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Sample records for early sensitization patterns

  1. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  3. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... or extend them causes a loss of significant information (where the number of occurrences changes). Output-sensitive algorithms have been proposed to enumerate and list these patterns, taking polynomial time O(nc) per pattern for constant c > 1, which is impractical for massive sequences of very large length...

  4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  5. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  6. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Capdevila, Lluís; Alomar, Xavier; Bong, David A

    2014-06-01

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the "gold standard." In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7%) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3%) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4%). Thirty-one cases (56.3%) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4%) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20%) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20%) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2% of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area.

  7. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balius, Ramon; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Capdevila, Lluis; Alomar, Xavier; Bong, David A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  8. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....

  9. Body Composition Growth Patterns in Early Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Wibaek, Rasmus; Kaestel, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify subgroups with distinct fat and fat-free growth patterns in the first 6 months of life and describe predictors of these different patterns. METHODS: A total of 510 apparently healthy Ethiopian infants were followed from birth to 6 months of a...... in regular anthropometric assessment and could be a mechanism linking early growth with later obesity and cardiometabolic risk....

  10. Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Aerobic Bacterial Agents in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Aerobic Bacterial Agents in Post-Surgical ... those commonly used to treat orofacial infections were tested for sensitivity against the ... were the augmented Penicillins and newer generations Cephalosporins.

  11. Sensitive Ceramics_Pattern #1-#5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    pattern of which are reflecting the position and speed of the hands. In that way the user is able to interact and model a responding pattern. The second level has to do with realizing the modules in ceramics by 3d printing directly in porcelain with a RapMan printer that coils up the 3d shape in layers...

  12. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ... out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to ...

  14. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Objective: The knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of common etiological ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to most ... causing urinary tract infection in children with sickle.

  15. Pattern statistics on Markov chains and sensitivity to parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuel Grégory

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In order to compute pattern statistics in computational biology a Markov model is commonly used to take into account the sequence composition. Usually its parameter must be estimated. The aim of this paper is to determine how sensitive these statistics are to parameter estimation, and what are the consequences of this variability on pattern studies (finding the most over-represented words in a genome, the most significant common words to a set of sequences,.... Results: In the particular case where pattern statistics (overlap counting only computed through binomial approximations we use the delta-method to give an explicit expression of σ, the standard deviation of a pattern statistic. This result is validated using simulations and a simple pattern study is also considered. Conclusion: We establish that the use of high order Markov model could easily lead to major mistakes due to the high sensitivity of pattern statistics to parameter estimation.

  16. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  17. SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY OF EARLY VISION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    Based on the spatial and temporal statistics of natural images, a theory is developed that specifies spatiotemporal filters that maximize the flow of information through noisy channels of limited dynamic range. Sensitivities resulting from these spatiotemporal filters are very similar to the human

  18. The pattern of sesame sensitivity among infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ilan; Binson, Inga; Levine, Arie; Somekh, Eli; Ballin, Ami; Reifen, Ram

    2003-08-01

    Recently, we found sesame to be a major cause of severe IgE-mediated food allergic reactions among infants and young children in Israel. The purpose of this study was to describe the different patterns of sesame sensitivity. We have identified three subgroups among our patients (n = 32). Group I (n = 23, M/F; 14/9) consisted of cases with IgE-mediated sesame allergy. The mean age of the first allergic reaction was 11.7 months. Although the main clinical manifestation was urticaria/angiedema (n = 14, 60%), anaphylaxis was the presenting symptom in seven (30%) patients; all of them were younger than 1 year. Sixteen (70%) were found to be allergic to other foods, and other atopic diseases were identified in 18 (78%) patients. Three patients 'outgrew' their allergy within 1-2 years. Group II (n = 2) included cases in whom sesame allergy was ruled out based on a negative skin prick test (SPT) together with a negative open oral challenge. Group III (n = 7) consisted of patients that were found to be SPT positive for sesame as part of a screening for other food allergies. Although sesame products have become fashionable in westernized countries, early exposure may cause sesame to share eventually the same 'noteriety and fate' as peanut - a major cause of severe food allergic reactions.

