeing Wang as an epitome of"transmission failure," this paper offers it as a showcase for the tremendous dynamism and creativity occurring at this East-West "contact zone as representatives of both cultures sought to appropriate and transform the symbolic and textual resources of the other side.

  12. ‘Pretos’ and ‘Pardos’ between the Cross and the Sword: Racial Categories in Seventeenth Century Brazil

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    Hebe Mattos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixing between Europeans and Africans in the  Portuguese empire produced hierarchical categories for racial gradations during the seventeenth  century. During this period the categories ‘mulato’ and ‘pardo’ were included in the regulations  for Purity of Blood (Estatutos de Pureza de Sangue, which determined who could have access to  the same honours and privileges that the old  Christian Portuguese received. From the seventeenth century onwards, those regulations stipulated that ‘no one of the race of Jew, Moor or  Mulato’ (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato were eligible to receive certain honours and  privileges from the crown. This paper discusses  the meanings of ‘race’ on the basis of two historical case studies. The twin processes of miscegenation, in the biological sense, and cultural intermixing have engendered intermediate strata that have  long stimulated the imagination of historians.  Instead of emphasizing the idea of new strata of  mixed blood, the two cases presented here suggest  a more central role for the early demographic  impact of access to manumission in colonial society to explain the emergence of these intermediate  categories in Portuguese America.  Resumen: ‘Pretos’ y ‘Pardos’ Entre la Cruz y la Espada: Categorías Raciales en el Brasil del Siglo DiecisieteDurante el siglo diecisiete, las mezclas entre europeos y africanos en el imperio portugués produjeron categorías jerárquicas de gradaciones raciales. Durante este período las categorías de ‘mulato’ y ‘pardo’ fueron incluidas en los estatutos para  la Pureza de la Sangre (Estatutos de Pureza de  Sangue, que determinaban quiénes tenían acceso  a los mismos honores y privilegios de que gozaban los viejos cristianos portugueses. Desde el  siglo diecisiete en adelante, esos estatutos estipulaban que “nadie de la raza judía, moro o mulato”  (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato podí- an recibir ciertos

  13. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  14. Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, J J H

    2009-04-01

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity. A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family.

  15. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic

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    Sina Rauschenbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1625 and 1649, the Leiden publishing house Elzevir issued a series of thirty-five descriptions of all European, a selection of non-European, and three ancient states, that became known as the ‘Elzevirian Republics’. This essay focuses on two of these ‘Republics’, Johannes de Laet’s descriptions of Spain and Portugal. I argue that these books convey an attitude towards geopolitics that is best understood in the light of Caspar Barlaeus’s ideal of the ‘wise merchant’ (mercator sapiens and the historical regent-merchant culture in seventeenth-century Amsterdam. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity.

  16. Atlantic consumption of French rum and brandy and economic growth in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Bertie

    2011-01-01

    Why did the production of rum in the French West Indies not achieve the same success within the French Atlantic as it did in the British Atlantic world? Surveying the history of rum production in the French Caribbean in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this article contends that the reason why no regional trade in rum developed in French North America resulted from fierce industrial and institutional competition from brandy producers in metropolitan France. Rum, nevertheless, remained significant within the culture and economy of Native Americans and African Americans. This article seeks to add nuance to the wider debate of the ability of the trans-border diffusion of new ideas to stimulate and institutionalize industrial and economic growth in the Atlantic world. French entrepreneurs were no less ‘entrepreneurial’ than their British counterparts, but real constraints on consumption on both sides of the Atlantic created insufficient demand.

  17. ‘out of their owne mouths’? Conversion Narratives and English Radical Religious Practice in the Seventeenth Century

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    Donatella Pallotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a form of writing, the conversion narrative, which was familiar to mid-seventeenth-century godly readers. The purpose of the narrative, which was a prerequisite for admission to the Church of Visible Saints, was to give the congregation a spoken account of the experience of conversion and of the workings of Grace in the life of the regenerate individual. Some of these reports were transcribed, revised, and published by the ministers of the churches. By focusing on the complex relationships between the ‘original’ experience, its expression, and subsequent written transmission, the tension between individuality and conformity, and the various forms of editorial intervention adopted by the ministers, this study attempts to highlight the collaborative nature of the textual construction of the conversion narrative and to address some crucial issues concerning both the authenticity of the memory recorded and its ‘true’ author.

  18. The invention of physical science intersections of mathematics, theology and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century : essays in honor of Erwin N. Hiebert

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joan L; Stuewer, Roger H

    1992-01-01

    Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter. However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century. In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological th...

  19. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  20. Knowledge and practice pictured in the artist’s studio. The ‘art lover’ in the seventeenth-century Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Yeager-Crasselt

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the long overlooked representation of the ‘art lover’, or liefhebber, in the artist’s studio in the seventeenth-century Netherlands and the ways in which the liefhebber’s image coalesced with a larger cultural discourse of connoisseurship, amateurship, and artistic practice. It situates these images in the iconographic tradition of the Flemish collector’s cabinet, and demonstrates how the values inherent to the konstkamer became part of the visual language and meaning of...

  1. Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth-, Eighteenth-, and Nineteenth-Century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt (2

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    Brown, Kenneth

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series (the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [1999] pp. 3-42; the third being in press on the phenomenon of Neo- Latin and Romance-Language —Spanish and Portuguese— poetry of the Sephardim in Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main from the early seventeenth to the midnineteenth centuries. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs. In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period 1614-1634 as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century.

    Nuestro estudio representa la segunda parte (la primera apareció en Sefarad 59 [1999] págs. 3-42; la tercera está en prensa de un trabajo sobre la poesía en latín y lenguas romances —español y portugués— de los sefardíes de Hamburgo y de Frankfurt am Main desde principios del siglo XVII hasta mediados del XVIII. Aquí el corpus poetarum se amplía de veintiocho a cuarenta y cinco obras; estas nuevas poesías evidencian un espíritu neoclasicista mezclado ingeniosamente con un discurso apegado a un judaísmo ortodoxo-sefardí tal como entonces se practicaba en los países protestantes del norte de Europa. En el apartado introductorio, que es tanto descriptivo como evaluativo de la obra poética, se defiende la tesis de que la ciudad protestante de Frankfurt am Main con su feria del libro anual servía como lugar de impresi

  2. «In the Shadow» of Absent Men: Unhappily Married Women in the Hispanic World of the Seventeenth Century

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    María José DE LA PASCUA SÁNCHEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe. These households, often under direction of a widow, and to a lesser extent, of a spinster or an unhappily married woman, are providing historians with the possibility to observe women’s lives from the margins of structures of patriarchal power. The economic, social and affective reality of unhappily married women needs a profound analysis, that goes beyond a quantitative magnitude, facing the challenge of imagining these women in conditions that, at first glance, didn’t go beyond exceptional and accidental, but in reality they could have formed an environment of autonomy and power for themselves. In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose. If from the allegations of abandonment from the «Warrants to Indies» it can be deduced that for this collective, overall they experienced poverty and difficult conditions, their wills offer a visión of full lives where work and affection are basic structures.

  3. The use of Latin and the European republic of letters: Change and continuity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

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    Per Pippin Aspaas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is the author’s trial lecture for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor, offers a brief history of the use of Latin among men of learning. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are known as the periods of Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, respectively. In the same timespan the Republic of Letters flourished, a word which connoted a kind of ‘imagined community’ (in Benedict Anderson’s words which bound together the supporters of the new science. In transgressing confessional, civil, and ideological boundaries Latin offered a peculiar kind of assistance. A text in Latin would signify not merely erudition, but also some sort of neutrality. However much the active use and the passive ability to understand various vernacular languages rose internationally, neither Italian, French, English, or German was received without mixed feelings. Escaping the famous definition of a language as ‘a dialect with an army and a navy’, Latinity proved capable of persisting by means of ‘soft power’ alone. The processes which led to the end of this state of affairs were not one and the same. Italian, which Galilei and the academicians of Florence used, achieved national or regional, rather than international, success. English, cultivated by the Royal Society of London, was undoubtedly comprehensible to many learned, but it was used rarely abroad nevertheless. French, having the Académie Royale des Sciences and the encyclopédistes among its supporters, especially towards the end of the eighteenth century seemed poised to take over the Republic of Letters. German, read by many men of learning in Nordic and Eastern parts of Europe, reeked of vulgarity or even barbarism. That Latin, the victim of nationalism, democratisation, and secularisation, in brief, of European modernity, also served as a vehicle and a midwife for that very same modernity is a lesson well worth bearing in mind.

  4. The Horn in seventeenth and eighteenth century France: iconography related to performances and musical works

    OpenAIRE

    Gétreau, Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An analysis of French visual documents from different medium is presented here. Starting about 1650 it begins with horns as symbol of entertainment and hunting pleasure. After its settlement in Versailles, the French Royal Court offers one century long several important evidences of updated practices in the art of hunting. The Influence of the Marquis de Dampierre is then sensible in monumental decorations by official painters giving "reports" of the "Chasses royales"....

  5. Asientos and Military Contractors in the Seventeenth Century: The Example of the Bread and the Gunpowder

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    Antonio José RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This text approaches the importance of the Asientos inside the expense of the armies that fought in Spain during the 17th century. For it we analyze the management of the supply of bread whose quantity was the most outstanding expense of any army, which was always in private hands. We also analyze the production of gunpowder in Spain, and their transformation in a monopoly in private hands in the form of Asientos Generales.

  6. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

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    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  7. The Dovecote Has Opened Its Eyes: Popular Conspiracy in Seventeenth-Century Italy

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    Carlo Ginzburg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hero of this essay by Calro Ginzburg is XVII-th century clown and distiller Costantino Saccardino, who also was active in the field of medical art. Accused together with his companions of secretly defiling city saint painting with excrements, Saccardino preached that religion – particularly its approach towards hell – was pure fiction and that first people were not created by God but were born out of mud. Ginzburg draws attention to the affinity between Saccardino’s heretical views (marked by the awareness of crisis and the anticipation of political, religious and cultural revolution and the diagnoses made by Galileo, Bacon, Campanella, Rosicrusarians or even Descartes. At the same time Sccardino’s sensibility is that of a professional comedian – not a great intellectual – and this is what makes his case exceptional. The case of Saccardino, who – as is demontrated by Ginzburg – had a good knowledge of libertine literature while rejecting libertine elitism, shows that in this period the relations between the high culture and the culture of the subordinated classes could include an exchange that went through a detour, mediated in various, sometimes opposing codes.

  8. Pricing the Future in the Seventeenth Century: Calculating Technologies in Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, William

    Time is money. But how much? What is money in the future worth to you today? This question of "present value" arises in myriad economic activities, from valuing financial securities to real estate transactions to governmental cost-benefit analysis-even the economics of climate change. In modern capitalist practice, one calculation offers the only "rational" way to answer: compound-interest discounting. In the early modern period, though, economic actors used at least two alternative calculating technologies for thinking about present value, including a vernacular technique called years purchase and discounting by simple interest. All of these calculations had different strengths and affordances, and none was unquestionably better or more "rational" than the others at the time. The history of technology offers distinct resources for understanding such technological competitions, and thus for understanding the emergence of modern economic temporality.

  9. Friendship networks, rural community and venality in Lima with regard to the behaviour of military orders in the late seventeenth century

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    Francisco Andújar Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a methodology based on cross-referencing multiple documentary sources and highlighting the value of relational capital in the political and social dynamics of the ancien régime, we study the friendship networks and rural community woven by the people of Lima in the late seventeenth century in a bid to obtain knighthood honours from military orders. We analyse existing links and how networks were created to acquire the orders’ crosses and buy the positions in government, the judicial system and the treasury which the monarchy in Madrid had put up for sale.

  10. Bartolomé Arnolfo, a Native from Savoy in Madrid at the Middle of the Seventeenth Century, Financier, Merchant and Owner of Transhumant Livestock

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    Máximo DIAGO HERNANDO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the seventeenth century a numerous community of foreign merchants took shape in Madrid. Individuals of very diverse origins conformed this community that was divided in «nations», in which the merchants of the same origin came together. One of these «nations» was conformed by the subjects of the duke Savoy, that were not very numerous in Madrid at this time. In this article the author pays attention to one of the most prominent members of this nation, the merchant and businessman Bartolomé Arnolfo. He informs about his activity as a merchant, and he pays particular attention to his activity as wool exporter, that he puts in connexion with other activities such as money-lending and transhumant sheep-breeding.

  11. The Sublime and French Seventeenth-Century Theories of the Spectacle : Toward an Aesthetic Approach to Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostveldt, B.; Bussels, S.

    Theatre scholars and historians assume too easily that theoretical reflection on the performative qualities of the theatre began only in the eighteenth century. In mid-eighteenth century France, writers and philosophers such as Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond D'Alembert, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,

  12. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer

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    Ronit Haimov-Kochman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer’s oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer’s pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter.

  13. "Teorías de la percepción visual y aristotelismo entre los siglos XV y XVII: una aproximación" [A preliminary approach on theories of visual perception and aristotelianism in the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries

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    José Javier Benéitez Prudencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:Entre los siglos XV y principios del XVII la explicación aristotélica todavía garantizaba una idea de percepción visual exacta y digna de confianza, en especial la que se refiere a aquellas facultades humanas pertenecientes a la conocida como ‘alma sensitiva’. Considerando los términos generales en que dicha teoría se planteaba, reputada por otro lado por la literatura médica, psicológica y moral del momento, lo que en este ensayo pretendo poner de relieve son las influencias de dicha teoría aristotélica en el panorama intelectual europeo antes de Descartes.ABSTRACT:Visual perception and cognition deemed to be accurate and reliable were secured between the fifteenth and the very beginning seventeenth centuries largely by the Aristotelian theory, especially those human faculties belonging to what was called the ‘sensible soul’. In terms of this theory, recounted throughout the medical, psychological and moral literature of early Modern Age, I wish to emphasize in this paper the Aristotelian theoretical influences in the intellectual culture of pre-Cartesian Europe.

  14. Menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles Door and window casings in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Paris and Saint Denis. Colours observed

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    Benjamin Mouton

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les couleurs anciennes des menuiseries des portes et des fenêtres de l’architecture des xviie et xviiie siècles se trouvent par sondages sur les témoins d’origine encore conservés. Des observations ont été effectuées systématiquement lors de travaux de restauration et ont livré des résultats très cohérents. Pour les menuiseries des fenêtres, le gris assez soutenu est la règle. L’évolution de l’intensité ne paraît pas, en revanche, suivre une tendance bien affirmée. Rares sont les cas de menuiseries laissées « au naturel ». Les recherches sur les portes cochères sont plus limitées mais confirment l’usage de couleurs très sombres.The original colours of doors and windows in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century buildings can be discovered by carrying out probes on original samples that have survived. Observations were systematically recorded during restoration work and have produced very coherent results. In window casings, a fairly deep grey is the rule. Changes in intensity do not appear to follow a clear trend, however. Few elements of window joinery have been left ‘au naturel’. Research on portes-cochères (carriage gates was more limited but confirms the use of very dark colours.

  15. Circles of Confidence in Correspondences. : Confidentiality in seventeenth-century knowledge exchange in networks of letters and drawings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, H.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Early Modern World depended on the one hand on openness in scholarly communication, but on the other hand the competition in commerce and trade and the political and religious conflicts required secrecy and confidentiality. This papers analyzes these concepts of confidentiality and

  16. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

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    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.

  17. WORK AND ORGANIZATION IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: NOTES ON THE TRADE GUILDS OF SIXTEENTH- AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURY BURSA

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    Dr. Ömer DÜZBAKAR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of artisans’ and commercial guilds was toperform and maintain daily activities of economic life in harmony andsocial consolidation with minimal conflict. Thus, the state would get ridof the heavy burden of bureaucratic procedures on the one hand, and yetwould also have the guilds yield to a standard of production as well aseliminate unfair competition through their autonomous internal workingson the other. Through such an auto-control mechanism the guilds wouldsolve their own problems with minimum resort to administrative andjudicial institutions. This article sheds light on the origins of Ottomanguild system, workings of trade guilds of Bursa and the supervisoryfunctions of their managers as well as on the various roles and activitiesplayed by the guilds in imperial public life. It also examines the conflictsof interest, unruly acts and forms of resolution taking place within andacross the guilds, with or without having recourse to judicial and otherimperial authorities. The study is based on a set of original historical documents surveyed from the Shari’a Court records of Bursa in the 16thand 17th centuries.

  18. Theatrical recreations of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in France (from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century: review and new data

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    Emmanuel Marigno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the quixotic dramatic recreations in France. After a synthesis that goes from the seventeenth to 2000, we provide a set of information about rewrites of the years 2000-2011, in order to reveal the main aesthetic and ethical specificities of contemporary quixotic rewrites.

  19. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The "mega-pitch-set" (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. "Non-octave hypermode" is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes." The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of

  20. LOCALIZATION AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY SOCIAL LIFE IN SÂBIT’S DIVAN SÂBİT DİVANI’NDA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE 17. YÜZYIL SOSYAL HAYAT UNSURLARI

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    Yunus KAPLAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, artists created their art using the elements of their society such as customs, traditions, commodities, words and lifestyles. Like other artists, our divan poets were inspired by their society, and in their poetry they used plenty of the accepted materialistic and moral values of the society. Sabit, a poet who lived in the second-half of the seventeenth century, was no exception. He decorated his poems with various dreams, and his careful observations and analyses of daily life were masterfully reflected in his poetry.This study classifies the elements reflecting the social life of the seventeenth century in Sabit’s poems. The relevant examples from Sabit’s Divan are also given. Tarihin her devrinde sanatkârlar, sanat eserlerini oluştururken mensup oldukları toplumun sosyal hayat tarzına ait yaşayış şekli, âdet ve gelenekler, kullanılan eşyalar ve kelimeler gibi birçok unsuru kullanarak eserlerine şekil vermişlerdir. Divan şairlerimiz de diğer sanatkârlar gibi eserlerini kaleme alırken, içinde yaşadıkları toplumun sosyal hayatından ilham almışlar, günlük hayatta kabul gören maddî ve manevî kültürel değerleri şiirlerde bolca kullanmışlardır. 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında yetişen Sâbit de yaşadığı döneme dair, iyi bir gözlem ve tahlil yaparak günlük hayata kayıtsız kalmamış, bu gözlem ve tahlillerini değişik hayallerle süsleyerek şiirlerine ustaca yansıtmasını başarmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Sâbit’in şiirlerinde 17. yüzyıldaki sosyal hayatı yansıtan unsurlar, çeşitli başlıklar altında sınıflandırılarak bunlara Divan’ından örnekler verilecektir.

  1. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México) and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla), I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along ...

  2. Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder

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    Claudia Swan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the first diplomatic gift presented by the States General of the Netherlands to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I in 1612/1613. The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean. This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court.

  3. The Construction of Epistolary Identity in a Gentry’s Communication Network of the Seventeenth Century: The Case of Jane Lady Cornwallis Bacon

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    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been increasing scholarly interest in early modern correspondence and specifically also in women’s letter writing and reading. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs. It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life. The article focuses on a neglected aspect of women’s correspondence: it investigates not the sender’s epistolary identity, but that of the recipient through the analysis of the personal correspondence of Lady Cornwallis Bacon. The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. 

  4. ‘The Purgatory of Servants’: (InSubordination, Wages, Gender and Marital Status of Servants in England and Italy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

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    Raffaella Sarti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, historians have been trying to understand differences between the characteristics of servants and their working conditions in different regions of pre-industrial and industrial Europe, differences which seem to be crucial to explaining discrepancies among those regions with respect to important aspects of life, such as the presence of the so-called European marriage pattern, the strength of family ties, the role of the family in providing assistance to its members in need of care. However, modern scholars are not the first to be interested in such diversity of domestic service: so were people who lived in early modern times. So far, their opinions have been neglected, yet they offer precious evidence of how our ancestors imagined European diversity, a crucial theme not only for cultural and social historians but also for contemporaries trying to understand continuities and discontinuities in representations of Europe. I will give examples of the ideas circulating in early modern Europe about servants and servant-keeping in Britain and Italy, making reference to other countries, too, especially France. The sources used are mainly printed texts, particularly travel books, a literary genre that often expresses prejudices and stereotypes. I will evaluate the perspectives of the authors used, drawing on my previous studies on the social history of domestic service, especially as regards the key issues of marriage and family formation.

  5. Korean Astronomers' Journey to Beijing in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries%17-18世纪朝鲜天文学者的北京旅行*--以金尚范和许远的事例为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗台

    2013-01-01

    Taking the cases of two Korean court astronomers' journeys to Beijing in the seven-teenth and eighteenth centuries, this article examines how the political hierarchy between the Qing and Chosŏn dynasties conditioned Korean astronomers' effort to learn the Shixian li, the official calendrical system of the Qing. The difficulties the Korean astronomers met in their missions to Bei-jing, the measures of the Chosŏn court to support the astronomers' travel, and the actual process of the two astronomers' mission are to be examined. How then did the Korean astronomers view their mission and its difficulties? Curiously, they did not consider the travel to Beijing only as hardships to be avoided;rather, they took it as an opportunity to enhance their socio-professional interests. Sig-nificantly, they portrayed themselves as the astronomers of a“marginal state,” who could not expect to be competent in their specialty without paying pilgrimages to the imperial metropolis. This rhetoric of modesty reflected the puzzled position of the Korean official astronomers, who had to promote their socio-cultural interests only by negating their ability to be competent in their specialty on their own.%金尚范和许远分别是17世纪中叶和18世纪初期朝鲜宫廷天文学家的代表人物,在引进大清时宪历这件事上,做出了很大的贡献。文章试图从微观的角度出发,拟对金尚范和许远赴北京学习时宪历计算法的具体过程进行更加深入地探索。主要从天文学家们在北京旅行时遇到了怎样的困难,朝廷为他们的旅行提供过哪些制度方面的帮助,以及他们的实际学习是以怎样的方式进行的,这样几个方面来进行考察。同时,由此来揭示朝清之间的政治等级关系是怎样在社会与认识论的角度,制约天文学传播之具体过程的;朝鲜天文学者们对此又是怎样认识的,做出了哪些对应。通过对金尚范和许远事例的分析

  6. La couleur à Lille au xviie siècle, de Philippe IV à Louis XIV The colour of Lille in the seventeenth century, from Philippe IV to Louis XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Poncelet

    2007-06-01

    colour. The red brick and grey sandstone entrance façade of the Hospice Comtesse is set off by a yellow ochre colourwash. The Vieille Bourse (Old Stock Exchange flaunts its colourful facades resembling a piece of cabinetmaking, with incrustations of pearly stones and brick gleaming like tortoiseshell. The French-Lillois taste for colour was passed down through the city-centre reconstruction in the seventeenth century, as shown in the scale model of 1743. Restorations undertaken in the last ten years or so have revealed this bright urban decorative tradition in a number of other main squares in northern French cities.

  7. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  8. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  11. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

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    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  12. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  13. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  14. Financial crises of the early twentieth century in Ukraine

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    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.

  15. State policy and monetary circulation in the Seventeenth Century Crown of Aragon: The depreciation of silver currency Política estatal y circulación monetaria en la Corona de Aragón durante el siglo XVII: la depreciación de la moneda de plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the state policy applied to silver in the Spanish territories of the Crown of Aragon in the seventeenth century, where increasing demand for silver coins with a lower intrinsic than market value opened up debate on the depreciation of the domestic silver coinage. The monarchy was weaker in the Crown of Aragon than in Castile, and it was therefore obliged to negotiate these measures with the elites and institutionsof each kingdom. The paper examines the fiscal and monetary reasons forreforms, as well as the extent of political support achieved in each kingdom.Este artículo estudia la política estatal aplicada a la plata en los territorios hispánicos de la Corona de Aragón en el siglo XVII. La creciente demanda de moneda con menor valor intrínseco por el mercado abrió un debate sobre la depreciación de las monedas domésticas en la Corona. Debido a su menor poder que en Castilla, la monarquía hispánica tuvo que negociar esta medida con elites e instituciones de cada reino. El artículo analiza las razones fiscales o monetarias de estas reformas, así como el grado de apoyo político alcanzado en cada territorio.

  16. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  17. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

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    P. Brohan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810–1825 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was considerable variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817 were noticeably warmer, and had less sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.

  18. Korean nuclear reactor strategy for the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byong Whi; Shin, Young Kyun

    1991-01-01

    The system analysis for Korean nuclear power reactor option is made on the basis of reliability, cost minimization, finite uranium resource availability and nuclear engineering manpower supply constraints. The reference reactor scenarios are developed considering the future electricity demand, nuclear share, current nuclear power plant standardization program and manufacturing capacity. The levelized power generation cost, uranium requirement and nuclear engineering professionals demand are estimated for each reference reactor scenarios and nuclear fuel cycle options from the year 1990 up to the year 2030. Based on the outcomes of the analysis, uranium resource utilization, reliability and nuclear engineering manpower requirements are sensitive to the nuclear reactor strategy and associated fuel cycle whereas the system cost is not. APWR, CANDU: FBR strategy is to be the best option for Korea. However, APWR, CANDU: Passive Safe Reactor (PSR) vFBR strategy should be also considered as a contingency for growing national concerns on nuclear safety and public acceptance deterioration in the future. FBR development and establishment of related fuel cycle should be started as soon as possible considering the uranium shortage anticipated between 2007 and 2032. It should be noted that the increasing use of nuclear energy to minimize the greenhouse effects in the early 21st century would accelerate the uranium resource depletion. The study also concludes that the current level of nuclear engineering professionals employment is not sufficient until 2010 for the establishment of nuclear infrastructure. (Author)

  19. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  20. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  1. Commercial Banks and Capital Regulation in the Early 20th Century US

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Michael

    2017-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...

  2. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  3. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  4. The Eucharist and atoms in seventeenth-century art

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2015), s. 350-354 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Cornelis Galle * Juan Antonio Escalante * Five Senses Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. In Search of William Gascoigne Seventeenth Century Astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, David

    2012-01-01

    William Gascoigne (c.1612-44), the first inventor of the telescopic sight and micrometer—instruments crucial to the advance of astronomy—was killed in the English Civil War. His name is now known to historians of science around the world, but for some considerable time after his tragic death at the age of 32, it seemed as if his achievements would be consigned to oblivion. Most of his papers were lost in the maelstrom of war and the few that seemed to have survived later disappeared. This is the story of how his work was rescued. Woven into that story is an account of the state of astronomy and optics during Gascoigne’s lifetime, so that the reader can appreciate the significance of his discoveries.   A substantial appendix presents selected extracts from Gascoigne's correspondence. This includes much new material that has not been previously published and illustrates his efforts to explain the basis of his pioneering techniques to the satisfaction of his contemporaries.   

  6. Antonio Porta and Seventeenth-Century Central European Architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krummholz, Martin

    -, 0118 (2015), s. 1-24 ISSN 2190-3328 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonio Porta * Francesco Caratti * J. B. Mathey * architecture * palace * chateau * Vienna * Turin * F. Luchese * G. P. Tencalla * Roudnice nad Labem Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture , Cultural Heritage http://www.riha-journal.org/articles/2015/2015-jan-mar/krummholz-antonio-porta

  7. Sex Discrimination after Death: A Seventeenth-Century English Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebler, Bettie Anne; Warnicke, Retha M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined funeral sermons published in England from 1601 through 1630. Found pattern of male preference; fewer funeral sermons for women. In sermon text, laudatory and idealized comments about deceased reflected and helped to perpetuate sex differences in society. Number of times sermons were reprinted did not strongly reinforce pattern of…

  8. China’s Political Reforms in the Early 21 Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Сuong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing process of political reforms in the People's Republic of China, the author notes that within the first 20 years of reforms and openness of China economic growth wasn't followed by development of society, political reforms didn't keep up for economic, imperfection of political system constrained economic reforms and development. Owing to this fact the XVI congress of a CPC lifted policy to the level of "political culture" by analogy with "material culture" and "spiritual culture". In the first 20 anniversary of the XXI century with the purpose to finish "comprehensive creation of society "of small prosperity" China has to create "perfect system of socialist market economy", construct "harmonious socialist society". For achievement of these purposes political reforms in China have to provide "improvement of socialist democracy" and "the socialist constitutional state". In the first years of the XXI century they brought a number of significant achievements: political stability, peaceful alternation of generations of the power, essential increase of level of political democracy. The first stage of formation of the constitutional socialist state is passed, ability and level of the management from ruling party increased; party construction amplified. But also at the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century implementation of the legislation, democracy faces many calls, especially intensification of nationalism at the beginning of the century. The Chinese dream will mobilize grandiose powers of unity that China deepened reforms and openness, solved all the political problems, helped a CPC to increase the leading and imperious power. Implementation process of "The Chinese dream" also means aspiration to tops of economy, policy, military science, technologies in the world, to a taking them, reflecting process of formation of the new great power which will succeed the USA. Political reforms with the purpose to achieve "The Chinese dream

  9. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  10. Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a significant…

  11. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  12. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.

  13. American marriage in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure

  14. From Bureaucracy to Professionalism: An Essay on the Democratization of School Supervision in the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to…

  15. The English and the Control of Christianity in the Early Edo Period

    OpenAIRE

    SCREECH, Timon

    2012-01-01

    The history of Japan's de-Christianization in the early seventeenth century has often been told, but is here re-examined using new data, much of it previously unknown. The turn against Catholicism is variously attributed to fear of invasion or cultural difference, but most scholars agree the Dutch played little role, seldom engaging with theological issues. Neglected has been the activities of the English, whose East India Company was in Japan 1613-1626. Investigation of its records reveal...

  16. Juan Ruiz De Alarcón: Impairment as Empowerment in Early Modern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gloria Bodtorf

    2016-01-01

    Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, a seventeenth-century writer and native of New Spain, so excelled at the craft of writing "comedias" that he is recognized as one of the great writers of early modern Spain. In his personal life Ruiz de Alarcón struggled with a significant bodily impairment, a large hump on both his back and front, which made him…

  17. Differentiation of Siberian Miners’ Salaries in Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.

  18. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  19. Early 21st century spatially detailed elevation changes of Jammu and Kashmir glaciers (Karakoram–Himalaya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of studies indicate the regional heterogeneity of the glacier elevation and mass changes in high-mountain Asia in the early 21st century, little is known about these changes with high spatial detail for some of the regions. In this study we present respective glacier elevation a...

  20. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  1. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  2. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  3. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  4. Cherokee Practice, Missionary Intentions: Literacy Learning among Early Nineteenth-Century Cherokee Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, M. Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…

  5. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  6. Global oil risks in the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantazzini, Dean; Höök, Mikael; Angelantoni, André

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon incident demonstrated that most of the oil left is deep offshore or in other difficult to reach locations. Moreover, obtaining the oil remaining in currently producing reservoirs requires additional equipment and technology that comes at a higher price in both capital and energy. In this regard, the physical limitations on producing the ever-increasing quantities of oil are highlighted as well as the possibility of the peak of production occurring this decade. The economics of oil supply and demand are also briefly discussed showing why the available supply is basically fixed in the short to medium term. Also, an alarm bell for economic recessions is shown to be when energy takes a disproportionate amount of total consumer expenditures. In this context, risk mitigation practices in government and business are called for. As for the former, early education of the citizenry of the risk of economic contraction is a prudent policy to minimize potential future social discord. As for the latter, all business operations should be examined with the aim of building in resilience and preparing for a scenario in which capital and energy are much more expensive than in the business-as-usual one. - Highlights: ► Review of the physical background to peak oil and current oil situation. ► Economics of oil supply and demand are examined to identify imminent challenges. ► Investigation of the financial and energy transition risks associated with peak oil. ► Oil scarcity and price volatility induce certain governmental and business risks. ► General risk mitigation is vital and peak oil preparations should be undertaken.

  7. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  8. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  9. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  10. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  11. The concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy a philosophical thematic atlas

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...

  12. "Dies Domini" – Sunday in the early centuries of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Józef Janicki

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Sunday begins with Christ's resurrection, which gave unique shape and significance to the day. All evangelists agree that Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples on "the first day of the week", or "the first day after Shabbat". The article discusses the significance and meaning of the Sunday feast in the early centuries of the Church.

  13. 21st century early mission concepts for Mars delivery and earth return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.

    1990-01-01

    In the 21st century, the early missions to Mars will entail unmanned Rover and Sample Return reconnaissance missions to be followed by manned exploration missions. High performance leverage technologies will be required to reach Mars and return to earth. This paper describes the mission concepts currently identified for these early Mars missions. These concepts include requirements and capabilities for Mars and earth aerocapture, Mars surface operations and ascent, and Mars and earth rendezvous. Although the focus is on the unmanned missions, synergism with the manned missions is also discussed.

  14. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  15. Early 20th century untrained nursing staff in the Rockhampton district: a necessary evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the role of untrained nursing staff within the nursing services of the Rockhampton region, Queensland, Australia, throughout the early 20th century. It details who these nurses were, where they worked and how their work was affected by factors such as legislation and social changes. Despite the increasing prevalence of trained nurses from the late 19th century, nurses who had never undergone any formal training continued to gain work in hospitals, institutions and their local communities. This paper is an historical analysis of a wide range of primary source material relating to untrained nursing staff. The primary source material used related specifically to a limited geographical region in Australia. Untrained nursing staff primarily worked as private duty nurses at the beginning of the 20th century. However, as the century progressed, their opportunities to work as untrained nursing staff tended towards institutions dealing with the chronically ill and the aged. As a result of this transition, their profile altered from that of a married/widowed woman living at home with dependents to one who could live on-site at the institution with no dependents. Furthermore, the level of autonomy of the untrained nurse decreased dramatically throughout this period from being relatively independent to being under the control of a trained nurse within the institution. Consideration of the historical evolution of untrained nursing staff challenges some of the assumptions made about this category of nurse, assumptions that can affect current relationships between professional nurses and others who undertake nursing work.

  16. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  17. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  18. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  19. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  20. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation

  1. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation.

  2. Women Emancipation in the Early Twentieth Century in France Portrayed in Coco Before Chanel Movie

    OpenAIRE

    HIKMAYANTI, INDAH

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : Women Movement, Liberal Feminism, France, Early TwentiethCentury, Coco Before ChanelWomen movement is a women's action to break down the patriarchy system which evolves in society. The patriarchy system states that women is minority in the society. Their role is only to take care of their family. They can not go to work outside and interact with others in the society. In France society, women and men have difference of right. French women then start the women movement to break the ...

  3. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob

    philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse......A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...

  4. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  5. Forms of Wages for Miners of Siberia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of forms of wages paid to workers in the mining industry of Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Of the two main forms of labor compensation – hourly rate and piecework pay, the latter was more corresponding to the spirit of capitalism, and it was most widespread in the mining enterprises of Siberia. The piecework pay was also the main instrument for intensifying labor productivity. This episode in the history of labor is studied on the basis of paperwork materials of mining companies and reporting documents of the mining inspectorate.

  6. [German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects.

  7. Hospitals of Rome in the Early Nineteenth Century: The Apostolic Visit of 1825.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    Pope Leo XII marked the 1825 Jubilee by visiting the hospitals of Rome. Italy was recovering from the French invasion that had disrupted social and religious structures. The Visitors investigated conditions, and recommended changes. By 1826, eight large hospitals were ordered to unite, but, three years later, the order was rescinded. Based on the Visit's mostly unexamined records in the Vatican Secret Archives, hospital registers, and minutes of the governing council held in the Archivio di Stato di Roma, this paper reconstructs the network of Rome's hospitals in the early 19 th century. It also compares Roman hospitals to its Parisian counterparts, especially with respect to governance and education. Finally, it examines the merger as an early example of a practice that remains vibrant (if controversial) today.

  8. MINDING THEIR OWN BUSINESS: MARRIED WOMEN AND CREDIT IN EARLY EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY LONDON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the early decades of the eighteenth century. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the early modern economy.

  9. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  10. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  11. The acceleration of the masculine in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, David James

    2012-01-01

    In early-twentieth-century Berlin, agents of speed and industrialisation, such as the railway, contributed to the seemingly unbridled velocity of urban life. Doctors and cultural critics took an ambivalent stance toward the impact of speed and technology on the human body. Critics argued that these factors, in conjunction with sexual excess and prostitution, accelerated the sexual maturation of young men, thereby endangering ‘healthy’ male sexuality. This comparison of Hans Ostwald's socio-literary study Dunkle Winkel in Berlin (1904) with Georg Buschan's sexual education primer Vom Jüngling zum Mann (1911) queries the extent to which speed shaped the understanding of ‘the masculine’ in pre-World-War-I Germany. The essay thus examines Ostwald's and Buschan's arguments and postulates that speed in the city (Berlin) can be seen as a feminised, sexualised force that determined sex in the city. According to this reading, the homosexual urban dandy resisted the accelerated modernist urban tempo, whereas the heterosexual man and hegemonic, heteronormative masculinity yielded to speed. ‘“Das Verhältnis”’ became a fleeting, momentary alternative to stable marital relationships, which in turn contributed to the general ‘crisis’ of – and in– masculinity in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

  12. Censorship and Printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of censorship and printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries. The special attention is given to censorship during the First Russian revolution (1905-1907 years. Among the materials are the archival documents from the national archives of Georgia, as well as materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals and legislation dedicated to this issue. The scientific publications are important too. The authors come to the conclusion that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries in the Caucasus, as in the whole of the territory of the Russian Empire, there was a sharp rise of printing and publishing periodicals – magazines. With the growth of revolutionary events there was a need in the institute of censorship to control over the printed word. Especially the role of this institution was high during the First Russian revolution. Despite the small number of states and different problems, the censorship has contributed to the stabilization of the political and crime situation in the territory of the Caucasian viceroyalty.

  13. Real Men Wear Uniforms: Photomontage, Postcards, and Military Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Otto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines early twentieth-century German representations of men and women in uniform to consider how mass culture allowed individuals to participate in aspects of gender construction. It also reveals how masculinity was increasingly linked to military ideals. The pictures under scrutiny here were made in two significant but as yet under-researched types of pictures: pre-avant-garde photomontaged soldier portraits and popular postcards. Both of these visual forms originated in the 1870s, the decade that Germany was itself founded, and they both were in wide circulation by the early twentieth century. Individualized soldier portraits and postcards offered a glorious vision of a man’s military service, and they performed what Theodor Lessing has called Vergemütlichung, the rendering harmless of history. These idealized images of soldierly life were available to a broad swath of the public, but their democratization only extended so far. Representations of women in uniform served to reinforce—through stereotyping and humor—the unquestionably male nature of military institutions and, by extension, of public space. At the same time, by making apparent their own constructed nature, these portraits and postcards offered viewers a glimpse behind the masquerade of masculinity. This essay thus also identifies these images’ links to the subsequent work of avant-garde artists and to the National Socialists’ return to the ideal of uniformed masculinity.

  14. Reconstructing the early 19th-century Waal River by means of a 2D physics-based numerical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes Arboleda, A.; Crosato, A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data are a missing link in reconstructions of the River Waal in the early 1800s. These reconstructions serve as a basis for assessing the long-term effects of major interventions carried out between 1850 AD and the early 20th century. We used a 2D physics-based

  15. Potentially induced earthquakes during the early twentieth century in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence that early to mid‐twentieth‐century earthquakes in Oklahoma and Texas were likely induced by fossil fuel production and/or injection of wastewater (Hough and Page, 2015; Frohlich et al., 2016). Considering seismicity from 1935 onward, Hauksson et al. (2015) concluded that there is no evidence for significant induced activity in the greater Los Angeles region between 1935 and the present. To explore a possible association between earthquakes prior to 1935 and oil and gas production, we first revisit the historical catalog and then review contemporary oil industry activities. Although early industry activities did not induce large numbers of earthquakes, we present evidence for an association between the initial oil boom in the greater Los Angeles area and earthquakes between 1915 and 1932, including the damaging 22 June 1920 Inglewood and 8 July 1929 Whittier earthquakes. We further consider whether the 1933 Mw 6.4 Long Beach earthquake might have been induced, and show some evidence that points to a causative relationship between the earthquake and activities in the Huntington Beach oil field. The hypothesis that the Long Beach earthquake was either induced or triggered by an foreshock cannot be ruled out. Our results suggest that significant earthquakes in southern California during the early twentieth century might have been associated with industry practices that are no longer employed (i.e., production without water reinjection), and do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.

  16. Proceedings of the seventeenth LAMPF Users Group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The seventeenth annual LAMPF Users Group meeting was held November 7-8, 1983, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF. A panel discussion on the LAMPF II concept provided an exchange of views among an advisory group, Users, and LAMPF staff. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for each of the secondary beam lines

  17. Peasant Self-Government in the Ukrainian Danube Region (End of XIX - Early XX Century.: Social and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Verkhovtseva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical destiny of Ukrainian Danube region in the nineteenth century led to the fact that by the end of this century, in the counties of the region peasant self-government was organized in different ways: in Akkerman - according to the reform in 1868, carried out by the Russian authorities in Bessarabia, and in Ismail - in accordance with the reforms of 1864-1874 years conducted by the Romanian government. The author compares and analyzes the peasant self-government in the counties of the province in the context of its sociocultural development in the unfolding process of modernization of the late XIX - early XX centuries.

  18. SEARCH OF NATIONAL STYLE IN RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE IN XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Сергеевна Семичевская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the process of establishment and development the Russian revival style in Russian Empire’s architecture of the 19th - early 20th centuries. During this period Russian society experienced intense changes that included innovations in technology, engineering and the art of building. Taking its origin from “Russian-byzantine” style in orthodox church building, the Russian revival style developed as a mixture of tradition and innovation. This eclectic style was inspired by the romantic revival movement of Western Europe and based on the interest in the historic monuments of the nation, especially in examples of pre-Peterine Russian architecture of the 17th century. The historicism of Russian Revival style resonated with the popular nationalism and pan-Slavism of the period. New style became a manifestation of the Russian national idea depicting in stone the specialty and uniqueness of our history and culture. Today the increasing interest to national cultural heritage actualizes the investigations of this extraordinary period of creativity represented by works of such famous architects as V. Stasov, K. Thon, V. Sherwood, I. Ropet and others. The appealing to “Russian-byzantine” style in modern church construction shows the power and vitality of its creative impulse.

  19. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  20. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  2. Alfred Owre: revisiting the thought of a distinguished, though controversial, early twentieth-century dental educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2013-08-01

    Many in dental education are unfamiliar with the professional life and thought of Dr. Alfred Owre, a distinguished though controversial dental educator in the early twentieth century. Owre served as dean of dentistry at both the University of Minnesota, 1905-27, and Columbia University, 1927-33. He was also a member of the Carnegie Foundation's commission that developed the report Dental Education in the United States and Canada, written by Dr. William J. Gies. Owre was a controversial leader due to his creative and original ideas that challenged dental education and the profession. His assessment and critique of the problems of dental education in his era can readily be applied to contemporary dental education and the profession, just as his vision for transformative change resonates with ideas that continue to be advocated by some individuals today. This article also documents his tumultuous relationship with Gies.

  3. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  4. Early Mongols – the Ethno-Political History to the 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Vidaković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the etnogenesis of the Mongol tribes from the period of the Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances to the unification in the early 13th century under Genghis Khan’s leadership. The initial period of the ethnogenesis of medieval Mongols’ ancestors is associated with Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances while news about them are written in Chinese dynastic chronicles. Within the Shiwei association there was the Mengwu tribe that inhabited forest expanses of north-western Manchuria, and the Argun river basin is considered to be the original homeland of the Mongols. The directions and time of migration processes which played an important role in the transformation of part of Mongol tribes from forest hunters to steppe nomads have been further investigated. The ethnic history of the Mongol tribes is closely associated with the Turkic and Tungus-Manchurian tribes. The Turkic tribes, that inhabited the steppes of Mongolia today, had a crucial importance in the development of Mongol nomadic tribes, while the Tungus-Manchu and northern Mongol tribes shared forest expanses of Manchuria and Trans-Baikal. The following text describes the events in the Turkic khaganates and kingdoms in the north of China, which influenced the historical development of the Mongol tribes. The period of the Qidan Liao dynasty (10th ‒ 12th century is of great importance because the core of the Mongol nomadic tribes was formed at that time in the northeastern Mongolia, that were gradually spreading over the steps to the west. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty (12th ‒ 13th century the importance of the Mongol tribes in the steppe increased. The attempts of political unification of the Mongols appeared during that period – for the first time in the mid-12th century, during the reign of Khabul Khan. The final part of the paper describes the struggle of Temujin (Temüjin, the future Genghis Khan, for the unification of the Mongol-Turkic tribes. After victory over

  5. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Seibt

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letter...

  6. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.

  7. Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century: the intellectual field in Criminalogia Moderna magazine and its relation to the positivist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Carvalho Quinta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.

  8. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  9. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  10. Anti-corruption legislation of the Russian empire XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Korneva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of anti-corruption and bribery as one of its kinds in the Russian Empire. Corruption as a complex social phenomenon that occurs in the process of socio-economic, political and social relations has become one of the most pressing political, social and economic problems of modern Russia. The corruption in the state apparatus not only cause serious, sometimes unsolvable problems for the citizens, but also hinder the normal functioning of the administrative bodies and authorities. The legal component, the development and adoption of relevant laws perform a special role in combating corruption. For many centuries government has repeatedly attempted if not to eliminate or at least to curb corruption in numerous managerial and administrative apparatus. The greatest interest in this regard is the imperial period of Russian history. The authors study the history of the development of criminal and civil law in the Code of the Russian Empire Publishing Laws 1832 of the penal Code and criminal Corrections 1845 judicial statutes in 1864 and subsequent legislation late XIX – the beginning of the XX century, the history of the development of appropriate laws, trace the change in order to prosecute and the degree of responsibility of the officials on the basis of unpublished material of the State Council, the State Duma and the Ministry of Justice, are stored in the Russian State Historical Archive, as well as the published acts of the Russian legislation, the verbatim records of the State Duma and the Council of State. During the XIX and early XX centuries Russian legislation has been streamlined and systematized: work was carried out on the codification of laws, created new codes of substantive and procedural law, a significant development has been and anti-corruption legislation. The appeal to the legislative materials, to the works of pre-revolutionary Russian lawyers and statesmen and the Ministry of Justice, are

  11. Contribution à l’étude des couleurs anciennes extérieures et intérieures de croisées de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, à Paris et Versailles ville Contribution to the survey of old exterior and interior colours in muntin bars dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in Paris and the town of Versailles

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    Frédérique Vouvé

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette démarche a été initiée par Claude Landes, expert en croisées anciennes, et par le LERM, spécialisé dans la caractérisation et le diagnostic des métaux anciens. Grâce aux recherches conjointes entreprises et au protocole d’échantillonnage mis au point par M. Landes, nous sommes en mesure, sur une croisée de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, d’identifier les matériaux constitutifs de la première mise en peinture réalisée sur celle-ci. À partir d’un examen détaillé de la stratigraphie de plusieurs échantillons, nous avons caractérisé les pigments, charges et liants mis en œuvre dans les strates les plus anciennes. Ces analyses ont été complétées par des mesures de colorimétrie. Ces recherches peuvent être entreprises d’un point de vue qualitatif et semi-quantitatif. Dans ce second cas, il est ainsi possible de remonter à une formulation proche de l’originelle, ce qui permet d’envisager une reconstitution à l’identique des couleurs extérieures de ces croisées. L’exposé sera illustré par les résultats obtenus après une étude des polychromies extérieures de l’hôtel d’Hallwyl (Paris, IIIe arrondissement, du 17, rue Champollion (Paris, Ve arrondissement, de l’ancien hôtel de Mayenne (Paris, IVe arrondissement, enfin du 10, avenue de Sceaux à Versailles ville.This project was set up by Claude Landes, an expert on old muntins, and the LERM, specialized in the characterization and diagnostic of old metals. Thanks to common research undertaken and to the sampling protocol set up by M. Landes, it is possible to identify the materials constituting the original paintwork on muntins from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. From detailed examination of the stratigraphy of several samples, we have characterized the pigments, fillers and binders used in the oldest layers. These analyses have been completed with colourimetric measurements. This research may be carried out from a

  12. Characteristics of economic life in the Olt Country from Middle Ages to early XXth Century. Elements of economic sociology

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    Gheorghe ROŞCULEŢ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Olt Country is a Romanian area of noble origins, a blessed preserver of some rich and ancient cultural traditions, but also of a particular economic development. The dominant characteristic of the economic life, from the Middle Ages to the early decades of the XXth century is the autarchical peasant household, based on family production.