  19. Correlated evolution of short wavelength sensitive photoreceptor sensitivity and color pattern in Lake Malawi cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pauers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For evolutionary ecologists, the holy grail of visual ecology is to establish an unambiguous link between photoreceptor sensitivity, the spectral environment, and the perception of specific visual stimuli (e.g., mates, food, predators, etc.. Due to the bright nuptial colors of the males, and the role female mate choice plays in their evolution, the haplochromine cichlid fishes of the African great lakes are favorite research subjects for such investigations. Despite this attention, current evidence is equivocal; while distinct correlations among photoreceptor sensitivity, photic environment, and male coloration exist in Lake Victorian haplochromines, attempts to find such correlations in Lake Malawian cichlids have failed. Lake Malawi haplochromines have a wide variability in their short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, especially compared to their mid- and long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors; these cichlids also vary in the degree to which they express one of three basic color patterns (vertical bars, horizontal stripes, and solid patches of colors, each of which is likely used in a different form of communication. Thus, we hypothesize that, in these fishes, spectral sensitivity and color pattern have evolved in a correlated fashion to maximize visual communication; specifically, ultraviolet sensitivity should be found in vertically-barred species to promote ‘private’ communication, while striped species should be less likely to have ultraviolet sensitivity, since their color pattern carries ‘public’ information. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, we found that barred species had strong sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths, but that striped species typically lacked sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Further, the only variable, even when environmental variables were simultaneously considered, that could predict ultraviolet sensitivity was color pattern. We also found that, using models of correlated evolution, color

  20. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  1. Allergen Sensitization Pattern by Sex: A Cluster Analysis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Doh, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun-Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun

    2017-12-01

    Allergens tend to sensitize simultaneously. Etiology of this phenomenon has been suggested to be allergen cross-reactivity or concurrent exposure. However, little is known about specific allergen sensitization patterns. To investigate the allergen sensitization characteristics according to gender. Multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) is widely used as a screening tool for detecting allergen sensitization in dermatologic clinics. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with MAST results between 2008 and 2014 in our Department of Dermatology. A cluster analysis was performed to elucidate the allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E cluster pattern. The results of MAST (39 allergen-specific IgEs) from 4,360 cases were analyzed. By cluster analysis, 39items were grouped into 8 clusters. Each cluster had characteristic features. When compared with female, the male group tended to be sensitized more frequently to all tested allergens, except for fungus allergens cluster. The cluster and comparative analysis results demonstrate that the allergen sensitization is clustered, manifesting allergen similarity or co-exposure. Only the fungus cluster allergens tend to sensitize female group more frequently than male group.

  2. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-07-06

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  3. Sensitivity to selected contaminants in a biological early warning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several early warning systems for the monitoring of water quality are based on the assessment of valve opening/closing in bivalves. Tests were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the mussel Anodonta woodiana, installed on the Mosselmonitor, to seven contaminants and evaluate the usefulness of these sensors for ...

  4. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  5. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  6. Pattern centric design based sensitive patterns and process monitor in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Chingyun; Cheng, Guojie; Wu, Kechih

    2017-03-01

    When design rule is mitigating to smaller dimension, process variation requirement is tighter than ever and challenges the limits of device yield. Masks, lithography, etching and other processes have to meet very tight specifications in order to keep defect and CD within the margins of the process window. Conventionally, Inspection and metrology equipments are utilized to monitor and control wafer quality in-line. In high throughput optical inspection, nuisance and review-classification become a tedious labor intensive job in manufacturing. Certain high-resolution SEM images are taken to validate defects after optical inspection. These high resolution SEM images catch not only optical inspection highlighted point, also its surrounding patterns. However, this pattern information is not well utilized in conventional quality control method. Using this complementary design based pattern monitor not only monitors and analyzes the variation of patterns sensitivity but also reduce nuisance and highlight defective patterns or killer defects. After grouping in either single or multiple layers, systematic defects can be identified quickly in this flow. In this paper, we applied design based pattern monitor in different layers to monitor process variation impacts on all kinds of patterns. First, the contour of high resolutions SEM image is extracted and aligned to design with offset adjustment and fine alignment [1]. Second, specified pattern rules can be applied on design clip area, the same size as SEM image, and form POI (pattern of interest) areas. Third, the discrepancy of contour and design measurement at different pattern types in measurement blocks. Fourth, defective patterns are reported by discrepancy detection criteria and pattern grouping [4]. Meanwhile, reported pattern defects are ranked by number and severity by discrepancy. In this step, process sensitive high repeatable systematic defects can be identified quickly Through this design based process pattern

  7. Early patterns of commercial activity in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, Philip; Youtie, Jan; Arora, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a novel nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, has attracted significant attention due to its distinctive properties, including great strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, lightness, and potential benefits for diverse applications. The commercialization of scientific discoveries such as graphene is inherently uncertain, with the lag time between the scientific development of a new technology and its adoption by corporate actors revealing the extent to which firms are able to absorb knowledge and engage in learning to implement applications based on the new technology. From this perspective, we test for the existence of three different corporate learning and activity patterns: (1) a linear process where patenting follows scientific discovery; (2) a double-boom phenomenon where corporate (patenting) activity is first concentrated in technological improvements and then followed by a period of technology productization; and (3) a concurrent model where scientific discovery in publications occurs in parallel with patenting. By analyzing corporate publication and patent activity across country and application lines, we find that, while graphene as a whole is experiencing concurrent scientific development and patenting growth, country- and application-specific trends offer some evidence of the linear and double-boom models.

  8. Fathers’ Sensitive Parenting and the Development of Early Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers’ sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children’s early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children’s early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers’ and mothers’ sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24-months predicted children’s executive functioning at 3-years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7-months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children’s executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. PMID:25347539

  9. STUDY OF PATHOGENESIS AND ITS SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN UTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad Kathula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infections are common causes of both community acquired and nosocomial infections in adult patients admitted in the hospitals. Urinary tract infections can be defined as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in significant colony count in the bladder of upper urinary tract with its associated consequences. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a term used to designate urinary tract infections in the absence of symptoms with the growth of bacteria colonies often crossing 1,00,000/mL in a freshly voided midstream urine sample. Urethritis and cystitis are characterised by the inflammation of the urethra and bladder with symptoms of dysuria, frequency and lower pubic pain and it is associated with fever. Acute pyelonephritis is the bacterial infection of renal parenchyma and it is characterised by fever with rigors, flank pain, vomiting, costovertebral tenderness with or without symptoms of cystitis. It may be associated with pus formation. Prostatitis is quiet common and it involves infective inflammation of the prostate associated with dysuria, urgency, frequency and pain in the lower abdomen, perineum, or base of the penis. A sincere effort has been made towards this study on pathogenesis and its sensitivity pattern in UTI. METHODS One hundred cases who visited the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad were used as the sample size of the study. The plethora of the signs and symptoms which were seen were noted and the mid catch of the urine was done and sent to the Department of Microbiology for the pathogens to be identified. The sensitivity pattern was also studied and reported. The study was done from October 2012 to November 2013. RESULT The most common pathogen was E. coli and the most sensitivity of the commonest pathogen (E. coli was found to be towards Nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION In this study, the most common pathogens which causes the UTI and the sensitivity pattern has been reported. The study is

  10. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  11. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  12. Salivary Proteome Patterns Affecting Human Salt Taste Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Theresa; Grondinger, Freya; Dunkel, Andreas; Meng, Chen; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Hofmann, Thomas

    2017-10-25

    To investigate the role of perireceptor events in inter-individual variability in salt taste sensitivity, 31 volunteers were monitored in their detection functions for sodium chloride (NaCl) and classified into sensitive (0.6-1.7 mmol/L), medium-sensitive (1.8-6.9 mmol/L), and nonsensitive (7.0-11.2 mmol/L) subjects. Chemosensory intervention of NaCl-sensitive (S + ) and nonsensitive (S - ) panellists with potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, and sodium gluconate showed the salt taste sensitivity to be specific for NaCl. As no significant differences were found between S + and S - subjects in salivary sodium and protein content, salivary proteome differences and their stimulus-induced dynamic changes were analyzed by tryptic digestion, iTRAQ labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Differences in the salivary proteome between S + and S - subjects were found primarily in resting saliva and were largely independent of the dynamic alterations observed upon salt stimulation. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of key proteins, i.e., immunoglobulin heavy constant y1, myeloblastin, cathepsin G, and kallikrein, revealed significantly increased serine-type endopeptidase activity for the S + group, while the S - group exhibited augmented cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity by increased abundances in lipocalin-1 and cystatin-D, -S, and -SN, respectively. As proteases have been suggested to facilitate transepithelial sodium transport by cleaving the y-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and protease inhibitors have been shown to reduce ENaC-mediated sodium transport, the differentially modulated proteolytic activity patterns observed in vivo for S + and S - subjects show evidence of them playing a crucial role in affecting human NaCl sensitivity.