  13. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  14. Reading to the Soul: Narrative Imagery and Moral Education in Early to Mid-Twentieth-Century Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which narratives, including stories and poetry, have been used in school texts relating to moral instruction. The paper will draw on texts used in Queensland classrooms in the early part of the twentieth century to demonstrate the ways in which description of sights and the experiences of the senses, and of…

  15. History and development of Carboniferous palynology in North America during the early and middle twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, A.T.; Kosanke, R.M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Three main roots of upper Palaeozoic palynology in North America date from the opening of the twentieth century. These are Gresley`s recognition of spores in Iowa coal balls in 1901, analyses of spores by Sellards from Mazon Creek compressions in 1902, and Thiessen`s analyses of dispersed spores from coal maceration and thin sections in 1913. The Pollen Analysis Circular brought workers into contact in the 1940s and generated interest in older fossils. The Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America (1936) and the Coal Geology Division of the Geological Society of America (1955) encouraged palynologists to participate in meetings and field trips. Fundamental papers by Schopf et al. in 1944 and Kosanke in 1950 established Carboniferous palynology in North America. Active teaching and research centers at the University of Chicago in the 1920s and the University of Illinois and Coe College in the 1930s spawned new palynological centers, particularly throughout the Midwest. Palynological contributions on dispersed spores, mainly from coals and associated rocks, appeared from educational centers from 1929 through the 1950s. Limited reviews of early researches at early palynologic centers are here included by region. Palynology applied to petroleum exploration appeared in the 1940s and major petroleum companies had palynology laboratories in place by 1960. The first international palynology journals appeared in the 1950s and catalogs first appeared in the mid-1960s, except the Catalog of Fossil Spores and Pollen, which began in 1957. The first specific palynology organization, the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologisst, was founded in 1968. 304 refs., 38 figs

  16. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

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    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  17. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

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    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  19. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  20. Limited creativity: Women in the Serbian architecture from the early 20th century to date

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    Vukotić-Lazar Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the change in women's position in architecture in the period from the early 20th century to date through a prism of their architectural and professional achievements as a form of exercising their rights and achieving the equality with their male colleagues. The purpose of this paper is to also shed light on the reasons of tacit acceptance of the system of discriminatory character that allowed the women architects to be only the „anonymous associates“ (so that they could be able to deal with the job of architect, „assistants in the profession“ (urban planners or critics and publicists where they gained the most popularity and success or to become „female reformers“ particularly in the domain of legal reforms, planning and development, which they essentially became only after the Second World War when the modernisation and emancipation processes took place and when the Law on Invalidity of the Previous Discriminatory Regulations was passed by which the women acquired suffrage. The paper particularly addresses the status of women architects today who are, besides all professional temptations, also in a conflicting situation. They are a pillar of family and social life, on the one hand, while they are constantly facing the attempts to be pushed from the mainstream of professional life and the attempts to deny their importance, role and influence in society, on the other hand.

  1. THE LAND TRANSPORT SYSTEM, TO AND FROM CONSTANTA, IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

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    DOMINTE Paul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustained progress of the town of Constanta, a predominantly commercial and touristic centre, needed the support of a modern transport infrastructure, i.e. secure and quick communication networks. This is why the development of the land transportation system, technically, as well as organizationally, turned out to be just as important as the harbour’s well known commercial shipping lanes. As such, the city was among the first towns in the country to build a connecting railway with the Danube River, once the bridges over the river were put up, and, consequently, to have a direct link with Western Europe, and the Orient Express. On the other hand, the city owes much of its progress to the local authorities, for whom the transport from town to places such as the harbour, the hippodrome, the beaches at Vii and Mamaia, were not to be neglected. Overall, this progress transformed Constanta into one of the most modern and dynamic economic areas in the Romanian Old Kingdom, in the early 20th century.

  2. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

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    Germán Soprano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  3. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

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    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  4. Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karababa, Eminegül

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context.

  5. On the objectives and the factual basis of sustainable development in the early 21st century

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    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is highly indicative that the genesis and development of the principle of sustainable development on the international scale fully corresponds (time-wise with the genesis and development of the so-called globalization process. As illogical as it may sound, this fact may provide an answer to the question why the institutionalization of the idea of sustainable development at the international level has not contributed to guiding the globalization process towards the basic human values. Had the leading states in the early 1970s been really aware of the need to control the global economy via ecology, the legal nature of sustainable development at the beginning of the 21st century would have its definite and clear reflection on the economic and social developments of humankind. The fact that the states had no such awareness certainly does not entail that the institutionalization of sustainable development was initiated by scholars and the general public, primarily because their role on the international scene has always been perceived as 'having a snowball fight with a blizzard'. Considering the fact that environmental issues were suddenly given a huge international publicity in the early 1970s, as well as the fact that the idea of sustainable development was not legally institutionalized at a later stage, we are fully entitled to explore the following issue: whether the idea of sustainable development (just like the idea of globalization was actually initiated and controlled by the corporate elite in possession of huge financial capital. For, what appears to be illogical may actually be an expression of the brilliant art of ruling demonstrated by the covert power-holders. Just as democracy, human rights and protection of the 'free world' have been employed by the United States as a screen for establishing their own imperialisms, the transfer of economic and political power from the state level to the domain of multinational corporations has

  6. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

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    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  7. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  9. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

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    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  10. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  11. Speeches and political practices towards infancy in the province of Buenos Aires. Girls and boys in the early twentieth century

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    Yolanda de Paz Trueba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concern that abandoned and vulnerable children represented for governmental and intellectual elites in Argentina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this paper analyses the vicissitudes around installation of a Patronato de Menores in the province of Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to the relationship between budgetary issues and the political dimension, which colored parliamentary debate. I maintain that political centralization and the question of municipal autonomy crossed over into the debate surrounding children.

  12. The Role of the Nobility in the Development of Navigation on the Danube (XIX - early XX centuries

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    Liliya Tsyganenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused. The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by 1886 evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping

  13. Public Administration Theoretical Aspects Disputes in Legal Science of the Second Half of XX – Early XXI Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ol'ga D. Karnaukh

    2013-01-01

    The article is focused on comparative aspect of different approaches to the “public administration” notion in the legal science of the second half of the XX – early XXI centuries. The author came to a conclusion that the study of many pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern scientists’ views of the problem of public administration notion definition, its structure, functional orientation and territory administration features allows to conclude that different approaches to its understanding, devel...

  14. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  15. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  16. Four centuries of translocal development in cities and regions in Northwest Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how the fates of different peripheral localities (Emsland, Gütersloh, and Lippe in Germany) were linked to the outside world in the course of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries. In the first centuries, these localities' translocal relations with the world economy were

  17. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  18. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  19. The bishop and anatomist Niels Stensen (1638-1686) and his contributions to our early understanding of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Mortazavi, Martin M; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-01-01

    Many physicians are familiar with the parotid duct and the Danish physician/anatomist's name associated with it. However, most are unaware of Niels Stensen's life and his significant contributions to the early study of the brain. This physician of the Medici court was clearly ahead of his time and found errors in the publications of such giants as Varolius and Willis. The present review discusses the life of this seventeenth century anatomist, physician, and priest/bishop and highlights his contributions to neuroanatomy.

  20. Mutant utopias: evening primroses and imagined futures in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Hugo de Vries's mutation theory is now little more than a footnote to the history of biology, a failed theory that briefly led a few biologists astray. However, for the first quarter of the twentieth century it attracted considerable attention from both professional biologists and laypeople. De Vries's theory--together with the plant, Oenothera lamarckiana, that had supplied most of his evidence--became the focus of a surprising variety of imaginative hopes. Scientists and their various publics were fascinated by the utopian possibilities that the primrose seemed to offer, and their discussions shaped a public culture around biology that would help define the twentieth century as the "century of the gene." From a conventional history of science perspective (which, in the case of twentieth-century biology, often remains focused on the content of scientific theories and the professional communities that shaped them), the mutation theory seems unimportant. However, while De Vries's new theory of evolution ultimately failed to persuade the scientific community, it was much more important than is now realized, particularly because it helped make biology part of a wide variety of public debates. Understanding the mutation theory's story more fully suggests that we may need to rethink much of the rest of the century of the gene's history, to think less in terms of what happened in the lab and more about how biology came to function as public culture.

  1. Seventeenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-01-29

    The document represents the seventeenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1954.

  2. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  3. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  4. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

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    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  6. Robert Hare's Theory of Galvanism: A Study of Heat and Electricity in Early Nineteenth-Century American Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    2018-04-09

    As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped early American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the early nineteenth century, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Examining Robert Hare's contributions to this discourse, this paper analyzes how Hare's study of electricity and the caloric theory of heat led him to propose a new theory of galvanism. It also examines the reception of Hare's work in America and Great Britain, highlighting the contributions of early American chemists to the development of electrochemistry.

  7. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries

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    Werner Seibt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letters for other ones the well-known Latin monogram of Theoderich is explained in detail.  But the “typical Byzantine monogram” became the cross monogram, with letters more or less affixed on the arms of a Greek cross. The earliest example stems from a coin of Justinus I, starting 522, quite earlier than Theodora’s monograms on capitals in the Hagia Sophia. These cruciform monograms presented in the beginning also a name, a title or an office, but in the 8th century already often a combination of them; these monograms with prosopographical information stopped in Byzantium at the end of the 8th century.  On the other hand invocative monograms (like Θεοτόκε βοήθει, often with the tetragram τῷ σῷ δούλῳ in the free quarters of the monogram, started around the middle of the 7th century and can be found till the earlier 11th century. The most common ones were collected by V. Laurent – we use this system till today, though there are much more types documented.  An important problem is that sometimes single letters are “hidden” in another letter, e. g. Lambda in Alpha or Delta, Epsilon in a Kappa on the left bar of a cross monogram, Sigma in Epsilon, Sigma in Kappa, Omikron in Rho, etc. In Vienna we developed a special program to solve many monograms. If we bring all the readable letters of a monogram (including the possibly additional ones in an alphabetical order, and do the same with the letters of names, titles and offices

  8. Unwelcome Stranger to the System: Vocational Education in Early Twentieth-Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Both in China and internationally, educators and policy makers claim that vocational education and training (VET) is essential for the sound economic development of a country and the physical and social well-being of its population. However, China looks back upon a century-long history of rejection when it comes to popularising VET, despite…

  9. Contested Citizenship: Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru¨hwiler, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article examines public education and the establishment of the nation-state in the first half of the nineteenth century in Switzerland. Textbooks, governmental decisions, and reports are analyzed in order to better understand how citizenship is depicted in school textbooks and whether (federal) political changes affected the image of the…

  10. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  11. Writing the Nation : Transculturation and nationalism in Hispano-Filipino literature from the early twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaescusa Illán, I.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores a fairly unknown corpus of literature written by Filipino authors in Spanish in the first part of the twentieth century. Spanish speaking Filipinos from this period were caught in a transition between colonial powers: the end of 300 years of Spanish colonialism in 1898 led

  12. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.

  13. Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Growing with Young Children toward the 21st Century. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David, Ed.

    The introductory chapter in this book provides a historical overview of the family and schools in the premodern, modern, and postmodern eras in the United States. The introduction also reviews the contributions of several important figures in early childhood education and suggests that the battle in early childhood education in the postmodern…

  14. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: Early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke

    2018-04-27

    snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

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    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  16. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

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    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  17. Public Administration Theoretical Aspects Disputes in Legal Science of the Second Half of XX – Early XXI Centuries

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    Ol'ga D. Karnaukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on comparative aspect of different approaches to the “public administration” notion in the legal science of the second half of the XX – early XXI centuries. The author came to a conclusion that the study of many pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern scientists’ views of the problem of public administration notion definition, its structure, functional orientation and territory administration features allows to conclude that different approaches to its understanding, developed by pre-revolutionary scientists objectively survived, were affected by class ideology in Soviet period and are influenced by the paradigm of law-governed democratic state at present.

  18. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  19. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  20. The chessgame: image, power and the church (late tenth-early twelfth century

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    Philippe Cordez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The original in the East, the chessgame was adapted to the Western social and military realities since the tenth century. The codes for the exercise of feudal power were symbolized through the manipulation of its pieces. The analysis of four outside the realm of the chessgame, in the churches of Münster, Aachen, Saint-Denis and Reims, underlines the contribution of chess for the definition of the German Empire and of the French Kingdom.

  1. THE ROLE OF QUALITY: SPANISH WOOL IN PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.

  2. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W L

    1975-01-01

    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  3. Nineteenth century early childhood institutions in Aotearoa New Zealand: Legacies of enlightenment and colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Helen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ is the most distant from the cradle of European Enlightenment that sparked new understandings of childhood, learning and education and spearheaded new approaches to the care and education of young children outside of the family home. The broader theme of the Enlightenment was about progress and the possibilities of the ongoing improvement of peoples and institutions. The young child was seen as a potent force in this transformation and a raft of childhood institutions, including the 19th century infant school, kindergarten, and crèche were a consequence. The colonisation and settlement of Aotearoa NZ by European settlers coincided with an era in which the potency of new aspirations for new kinds of institutions for young children seeded. It is useful in the 21st century to reframe the various waves of colonial endeavour and highlight the dynamic interfaces of being colonised for the indigenous populations; being a colonial for the settler populations; and the power and should be purposed of the colonising cultures of Europe. It can be argued that in the context of ECE neither the indigenous nor settler populations of Aotearoa NZ were passive recipients of European ECE ideas but, separately and together, forged new understandings of childhood and its institutions; enriched and shaped by the lessons learned in the colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ.

  4. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  5. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  6. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  7. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  8. Planning ideology and geographic thought in the early twentieth century: Charles Whitnall's progressive era park designs for socialist Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lorne A

    2010-01-01

    As Milwaukee’s chief park planner in the early to mid-twentieth century, Charles Whitnall responded to the various underlying ideologies of the period within which he worked. His preference for parks was a political and physical response to and remedy for the industrialized and heavily congested city he called home. By examining the Progressive Era discourse associated with planning, this article situates Whitnall’s work within the political, aesthetic, and environmental contexts of geographic thought that influenced his plans for Milwaukee. In promoting a physical awareness associated with the natural features of the region and responding to the sociopolitical framework of contemporaries such as Ebenezer Howard, Whitnall incorporated a sense of compassion within his planning. He responded to the preexisting beer gardens of Pabst and Schlitz, as well as Olmsted-designed park spaces, by advocating for decentralization as part of a broader socialist agenda that had swept through Milwaukee during the early 1900s.

  9. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  10. Records of auroral candidates and sunspots in Rikkokushi, chronicles of ancient Japan from early 7th century to 887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki; Namiki, Katsuko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of the surveys on sunspots and auroral candidates in Rikkokushi, Japanese official histories from the early 7th century to 887, to review the solar and auroral activities. In total, we found one sunspot record and 13 auroral candidates in Rikkokushi. We then examine the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates, compare the auroral candidates with the lunar phase to estimate their reliability, and compare the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates with the contemporary total solar irradiance reconstructed from radioisotope data. We also identify the locations of the observational sites to review possible equatorward expansion of the auroral oval. These discussions suggest a major gap in auroral candidates from the late 7th to early 9th centuries, which includes the candidate of the grand minimum reconstructed from the radioisotope data, a similar tendency as the distributions of sunspot records in contemporary China, and a relatively high magnetic latitude of observational sites with a higher potential for observing aurorae more frequently than at present.

  11. «Nomen est omen»: pseudonyms in actor society of Dnieper Ukraine late XIX – early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yeremeyeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the memoirs and archival material basis of Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine, Kyiv and State Archives of Kharkiv Region the etymology of some actor’s pseudonyms on the Dnieper Ukraine territory in late XIX – early XX century was analysed. The pseudonyms’ place and role in desired professional actor image formation were determined. In particular the fact that pseudonyms borrowed or transformed from the famous literary character names used to transfer the character’s moral qualities and exterior to the artist was defined. The stage name creation specificity depending on the affiliation of the actor to the Russian or Ukrainian repertoire was shown. Also the basic motives for fictional anthroponym using in actors’ society were depicted. The main reason for the actor’s name-change among ones originated from the nobility and clergy was shown. Besides the recognition of pseudonym as the important part of professional success not only among the actors, but also among entrepreneurs of Dnieper Ukraine in late XIX – early XX century was explored.

  12. China’s Political Reforms in the Early 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Сuong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing process of political reforms in the People's Republic of China, the author notes that within the first 20 years of reforms and openness of China economic growth wasn't followed by development of society, political reforms didn't keep up for economic, imperfection of political system constrained economic reforms and development. Owing to this fact the XVI congress of a CPC lifted policy to the level of "political culture" by analogy with "material culture" and "spiritual culture". In the first 20 anniversary of the XXI century with the purpose to finish "comprehensive creation of society "of small prosperity" China has to create "perfect system of socialist market economy", construct "harmonious socialist society". For achievement of these purposes political reforms in China have to provide "improvement of socialist democracy" and "the socialist constitutional state". In the first years of the XXI century they brought a number of significant achievements: political stability, peaceful alternation of generations of the power, essential increase of level of political democracy. The first stage of formation of the constitutional socialist state is passed, ability and level of the management from ruling party increased; party construction amplified. But also at the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century implementation of the legislation, democracy faces many calls, especially intensification of nationalism at the beginning of the century. The Chinese dream will mobilize grandiose powers of unity that China deepened reforms and openness, solved all the political problems, helped a CPC to increase the leading and imperious power. Implementation process of "The Chinese dream" also means aspiration to tops of economy, policy, military science, technologies in the world, to a taking them, reflecting process of formation of the new great power which will succeed the USA. Political reforms with the purpose to achieve "The Chinese dream

  13. Rabi Rashidi (Rashidi Quarters): a late thirteen to early fourteenth century Middle Eastern Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Alakbarli, Farid; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2012-11-01

    Following the Mongolian invasion of the Middle East in the thirteenth century, a regional power called the Ilkhanid emerged and was ruled by the heirs of Temujin from Mongolia. Embracing present-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, areas of Russia, Turkey, and Pakistan, and nearby Middle Eastern territories, the Ilkhanid state patronized medicine and various other professions. Centered in Tabriz (Tauris), a city in the northwest of present-day Iran, was a non-profit-making educational and medical complex founded by Grand Minister Rashid al-Din Fazlollah Hamadani. This paper reviews the literature regarding the rise and fall of the thirteenth century university and the Rabi Rashidi, emphasizing the structure of its medical school. The background training of Rashid al-Din and his keen interest in science turned this complex, Rabi Rashidi (literally meaning the Rashidi Quarters), into a cosmopolitan university that freely trained medical scholars nationally and internationally. The possibility that Rashid al-Din was inspired by university developments in Europe is discussed.

  14. [Venereal diseases in a "general practice" in the 17th and early 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, F; Winckelmann, H J

    2018-01-31

    The diary of the town physician Johannes Franc (1649-1725), handwritten in Latin, gives-among other diseases-an overview of sexually transmitted infections affecting citizens in Ulm such as syphilis and gonorrhea. Franc reported on his own experiences in the diary and also included many theoretical details on the causes of the diseases and the corresponding therapies, including ethical considerations. Even in ancient times, there are indications of venereal diseases. However, at the latest with the outbreak of syphilis around the year 1495, the treatment and control of the spread of venereal diseases became an important task of medicine. Before gonococci were detected by Neisser in 1879, sexually transmitted diseases were generally seen as a single disease. However, at the beginning of the 18 th century, there were several doctors who treated syphilis and gonorrhea as separate entities. Franc was one of them. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis and gonorrhea, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of these diseases. Franc's treatment patterns are illustrated. Franc's case reports indicate a fundamental change in the perception of STIs at the end of the 17 th /beginning of the 18 th century.

  15. Identification of the finishing technique of an early eighteenth century musical instrument using FTIR spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Cohen, Serge X; Sandt, Christophe; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Soulier, Balthazar; Lattuati-Derieux, Agnès; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    The study of varnishes from musical instruments presents the difficulty of analysing very thin layers of heterogeneous materials on samples most of which are generally brittle and difficult to prepare. Such study is crucial to the understanding of historical musical instrument varnishing practices since written sources before 1800 are very rare and not precise. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and imaging methods were applied to identify the major chemical components within the build-up of the varnish layers on a cello made by one of the most prominent French violin-makers of the eighteenth century (Jacques Boquay, ca. 1680-1730). Two types of FTIR imaging methods were used: scanning with a synchrotron-based microscope and full-field imaging using a 2D imager with a conventional source. An interpretation of the results obtained from these studies on the Boquay cello is that the maker first applied a proteinaceous layer, probably gelatine-based animal glue. He later applied a second layer based on a mixture of a drying oil and diterpenic resin from Pinaceae sp. From an historical perspective, the results complement previous studies by describing a second technique used for musical instrument finishes at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Europe.

  16. PLAYS BY BORIS ZAYTSEV IN RUSSIAN DRAMA OF THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Sobolev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Th e beginning of the 20th century is the heyday of Russian dramatic art. Moscow and St.  Petersburg became a  meeting place for a  considerable amount of  artistic talent that allowed, based on  the preceding theatrical tradition,creating outstanding works of theatrical art. Th e distinguishing feature of the poetics of the new Russian drama was plot collision, that does not derive from external events but from intentionally occasional, impulsive emotional movements of  the characters. Th e article reviews dramas of Boris Zaytsev, written in the fi rst half of the 20th century. For the plays of that period is typical impressionism, associative composition, weakness of  the plot. Th eir content is characterized by tense psychologism, the dynamics of emotional experience and philosophizing. Key themes developed in dramas become the theme of redemption by love, search for spiritual wholeness and overcoming of existential confl ict the heroes are faced with

  17. Boleros and Flamenco Dancing in the Early Silent Films. Narratives and Archetypes of Spanishness in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cruces-Roldán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article locates and catalogues a corpus of 37 early cinema recordings (1894-1910 containing Spanish bolero and flamenco dances. These silent movies were recorded at universal exhibitions, or as a result of theatrical dramatizations, parodies and fiction stories, and are now in the archives of the Library of Congress, Gaumont-Pathé, Pathé and Frères Lumière collections and the Huntley Films Archive. An analysis of the contents of these archives demonstrate the potential of pioneering filmography as a documentary source for the construction and reproduction of national clichés. We consider two coexisting narratives in these early records: testimonial to dance as artistic expression and the identity discourse of «Spanishness» through the bodily disposition and environmental elements of the frames. The representation of the Hispanic archetype shows that early cinema was a continuist route of transmission of the aesthetic, psychological and moral images of the «espagnolade» for which ethnicity and gender operated as substrata that became clichés in a peripheral and fascinating Spanish culture.

  18. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  19. Proceedings of the Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is being held June 6--10, 1993, at Cragun`s Lodge and Conference Center, Brainerd, Minnesota The meeting is hosted this year by the Ames Laboratory of Iowa State University. The purpose of the meeting is to foster cooperation, collaboration, and exchange of current research ideas among grantees and contractors of the DOE Division of Chemical Sciences engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. This conference provides a special opportunity for interaction among investigators from diverse traditional chemistry disciplines who share the common good of providing the knowledge and concepts needed for production of low cost fuels and chemicals or electricity by photochemical conversion of solar energy. Our special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Graham Fleming, of the University of Chicago, who will speak on ultrafast spectroscopic studies of molecular dynamics in the condensed phase. The remaining presentations on Monday will feature further investigations of ultrafast phenomena in solvation, electron transfer, and charge separation at interfaces. These will lead into the topical sessions which follow on photosynthesis, molecular models, photoinduced charge transfer in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. As an added feature, the photoelectrochemistry session will include six short introductory lectures for the benefit of nonspecialists on outstanding issues and problems in that field. In this volume may be found a copy of the program, the abstracts of 28 formal presentations and 59 posters, as well as an address listing of the 114 participants.

  20. Agronomists and the construction of policy for agricultural teaching in the early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arlindo Amorim Melo Nery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on agricultural modernization and the formation of specialized workers, already present throughout the 19th century, were highlighted by the establishment of the National Society of Agriculture (SNA. This fact demonstrated the rise of the landed elite seeking more space in politics, coupled to the emergence of agronomists as holders of scientific knowledge focused on agricultural practices. SNA members counterpoised the power of the São Paulo landed elite and demanded from the central Brazilian government the establishment of a policy that would meet the organization's interests. The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Trade (1906 was the result of tensions between the SNA and the São Paulo coffee growers. Four years later, legislation on agricultural education was enacted.

  1. Popular education in the mirror of the Popular University in France in the early XXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien MERCIER

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Popular Universities at the end of the XIXth century are a major reference in the history of popular education. The movement of the Popular Universities attracted militant workers and intellectual —writers, scientists, teachers and artists—, to educational dynamics which owe a lot to the Dreyfus Affair. This encounter of the morning coat with the workman's overalls didn't last long. The Popular Universities died because they were unable to imagine this mutual education which was everybody's dream. This failure marked people's minds for a long time, and the period between the two wars, full of experiences of working-class and proletarian education, constantly refers to the Popular Universities of the 1900^ to find a model to follow or to reject.

  2. "Experimental Philosophy": Invention and Rebirth of a Seventeenth-Century Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy." Before the foundation of the Royal Society, I contend, the term had been utilized promiscuously, its modern signification conspicuously absent. Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. 1660. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its (supposed) practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent.

  3. Scholasticism Protestant and Catholic: Medieval Sources and Methods in Seventeenth Century Reformed Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, W.J. van

    2004-01-01

    It is a curious phenomenon that the post-Reformation period of Reformed theology is one of the least known in the history of Christian thought and, at the same time a period in the interpretation of which there are many hidden agendas. The former is primarily due to the fact that Post-Reformation

  4. Unique Information on a Seventeenth-Century Printing House in Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op t Hof, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Having first briefly informed the reader on the life of the Puritan Arthur Hildersham (1563-1632), author of Fonteyne des levens, and of its Dutch translator, the Reformed Pietist Arnhem minister Daniel van Laren (b. 1585), and its Arnhem publisher Jacob van Biesen (d. 1677), this article deals in

  5. Geoffrey Parker. Global Crisis: War, climate and catastrophe in the seventeenth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de medio siglo el historiador francés Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie empezó a llamar la atención de los historiadores agrarios hacia los fenómenos meteorológicos.[1] Su propio giro hacia la historia del clima fue motivado por la aparición recurrente en las fuentes de alusiones a buenas y malas cosechas, hambrunas, veranos lluviosos e inviernos fríos. Su interés, y el de muchos otros historiadores que han compartido su inquietud,[2] se explica por la relación estrecha que las sociedades preindustriales tenían con el clima y la imposibilidad para sortear sus fluctuaciones con el transporte de alimentos a grandes distancias, los sistemas de refrigeración y calefacción, la construcción de grandes embalses, o la manipulación genética de alimentos; herramientas que hoy en día hacen que los habitantes urbanos subestimemos lo crítico que resulta producir alimentos cuando las precipitaciones o las temperaturas se alejan de las expectativas.

  6. Jeu de Paume & Jeux de la Raison in Seventeenth-Century Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2013-01-01

    In La Dioptrique (1637) René Descartes elucidated his derivation of the sine law of refraction by means of a comparison of light rays with the motion of tennis balls. In terms of a mathematical-physical model this comparison was quite problematic, as his critics then and now did not hesitate to

  7. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century commentators on the chemical composition of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, T L

    1995-01-01

    The period between 1600 and 1800 was one of great change in the history of science, generally, and in the history of chemistry, specifically. It opened with Francis Bacon's visionary recognition of the benefits to mankind that would accrue from the expansion of scientia and closed with the overthrow of the phlogiston hypothesis. New chemical knowledge resulted from the efforts of the alchemists, especially in Paracelsians, and of the phlogistic philosophers, some of it recorded by writers of magic books (Thorndike, 1958; Camporesi, 1989). The authors of these works reflected 'the general mentality ... imbued with magic, occult beliefs, unreal suggestions, 'voices', and 'rumours', ... 'errors' and 'prejudices'. In respect to brain chemistry there appeared, beside the fantastic, elements of fact that characterise this period as embracing the 'pre-history' of neurochemistry.

  8. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  9. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2014-09-20

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill.

  10. Food in seventeenth-century Tidewater Virginia : a method for studying historical cuisines

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Maryellen

    1982-01-01

    PREFACE Knowing how people eat-their foods, preparation styles, and dining customs-helps us understand style of food preparation, a cuisine profile of a culture, the physical how they live. Not merely a is the culinary and gastronomic and behavioral expression of a culture's social and aesthetic values. A cuisine has a dynamic relationship with its time, and historical cuisines also relate to our own time: an understanding of food in history better enables us to ...

  11. The representative bodies in Russia in the first half of the seventeenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksándrovna LÁPTEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the history of representative institutions in Russia, the Zemsky Sobor (the Assembly of the Land, the National assembly in the 1620s-50s. On the basis of the documents preserved in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents and analyzed in the works of major Russian historians, the article discusses the background to the activities of the Sobors and their relationship with the social and economic situation in the country; the elections to the Sobors and their composition; viewpoints and demands of the important social groups and strata participating in these Sobors and their submitted ‘opinions’; the main issues discussed at the Sobors, results of their activities and decrees refl the decisions of the Zemsky Sobors. It also examines collective petitions submitted to the Sobors which reflect the points of view of the representatives of two main estates – the nobility (nobles and deti boyarskie and the merchants and townspeople. The author comes to a conclusion about significant role of the Zemsky Sobors in shaping of the Russian state and overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles, as well as in finding solutions to acute and vital problems facing the state, namely, to regulate the financial policy, to repulse an external threat, and to develop the basic principles of the foreign policy. At the Sobor a compilation of a uniform Code of Laws was made, i.e. Sob ornoe Ulozhenie of 1649. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of the representative institutions in Russia since the 1650s, where, although being a contributory factor, they found no support of the upper stratum of society and bureaucracy.

  12. Venice and the redemption of Northern European slaves (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Entre 1600 et 1750, et plus particulièrement entre 1610 et 1640, des navires de l’Europe du Nord furent capturés par les corsaires barbaresques. C’était la conséquence logique de l’arrivée massive à partir de la fin du xvie siècle de navires et marchands de l’Europe du Nord en Méditerranée et de l’expansion simultanée de la course nord-africaine en Atlantique. Les Nord-Européens commencèrent à racheter leurs frères réduits en esclavage et, pour ce faire, ils eurent recours à des moyens assez ...

  13. El Abasto de Pan en el Madrid del Siglo XVII Bread provision in seventeenth century Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado del pan era el más importante de los mercados de abastos, pero también el que contaba con el más complejo sistema de intervención. Los objetivos de la política de abastos eran asegurar un suministro continuo a precios estables y moderados.Los instrumentos incluían la regulación de los precios del grano y el pan, la provisión directa a través del pósito municipal y, en el caso de la corte, el pan de registro. En este trabajo examinamos la política de tasas, las disposiciones del gobierno y el comportamiento de los precios del pan en Madrid y del trigo en los mercados de origen.Bread market was the most important provision markets, so the complexity of intervention system. The aim of provision policy was to guarantee the continuous supply of bread at moderate and stable prices. The means included the regulation the price, the direct provision by the public granary and, in the case of the court, the named registered bread. This paper examines the tax policy, the government requirements and the movement of bread prices in Madrid and wheat prices in the markets of origin.

  14. LIVING IN ASIA: THE DUTCH SETTLEMENT IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY OF MALACCA AND AYUTTHAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Nurahmi Mulyasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai akibat dari ekspansi besar VOC (Persekutuan Dagang Hindia Timur di Asia administrasi perusahaan multinasional pertama di dunia itu berkembang luar biasa. Oleh karena itu perlu usaha untuk mengakomodasi pemukiman bagi orang-orang Belanda yang terlibat dalam kegiatan perdagangan yang dilakukan VOC. Pada saat itu, dengan perjalanan panjang dari Belanda ke Asia yang membutuhkan waktu lebih dari setengah tahun mereka harus berjuang menghadapi iklim ekstrim yang berbeda dari iklim di negerinya serta tantangan lainnya selama tinggal di Asia yang kebanyakan wilayahnya beriklim tropis. Dengan demikian, strategi bertahan diperlukan untuk mengatasi situasi ini. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah untuk membandingkan pemukiman pegawai VOC di dua kota pelabuhan penting di Asia Tenggara pada masa itu, yakni Malaka dan Ayutthaya berdasarkan bentuk fisik dan pengaturan administrasinya. Abad ke-17 menjadi kerangka waktu karena periode tersebut adalah masa-masa gemilang VOC selama ekspansinya melintasi samudera dan benua. Dengan menggunakan sumber-sumber sekunder artikel ini tidak akan mencoba untuk menemukan sesuatu yang baru, tetapi hanya untuk mendapatkan wawasan lebih mengenai pemukiman VOC di kota-kota pelabuhan di Asia Tenggara. Keywords: VOC, Malacca, Ayutthaya, settlement

  15. Ukrainian Question in the Russian Conservative Thought. The end of XIXth – early XXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreyA. Ivanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian nationalism appears in the middle of the XIX century. Russian conservatives do not perceive it as a serious threat. Attitude to this problem has done serious evolution - from ridicule of cranky small group of provincial intellectuals to recognize the imminent prospects of territorial division and the breakdown of historical unity of the Russian people. Editor of "Moscow News", a well-known publicist, M.N. Katkov was the main critic of "ukraynofilstvo" in the second half of the XIX century. Otherwise, but also critical as a whole, perceived this movement M.F. De Pulet, I.S. Aksakov and V.J. Shulgin (founder of newspaper "Kievlyanin". A major criticism of Ukrainian nationalism was the conservative writers of the period: P.A. Kulakovskiy, L.A. Tikhomirov, M.O. Menshikov, V.M. Purishkevich, D.V. Skrynchenko and D.D. Muretov. In particular positions stood nationalist T.V. Lokot', considered people of Great Russia, Russia Minor and Belorussia as the Russian ethnic groups, not united into a political nation. The most consistent and staunch fighters against the "Ukrainians" was Kiev residents A.I. Savenko and V.V. Shulgin. Despite the rather harsh assessment of the emerging "Ukrainians", representatives of the conservative camp did not allow themselves pejorative judgments at the inhabitants of Russia Minor. Among the Russian conservatives were quite a few people who both believed to be children of the Great Russia and Russia Minor, but they perceived «Ukrainian idea» as a chimera. It was imposed to people by anti-Russian part of the local intelligentsia. Russian conservatives have not seen in the emergence of "Ukrainians" any historical validity. They interpreted this as a political project, aimed at the division of a single nation, and the state territory, favorable to geopolitical rivals of Russia.

  16. Hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and indigestion in London and New York in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081

  17. Tree ring-based seven-century drought records for the Western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2013-05-01

    The paucity of available instrumental climate records in cold and arid regions of the western Himalaya, India, hampers our understanding of the long-term variability of regional droughts, which seriously affect the agrarian economy of the region. Using ring width chronologies of Cedrus deodara and Pinus gerardiana together from a network of moisture-stressed sites, Palmer Drought Severity Index values for October-May back to 1310 A.D. were developed. The twentieth century features dominant decadal-scale pluvial phases (1981-1995, 1952-1968, and 1918-1934) as compared to the severe droughts in the early seventeenth century (1617-1640) as well as late fifteenth to early sixteenth (1491-1526) centuries. The drought anomalies are positively (negatively) associated with central Pacific (Indo-Pacific Warm Pool) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, non-stationarity in such relationships appears to be the major riddle in the predictability of long-term droughts much needed for the sustainable development of the ecologically sensitive region of the Himalayas.

  18. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st...

  19. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief communication: Unabated wastage of the Juneau and Stikine icefields (southeast Alaska) in the early 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Larsen, Christopher; Durkin, William J.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2018-04-01

    The large Juneau and Stikine icefields (Alaska) lost mass rapidly in the second part of the 20th century. Laser altimetry, gravimetry and field measurements suggest continuing mass loss in the early 21st century. However, two recent studies based on time series of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation models (DEMs) indicate a slowdown in mass loss after 2000. Here, the ASTER-based geodetic mass balances are recalculated carefully avoiding the use of the SRTM DEM because of the unknown penetration depth of the C-band radar signal. We find strongly negative mass balances from 2000 to 2016 (-0.68 ± 0.15 m w.e. a-1 for the Juneau Icefield and -0.83 ± 0.12 m w.e. a-1 for the Stikine Icefield), in agreement with laser altimetry, confirming that mass losses are continuing at unabated rates for both icefields. The SRTM DEM should be avoided or used very cautiously to estimate glacier volume change, especially in the North Hemisphere and over timescales of less than ˜ 20 years.

  1. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early Twentieth Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226 Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period

  2. Brief communication: Unabated wastage of the Juneau and Stikine icefields (southeast Alaska in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berthier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The large Juneau and Stikine icefields (Alaska lost mass rapidly in the second part of the 20th century. Laser altimetry, gravimetry and field measurements suggest continuing mass loss in the early 21st century. However, two recent studies based on time series of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs indicate a slowdown in mass loss after 2000. Here, the ASTER-based geodetic mass balances are recalculated carefully avoiding the use of the SRTM DEM because of the unknown penetration depth of the C-band radar signal. We find strongly negative mass balances from 2000 to 2016 (−0.68 ± 0.15 m w.e. a−1 for the Juneau Icefield and −0.83 ± 0.12 m w.e. a−1 for the Stikine Icefield, in agreement with laser altimetry, confirming that mass losses are continuing at unabated rates for both icefields. The SRTM DEM should be avoided or used very cautiously to estimate glacier volume change, especially in the North Hemisphere and over timescales of less than  ∼  20 years.

  3. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

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    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  4. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  5. Brest sea level record: a time series construction back to the early eighteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöppelmann, Guy; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Simon, Bernard

    2006-12-01

    The completeness and the accuracy of the Brest sea level time series dating from 1807 make it suitable for long-term sea level trend studies. New data sets were recently discovered in the form of handwritten tabulations, including several decades of the eighteenth century. Sea level observations have been made in Brest since 1679. This paper presents the historical data sets which have been assembled so far. These data sets span approximately 300 years and together constitute the longest, near-continuous set of sea level information in France. However, an important question arises: Can we relate the past and the present-day records? We partially provide an answer to this question by analysing the documents of several historical libraries with the tidal data using a ‘data archaeology’ approach advocated by Woodworth ( Geophys Res Lett 26:1589 1592, 1999b). A second question arises concerning the accuracy of such records. Careful editing was undertaken by examining the residuals between tidal predictions and observations. It proved useful to remove the worst effects of timing errors, in particular the sundial correction to be applied prior to August 1, 1714. A refined correction based on sundial literature [Savoie, La gnomique, Editions Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2001] is proposed, which eliminates the systematic offsets seen in the discrepancies in timing of the sea level measurements. The tidal analysis has also shown that shallow-water tidal harmonics at Brest causes a systematic difference of 0.023 m between mean sea level (MSL) and mean tide level (MTL). Thus, MTL should not be mixed with the time series of MSL because of this systematic offset. The study of the trends in MTL and MSL however indicates that MTL can be used as a proxy for MSL. Three linear trend periods are distinguished in the Brest MTL time series over the period 1807 2004. Our results support the recent findings of Holgate and Woodworth ( Geophys Res Lett) of an enhanced coastal sea level

  6. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc W.

    2007-01-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century, a variety of gasoline refueling methods supported early US gasoline vehicles and successfully alleviated consumer concerns over refueling availability. The refueling methods employed included cans, barrels, home refueling outfits, parking garage refueling facilities, mobile stations, hand carts and curb pumps. Only after robust markets for gasoline vehicles had been firmly established did the gasoline service station become the dominant refueling method. The present study reviews this history and draws analogies with current and future efforts to introduce hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles. These comparisons hold no predictive power; however, there is heuristic value in an historical review of the first successful and large-scale introduction of a vehicle fuel. From an energy policy perspective, these comparisons reinforce the importance of a long-term and portfolio approach to support for technology development and innovation

  7. HISTORICAL ROLE OF P.I. JURGENSON IN MUSIC PUBLISHING IN SECOND HALF OF XIX TH - EARLY XX TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Вячеславовна Логачева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the peculiarities of publishing activity of P.I. Jurgenson in the second half of the XIXth - early XXth centuries, who was the outstanding representative of the Russian musical culture. He created a musical publishing house, which became the major musical, creative and scientific center which brought together composers, famous singers, writers, artists and other representatives of the Russian pre-revolutionary elite. The article highlights the fact that for years in his publishing house P.I. Jurgenson published nearly 140 works by famous authors, including Tchaikovsky, Arensky, Balakirev, Glinka, Rachmaninoff, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Rimsky-Korsakov and others. The author emphasizes the fact that the musical works published by P.I. Jurgenson are in great demand among contemporary musicians and music community of modern Russia.

  8. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  9. Supporting the national energy needs for the early 21st century with the advanced liquid metal reactor system (ALMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, B.A.; Quinn, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cost effective approach to providing a major contribution to the electricity needs of the United States in the early 21st century through an integrated Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor System (ALMRS). This system has several synergistic components which are under development by the United States Department of Energy (DOE): the modular, passively safe ALMR reactor design; metal fuel recycle (aka IFR); and the processing of LWR spent fuel to use as startup fuel for the ALMR. Each of these components contributes to an overall system behavior that will be able to provide an important portion of the United States' electrical energy needs beginning about the year 2010, while at the same time translating some fuel wastes of the LWR spent fuel to an asset. This paper describes each of these components and their synergism. Economic projections and busbar costs for this system are also presented

  10. In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2009-12-01

    During the early twentieth century the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science.

  11. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  12. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  13. Memory Politics at Work in a Gyalrong Revolt in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jinba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1917 uprising led by Zöpa, a low-ranking monk who proclaimed himself emperor, attracted over four thousand participants in the Gyalrong region on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Some of the uprising’s agendas and goals contradicted one another. It targeted the Han with the shout of “Crush the Great Han,” even though Zöpa’s two main henchmen were Han. It evoked the support of a wider Gyalrong community and claimed to avenge Qing oppression (since the Jinchuan campaigns of the eighteenth century while attempting to establish a Qing-branded kingdom. Also, this revolt targeted foreign intrusion, as evidenced by the burning of a Catholic church in Danba. This article offers a glimpse into how this uprising was embedded in sociopolitical changes during a critical transitional period from the Qing to the Republic in Sichuan’s Sino-Tibetan borderlands. It particularly examines how memories of the Qing’s atrocities and subsequent reforms, as well as of the “golden past” of Gyalrong, catalyzed ethnic and religious tensions. Above all, this study exemplifies the significance of integrating historical analyses with ethnographic investigations by examining the ways in which written documents and oral histories constitute competing yet complementary interpretive narratives about sociopolitical changes.

  14. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  15. The Budapest research reactor as an advanced research facility for the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Budapest Research Reactor, Hungary's first nuclear facility was originally put into operation in 1959. The reactor serves for: basic and applied research, technological and commercial applications, education and training. The main goal of the reactor is to serve neutron research. This unique research possibility is used by a broad user community of Europe. Eight instruments for neutron scattering, radiography and activation analyses are already used, others (e.g. time of flight spectrometer, neutron reflectometer) are being installed. The majority of these instruments will get a much improved utilization when the cold neutron source is put into operation. In 1999 the Budapest Research Reactor was operated for 3129 full power hours in 14 periods. The normal operation period took 234 hours (starting Monday noon and finishing Thursday morning). The entire production for the year 1999 was 1302 MW days. This is a slightly reduced value, due to the installation of the cold neutron source. For the year 2000 a somewhat longer operation is foreseen (near to 4000 hours), as the cold neutron source will be operational. The operation of the reactor is foreseen at least up to the end of the first decade of the 21 st century. (author)

  16. Bangsawan prampoewan Enlightened Peranakan Chinese women from early twentieth century Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Kwartanada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The end of the nineteenth century witnessed paradox among the Chinese in colonial Java. On one hand, they were prospering economically, but were nonetheless held in contempt by the Dutch, encountered legal discrimination and faced challenges if they wanted to educate their children in European schools. Their marginal position motivated them do their utmost to become “civilized subjects”, on a par with Europeans, but they were also inspired to reinvent their Chinese identity. This contribution will highlight role played by “enlightened” Chinese, the kaoem moeda bangsa Tjina. Central to this movement were the Chinese girls known to the public as bangsawan prampoewan (the noblewomen, who wrote letters the newspaper and creating a gendered public sphere. They also performed western classical music in public. Considering the inspirational impact of bangsawan prampoewan’s enlightening achievements on non-Chinese women, it is appropriate to include them into the narrative of the history of the nation’s women’s movements.

  17. Media and communication in Asia in early 21st century: Changes, continuities, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asia has some of the largest, most dynamic, diversified, and complicated media industries in the world (McKinsey & Company, 2015. Entering the 21st Century, the rapid economic and political developments of Asia further energize the growth of media locally and globally (for general discussion, see, e.g., Keane [2006]; Thussu [2006], specific discussions on the cases of Korea [Kim, 2013], Japan [Iwabuchi, 2004], China [Sun, 2009]. In a reflection on the increasing importance of Asian players in global communication industry, Keane describes that “Asianness is colonizing international communications markets” (2006: 839-840 with the impacts ranging from the production of hardware (i.e., East Asian technology to content (e.g., Japanese manga, anime and TV formats and South Korean popular culture and from the cross-over of directors and actors from Asia to Hollywood and the world. Yet, a lack of timely understanding of media and communication in a fast-changing Asia is hindering not only our interpretation of the significance of media in social transformation in Asia, but also the efforts to de-westernize (e.g., Park & Curran, 2000; Wang, 2010 or internationalize communication studies (Lee, 2014.

  18. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  19. Trends of Nuclear Power Plant support engineering in the Early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezo, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    The rapid shift towards deregulation in the Electricity Industry in the 21st Century is placing a dramatic new emphasis on mid-term returns on generation investments. The economic pressures on capital-intensive generation systems such as hydraulic, coal and in particular nuclear are escalating significantly. In the old regulated system, the only concern was with marginal production costs, not total costs, as the return on the investment was ensured. Marginal production costs of Nuclear Power Plants are very low, which makes these plants ideal for base operation, but when the costs of recovering the investment are included, the total nuclear Kwh costs are relatively high. In addition, this industry is characterized by some specific economic risks resulting from the following: the risk of accidents, which, though not very probable, have a significant impact on the whole industry; the risk of prolonged, unscheduled outages involving prohibitively high costs, given the ratio of fixed/variable costs, the risk that outages are extended for refueling; and regulatory risks, which have major economic repercussions. (Author)

  20. The Gamut and Solmization in Early British and American Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashel, John W.

    1981-01-01

    The gamut and solmization, two theoretical concepts devised by the ancient Greeks and developed as pedagogical aids by subsequent theoreticians, were used extensively in the music textbooks of seventeenth-century Britain and eighteenth-century America. This study investigated these concepts in the texts of several characteristic English and…

  1. Chinese paleontology and the reception of Darwinism in early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo

    2017-12-01

    The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tulebaev Turganzhan; Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-01-01

    The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of th...

  3. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SPAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Волосюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of trade relations between Russia and Spain during the reign of two Spanish kings: Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. The author’s attention is focused on the agency of diplomats, who made a big advance in the formation of trading relations between the two countries. The author concentrates on Ivan Muravyov-Apostol, the Russian ambassador to Spain (1802-1805, his Spanish partner Gaspar Maria de la Nava y Álvarez de Noroña (1802-1807, and on the consuls of Spain Antoni de Colombí (St. Petersburg and Francisco de Baguer y Ribas (Odessa. Based on their reports, which are located in both Rus-sian and Spanish archives, it is possible to trace the dependence of commercial relations from the political situation in the world, established in Europe in the era of Napoleonic wars. Their information also allows revealing the main stages of development in trading during these years and the future, observe the merchantry on the Baltic Sea and in the area of the Black Sea. Ana-lyzing these materials, conclusions about the cause of diminishing of the commercial activity between Russia and Spain during the reign of Ferdinand VII can be made. The attention of the author is also paid to the conditions, which were established for the trade of Spain´s main export product to Russia - wine, and trading of grain through the area of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, which received special progress in the beginning of the 19th century.

  4. Eigil Rothe, an early twentieth century wall paintings conservator in Denmark

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    Isabelle Brajer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eigil Rothe (active 1897-1929 is a central figure in the development of wall paintings conservation and restoration in Denmark, marking a clear departure from the practices of artist-restorers influenced by historicism. His ideas about retouching and impregnation were propelled by his sense of aesthetics, which rejected nineteenth century interpretations, and called for a respect for the passage of time. His experiments with surface treatments demonstrate unprecedented thoughts about the necessity of future treatments. His work was driven by an aspiration for the truth, as seen by his diligent photographs, such as his noteworthy documentation of the stage prior to aesthetic treatment.Eigil Rothe (actif 1897-1929 est une figure centrale dans le développement de la conservation de peintures murales et la restauration au Danemark, marquant clairement le début de pratiques nouvelles pour les restaurateurs-artiste qu’influencent l’historicisme. Ses idées relatives à la retouche et à l'imprégnation ont été soutenues par son sens esthétique, qui rejette les interprétations du dix-neuvième siècle et insiste sur le respect des marques du temps. Ses expériences relatives aux traitements de surface démontrent une conscience originale et sans précédent quant à la nécessité de traitements futurs. Son travail a toujours été motivé par une passion pour la vérité, comme le démontrent ses remarquables photographies et la documentation remarquable de l’état avant traitement.