  13. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  14. The Prevalence and Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Isparta, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Aynali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of allergic sensitization in Isparta. Material and Method: Of the patients, 266 were children, 213 were women, and 119 were men. Serum specific IgE levels were analyzed by %uFB02uoroenzymeimmunoassay method (UniCAP, Pharmacia and Upjohn Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Results: Serum specific IgE levels were positive in 27.1% of the adults and in 26.3% of the children. Hypersensitivity to allergens was determined in 32.9% of boys, in 16.7% of girls, in 40.3% of men, and in 19.7% of women. There was no difference in allergy prevalence in terms of age (p> 0.05. However, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in males was found significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05. The most frequently encountered allergens were as follows: Ambrosia trifida(31.6 %, honey bee (31.2 %, elm (27.6 %, nuts (18.5 %, cow epithelium (17.4%, Acarus siro (11.5 %, and penicillin G (4.2 %. Discussion: It was determined that the rates of sensitization against grass and weed pollens, tree pollens, and foods were high in Isparta and they exhibited an increased tendency in males.

  15. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  16. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  17. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  19. Patterns of deoxygenation: sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Duteil, Olaf; Getzlaff, Julia; Koeve, Wolfgang; Landolfi, Angela; Schmidtko, Sunke

    2017-08-01

    Observational estimates and numerical models both indicate a significant overall decline in marine oxygen levels over the past few decades. Spatial patterns of oxygen change, however, differ considerably between observed and modelled estimates. Particularly in the tropical thermocline that hosts open-ocean oxygen minimum zones, observations indicate a general oxygen decline, whereas most of the state-of-the-art models simulate increasing oxygen levels. Possible reasons for the apparent model-data discrepancies are examined. In order to attribute observed historical variations in oxygen levels, we here study mechanisms of changes in oxygen supply and consumption with sensitivity model simulations. Specifically, the role of equatorial jets, of lateral and diapycnal mixing processes, of changes in the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric nutrient supply, and of some poorly constrained biogeochemical processes are investigated. Predominantly wind-driven changes in the low-latitude oceanic ventilation are identified as a possible factor contributing to observed oxygen changes in the low-latitude thermocline during the past decades, while the potential role of biogeochemical processes remains difficult to constrain. We discuss implications for the attribution of observed oxygen changes to anthropogenic impacts and research priorities that may help to improve our mechanistic understanding of oxygen changes and the quality of projections into a changing future. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  20. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  1. Patterns of aeroallergen sensitization predicting risk for asthma in preschool children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo; Neri, Iria; Ricci, Lorenza; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder mostly affecting young children. Although several studies aimed to identify the risk factors for asthma in AD children, many aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk factors for asthma at school age in 99 children with early-onset and IgE-mediated AD. All children performed clinical evaluation and total and specific IgE assay for a panel of inhalant and food allergens at two different times (t1 and t2) during preschool, and asthma diagnosis was assessed at one follow-up visit (t3) at school age. At t3, 39% of children had developed asthma. Of the variables compared, the sensitization to more than one class of inhalant allergens at t2 (mean age = 30 months) was associated with asthma, with grass (OR = 3.24, p = 0.020) and cat sensitization (OR = 2.74, p = 0.043) as independent risk factors. The sensitization pattern of a child with early-onset AD, also within the first 2-3 years of life, can reflect his risk to develop asthma. Therefore, testing these children for the more common allergens during this time frame should be recommended to predict the evolution of atopic diseases.

  2. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times

  3. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of gram positive CSF isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100%) to Linezolid, Vancomycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. However, Staphylococcus aureus were 100% sensitive to Linezolid and Vancomycin but were only 87.5% sensitive to Piperacillin-Tazobactam combination. The Streptococcus ...