  5. “She writes like a Woman”: Paratextual Marketing in Delarivier Manley’s Early Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Ozment

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Delarivier Manley has long been discussed as a sensational and successful Tory political satirist of the early eighteenth century. In the late seventeenth century, however, she associated with Whigs, experimented with genres, and tested different techniques for marketing her texts. Mimicking the methods of celebrity actresses, Manley used paratextual addresses to engage public interest in a carefully curated identity, creating a commodity in her persona that she would employ throughout her career. This paper traces her developing persona in her first three publications: Letters Writen by Mrs. Manley, The Lost Lover, and The Royal Mischief. Although these texts are not explicitly political satire, they nevertheless explicate the preliminary and halting machinations of an astute businesswoman and the marketing tactics Manley would employ throughout her career. The result is a more complete and nuanced picture of Manley’s commercial authorship.

  6. Moscow Autocracy of XVI - XVII Centuries: Eastern ‘’Despotism’’ or an Early Modern European Monarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij A. Zajcev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems related to the peculiarities of the Russian state political and legal development during the early New Time (XVI-XVII centuries in a comparative-historical aspect against the background of similar processes taking place in neighboring European states. The authors come to the conclusion that, despite certain, dictated by objective reasons (first of all, the conditions for the emergence and subsequent development, there are more common features than the differences between the processes of the political and legal sphere development in Russia and Western Europe. The fact that this community escaped from the view of researchers is related, in the authors' opinion, to the fact that foreign observers, describing the political system of an early Russian state, dealt only with an outer shell, while its internal contents remained if not a secret, then, in any case, a mystery for them. They were not admitted to the Russian political cuisine, and therefore the details of Russian political and legal institution functioning remained unavailable to them.

  7. Apollo’s Gifts. Dutch Songbooks for the Urban Youth of the Eighteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijp, L.P.; Beghein, S.; Blondé, B.; Schreurs, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to our knowledge of informal urban singing culture in the Netherlands, especially within the context of youth subcultures. Hundreds of songbooks from the period of the Dutch Republic (the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) evidence such a singing culture. In this

  8. There is no doubt. Muslim scholarship and society in 17th-century Central Sudanic Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, Dorrit van

    2015-01-01

    In central sudanic Africa, the seventeenth century was a period of upheaval and major social change. Relations of power shifted, as did trade-routes and the meaning of Islam for ruling elites. Islam spread from royal courts to rural communities, leading to new identities, new boundaries and new

  9. Fumigating the Hygienic Model City: Bubonic Plague and the Sulfurozador in Early-Twentieth-Century Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    The 1899/1900 arrival of bubonic plague in Argentina had thrown the model status of Buenos Aires as a hygienic city into crisis. Where the idea of foreign threats and imported epidemics had dominated the thinking of Argentina's sanitarians at that time, plague renewed concerns about hidden threats within the fabric of the capital's dense environment; concerns that led to new sanitary measures and unprecedented rat-campaigns supported by the large-scale application of sulphur dioxide. The article tells the story of early twentieth-century urban sanitation in Buenos Aires through the lens of a new industrial disinfection apparatus. The Aparato Marot, also known as Sulfurozador was acquired and integrated in the capital's sanitary administration by the epidemiologist José Penna in 1906 to materialise two key lessons learned from plague. First, the machine was supposed to translate the successful disinfection practices of global maritime sanitation into urban epidemic control in Argentina. Second, the machine's design enabled public health authorities to reinvigorate a traditional hygienic concern for the entirety of the city's terrain. While the Sulfurozador offered effective destruction of rats, it promised also a comprehensive - and utopian - disinfection of the whole city, freeing it from all imaginable pathogens, insects as well as rodents. In 1910, the successful introduction of the Sulfurozador encouraged Argentina's medico-political elite to introduce a new principle of 'general prophylaxis'. This article places the apparatus as a technological modernisation of traditional sanitary practices in the bacteriological age, which preserved the urban environment - 'el terreno' - as a principal site of intervention. Thus, the Sulfurozador allowed the 'higienistas' to sustain a long-standing utopian vision of all-encompassing social, bodily and political hygiene into the twentieth century.

  10. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  11. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  13. Breast cancer in the 21st century: from early detection to new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Bonilla, J A; Torres Tabanera, M; Ros Mendoza, L H

    The analysis of the causes that have given rise to a change in tendency in the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the last few decades generates important revelations regarding the role of breast screening, the regular application of adjuvant therapies and the change of risk factors. The benefits of early detection have been accompanied by certain adverse effects, even in terms of an excessive number of prophylactic mastectomies. Recently, several updates have been published on the recommendations in breast cancer screening at an international level. On the other hand, the advances in genomics have made it possible to establish a new molecular classification of breast cancer. Our aim is to present an updated overview of the epidemiological situation of breast cancer, as well as some relevant issues from the point of view of diagnosis, such as molecular classification and different strategies for both population-based and opportunistic screening. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  15. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  16. Role Model Effects of Female STEM Teachers and Doctors on Early 20th Century University Enrollment in California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleemer, Zach

    2016-01-01

    What was the role of imperfect local information in the growth, gender gap, and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) major selection of early 20th century American universities? In order to examine pre-1950 American higher education, this study constructs four rich panel datasets covering most students, high school teachers, and…

  17. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  18. Making money circulate: Chemistry and ‘governance’ in the career of coins in the early 19h-century Dutch empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The governance of the early nineteenth century Dutch empire in Southeast Asia heavily relied on the circulation of coins. However, making circulation work was never an easy endeavour. By zooming in the richly documented activities of J. Goldberg (1763‐1828), C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773‐1854), and W.A.A.

  19. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  20. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  1. Influence of zemstvo self-government on process of national constitutionalism development in late XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Іванович Козаченко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article describes the activities of the zemstvo self-government which had a significant impact on the process of national constitutionalism development in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The actuality of the topic. Zemstvo self-government got significant practical experience of legal oppositional activity, which is an important element of constitutionalism. Within the territory of ethnicUkraine, zemstvo constitutionalism combined two components: All-Russian and national. The purpose of the article. All-Russian zemstvo constitutionalism had features of legal, semi-legal and illegal activities, which were represented by liberal and radical wing of zemstvo liberal-democratic movement respectively. In the All-Russian context, zemstvo radicals advocated the idea of establishing constitutional order in the Russian Empire, which involved constitutional recognition of democratic rights and freedoms, equality, parliamentary system and establishment of a constitutional monarchy, decentralization of power, political pluralism. The national component of zemstvo constitutionalism, which was formed at the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1905–1907, had illegal character and its essence can be described by the fact that some zemstvo liberals insisted on the need to restore the Ukrainian state in the form of autonomy within democratic Russia. Representatives of both components of zemstvo constitutionalism aimed to implement their constitutional ideas through reforms. Zemstvo constitutionalism reached its highest peak at the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1905–1907. In early XX century zemstvo liberals took active part in activities of bourgeois-democratic political parties. Development of Russian and Ukrainian political parties led to a split in the radical wing of zemstvo liberal-democratic movement on the national basis. Some zemstvo leaders joined the All-Russian Party of Octobrists and

  2. Numeracy and literacy in Early Modern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo; Van Lottum, Jelle

    This paper reconstructs comparative levels of numeracy and literacy for seamen of different ranks from 14 countries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries using age heaping and signature methods. Results show how skill was rewarded in the maritime labour market, where captains and fishing sk...

  3. Freedom and Slavery in Early Islamic Time (1st/7th and 2nd/8th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, Irene

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on two topics: the presumption of freedom in the “literary period” (from the 8th century on and the question of enslavement, sale, bondage or self-dedition of free persons in the “pre-literary period” (7th and 8th centuries. Based on the assumption that the legal practice in Late Antiquity influenced the discussions of the early Muslim jurists I will try to reconstruct the legal discourse of the 1st/7th and 2nd/ 8th centuries and to show that this discourse comprised interesting legal opinions with regard to the sale of children, debt-bondage and the legal position of foundlings. In the legal literature which emerged from the 2nd/8th century the jurists did not, as one would expect, deal intensively with the topic. Thus there is, as will be shown, a certain inconsistency between the lively and controversial discourse in the “pre-literary period” on the topic, which will be reconstructed in this article, and the marginalization of the topic in the legal literature afterwards.

    Este artículo se centra en dos cuestiones: por un lado, la presunción de libertad en el «período literario» (desde el s. VIII en adelante; y, por otro, la cuestión de la esclavización, venta o servidumbre —voluntaria o no— de personas libres en la «época preliteraria» (ss. VII y VIII. Asumiendo de partida la idea de que la práctica legal en la Antigüedad Tardía influyó en las discusiones de los primeros juristas musulmanes, trataré de reconstruir el discurso legal de los siglos I/VII y II/VIII y de mostrar que ese discurso contenía interesantes opiniones legales en relación a la venta de niños, servidumbre por deudas y la situación legal de los huérfanos. En la literatura legal que emergió desde el s. II/VIII los juristas, al contrario de lo que se hubiese esperado, no trataron estas cuestiones intensamente. Tal y

  4. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  5. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  6. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  7. Making Space for Red Tide: Discolored Water and the Early Twentieth Century Bayscape of Japanese Pearl Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    "Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture. As akashio, discolored water went from curiosity to marine livestock pest, one that at times left dead pearl oysters in its wake. Red tide arose from the sustained study of the mechanisms by which changes in the biological and chemical composition of seawater might become deadly to exclusively-claimed shellfish along Japanese coastlines, but came to be seen as a way to understand aquatic manifestations of harm in other parts of the littoral world.

  8. Science on the fringe of the empire: the Academy of the Linceans in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Maria Pia

    2012-01-01

    The article treats the Academy of the Linceans in the early nineteenth century, and more particularly during the Napoleonic domination of Rome in 1809-14. For the French regime, the Academy was instrumental to turning intellectuals into notables; pursuing the advancement of knowledge; stimulating industry; fostering secularization and orientating public opinion. But these goals did not always harmonize one with the other. Moreover, the local agenda was subordinated to strategic and ideological considerations pertaining to the organization of the Empire, relations with the Papacy, and internal politics. Hence, support to the Academy was subject to changes and contradictions. Within the Empire, the small local scientific elite found a place within international networks of science. Men of science increased their visibility and social standing, and greater symbolic and material resources were granted to the practice of science. The Academy, however, was left in the unclear status of a semi-public establishment, and it eventually imploded after the Restoration. The article analyses the Academy's scientific activity and its role in public life, focusing on material history as a key element to understand the ambiguous nature of Roman scientific institutions both under the papal government and the French regime.

  9. Leo Sgouros – Tyrant and Patriot. The Ruler of the Northeastern Peloponnese in the Early 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor N. Chkhaidze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leo Sgouros is one of the Byzantine magnates who ruled in the northeastern Peloponnese in the late 12th – early 13th centuries. The paper discusses the separatist activity of the Leo Sgouros which allowed him in a short time to create ephemeral ‘state’ in the South of Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, Corinth and the Argolid. In order to give legitimacy to his authority Leo Sgouros married the daughter of the deposed Emperor Alexios III. But his way from separatism to Imperial idea was interrupted by the clash with the knights of the Latin Empire who have predetermined his defeat. Among the reasons for the defeat we can name the enmity with the clergy and nonpossibility of joining with other governors in fighting the crusaders. According to later legend, Leo Sgouros died, throwing himself with his horse from the cliff of the Acrocorinth fortress, besieged by the crusaders. According to another version, Leo Sgouros died under the walls of his native city Nauplius. The study examined the seal of the Leo Sgouros with a rare title of sebastohypertatos (higher sebastos, and similar seal which was reused by John Branas. Data analysis suggests that such a contradictory personality as Leo Sgouros’ may be characterized not only as an ambitious tyrant and the defender of Byzantine Hellenism. The Annex contains information about the seven of Sgouros names that have become known in recent years by virtue of the monuments of sphragistics.

  10. The Main Lines in Social and Civil Education in the Russian Pedagogics and School of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Belentsov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of main works by domestic and foreign researchers, the article makes an attempt for all-round and objective consideration of main historiographic development on the problem of civil education of the youth in Russia of the late XIX – early XX centuries. It characterizes achievements and problems of modern historiography in this field, formulates the author’s evaluative judgment and generalized conclusions on the problem under discussion, and suggests directions for further research of various aspects of civil education. The beginning of research on this problem was marked by our work “The problem of civilian education in the Russian pedagogics and school in the late XIX 0 early XX centuries”, and continued in the work “Influence of pedagogical factors on civil activities of schoolchildren in Russia of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries.”

  11. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeen Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  12. [The scientific revolution in medicine of second half of XX - early XXI centuries: occurrence of new conceptions about human organism and essence of diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepin, V S; Zatravkin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of works of supreme Russian physiologists and pathologists of XX-XXI centuries. The analysis was applied on the basis concept of structure and dynamics of scientific cognition developed by one o the authors of the present article. The applied analysis permits affirming that during second half of XX-early XXI centuries in medicine occurred and continues to occurring transformations whose character and scope totally corresponds to scientific revolution and occurring and establishing in medicine new conceptions have all signs permitting referring them to post-neoclassic type of scientific rationality.

  13. Genre and text-type conventions in Early Modern Women´s recipe books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early Modern recipe books map onto women’s roles in the period. Women were responsible for the health and care of all their household members. This explains the women´s interest in gathering information on the topic, usually put together in manuscripts which circulated in the women´s intellectual and domestic circles to serve this purpose. The manuscript is viewed as an artefact likely to be changed to meet the needs of its users. The article seeks to explore genre and text-type conventions in a corpus of medical and culinary recipes written or compiled by women in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of Early Modern Britain. The recipes in this period show patterns of continuity from medieval times but also patterns of variation to foreshadow the shape of modern recipes.

  14. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  15. A Cartel that Lasts for Centuries: The Case of the Eastern Orthodox Church Indulgences

    OpenAIRE

    Axarloglou, Kostas; Cabolis, Christos; Chrissidis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a non-conventional case of collusive behavior and tactics that last for centuries. In particular, we focus on the process through which the Patriarchates of the Eastern Orthodox Church (specifically, those of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria) distributed indulgences to believers in their jurisdictions during the period between the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. By employing a wide variety of primary sources such as correspondence among the...

  16. French engineers and social thought, 18–20th centuries: An archeology of technocratic ideals.

    OpenAIRE

    Picon, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, at the time of the foundation of the Fifth Republic, French engineers endorsed enthusiastically technocratic ideals. Their attitude was not only the product of a specific context. It was rooted in a long tradition of connection between French engineering and social preoccupations. This connection emerged at the time of the creation of the first corps of State engineers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Indeed, State engineers were fr...

  17. Public health and social supervision issues within public administration of ukrainian territories in the late 8th- early 9th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynzovskyi, Anatolii M; Holovanova, Irina A; Omelchuk, Sergei T; Kuzminska, Olena V; Hrynzovska, Anastasia A; Karlova, Olena O; Kondratiuk, Vitalii Ye

    Introduction: The public health system modernization history is based upon the progress in state country administration and administration of healthcare within the sectorwide approach. The WHO European Bureau pays much attention to the National Health Service systems development while implementing their basic policies. The Ukrainian state health service management was founded basing on the regulatory field of the Russian Empire, using the European healthcare promotion experience. Aim: of the article is the analysis of the regulatory field of police and amenity authorities of the Russian Empire and Ukraine within the medical and social service in the 18th-19th centuries. Materials and methods: The structure of the article corresponds to the problem city and chronology principles, using the following methods and techniques of scientific learning: the systemic, historic, regulatory comparative, logical and structural-functional analysis of the studied medical-legal phenomena. The study sources are the scientific publications, collections of laws and executive orders of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in the 18th-19th centuries. Review: As a result of the performed work it can be determined were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries. Conclusion: Preserving health, treatment of the ill and injured, management of medical and social service of those in need, holding various preventive activities and supporting safe environment and regulating the safety of food were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries.

  18. Snow occurrence time on the Russia’s territory in the early 21st century (from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Titkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time of the snow cover appearance, existence and disappearance on the Russia’s territory in the early 21st century (2000–2015 was corrected using the MODIS/Terra satellite data (the 8-day discreteness, and the 0.5×0.5° resolution. The satellite data errors were estimated from data of the ground stations observations. The errors were found to be maximal in autumn and minimal in spring. The relationship between the snow cover characteristics and the climate ones was investigated using data obtained at the ground-based stations together with correlation between dates of snow appearance and loss and the climate parameters. The dependences obtained were tested by means of correlation and regression analysis over the longitudinal sectors. Significant coefficients of correlation (the Student criterion of probability was equal to 0.95 were found between time of the snow cover presence and dates of the temperature drop below 0 °С and the amount of days with negative temperatures. Changes in the climate characteristics result in that due to decreasing of the solid precipitation in winter time the snow presence duration becomes shorter over the European part of Russia and in the Western Siberia. The shortening in the Middle Siberia is caused by the spring warming. Durations of the snow occurrence in the Far East area are different. On the Chukotka peninsula the duration is longer because of the autumn fall in temperature while in the Kamchatka region the snow occurrence time is shorter due to significant decrease of a period with negative temperatures in both the autumn and spring seasons.

  19. Between Utopia and Dystopia: Colonial Ambivalence and Early Modern Perception of Sápmi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The northernmost regions of Fennoscandia attracted attention of travellers and geographers for centuries. These regions were often imagined in ambivalent terms as homelands of evil and dearth or as places of true happiness. From the seventeenth century onwards, Sápmi (Lapland) became a destinatio...

  20. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  1. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF OFFICIALS OF NOBLE BIRTH IN SECOND HALF OF XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE RYAZAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Викторовна Власова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the Russian provincial officialdom of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. It analyzes the educational level of the officials of noble birth and shows the number of the officials with higher, secondary, elementary and home education. Attention is drawn to the changes in the training of the officials by the early 20th century. The paper is based on the archival materials (service records foundinthe State Archives of the Ryazan region. The analysis of the sources shows that about 15% of the officials studied in the institutions of higher education, 31% got secondary education, 29% - elementary education. About 19% had home education. And only about 21% of the officials had systematic (that is finished higher and secondary education. The author concludes that in comparison with early 19th century the educational level of the officials had an upward tendency but on the whole it continued to be low.

  2. Three points of a triangle: Italian, Latin and German oratorios and sepolcros in the early 18th century central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-188 ISSN 1212-0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Italian oratorio * 18th century * Bohemian Lands Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. A comparison between the 19th century early proposals and the 20th-21st centuries realized projects intended to contact other planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence; Bilodeau, Bénédicte

    2012-09-01

    Methods dealing with how to contact other planets that are supposed to be inhabited by “intelligent” civilizations have begun more than one century and a half ago. The historical question has been already treated in several studies and the aim of this paper is not to provide details on that aspect. On the other hand, it could be interesting to make a comparison between the different approaches to contact planets, formulated at different epochs (even if obviously techniques were not in the same state of advancement). The most important characteristics of the earliest messages, remained only on a theoretical form, will be presented. The main features of modern messages, which have been concretely realized, will also be emphasized. Drawing a parallel between these two series of projects could demonstrate what has been considered as unavoidable by both pioneer and modern messages creators, while it has not been proved that the first ones have had any influence on the second ones. The common points emerging from this comparison could then (perhaps) help to select adequate models for an intelligible message intended to ETs, particularly concerning the language forms. Besides this, the differences could illustrate the human cultural advances in the field of METI and underline the tendencies that have been chosen in that field since the last decades.

  4. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  5. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

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    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17 th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17 th " played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests

  6. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17th" played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests of

  7. Tinder and Fire. Determinants of Sexual Behaviour for Domestic Servants in XVIII Century Spain

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    Daniel Santiago Baldellou Monclús

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the position of domestic workers between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries in order to determine what their situation facing the dilemma of preserving their honor in an, usually, hostile enviroment and the social imperative of courting and got married placed on them. The Spanish domestic service in the Old Regime Spain, specially the maids, was exposed to plenty of risks. Sexual harassement was by far one of the most common. This happening could appear in several forms, since an originally consented relationship until crimes such as raping. Through this paper, we annalyze the most common servant ´s sexual conducts based on the court documentation for the XVII and XVIII centuries by analyzing the conflicts reflected in these sources. Maids precariousness, their legal resources and the society perspective over their position are the issues adressed in the paper searching for a overview of the servant´s sexual dangers and its consequences as well as the maid's strategies in openly hostile ambient.

  8. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a

  9. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  10. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  11. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  12. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  13. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  14. Enduring Visions of Instruction in Academic Libraries: A Review of a Spirited Early Twentieth-Century Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunselman, Cheryl; Blakesley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most enduring, and engaging, questions within academic librarianship are those about students and research skills. The vocabulary employed for discussion has evolved, but essential questions--what skills do students need to be taught, who should teach them, and how?--have persisted from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first.…

  15. Pedagogical Foundations of Effective Reading Instruction Older Students in Russia in the Late XIX-Early XX Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belentsov, Sergei I.; Malykhina, Olga N.; Ilyina, Irina V.; Mandruk, Irina V.

    2018-01-01

    Topical issues of development of reader's activity of school students are considered on the basis of the comparative analysis of the situation characterizing a technique of formation of communicative competence of the system of gymnasia formation of the Kursk province of the end XIX--the beginning of the XX centuries. The comparative-historical…

  16. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  17. Jacob van Zuden and the Early Fourteenth-Century Expansion of the Hospitallers in the Bishopric of Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorn, F.W.J.; Mol, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The protagonist in this paper is Jacob van Zuden, commander of the Hospitaller convent of Utrecht in the first two decades of the fourteenth century. During his administration six new dependent Hospitaller houses were founded in the bishopric of Utrecht, the most important of which was the convent

  18. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATION OF STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF UKRAINE (THE SECOND HALF OF 50S – EARLY OF 90S XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii S. Voronkin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a synthesis study of the evolution of computer technologies to support students studying at the universities of Ukraine since the second half of 50th to the early of 90th of the twentieth century. Research was conducted on the basis of a wide range of sources and materials. There are four historical stages highlighted: 1 the emergence of algorithms of programmed learning; 2 the emergence of automated technologies to support studying; 3 the birth of the first computer training systems and the development of learning environment; 4 an integrated development of computer technology, the development of intelligent tutoring systems and virtual reality systems.

  20. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  1. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  2. Contribution of outstanding teachers from Western Ukraine of late XIX – early XX century to development of theory and methods of teaching history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviia Nahachevska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of theses from works of prominent representatives of educational thought in Western Ukraine of late XIX – early XX century, which are related to solving problems of teaching history in elementary and secondary schools in the region. The emphasis is placed on the actualization of content and methods of teaching by V. VilshanetskaZhukovetska, A. Kopystianskyi, M. Korduba, and K. Malytska.Key words: elementary and secondary schools (gymnasia, curricula, content, principles and methods of teaching history, school textbooks, anthropologization and humanization of history, study of local lore.

  3. Becoming a Woman in the Dutch Republic : Advice Literature for Young Adult Women of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, Marja; Reeves, Margaret; Cohen, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch republic seventeenth-century authors of marriage manuals and conduct books for women did not distinguish the young, nubile ones from married adults. Marriage was the core teaching, and all were admonished not merely to obey their husbands but also to identify with them. In stressing the

  4. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with

  5. The rise of the country house in the Dutch Republic : Beyond Johan Huizinga's narrative of Dutch civilisation in the 17th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Stobart, Jon; Hann, Andrew

    Was the rise of the country house in the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic above all a 'bourgeois' phenomenon, as Johan Huizinga argued in his famous long essay on Dutch civilisation in the seventeenth century. The article shows that not only the merchants and regents of the city of Amsterdam but

  6. Food markets of the early Nineteen Century: from Mercado de Abasto Proveedor of Buenos Aires till Mercati Generali of Torino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Mattone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing of urban centres, in the second half of the nineteenth century, new buildings are built in order to accommodate selling activities. They are essentially utilitarian architectures, bare of decorations, which show technical and material aspects. In recent decades, however, since they no longer fulfill the purpose for which they were originally built, these structures have often been the object of interventions that have revived the use through changes not always respectful of the buildings. In the belief that the actions of reuse should instead be a means through which it is pursued the conservation of this "material evidence having civilization value", this report is a contribution to the knowledge of concrete covered market buildings made in the thirties of twentieth century in Italy, as well as in Argentina, critically analyzing reuse interventions recently conducted.

  7. Homily of 18th - early 19th century as source of science about vital values of a Russian cleric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Иванович Есюков

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the value aspects of the gospels of the 18th century. It demonstrates the real importance of the heritage of the major Russian theologians for understanding of the basic value focus of the national culture. To achieve this, the article analyses the ideas of labour, wealth and poverty, «personal benefit» and «public welfare», the balance between theonomy and autonomy, «eternity» and everyday life.

  8. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  9. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  10. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  11. The Formation of Imperial Institutes of Governance in Trans-Baikal Transborder Area:Problems of Development of New Territories(XVIII – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Malygina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of Imperial institutes of governance in Trans-Baikal region in XVIII – early XX centuries. The territory is chosen by the authors is very important for creation of the project of ideal administrative-territorial structure of government and its embodiment in reality in terms transborder area, geostrategic position and recognition of military and economic importance of the region. The authors were able to create governance models in accordance with the phased tasks of the development of the territory, as well as fill some gaps in the process. The information is taken from historical sources and from central and regional archives. The study allowed to conclude that the administrative-territorial transformation of XVIII – early XX centuries can be considered an experiment for the development of the Plurinational state. This experiment is caused by the consolidation of the national periphery and to neutralize the threat of separatism and the need to protect the territories from external enemies.

  12. Representing and Coping with Early Twentieth-Century Chongqing: “Guide Songs” as Maps, Memory Cells, and Means of Creating Cultural Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Chabrowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chongqing’s “guide songs” form an interesting subgenre among the broad category of haozi 號子 (workers’ songs. These early twentieth-century songs were a form of rhythm-based oral narrative describing Chongqing’s urban spaces, river docks, and harbors. Each toponym mentioned in the lyrics was followed by a depiction of the characteristic associations, whether visible or symbolic, of the place. This article aims to analyze the verbal images of Chongqing presented in these songs in order to understand how the city was remembered, reproduced, and represented. The article deconstructs representations of the city produced by the lower classes, mainly by Sichuan boatmen, and links culturally meaningful images of urban spaces with the historical experiences of work, religion, and historical-mythical memory. It also points to the functions that oral narratives had in the urban environment of early twentieth-century Chongqing. Rhythmic and easy to remember, the songs provided ready-to-use guides and repositories of knowledge useful to anyone living or working there. A cross between utilitarian resource books and cultural representations, they shaped modes of thinking and visualizations of urban spaces and Chongqing. Finally, this article responds to the need to employ popular culture in our thinking about Chinese cities and the multiplicity of meanings they were given in pre-Communist times.

  13. G. I. Benenson and A. D. Golitsyn: business partnership in the institutional context of Russian reality early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryshnikov Mikhail, N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of the history of participation Benenson and Golitsyn in the formation of financial and industrial group Russian-British bank in the Russian Empire. It is necessary to emphasize, that in the beginning of the 20 century joint-stock companies have occupied a prevailing situation in the main industrial and financial spheres of the Russian economy already. The densities of production, made by them, was dominant in many industries, making 70-80%, and sometimes more. The formation and successful operation of the integrated companies and, above all, financial and industrial structures (groups is undoubtedly the most important factor in improving the efficiency and sustained growth in industrial production. The analysis of participation of G. Benenson and A. Golitsyn in the activity of the Russian-English bank and joint-stock company allows to reveal most important for leading branches of the Russian economy institutional parameters of industrial business in the beginning of the 20 century, including: a Larger or smaller independence owners in those or other kinds of enterprise activity; b Availability business and socio-cultural connections among other businessmen; c Efficiency to achieve a balance of individual and group interests; d A management of the firms having more open (joint-stock structures, or closed (share structures, kind of activity. The process of the company involving in the financialindustrial groups had, sometimes, inconsistent contents, was exposed to influence both positive, and negative economic, sociocultural and political factors (economic crisises, revolution, wars, ethnic and religious conflicts etc.. However general tendency in the development of a integrated component of the Russian business carried in the beginning of the 20 century in the whole favorable orientation, potentially promoting large changes in socio economic structure of the Russian society in this period.

  14. The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda

    2009-12-01

    This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.

  15. Coins and maps: taxation and politics in the making of Brazilian new provinces; early 19th century

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    Vitor Marcos Gregório

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There was a lot of economic and political questions used as arguments during the decision making process which culminated with the emancipation of Amazonas and Paraná provinces in the mid-nineteenth century. Among them, the fiscality has a great importance, having been approached by those who advocated a new territorial organization through the creation of these two new provinces, as well for those who disagreed these proposals. This paper aims to analyse these element as indicators of the importance of the territorial organization questions as a historical object, and as a important instrument for the comprehension of the monarchical Brazilian State making process.

  16. Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


  17. Of decentralization of public power Ukrainian land that belonged to Lithuanian (XIII – the early XVII century

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    C. V. Manuilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive crisis in Ukraine and continued military confrontation in the Donbass demonstrated the urgent need to establish effective governance, which would imply decentralization of public power. Note that in implementing the decentralization of power in Ukraine insists the International Monetary Fund; United Nations Development Program; the transfer of authority to the field and decentralization of power in Ukraine is one of the points of the Minsk agreements and obligations of Ukraine to the EU. The article deals with the Ukrainian lands topical issue features the decentralization of public power in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century. The importance of the topic due to the need to study the historical experience of the implementation of decentralization. It was, emphasized that the success of the reforms depends largely because of the historical experience and features of the decentralization of public power in the past. Characterized by the development of local government in the Ukrainian lands was part of the Lithuanian state. The purpose of the article is to clarify the characteristics of decentralization of public authority on Ukrainian lands were part of the Lithuanian state during the XVII century XIII. To address this goal, outline decentralization of public power in the state; analyze, competence of local government in the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Lith uanian State; determine how close to the power of the people. The level of decentralization of public power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century was high. It was, found that Lithuania had not established a centralized state. It is, noted that the Board of the nobility limited the princely power. The effect of delegated deputies from different parts of the Lithuanian statehood solutions nobility Council.Clarified the facts that confirm the existence of decentralization of public power in Lithuania: the functioning of local

  18. Politics and pellagra: the epidemic of pellagra in the U.S. in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollet, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known. Politicians and the general public felt that it was more acceptable for pellagra to be infectious than for it to be a form of malnutrition, a result of poverty and thus an embarrassing social problem. Retrospectively, a change in the method of milling cornmeal, degermination, which began shortly after 1900, probably accounted for the appearance of the epidemic; such a process was suggested at the time, but the suggestion was ignored. PMID:1285449

  19. The reception of the models of the New School in the Spanish manualistic of the early 20th century

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    Agustín ESCOLANO BENITO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines certain aspects related to the reception of the patterns of the New Education in the Spanish textbooks of the first third of the 20th century. This appropiation of the renewing pedagogical models by writers of didac- tic texts is also related to the processes of school modernisation during the period in Spanish and supose a mode of metamorphosis undergone by the principles of the renewed education on being transferred to the world of the prevailing educational practice. This influence consisted of the changes which affected the classical textbooks and in the appearance of new types of manuals which correspond to specific models and give rise to new textual forms.

  20. The early steps of chloroform anaesthesia in Turkey during the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to research the pioneering steps for the employment of chloroform in Turkey in comparison with the developments in the West i.e. in the United States and in Europe. The development of anaesthesiology in the West started in the first half of the 19th century. As an anaesthetic substance, ether was first employed in a medical operation by R. Liston in December 1846. But taking into consideration of its bronchially irritant effect, British gynaecologist Dr. J.Y. Simpson preferred to utilize chloroform in obstetrical operations in 1847. The paper aims at shedding light on the earlier steps for modern anaesthesiology in Turkey in that sense. The survey used evaluation of archival documents, first hand-original sources such as the annual medical reports of the Medical School, books, official journals, and newspapers of the time, and also secondary sources concerned with the subject. In view of the findings of the survey, chloroform, as an anaesthetic material, began to be administered surgically in Turkey much earlier than it was already known. It was experienced and used in operations at the surgical clinic of the Imperial School of Medicine at the Capital city, Istanbul in 1848. The Crimean War (1853-1855) induced to the prevalent surgical use of chloroform in Istanbul on the soldiers back from the front. In other words, it was evidenced that surgeons started to make use of this anaesthetic substance in the Ottoman Empire, shortly after it was put into medical practice in Europe. This study deals with that phenomenal progress of chloroform anaesthesia in the medical history in Turkey during the second half of the 19th century.

  1. [Bernardino Ramazzini's influence in medical science in the XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, S

    2010-01-01

    Neo-hippocratism consists in a rational and mechanic method to explain pathological phenomena and discover the causes of diseases. Bernardino Ramazzini uses Hippocratic empirical observation to investigate the relations between the alterations of the air--due to mephitic vapours, of organic and inorganic origin--and the development of pathological processes. His notion of corruption of the atmosphere as the origin of epidemics and specific diseases, and that of prevention as the main strategy of modern medicine, is developed in medical literature and in the Public Medicine projects of the end of the Seventeenth century.

  2. Origin of the early-type R stars: a binary-merger solution to a century-old problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izzard, R.G.; Jeffery, C.S.; Lattanzio, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The early-R stars are carbon-rich K-type giants. They are enhanced in C12, C13 and N14, have approximately solar oxygen, magnesium isotopes, s-process and iron abundances, have the luminosity of core-helium burning stars, are not rapid rotators, are members of the Galactic thick disk and, most

  3. Graphs as a Managerial Tool: A Case Study of Du Pont's Use of Graphs in the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, JoAnne

    1985-01-01

    Sketches the development of business graphs in America. Examines their early use at Du Pont and the origin of the chart room around 1920, an important factor in the executive control systems at Du Pont. Draws lessons from this case study for managers and teachers of business communication. (PD)

  4. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  5. Determinants of infant and early childhood mortality levels and their decline in the Netherlands in the late nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch (Judith); F.W.A. van Poppel (Frans); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relative importance of various determinants of total and cause-specific infant and early childhood mortality rates and their decline in The Netherlands in the period 1875-1879 to 1895-1899. DATA AND METHODS: Mortality and population

  6. Teaching for Social Justice, Social Responsibility and Social Inclusion: A Respectful Pedagogy for Twenty-First Century Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a Participatory Action Research (PAR) study that was undertaken in two Australian preschool settings this article examines strategies that support the pedagogy of teaching for social justice and outlines how these strategies raised critical consciousness of both preschoolers (aged three to five years) and early childhood educators to…

  7. State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroniсa E. Matveenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great, who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.

  8. Friar José Teixeira advocate of Venice False: Sebastianism and political culture in the seventeenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Athaide, Filipe Duret

    2017-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a participação do dominicano português José Teixeira na trama do Falso d. Sebastião de Veneza. Condenado à morte em 1603, o falso rei veneziano foi um dos mais significativos casos de falsos reis portugueses ocorridos durante a União Ibérica (1580-1640). Por sua vez, o envolvimento de Frei Teixeira no caso, e a consequente publicação das “Adventures admirables” em Paris no ano de 1601, contribuíram para o estabelecimento e fixação do sebastianismo letrad...

  9. Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Flemish artists and dealers in Antwerp, Genoa and Rome in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoesser-Johnston, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Until now the lives and activities of Lucas and Cornelis de Wael have been largely discussed in relation to their friendship with Anthony Van Dyck, who stayed with them in Genoa periodically from 1621 to 1627. This dissertation seeks to rectify this one-sided approach by providing up-to-date

  10. Historical and Political Thought in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic: The Case of Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nieuwstraten (Jaap)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation constitutes the first comprehensive study of the historical and political thought of the Dutch scholar Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653). Boxhorn was one of the most prolific scholars of his age. His Latin works were translated into Dutch, French, and English, and

  11. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological observations).

  12. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, H.; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2016), s. 185-198 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hailstorm * tax ation data * spatiotemporal variability * outstanding hailstorm * damage * South Moravia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  13. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche, Orson van de; Erkens, Gilles; Vliet, Frank van; Brandsma, J.; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  14. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  15. The Role of the Emperor’s University of Kazan in the History of Formation of Tatar Musical Ethnography (XIX – Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira I. Safiullina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the role of the Emperor’s University of Kazan of the XIX-early ХХ century in the history of formation of Tatar musical ethnography. Special attention is paid to activities of scientific organizations at the Emperor’s University of Kazan. Based on the study of manuscripts stored at the Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books at the N.I. Lobachevsky Scientific Library, the article gives information concerning the Asian Musical Magazine by I. Dobrovolsky, as well as the Society for Archeology, History and Ethnography. The author concludes that the Emperor’s University of Kazan has an important role in formation of Tatar musical ethnography.

  16. Innovation in hydroelectric power plant design in early twentieth century. Casto Fernández-Shaw's Engineering Architecture in La Jándula dam

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    A. B. Berrocal Menárguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The power plant location in the first hydroelectrial dams was a relevant issue at the end of XIX century and early XX. Different solutions were tried, some of them with very interesting aesthetics results and hydraulic and structural implications. Such is the case of La Jándula dam, inaugurated in 1930, that includes the power station inside the dam. This article examines the possible national and international inspirations of this singular solution, corroborating the hypothesis of its unprecedented nature. The collaboration of the architect Casto Fernández-Shaw in the design and integration of the engine room was decisive, because it achieved a result of an aesthetic quality and formal expressiveness unprecedented in a work of hydraulic engineering, as well as the birth of a style Shaw himself defined as architectural engineering.

  17. Civil and Patriotic Education of Students by Means of Excursion Activities in Russia in the Second Half of XIX – Early XX Centuries

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    Nadezhda V. Tarasova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problem of civil and patriotic education of students by means of voluntary activity, presents historical and educational analysis of excursion activities as one of the major forms of volunteer work of schoolchildren in Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, determines its major goals and objectives. The paper, using archive data, attempts to consider excursion activity as one of the major forms of volunteer work, promoting patriotism development in rising generation. The opinions of innovative teachers of the examined period, who considered that excursions had great educational potential are characterized. The position of the Ministry of Education, concerning educational potential of excursions is examined.

  18. Mobility and the Modern Intellectual: Translated Images from Early 20th-Century Literary Works in Spanish by Carmen Lyra and Luisa Luisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kanost

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay juxtaposes original translations of contrasting images from the novel En una silla de ruedas [In a Wheelchair] by Costa Rican writer Carmen Lyra and Poemas de la inmovilidad [Poems of Immobility] by Uruguayan writer Luisa Luisi to reveal how representations of intellectuals who are paralyzed might complicate discourses of the artist, social hygiene, and eugenics in early 20th-century Spanish America. Lyra portrays her protagonist's paralysis as a tragedy, but his disability is also the source of social mobility that allows the novel to depict marginalized members of Costa Rican society. Luisi contests modernista aesthetics of perfect forms, countering with a multifaceted exploration of inner space enabled by physical stillness. Through their depictions of hospitals, asylums, and sanitariums, both writers bear witness to bodies the modernizing project would prefer to hide, and imagine alternative forms of progress.

  19. The Embodiment of Teaching the Regulation of Emotions in Early Modern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Wichgers, Inge J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching the regulation of emotions to support parents in educating their children to come of age properly was part of a missionary movement in late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. This movement was inspired by the belief in the power of education from the northern European Renaissance and by the emphasis on catechism by the…

  20. The Embodiment of Teaching the Regulation of Emotions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J.H.; Wichgers, Inge

    Teaching the regulation of emotions to support parents in educating their children to come of age properly was part of a missionary movement in late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. This movement was inspired by the belief in the power of education from the northern European Renaissance

  1. The East India Company: Agent of Empire in the Early Modern Capitalist Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The world economy and political map changed dramatically between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Unprecedented trade linked the continents together and set off a European scramble to discover new resources and markets. European ships and merchants reached across the world, and their governments followed after them, inaugurating the…

  2. The Pursuit of Metals and the Ideology of Improvement in Early Modern Sápmi, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the ideology of improvement in the context of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century mining in northern Sweden in the province of Sápmi. It discusses how the rhetoric of improvement and “civilizing” projects were intertwined with the mining enterprises; how they informed...

  3. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  4. The Orthodox parish in the Russian Empire as an object of fi scal policy of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities in the late XIX — early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. BEGLOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the system of taxation of Orthodox parishes of the Russian Empire in the late XIX — early XX centuries is reconstructed on the new archival materials and the numerous contributions that the parishes carried out from its own funds in favor of the diocesan institutions and charitable organizations are described. Attempt are made to estimate the number of different charges, which existed in this period (the author now includes over 80 items and their size and severity for the parish budget. In this regard, it is concluded that such deductions in some cases accounted for more than half of the income of the parish churches. The author describes the reasons for turning the formally voluntary fees in favor of charitable institutions in virtually compulsory. It investigates the failed attempts of the Supreme Church leadership to reform the system of parish charges in the early XXth century, in particular, the work of the two synodal committees (active in 1905 under the chairmanship of Archbishop Nikon (Sofi yskiy and in 1909, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky. The author comes to the conclusion that these charges were not the only cause of poverty of many parishes (especially rural parishes in Central Russia, but they weakened the parish as a religious community, for the charges were a pretext for permanent discontent among the parishioners about the parish clergy and diocesan authorities. Not the last role here was played by the fact that the diocesan institutions, which were funded by the parish funds were of an estate character.

  5. The spiritual proceedings of the Yakutsk diocese in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, as a factor of inter-civilization interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna I. Yurganova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines, on the basis of the first introduced in the scientific revolution of historical sources, the judicial work of the Yakut diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, as an element of integration of the Orthodox Empire in the suburbs of the Russian statehood, as the Yakut spiritual Consistory, whose terms of reference included the investigation and judicial practice in respect of spiritual and secular persons, acted as one of the elements of the state apparatus. It is defined that the Orthodox population of the region was informed on the rights, showed the number of marriages and divorces, found the most characteristic of the Yakut diocese charge of the parish clergy, consisting in the wedding of a minor, due to the family law traditions of the Yakuts. Identified exceptions to the general rules made at the national legislative level, regarding the application marriage law, taking into account to the specifics of residence in the Far North: the remoteness of the diocese, the significance of its territory, climatic conditions, the difficulties of transportation and the conclusion has been made that the government, recognizing the difficulties of the Ministry, supported Yakut clergy. It is obvious that in connection with the conduct of spiritual justice, the customary law of the Yakuts began to be replaced by Christian Orthodox morals and to the early twentieth century in the area formed the ethno-religious understanding of the family legislation, when at obligatory Church the sanctification of marriage, kept the concept of it as a property transaction and, in general, the local population perceived the laws and customs of Orthodoxy not only through the Christian rituals, but also through the spiritual court , which regulates family and marital relationships.

  6. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  7. "God save us from psychologists as expert witnesses": the battle for forensic psychology in early twentieth-century Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2015-11-01

    This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. Using, as an example, the debate between the psychologist William Stern, the psychiatrist Albert Moll, and the jurist Albert Hellwig, which occurred at the International Congress for Sexual Research held in Berlin in 1926, it aims to demonstrate the manner in which psychiatrists' responses to psychologists' attempts to gain admittance to Germany's courtrooms were shaped not only by epistemological and methodological objections, but also by changes to expert witnessing that had already encroached on psychiatrists' professional territory. Building upon recent work examining the relationship between psychologists and jurists prior to the First World War, this article also seeks to examine the role of judges and lawyers in the contest over forensic psychology in the mid-1920s, arguing that they ultimately became referees in the increasingly public disputes between psychiatrists and psychologists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Wang, Yaqiang; Du, Zhencai; Zhang, Tong; Guo, Wanqin; Xiao, Cunde; Xu, Xiaobin; Ding, Minghu; Zhang, Dongqi; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers. The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE) of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009). This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  9. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ming

    Full Text Available The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers.The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009.This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  10. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Valitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The analysis of archival material reflects the foundation, development and evolution of parish schools in Western Siberia; the activity of the eparchy inspectors and parish school boards being outlined. The main emphasis is on the Tomsk eparchy – the regional leader in successful primary school development in Western Siberia. For many Russian citizens then, the parish schools were the only available educational institutions. In Western Siberia, the ascetic enlightening activity of the clergymen had a great impact on raising the literacy level; the process being complicated by the vast territories, remoteness of the settlements, and lack of local schools. The research demonstrates the parallel evolution of the parish and civil education, however, the former one was always ahead in many aspects. The competition between the two systems stimulated new effective educational methods and teacher training processes, and contributed a lot to the Russian primary education development. The paper might be of interest to the experts in education and church history, and local historians

  11. Il futurismo polacco nella critica letteraria dell’epoca [Polish Futurism in Literary Criticism of the Early Twentieth Century

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    Andrea F. De Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the critical voices raised against the young poets and artists who promoted Futurism in Poland during the first half of the Twentieth century. Futurist manifestos influenced the new Polish poetry, stimulating a lively debate among intellectuals of the calibre of Stefan Żeromski and Karol Irzykowski. In general, the coeval criticism of Polish Futurism focused on three main points: the lack of originality and servile imitation of foreign literary models; the repudiation of the past and national traditions; Futurism as an expression of ideologies such as Fascism in Italy and Bolshevism in Russia. In this article, specific attention is devoted to an analysis of the essay Snobizm i postęp (Snobbery and Progress, 1923 by Żeromski. The writer, criticising Polish imitators of Russian Futurism, affirmed that Polish literature and culture, in the context of national reconstruction after three partitions of Poland, needed to maintain its natural connection with the past and at the same time, without losing its national nature, to weave some universal suggestions into the plot of purely Polish themes. The goal of this article is to reveal that Żeromski and Irzykowski’s critical stance towards the Polish Futurists, which influenced the critics of the next generation, was dictated by a shallow analysis of Futuristic works and by their inability to understand Futuristic efforts to modernise Polish art and literature.

  12. A fast atom bombardment study of the lead isotope ratios in early nineteenth century Niagara Peninsula pottery glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Jones, T.R.B.; Kenney, Tina; Rupp, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead

  13. The teaching of evolution in Portugal in the early 20th century through the programs and textbooks of Zoology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento CAVADAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of evolution in the Portuguese secondary schools is not yet fully understood. This research aimed to contribute to this clarification, in the framework of the history of the curriculum and the biology subject, by showing the expressions of the evolutionism teaching in the first three decades of the twentieth century. To this end we analyzed the programs of Zoology of 1905 and 1919, as well as two textbooks, entitled «Lições de Zoologia» and written by Bernardo Aires in accordance with these programs. This analysis showed that the study of evolution, eliminated from the program in 1905, was again recognized in the program in 1919. In textbooks, the exposure of evolution focused on the subject of evolution, in the grounds of competition and natural selection, adaptation, the biogenetic law and the essential differences between Lamarckism and Darwinism. The comparative study of these textbooks showed that the text which addresses the evolution is essentially Darwinian. However, neoLamarckians sections have been identified that show the influence of the «eclipse of Darwinism» on the teaching of evolutionism.

  14. A century of x-rays and radioactivity in medicine. With emphasis on photographic records of the early years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This book is a predominately photographic presentation, along with full captions and short accompanying essays, about the history of radiology. It concentrates on the early years of discovery and invention, diagnosis and therapy, with archival accounts, antedotes, historical snippets. In most chapters the history is briefly brought up to date so old methods may be compared with newer technologies. Source material, diaries, historic photographs are all used

  15. Influence of high-latitude warming and land-use changes in the early 20th century northern Eurasian CO2 sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Peregon, Anna; Gani, Érico A.; Khudyaev, Sergey; Yue, Chao; Li, Wei; Gouveia, Célia M.; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    While the global carbon budget (GCB) is relatively well constrained over the last decades of the 20th century [1], observations and reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 growth rate present large discrepancies during the earlier periods [2]. The large uncertainty in GCB has been attributed to the land biosphere, although it is not clear whether the gaps between observations and reconstructions are mainly because land-surface models (LSMs) underestimate inter-annual to decadal variability in natural ecosystems, or due to inaccuracies in land-use change reconstructions. As Eurasia encompasses about 15% of the terrestrial surface, 20% of the global soil organic carbon pool and constitutes a large CO2 sink, we evaluate the potential contribution of natural and human-driven processes to induce large anomalies in the biospheric CO2 fluxes in the early 20th century. We use an LSM specifically developed for high-latitudes, that correctly simulates Eurasian C-stocks and fluxes from observational records [3], in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the Eurasian sink to the strong high-latitude warming occurring between 1930 and 1950. We show that the LSM with improved high-latitude phenology, hydrology and soil processes, contrary to the group of LSMs in [2], is able to represent enhanced vegetation growth linked to boreal spring warming, consistent with tree-ring time-series [4]. By compiling a dataset of annual agricultural area in the Former Soviet Union that better reflects changes in cropland area linked with socio-economic fluctuations during the early 20th century, we show that land-abadonment during periods of crisis and war may result in reduced CO2 emissions from land-use change (44%–78% lower) detectable at decadal time-scales. Our study points to key processes that may need to be improved in LSMs and LUC datasets in order to better represent decadal variability in the land CO2 sink, and to better constrain the GCB during the pre-observational record.

  16. Adult and early childhood diet of early medieval untypical population group of Central Europe (10th century AD, Czech Republic) in relation to the health status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaupová, S.; Velemínský, P.; Stránská, Petra; Tomková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 239 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * diet * anthropology * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  17. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2012-01-01

    are. Its core finding is that much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role played by the permanent members of the Security Council, the so-called Permanent Five or P-5 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). It is unclear, however, whether the Five will be able and willing to play this role adequately. The developments of the first decade of the twenty-first century have not been comforting for nonproliferation. Proliferation challenges have risen and grown more complex. In response, policy tools have been developed, but their effectiveness has suffered from divisions among the P-5 and between them and the NAM states. Half a century since Ikle's article and a decade since Roberts' review, the major powers have remained at a loss to address the threat of proliferation. Winning is still possible, but it will require more than wishful thinking. In the years ahead, the challenge will be to reconcile policy effectiveness with policy legitimacy, be it to restore compliance altogether or to prevent proliferation, counter it, detect and expose noncompliance, and manage nonproliferation failures. Meeting this challenge places the P-5 at the center-stage. Much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role that the Five choose to play. But given current shifts in international power structures (what Joseph Nye calls 'the rise of the rest') the prospects appear uncertain.68 It is important, therefore, that further research focuses on how the P-5 role can be strengthened to address proliferation, and how this role can be better aligned with today's evolving international trends

  18. The Siberian Students in Research, Cultural and Social Life of the Region in the Late XIX – Early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Ustinova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the role and place of students in the Siberian scientific-research and cultural-educational life of the region. It is shown that high moral ideals and a desire to help people in need be useful to its edge and to society in general – describe the ideas, common in the student's environment at the turn of XIX – XX centuries. Based on the analysis of archival materials and scientific literature, it was found that the students showed during this period, an increased desire to participate in social and cultural life of Siberia and the whole country. However, this participation in different ways manifested in the minds and actions of young people. Some students, actively engage in the cultural life of the region, entered in the companies involved in charity work, academic research, literary and theatrical art, medicine, advanced study of philosophy, technical processes, etc. At universities created various thematic interest groups, on a territorial basis – numerous fraternities, a nobility of purpose in the form of moral and material support of their members. However, some Siberian students in their own way understood his own mission in social processes, including under the form of participation in legal societies, clubs or fraternities in the activities of political and campaign focus, in the meetings discussing ideas about the possibilities of revolution, as expected, from their point of view, progress and prosperity in case of their implementation. Also in this period, there are illegal organizations that engage some students of Siberian universities. The activities of such organizations is highly political in nature.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in an early medieval population (IX.-XI. century) from Central Europe and its relationship to socioeconomic stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Stránská, Petra; Dupej, J.; Havelková, P.; Kaupová, S.; Frolík, Jan; Poláček, Lumír; Brůžek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 394 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * sex ual dimorphism * anthropology * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Archaeology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  20. Mound No. 24 of the Alebastrovo I Burial Ground and the Problem of Succession Among the Early Nomadic Cultures of the Southern Urals in the 6th – 4th and 3rd – 1st Centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Maryksin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the burial mounds – Alebastrovo I, which is situated in the middle reaches of the Ural river. The analysis of the burial rite and grave goods reveals the combination of features peculiar of the culture of early nomads from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC and later features typical for the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. The collective nature of the burial in a large square pit (burial no. 2 relates to early features. Such burials are typical for the 5th and 4th centuries BC. But a dagger with a direct crosshair and a crescent-shaped pommel found in the burial belongs to the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. Findings of a mirror, a spoon and a whorl also deserve special attention. On formal grounds a mirror belongs to the type “Skripkin 1.6” – with a flat disk without roll and stick in the form of a triangular stem. They appeared in Sauromatian time, but were not widespread. Most of these mirrors refer to the turn of the eras – the first centuries AD. However, in our view the mirror from Alebastrovo I has the greatest similarity with the mirror disks of the so-called “musical” mirrors, which date back to the 2nd half of the 4th century BC. The bone spoon belongs to the type I, peculiar of the Sauromatian-time things of the 6th – 4th centuries BC. However, the pattern is similar to that on the handle of the bone products of later time – the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC. Clay whorl has a pattern in the form of 4 sectors, decorated with grooves and pits. Analogies are available on this ornament spindles from the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC of the Kara-Abyz culture in the Southern Urals. According to the set of attributes, this burial mound dated to the second half of the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. The finds from this burial mound confirm the conclusion of the first explorer B. F. Zhelezchikov about continuity of the development of the early nomadic culture of this region in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC.

  1. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  2. Organization of training and educational process in the church school of Transbaikalia at the end of 19 th - early 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnina Natal'ia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The articledeals with the problemsof the educationalandupbringing process inparochial schoolsin Transbaikalia in the late XIX - earlyXXcenturies.This type ofschoolswasthe most widespread on the territory ofthe Transbikalregion.Parochial schoolsplayed an importantrole in the culturaldevelopment of the regionin thelate XIX - earlyXX centuries, they became an integralpart of thehistorical andcultural process.The history of their formation, analysis of their activitiesareof great scientifi c andpractical interestfor the history of culture, education, religious studies.The author concludesthat theeducational processinparochial schoolswas organized in the form of unifiededucational system, aimedat religiousand moral education ofcomprehensively developed personality. According to “Regulations on the parochial schools” (1884, the main purpose of-such a school is“to approvethe orthodox doctrineof the Christianfaith and morals among people, andto transfer the initialuseful knowledge”.Therefore,the most important componentof the educational systemof church-maintained schoolswas the subjects ofpurely religious education, but comprehensiveeducational componentof church-maintained schoolswas notso narrow too, as evidenced bythe schools’ schedule. In addition tothe Law of God, Church Slavonic languageandchurch musicstudents learnedreading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, calligraphy, Russianlanguage, drawing. In some schoolsvocational classesand societies of crafts, drawing, choral singing were created. Educational process wasbuildingon the basisof main requirementsof the educational programs, the content of whichwassaturatedand to some extend included detailedlesson plans. Eachsection of the programwas provided by the list ofmanuals andguidelines for teachers. The church-maintained schools were run by parish priest, trustees. Schoolswere often locatedin the homes ofclergymen, but many priestsnoted thatonly havingits own building, the

  3. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M. Tompkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  4. Louis XIV’s Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17 and the Early 18 Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min LEE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state’s policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people’s health. The Thévenot company’s activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV’s dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king’s physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris

  5. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  6. The Ottoman Empire and the policy of alliances: Franco-Ottoman relations in the transition from the XVIth to XVIIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Türkçelik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Western historiography considered the Ottoman Empire as a marginal and antagonist factor, the Ottomans were an integral component of the history of Early Modern age. The conscientious policy of balance of power towards the Christian powers made Ottomans a crucial element in the struggle for hegemony. The Franco-Turkish alliance that was established in the reigns of Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent mainly depended on mutual enmity against Spanish hegemony in Europe. In the late sixteenth century, after the death of Henry III the French Wars of Religion gave rise to a chaotic situation in which the Catholic King sought the opportunity to place France under its control. This could have caused an irreversible change in the balance of power in the Mediterranean, an unacceptable situation for the geostrategic interests of the Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the French foreign policy against Spanish claims during the different phases of the reign of Henry IV. Even Clement VIII implicitly instrumentalized Ottoman- French friendship to strengthen both its own position as well as that of France with respect to the Spanish Monarchy. This article aims to demonstrate the limits and efficiencies of politics of alliance in the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century considering the role of England and the Republic of Venice.

  7. Studies on elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth collected from the early 17th century Portuguese shipwreck off Goa, West coast of India: Evidence of maritime trade between Goa, Portugal and African countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Godfrey, I.

    of excavated stoneware dated the wreck to the early 17th century AD. The Carbon 14 date of the ivory is 740 ± 130 yrs; with a calibrated age range of 740 to 560 yrs BP. The elephant tusks are highly degraded, discoloured and soft to the touch where...

  8. The power of the Kashrut: older but shorter : The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, V.; Karel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. Subjects/Methods: We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818–1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather

  9. Proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Kishore, Sangeeta; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    The proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications (SSNTD-17) contains a number of research papers on different areas of solid state nuclear track detectors. It provides a common scientific platform to the scientists for sharing their knowledge and reviews the present state-of-art and advancements in the field of solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications and also some aspects of nuclear energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Mobility histories of 7th-9th century AD people buried at early medieval Bamburgh, Northumberland, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, S E; Roberts, C A; Lucy, S; Pearson, G; Gröcke, D R; Nowell, G; Macpherson, C G; Young, G

    2013-07-01

    Early Medieval England is described historically as a time when people migrated from the Continent to English shores. This study tests the hypothesis that those buried in the Bowl Hole cemetery, Bamburgh, Northumberland were nonlocally born, because of its royal status. Ninety-one male and female adult, and nonadult, skeletons were studied. Isotope ratios of strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and oxygen (δ(18) O) were generated for 78 individuals (28 females, 27 males, five "adults," 18 nonadults). The mean Sr value for human enamel was 0.71044, standard deviation (sd) 0.001, and the mean O (δw) value is -5.9‰, sd 1.6‰. Additionally, animal tooth enamel (mean Sr value 0.710587, sd 0.001; mean O value -6.5‰, sd 1.5‰), local soil (mean Sr value 0.709184, sd 0.0006), snail shells (mean Sr value 0.708888, sd 0.0001), and soil samples from a 5 km transect heading inland (mean Sr value 0.709121, sd 0.0003), were analyzed for an indication of the isotopic composition of bioavailable Sr in the modern environment and to assess the impact of sea-spray; water samples from a well, local rivers, and standing water were analyzed for local δ(18) O values (mean O value -6.4‰, relative to VSMOW, sd 2.8‰). Over 50% of those buried at Bamburgh were nonlocal. All ages and both sexes produced "nonlocal" signatures; some suggested childhood origins in Scandinavia, the southern Mediterranean or North Africa. Stature and other indicators of health status indicated differences in quality of life between local and migrant groups. These differences did not extend to burial practices. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in

  12. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  13. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold

  14. The history of optic chiasm from antiquity to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana

    2017-11-01

    The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth century works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth century bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth century with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.

  15. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  16. Evolution of high-rise construction in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th - Early 21st centuries: projects and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaytens, Andrey; Rusanov, Gennadiy; Skryabin, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    One of the most important issues in national urban planning is arrangement of high-rise buildings in the largest cities of Russia. This issue becomes especially acute in such cities as Saint Petersburg, which has unique architectural and urban-planning heritage preserved to a great extent. In this regard, it seems important to trace the evolution of high-rise construction development and arrangement in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th — early 21st centuries. The goal of the article is to consider high-rise construction development regarding both public and residential buildings in comparison of project ideas and results of their implementation in the 1940s-2000s. Prerequisites and issues of high-rise construction of that period are considered. Particular attention is paid to changes in the official urban-planning policy, regulatory framework and attitude of city authorities to high-rise construction. The study was carried out with the consideration of the following historic periods differing in their urban-planning policy: the late 1940s-1950s; 1960s; 1970-1980s; 1990s; 2000s-2010s. Economical prerequisites of high-rise construction and their influence on the modern urban-planning policy during the post-Soviet period are considered. In conclusion, an attempt is made to determine tendencies of high-rise construction development in Saint Petersburg.

  17. From Danger and Motherhood to Health and Beauty: Health Advice for the Factory Girl in Early Twentieth-Century Britain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, VICKY; MARLAND, HILARY

    2015-01-01

    A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women’s work within industry. Concern with girls’ health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the ‘boy labour’ question. PMID:20481061

  18. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  19. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various

  20. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  1. With the best intentions. Wax-resin lining of Danish Golden Age paintings (early 19th century) on canvas and changed response to RH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil K.; Mecklenburg, Marion F.; Scharff, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wax-resin lining treatments in the 20th century were chosen specifically for many of the 19th century Danish Golden Age paintings on canvas to counteract their suspected response to moisture. This is a study of the response of painting samples and mock-ups to changing relative humidity (RH) before...

  2. Adventurers, Flaneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as "local event narratives". I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flaneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta, in the temperance society "Star" in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

  3. “URIANKHAI ISSUE”IN FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA IN EARLY 20TH CENTURY AND THE PROBLEM OF FOREIGN STATES’ PARTICIPATION IN IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В А Василенко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the participation of foreign countries in solving the problems related to the management of domestic and foreign policy in Tuva in the ear-ly twentieth century.The problem of determining the legal and political status of Tuva and its territorial jurisdiction is traditionally bound in domestic and foreign historiography with the words “Uriankhaiissue”. The latter, as a rule, is considered in the context of rivalry be-tween Russia, China and Mongolia - the countries of the “Central Asian triangle”. The author pays attention to the interests of other countries, including Japan and the coun-tries of Western Europe, in this region. There has been conducted a generalized analysis of the information relating to the presence of Western industrial capital inTuva, shows the nature of the relations between the European entrepreneurs from Russia, China and Tuva authorities. The article provides the detailed facts of the presence of various groups of foreign citizens in the province in the period of the protectorate. In the context of the analysis of the general geo-political situation in Central Asia, the author describes the actions of the Russian authorities against foreign troops, including the methods and forms of work in that direction. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite the use of exclusively peaceful measure-sagainst foreign troops in Tuva, the local authorities sought to prevent any actions aimed at undermining the Russian positions in the region. For this reason, depending on the geopolitical situation in Tuva, the regime of stay of foreigners, issuance of permits softened or hardened. The author concludes the study with the description of the events of the 1920s, the time when there was a change of concept relations with foreign states due tothe Bolsheviks’ coming to power.

  4. The Prince and the Hobby-Horse: Shakespeare and the Ambivalence of Early Modern Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pikli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shakespearean hobby-horse, mentioned emphatically in Hamlet, brings into focus a number of problems related to early modern popular culture. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the word was characterised by semantic ambivalence, with simultaneously valid meanings of a breed of horse, a morris character, a foolish person, and a wanton woman. The overlapping of these meanings in different cultural discourses of the age (playtexts, emblem books, popular verse, pictures exemplifies the interaction of different productions of early modern popular culture, from social humiliating practices to festivals and public playhouses. This attests to a complex circulation of cultural memory regarding symbols of popular culture, paradoxically both ‘forgotten’ and ‘remembered’ as a basically oral-ritual culture was transformed into written forms. In this context, the Hamletian passage gains new overtones, while the different versions of the playtext (Q1 & 2: 1603, 1604, F: 1623 also offer insights into the changing attitudes regarding popular culture, as it became gradually commercialised and politicised in the following decades. Finally, Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair solidify a critical and sceptical attitude, which seems to have signalled the end of ‘Merry Old England’ on-stage and off-stage as well.

  5. Atilius Regulus: A Tragic Hero in the Culture of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atilius Regulus is one of the many tragic heroes that the classical tradition has handed down to Western culture. His fortune in the eighteenth century, however, is marked by an almost unique peculiarity that specifically measures the transition from ancient to modern age. Unlike other figures, that of the Roman consul is submitted between the second half of the seventeenth century and the end of the eighteenth century to a careful philological examination that has the result not only to reject as historically groundless the famous episode of torture suffered in Carthage, but also that of the embassy held in front of the Rome senate to deal with peace between the two rival cities. Despite the authenticity of this last episode of the life of the Roman consul has been questioned, it has also met in the course of the eighteenth century a huge favor by poets, philosophers, art writers and painters.

  6. 3. Similarities Across the Centuries: A Comparison Between Two Vocal Works by Barbara Strozzi and Peter Maxwell Davies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Musical creativity may be expressed by composers in diverse ways: sometimes they compose fully original works, which are characterized by specific features making them unique. Other times, musicians may feel a particular affinity with colleagues who lived centuries before, or identify peculiar resemblances between the time they live in, and a previous epoch, such as similar cultural climate and approach to life: in these cases, composers may author pieces which show surprising similarities with those of some predecessors. The present study compares a work of the seventeenth century, composed by Barbara Strozzi, and one composed in the 1960s by Peter Maxwell Davies, highlighting their similarities.

  7. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly

  8. From Subordination to Hegemony On the Epistemological Legitimation of Mathematics in Natural Philosophy of XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ochoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.

  9. Center or periphery? The system of public administration in Tuva in the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Салимаа Сергеевна Ховалыг

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with formation and development of the government power system and the management in Tuva in the 19-20th centuries. The state apparatus, the hierarchy of ranks and degrees of distinction of the state posts of Tuva are examined. The creation problems of the organization of the power of Russia in the region are analyzed in this article. In connection with it, in the beginning of the 20th century Tuva was accepted as a protectorate of Russia.

  10. ‘The resonance of ruins and the question of history’: Southeast Asia in Ruins: Art and Empire in the Early 19th Century, by Sarah Tiffin, Singapore: NUS Press, 2016,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Blair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia in Ruins: Art and Empire in the Early 19th Century, by Sarah Tiffin, offers an overview of eighteenth-century interpretations of ruin as applied to the images of Java’s abandoned temples that illustrated Thomas Stamford Raffles’ The History of Java. These images were surrounded by discourse on aesthetics, politics, and religion that served to reinforce British beliefs in their own cultural superiority, and Tiffin argues that this was particularly the case in Raffles’ book, which served as a retrospective justification of his administration and reflected his personal feelings of loss. In this review, I argue that Southeast Asia in Ruins raises interesting questions about the nature of historical objectivity, visual literacy and cross-cultural ruin appreciation that have relevance beyond the period examined by the book.

  11. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

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    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  12. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  13. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  14. ‘Divine Love and the Negotiation of Emotions in Early Modern English Convents’,

    OpenAIRE

    Lux-Sterritt, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This essay explores the affectivity of the English Benedictine nuns in exile in the seventeenth century; it relies mostly on documents which belonged to the houses at Cambrai and Paris. In conventual writings, the ‘terrene’ affections which emanated from the senses and gratified the appetites were unanimously condemned, whilst only one emotion was praised as holy and spiritual: that of divine love. Zealous contemplative nuns embarked upon a personal crusade against the...

  15. The Preparation of the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile. Printed Culture and Working-class Sociability in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Murillo Sandoval

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Printed between 1910 and 1919, the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile was the first book of its kind produced in Latin America in the twentieth century. Coordinated by journalist Osvaldo López, this dictionary sought to show the trajectories of leaders and representatives of the Chilean labor world to the beginning of the century. Although this work has served as a source for many investigations, little is known about its production process, and even less about their general contents, and what they indicate about the labor elites, their self-images, objectives or print culture. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute to the analysis of this collective biography, by rebuilding its publishing history and examining the key feature which identified the workers: sociability.

  16. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupa...

  17. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  18. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  19. ON THE QUESTION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF RUSSIA’S MINISTRY OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IN THE AREA OF CIVIL DEFENCE IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Владимирович Кувшинов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies and briefly analyses the main directions of EMERCOM of Russia’s international cooperation with the EU in the beginning of the 21st century. The author concludes that the main directions of EMERCOM’s international cooperation with the EU and in the area of civil defense are consistent with the foreign policy interests and national security strategy of the Russian Federation and currently has multi-facet and targeted nature which is beyond possible political differences even under today’s conditions of international regime of the EC sanctions against Russia due to the ongoing crisis in Ukraine.

  20. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  1. List of subscribers as the source of data on book history and the history of reading: case study of book subscribers' lists printed in Dalmatia in the early 19th century

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    Jelena Lakuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer networks or lists of subscribers as a new publishing phenomenon first occurred in Dalmatia in the early 19th century. It was a model of collective funding of book, magazine and newspaper publishing, which gradually replaced the earlier system of individual patronage. It resulted in the publication of lists of subscribers that contained the names of all those who financially supported the printing of a book. The data on names of subscribers, their occupation, place of residence and number of copies ordered, which was the usual content of subscribers, lists, make them very valuable sources for research on the history of books and reading. This paper tries to show the research potential of such lists by presenting a case-study of five preserved and available subscribers' lists found in publications printed between 1835 and 1848 in the Zadar print shop of Battara brothers. The paper analyses the quantitative data on subscribers, their geographical distribution, professional profile and gender, which does not exhaust their research potential in full. The analysis has shown that despite the austere educational opportunities, high incidence of unemployment, and many other limitations, there were people who treasured the written word. The subscribers mostly came from coastal cities like Zadar, Split and Dubrovnik, which were the most important publishing and cultural centres. Even though the subscribers came from Austria, Military Border, Italy, Croatia proper and Slavonia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire, they make up only one eight of the total number of subscribers in the corpus. The subscribers are both Roman-Catholic and Orthodox, who mostly subscribed to books printed in the Cyrillic script. The subscribers come from a wide range of professions, mostly from the church circles in Dalmatia, and the fewest of them were professors and teachers, members of the army and the police. As expected

  2. The visual difficulties of selected artists and limitations of ophthalmological care during the 19th and early 20th centuries (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, James G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist's ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist's ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological

  3. Writing masters and accountants in England – a study of occupation, status and ambition in the early modern period

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards , John Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the lack of knowledge of the accounting occupational group in England prior to the formation of professional accounting bodies. It does so by focusing on attempts made by the occupational group of writing masters and accountants to establish a recognisable persona in the public domain, in England, during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, and to enhance that identity by behaving in a manner designed to convince the public of the professionalism ass...

  4. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  5. 19th and early 20th century trade cards about Oceania as tools of information, education and propaganda for European colonial powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mückler, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-19th century on, trade cards became a significant medium not only for advertising consumer products, but also for promoting and distributing political messages such as the idea of colonization. With regard to the Pacific Islands, the article highlights the role of trade cards as a channel to create a specific image of the Pacific Islands as a region worthy to be colonized, missionized and exploited. A core symbol of this idea figured in the South Seas stereotype which was widely used to merge visions of unspoiled, peaceful island societies and dreams of a paradise on earth, with goals of establishing political control over the islands in the context of the race for colonies of the Western powers in the age of imperialism.

  6. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupational and gender identity influenced by the disengagement from their birthplace. Within a context of Hungarian−Eastern-European women's social history, I investigate how migration had led them to reshape their original identities and create new ones and how these emigrant writers reacted to the loss of cultural and social norms in which they had previously lived.

  8. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  9. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  10. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  11. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  12. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  13. Combat and warfare in the early paleolithic and medically unexplained musculo-facial pain in 21st century war veterans and active-duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracha, H Stefan; Person, Donald A; Bernstein, David M; Flaxman, Norman A; Masukawa, Nicole K

    2005-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, we suggest that family dentists, military dentists and psychiatrists with expertise in posttraumatic stress disorder (especially in the Veterans Health Administration) are likely to see an increased number of patients with symptomatic jaw-clenching and early stages of tooth-grinding (Bracha et al., 2005). Returning warfighters and other returnees from military deployment may be especially at risk for high rates of clenching-induced masticatory muscle disorders at early stages of incisor grinding. The literature we have recently reviewed strongly supports the conclusion that clenching and grinding may primarily be a manifestation of experiencing extreme fear or severe chronic distress (respectively). We have recently reviewed the clinical and paleoanthropological literature and have noted that ancestral warfare and ancestral combat, in the early Paleolithic Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) may be a neglected factor explaining the conservation of the archaic trait of bite-muscle strengthening. We have hypothesized that among ancestral warriors, jaw clenching may have rapidly strengthened the two primary muscles involved in biting, the masseter muscles and the much larger temporalis muscles. The strengthening of these muscles may have served the purpose of enabling a stronger, deeper, and therefore more lethal, defensive bite for early Paleolithic humans. The neuroevolutionary perspective presented here may be novel to many dentists. However, it may be useful in patient education and in preventing progression from jaw-clenching to chronic facial pain.

  14. Naming for kin and the development of modern family structures: an analysis of a rural region in the Netherlands in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Bloothooft, G.; Gerritzen, D.; Verduin, J.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the conjugal family—the family that lived independently from extended in—came into existence in the Netherlands relatively early, and that a new attitude towards children, characterized by an emphasis on the individuality of the child, developed at more or less the same

  15. The shape variability of human tibial epiphyses in an early medieval Great Moravian population (9th-10th century AD): A geometric morphometric assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír; Velemínská, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2014), s. 219-236 ISSN 0003-5548 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 613012 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : geometric morphometrics * tibia * sexual dimorphism * Great Moravian Empire * Early Middle Ages * socioeconomic status * optical scanning Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2014

  16. Iter Britannicum: Noble Visitors from the Bohemian Lands and Their Perception of the British Isles in the Second Half of 16th and Early 17th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 121-133 ISSN 2333-4142 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Nobility * Travelling * British Isles * Early Modern Period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  17. Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Ashkenazim Language Situation in the Russian Empire at the Turn of the 19th and in the Early 20th Centuries (On the Base of Sholom Aleichem's Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Boichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the sociolinguistic situation of the Ashkenazi Jews in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The research is based on the works of a leading Yiddish author and playwright - Sholom (Sholem Aleichem. His writings, besides their highest artistic value, have been found to be a relevant source of sociolinguistic information. A sociolinguistic analysis of the Ashkenazim language situation has been carried out. The main languages spoken by the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement have been singled out. Their interrelation has been established. Each language played a special role in the life of the Ashkenazim at the period: Hebrew enjoyed high social prestige and alongside with Aramaic was mainly the language of religion. Yiddish was the vernacular of the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement, and it had to struggle for achieving its status as a literary language. Russian, Ukrainian and Moldavian were mainly used for communication with the surrounding Gentiles. Polish remained as a fading vestige of former Polish presence in the area. German and French were the most common foreign languages.

  18. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  19. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  20. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  1. Entheseal changes: do they reflect socioeconomic status in the Early Medieval Great Moravian population? (Mikulčice, Czech Republic, 9th-10th century)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelková, P.; Hladík, Marek; Velemínský, P.

    147 S54, - (2012), s. 161-162 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /81./. 09.04.2012-14.04.2012, Portland] Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * enthesopathies * factor analysis * grave goods * musculoskeletal stress markers * social status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22033/pdf

  2. How to Plant a Colony in the New World. Rules and Practices in New Sweden and the Seventeenth-Century Delaware Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The colony of New Sweden (1638–55), like other colonial settlements in America, was structured by a set of laws and regulations. The comprehensive instructions given to the subsequent governors ordered the particulars of everyday life. They dictated settlers’ means of sustenance and rights to trade......, detailed rules of engagement with other European colonists and Native Americans, established a system of criminal justice and regulated religious life. Most of these regulations were unquestioned and followed because they constituted a cohesive set of rules that helped to reconstruct settlers’ lives...... in the colony and instilled a sense of continuity. Others, particularly those laws pertaining to moral and orderly conduct and trade with Native Americans, were frequently transgressed by the colonists, despite the risk of severe punishments. Using historical and archaeological records, this chapter examines...

  3. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to…

  4. Merchant-Kings and Lords of the World: Diplomatic Gift-Exchange between the Dutch East India Company and the Safavid and Mughal Empires in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenholz, Frank; Sowerby, Tracey A.; Hennings, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In 1652 the VOC ambassador Joan Cunaeus presented the Safavid Shah Abbas II with a set of diplomatic gifts including goods of Asian and European origin during an audience ceremony in the Ali Qapu palace in Isfahan. A decade later, VOC director Dircq van Adrichem offered the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

  5. The distant capital : some aspects of role of Copenhagen as capital of Iseland in the seventeenth and eihteenth centuries / Jón Th. Thór

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thór, Jón Th.

    2013-01-01

    Umbes 470 aasta jooksul (1450-1918) oli Kopengaagen Islandi pealinnaks. Vahemaa Taani ja Islandi vahel on umbes 2000 kilomeetrit ja enamiku islandlaste jaoks jäi pealinn kaugeks paigaks, millest teati vähe. Islandi valitsemise struktuurist. Kopengaageni kui kaubanduskeskuse ja kultuurikeskuse rollist. 18. sajandist Taani ja Islandi ajaloos.

  6. The collaboration between anatomists and mathematicians in the mid-seventeenth century with a study of images as experiments and Galileo's role in Steno's Myology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2008-01-01

    Moving from Paris, Pisa, and Oxford to London, Amsterdam, and Cambridge, this essay documents extensive collaborations between anatomists and mathematicians. At a time when no standard way to acknowledge collaboration existed, it is remarkable that in all the cases I discuss anatomists expressed in print their debt to mathematicians. The cases I analyze document an extraordinarily fertile period in the history of anatomy and science and call into question historiographic divisions among historians of science and medicine. I focus on Steno's Myology, showing how his collaboration with mathematician Viviani led to a geometrical treatment of muscular contraction and to an epistemology inspired by Galileo. The collaboration between Steno and Viviani enables us to interpret a major text in the history of anatomy, one whose implications had so far eluded historians.

  7. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both do...

  8. Women’s Costume of German Origin in the Funeral Context of Early Byzantine Cities of the Northern Black Sea (5th–6th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Mastykova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to burials containing elements of a female costume of East German origin, discovered in the urban necropolises of Chersonesus and Cimmerian Bosporus in the 5th–6th centuries. Burials with German objects are most often in the same collective tombs and in the same necropolises as the burial of the urban Hellenized population. The appearance and resettlement of the eastern Germans in the cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast is attested by written sources only for the Cimmerian Bosporus. About 400 Goths could even occupy a dominant position here. This explains their integration into the Bosporus ruling elite, as evidenced by the existence of rich graves with German implements in the tombs of the local nobility. Later, Cimmerian Bosporus is under the rule of the Huns, and in 534 the military expedition sent by Justinian returns the region to the power of the Empire. Written sources directly indicate the presence of Gothic federates from Minor Scythia as part of the Justinian assault. Therefore, the researchers explain the appearance of a new series of East German things in the Northern Black Sea region by the arrival here of the German soldiers with their families. On the other hand, the violent deportation of barbarians to the Crimea is also possible – a practice well known in the Justinian era. This is how you can explain the appearance here of Italo-Ostrogothic and Gepidic things. In Chersonese German things could fall and as a result of various contacts with the Goths from the country of Dori, in the South-Western Crimea. However, despite the various historical destinies and different statutes of the Germans, in the north-Pontic cities they sooner or later come to be absorbed by the local environment, which reflects the finds of the items of female clothing in urban necropolises.

  9. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  10. Image of the Golden Horde Tatar-Mongols and Ilkhans in the Writings of Crusade Propagandists (late 13th – early 14th centuries »

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    Alexandar Nikolov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 13th century, when the Tatar-Mongols were already well-known in Latin Europe, several experts in the Near East affairs tried to specify the real place of the Tatars of the Golden Horde and the Ilkhan Horde in the complicated geopolitical complex, related to the struggle for the liberation of the Holy Land and the Holy Sepulchre from the “yoke of the Saracens”. The experts had to explain to the Western European elites how they should perceive the two Western uluses of the formerly united Mongol Empire of the Chinggisids. The relations with the Golden Horde and the Ilkhans of Iran appeared to be of crucial importance for the liberation and preservation of the Holy Land. Thus, two images of the Tatars took shape gradually: that of potential enemies in the case of the Golden Horde, and the possible allies in the case of the Ilkhans. This text is dedicated to several treatises of these propagandists, unified under the title and the slogan De Recuperatione Terrae Sanctae. The main focus is on the treatises of Hayton of Corycus (“Flower of the Histories of the Orient” and of Marino Sanudo Torsello (“The Secrets of the Faithful to the Cross”, where we could find extremely interesting information on the Western European image of the Tatars. Several other excerpts are included in the text, namely passages from the treatises of William Adam (“How to exterminate the Saracens”, Pseudo-Brocardus (“A Guideline of Organization of a Crusade” and the founder of this genre – Fidenzio di Padova (“A Book for the Recovery of the Holy Land”, where the political and military tendencies are defined very clear. The evolution of the image of the Tatar-Mongols developed from “children of the Tartar” to “bonnes sauvages” and “global rulers”, that are able to handle even the holy cause of the liberation of the Promised Land of the Christian people.

  11. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  12. In the Age of Changes: Rebellion, Insurrection and Revolution in the 17th – Early 20th Centuries in the Russian Province: All-Russian Conference to the 100th Anniversary of 1917 Revolutionary Events

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    Denis A. Lyapin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author points out the importance of studying social conflicts in the history of Russia. Over the past years, this problem has been in the core of scholars’ attention. The study of social conflicts and crisis periods allows revealing important features of development of the Russian state. In this regard, the conference “In the age of changes: rebellion, insurrection and revolution in the 17th – early 20th centuries in the Russian province” that took place on September 21–23, 2017 at the Elets State University named after I.A. Bunin was characterized by utmost relevance. The conference was held with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Administration of the Lipetsk Region. The scholars from 14 regions of Russia took part in the conference, more than half of them were represented by doctors of sciences. The reports of the conference participants aroused debates and focused on the social conflicts taking place in the Russian province in the 17th – first quarter of the 20th century. The reports were published in a special issue of the journal History: Facts and Symbols. The conference served as the discussion platform for major Russian scholars, and allowed to put forward new ideas, which together can be embodied in new events of this kind. The author considers several problematic reports and notes that the conference showed the importance of such events that determine and guide the development of rebellion studies in historical science.

  13. "What shall I do? The more I kill the greater becomes their number!": the suppression of Anabaptism in early sixteenth century

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    Margot Kottelin-Longley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anabaptist movement was a ‘common man’s reform movement’ in Luther’s Europe. The Anabaptists wanted to reform the church according to New Testament guidelines more radically than either Luther or Zwingli were ready to do. For example, they baptised adults instead of infants, because they had observed that only adults were baptised in the Gospels, including the baptism of Jesus. In reformation Europe any adults baptised by these reformers would have already received baptism as infants. It was this practise of re-baptising members of the Catholic Church that gave them the name ‘Anabaptists’. ‘Re-baptism’ was a heresy deserving death, and to classify these radical reformers thus made them legally subject to execution. In this article the author first explains what she means by the ‘Anabaptist movement’. This includes an introduction to early Swiss Anabaptism and to the way in which it was speedily persecuted by the religious authorities. This persecution caused flight and that in turn caused the movement to spread. As the number of Anabaptists increased to thousands, so did the persecution by torture and death. Stories of some Anabaptist martyrs are recounted during the course of this article. The author also looks at the various justifications for the burning of heretics, as well as at the corresponding theological understanding by those who were burned.

  14. The role of nutrition in integrated early child development in the 21st century: contribution from the Maternal and Child Nutrition journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. For the Amusement of the Merry Little Subjects: How British Children Met Don Quixote in the Long Eighteenth Century

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    Miriam Borham Puyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a masterpiece, Don Quixote has become an easily recognizable myth, sometimes reduced to well-known episodes such as the tilting at windmills or the blanket-tossing of Sancho. These elements are emphasised in editions of this classic for children, highlighting the importance these versions have for the understanding of the widespread popularity of Cervantes’ novel, in general, and of certain scenes, in particular. The present article explores the relationship of the child reader to Don Quixote and provides an overview of how English children might have encountered it in the long eighteenth century (1660-1832. It connects chapbooks, abridgments and children’s books to suggest that children might have been among its earliest readers and to emphasise the intertextual continuum and the richness in the reception of Don Quixote in England, from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.

  16. Winning Hearts and Minds: Multimedia Events, Religious Communication and the Urban Context in the Long Sixteenth Century (1450-1650)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    practices, were not only responsible for the wide and varied dissemination of opinions and ideas, but also had an impact on how these opinions and ideas were interpreted by various media consumers and thus shaped new communities of interpretation in the “long sixteenth century” – that is, from the invention...... of printing to the mid seventeenth century crisis. During the long sixteenth century, a media revolution took place that offered unprecedented possibilities to adopt, express and exchange ideas and opinions, often of a religious nature. Many studies have revealed the importance of media such as script, print......This volume will proceed from and expand on the WG2 meeting held in Ghent, June 1-2, 2017. The meeting succeeded remarkably in its aim, which was to bring medievalist and modernist specialists together in order to demonstrate that the combination and interaction of various media, i.e. multimedia...

  17. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

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    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  18. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  19. International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” (December 19, 2014 »

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    G.E. Sabdenova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” was held in Almaty December 19, 2014. The round table was organized by the Faculty of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. The conference was attended by renowned experts. Professor Talas Omarbekovich Omarbekov was the moderator of this round table. Each report was followed by a discussion. Among others, the following reports were presented at the conference: Uli Schamiloglu, “The Plague in the Time of Justinian and Central Eurasian History”; G.A. Bordyugov, “An Applied History: Developing Methods of Historical Knowledge in the Situation of an Interdisciplinary Inevitability”; Mehmet Şahingöz, “Problems of Studying the History of Jungar Invasion and Its Influence on the Turkic World in Turkey”; R.R. Gallyamov, “Etnogony as a Way to Study the Early Ethnogenesis and Ethnic History of Turkic Peoples of Central Eurasia”; Mehmet Derviş, “Problems of Studying the History of the Turkic Peoples in the Context of World History”; Roman Hautala, “On the Need of Introduction in Academic Circulation of New Sources on the Golden Horde History”; Ilnur Mirgaleev, “Activities of the Center for Research on the Golden Horde History”; Svetlana Hautala, “About Discrepancy of Information of the Written Sources and Material Artifacts: Herodotus on the Scythian Cauldrons”.

  20. The power of the kashrut: older but shorter. The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassenaar, V; Karel, E H

    2016-06-01

    We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818-1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather high biological standard of living. This database of 413 conscripts contains information about family structure, family rank order, height, tax income, occupation and age of death. Conscripts came from two communities: one from a particular village (Oosterhesselen) and the other was Jewish conscripts that came from the countryside of the province. Our statistical analysis shows a positive significant relationship between family size and height, which confirms the resource dilution theory. Remarkably, the sign of the relation between family size and life expectancy is inverse. Other factors such as the potato crisis and income had the expected effect on conscript heights. The community effect was strong. Jewish conscripts were much shorter than their counterparts. Access to nutrition, the specific food laws and other factors can explain this difference. An increasing sibship size had a negative impact on body height but positive effects on life expectancy when adulthood was reached. Specifically for the Jewish community was the positive effect of the death of the father on conscript height. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear and open for further research.

  1. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

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    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  2. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  3. A sixteenth century Portuguese report concerning an early Javanese world map Relatório português do século XVI descreve mapa-múndi antigo de origem javanesa

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    Benjamin B. Olshin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available In the sixteenth century, there were numerous voyages of discovery in the oceans of the world, expanding European understanding and influence. These explorations, and in particular the knowledge they created, have tended to overshadow other ventures into the unknown. Not just the Europeans, but other cultures as well, navigated the seas and accumulated geographical information, putting together their own ideas about the distribution of the lands and seas around the globe. Arab and Asian seafarers plied the oceans in trade and exploration, and created maps and geographical texts. These maps and texts, however, are not as numerous as a scholar might wish. The Asian maps, particularly early ones, are few in number, and these are virtually all Chinese and Korean creations, world maps based on traditional religious concepts of a circular landmass. There are few maps based on actual navigation. But an early sixteenth-century Portuguese document gives a brief description of a Javanese map, which apparently showed much of the world. It also depicted the routes of the navigations of the Chinese and other Pacific peoples. The map itself has been lost, but we read of it in a letter from the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque to his king, Dom Manuel, dated 1 April 1512.No século XVI, várias viagens de descobrimento expandiram a influência e o reconhecimento europeus. Essas expedições marítimas, e em particular o conhecimento que geraram, ofuscaram outras aventuras pelo desconhecido. Outros povos navegaram pelos oceanos, acumularam informações e organizaram suas próprias idéias sobre a distribuição de terras e mares. Navegadores árabes e asiáticos criaram mapas, cartas náuticas e textos geográficos expondo suas descobertas. Esses mapas, no entanto, não são tão numerosos. Os asiáticos, particularmente os mais antigos, são poucos e quase todos originários da China e Coréia, e baseavam-se em conceitos religiosos tradicionais e na id

  4. About Introduction of New Methods of Managing in the Economy of the Traditional Kazakh Society of the Central Part of Kazakhstan in the Second Half of XIX – Early XX Centuries

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    Bakhytgul T. Tuleuova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Russian and Kazakh archives materials discussed the process of implementation of new methods of management in the economy of the traditional Kazakh society during the second half of XIX – early XX centuries. under the influence of Russian administrative and land reforms, the penetration of market relations in the Kazakh steppe, the resettlement of peasants from the central provinces of Russia. The authors examine this process by the example of the central part of Kazakhstan, where the spread of settled agricultural culture went less intensively in contrast to other regions of Kazakhstan. The reason for this was the difficult climatic and soil conditions, a low percentage of the Russian population, prevailing economic tradition. Particular attention is paid to the issue of land use in the Kazakh steppe, which was directly linked to the policy of seizure of grazing land and the settling of the nomadic population, carried by Russian administration. As a result of land and resettlement policy of the Russian state in the Kazakh steppe, resulted in the seizure vast land spaces of pastoral economic circulation, distribution of settled agricultural culture, nomadic pastoralism was to adapt to the changed socio-economic circumstances. This was manifested in the change of the structure of the traditional herds, distributing intensive forms of farming and the development of new methods of development of cattle breeding. The author concludes that, resettlement and land policy of the Russian colonial administration in Kazakhstan, based on the seizure of grazing and irrational use of soil resources, not only changed the course of development of nomadic livestock farming, but also adversely affected the development of traditional agriculture in the Kazakh steppe.

  5. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

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    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  6. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  7. The Poor Law of old England: institutional innovation and demographic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Morgan; Gráda, Cormac Ó

    2010-01-01

    The striking improvement in life expectancy that took place in England between the Middle Ages and the seventeenth century cannot be explained either by an increase in real wages or by better climatic conditions. The decrease in the risk of utter destitution or of death from famine that was evident on the eve of the Industrial Revolution stemmed, in part, from institutional changes in the old poor law, which began to take shape and become effective early in the seventeenth century.

  8. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  9. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  10. Jews, Music-Making, and the Twentieth Century Maghrib

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Christopher Benno

    2017-01-01

    From the early twentieth century and through at least mid-century, indigenous North African Jews came to play an outsized role as music-makers and music-purveyors across the Maghrib. In Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, all under French rule until the middle of the twentieth century, Jewish vocalists and instrumentalists, record label artistic directors and concessionaires, commercial agents, and sonic impresarios utilized the phonograph and recording technology to safeguard and promote traditio...

  11. ‘ “Dannsair air ùrlar-déile thu”: Gaelic evidence about dance from the mid-17th to late-18th century Highlands’

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    Michael Steven Newton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available From the 1950s to the 1970s, two sets of scholars – Tom and Joan Flett, and George Emmerson – gleaned many English-language sources to recover aspects of the history of dance in Scotland. They correctly pointed out the pervasive influence of French court culture and the French-trained dancing masters on Scottish forms of dance, including in the Highlands, but did not examine the majority of potential Gaelic sources in their work. This article examines Scottish Gaelic sources referring to dance practices in the Scottish Highlands from the late-seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century, placing them within the context of wider European developments in music and dance and confirming that they demonstrate a consciousness of the strong connections with France and corresponding effects on Gaelic dance traditions.

  12. [The century of noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    When did, actually, "noise pollution" begin to coexist along with our daily life and activities and change our environmental natural sounds, which hadn't changed for centuries? Industrial revolution, first, and the introduction of new technologies later, introduced "noise" as one of the most relevant features that marked the development of progress. Later on, it became the distinctive characteristic of the XX century. The incessant rumble of industrial machinery, of weapons and cannons from the wars, the roar of cars in the streets and aeroplanes from the sky, the deafening sound of XX century music, as well as the shouting out of new political ideas suddenly invaded the new century. They became part of our daily life so much as almost to become a new lay religion of modernity. As the century proceeded towards economic boom, a "new noisy Man" complied with this change, becoming the anthropologic prototype who was able to adapt to the new style of life and even contribute to its expansion. All this finally allows, to day, a definition of the XX century as the "century of noise".

  13. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  14. Poverty in the first-century Galilee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Häkkinen

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the activity of Jesus and the early Jesus movement in Galilee, it is essential to know the social and economic context where he and his followers came. The principal literary source in first-century Galilee is Josephus, who provides a very incomplete glimpse of the political and economic character of the Galilee and his account is both tendentious and selfserving. There is no consensus among the scholars on the conditions of ordinary people in Galilee at the time of Jesus and the early Jesus movement. The evidence can be interpreted either so that first-century Galilee was peaceful and people had somewhat better times economically because of the large building projects, or just the opposite – the building projects demanded a lot more taxes and forced labour and made life even more difficult. In this article it is argued that the latter conditions explain better the birth and rapid increase of the early Jesus movement in Galilee.

  15. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  16. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  17. Integration of historical, archaeoseismic and paleoseismological data for the reconstruction of the early seismic history in Messina Strait (south Italy: the 1st and 4th centuries AD earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serafina Barbano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical accounts, archaeoseismic and paleoseismological evidence allowed us to reappraise two earthquakes affecting northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria in the 1st (probably between 14 and 37 and 4th (likely between 361 and 363 centuries AD, to obtain a better reconstruction of their effects and to reconsider their sources.The 1st century event damaged the area from Oppido (Calabria to Tindari (Sicily, roughly that of the February 6, 1783 Calabria earthquake. The similitude of these earthquakes is further stressed by the fact that they generated tsunamis, as recorded by historical data and by the tsunami deposits found at Capo Peloro, the oldest dated 0-125 AD, the youngest linked to the 1783 event. These earthquakes could be related to the same Calabria seismic source: the Scilla fault. Northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria were also damaged by one or more earthquakes in the 4th century AD and several towns were rebuilt/restored at that time. The hit area roughly coincides with that of the Messina 1908 earthquake suggesting similar seismic sources for the events. However, because close in time, historical descriptions of the 4th century Sicilian earthquake were mixed with those of the 365 Crete earthquake that generated a basin-wide tsunami most likely reaching also the Sicilian coasts. Reevaluating location, size, damage area and tsunamigenic potential of these two earthquakes of the 1st and 4th centuries AD is relevant for reassessing the seismogenic and tsunamigenic potential of the faults around the Messina Strait and the seismic hazard of the affected areas.

  18. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.

  19. The family and its problems in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century [Rodzina i jej problemy w czasopismach andragogicznych przełomu lat pięćdziesiątych i sześćdziesiątych XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna JANIK-KOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/publishThe text deals with the family problems and its support for their solutions based on articles published in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century. These issues are extremely interesting, since they relate to the family life culture, marriage preparation and family life education. Preparing for marriage is of great importance for the future of its operation. Its absence has an effect on family problems and marital conflicts later in life. Parenting universities provided support for families in solving their problems, primarily in dealing with behavioral problems, but also provided knowledge from other areas of life.er/metadata

  20. Chronology of 3rd–5th Century Female Graves from Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the concluding part a series of works by the authors on the dating of burials from the unique 1st–5th century Tarasovo burial ground in the Middle Kama region. The first article was dedicated to the chronology of graves dating back to the early Nyrgynda stage (1st–2nd centuries of this monument. The second and third publications feature an analysis of the chronology of 3rd–5th century male burials. The present work describes 160 female burials of 3rd–5th centuries analyzed from the perspective of chronology. Similarly to previous research, the three main methods employed by the authors of this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbour method. A total of 12 chronological groups were singled out as a result: 1st half of 3rd century A.D. (group 1; 2nd half of 3rd century (2; 3rd century (3; 4th century (group 4; 2nd half of 3rd–4th centuries (5а; 3rd–4th centuries (5б; 1st half of 5th century (6; 2nd half of 5th century (7; 5th century (group 8; 2nd half of 4th–5th centuries (9; 4th–5th centuries (10; 2nd half of 3rd–5th centuries