  4. Exploring Intercultural Sensitivity in Early Adolescence: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…

  5. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, eye-hand coordination, and performance. Among the possible dyadic patterns of interaction, 2 patterns emerge recurrently in mother-infant preterm dyads: a "cooperative pattern" with a sensitive mother and a cooperative-responsive infant (28%) and a "controlling pattern" with a controlling mother and a compulsive-compliant infant (28%). The remaining 44% form a heterogeneous group that gathers all of the other preterm dyads and is composed of 1 sensitive mother-passive infant; 10 controlling mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant; and 10 unresponsive mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant. Among the term control

  6. A Survey on Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Different Antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: A study of antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from clinical sources of Medinova ... It also causes urinary tract infection and other .... Ceftriaxone- resistant Salmonella infection acquired by a child from cattle. N. Engl.

  7. Climate sensitivity to Arctic seaway restriction during the early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher D.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2009-09-01

    The opening and closing of ocean gateways affects the global distribution of heat, salt, and moisture, potentially driving climatic change on regional to global scales. Between 65 and 45 million years ago (Ma), during the early Paleogene, exchange between the Arctic and global oceans occurred through two narrow and shallow seaways, the Greenland-Norway seaway and the Turgai Strait. Sediments from the Arctic Ocean suggest that, during this interval, the surface ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions in the Paleogene Arctic remain uncertain. Here we show results from an isotope-enabled, atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, which indicate that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the Arctic seaways. We also present modelled estimates of seawater and calcite δ18O for the Paleogene. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~ 6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2 °C in the North Atlantic and 5-10 °C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We propose that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates and supports a tectonic trigger hypothesis for the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).

  8. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  9. Predictive patterns of early medication adherence in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Thomas E; Robiner, William N; Thomas, William

    2014-10-27

    Patients' adherence with posttransplant immunosuppression is known to affect renal transplant outcomes. Prospectively, individual medication adherence patterns in 195 kidney transplant recipients were quantified with electronic medication monitors. Monitored drugs were mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, or azathioprine. Monitoring began at hospital discharge and continued an average of 15±8 months. Patient follow-up for clinical outcomes averaged 8±3 years. Each month's adherence percentage was calculated as the sum of daily adherence percents, divided by the number of evaluable days. During the first 3 months after transplantation, patients (n=44) with declining medication adherence, defined as dropping by 7% or higher (equal to missing 2 days) between months 1 and 2, later experienced lower mean medication adherence for months 6 to 12, 73% versus 92% respectively (Padherence, they also had more frequent (P=0.034) and earlier (P=0.065) acute rejection episodes. This was additionally associated with more frequent (P=0.017) and earlier (P=0.046) death-censored graft loss.In addition, daily medication adherence, expressed as the percentage of doses taken, decreased as the number of prescribed daily doses increased. During the first 3 months after transplantation, adherence with four doses per day averaged 84%, compared to 91% for patients on twice-daily dosing (P=0.024) and 93.5% for patients on once-daily dosing (P=0.008). Early declining medication nonadherence is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This pattern is detectable during the first 2 months after transplantation. Early detection of nonadherence provides opportunities to target interventions toward patients at the highest risk for adverse behaviors and events.

  10. Pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-04-18

    Apr 18, 2015 ... asymptomatic patients with HIV infection in pregnancy. The isolated ..... sensitive to 72.7% of the drugs tested; also. E.coli which ... candida albicans. Schistosoma ... may be prone to abuse and subsequently the high level of ...

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic sensitivity, Nigeria, Kano ... infection have an increased colonization risks [8]. ... confirmed Staphylococcus aureus isolates was prepared in peptone water to ... 5 g methicillin discs (oxoid, USA) were aseptically placed on the surface of the inoculated plates and ...

  12. Sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in childhood sepsis in clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the commonest organism cultured from the blood of children suspected to have bacterial sepsis and their antibiogram sensitivity using the commonly used antibiotics in a private practice and see if there are differences from established data from other areas. Children beyond neonatal age presenting to a ...

  13. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  14. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cystatin C in Detecting Early Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trimester since it maximizes the value of sensitivity and specificity. Keywords: Cystatin C ... Recruitment was done on patients that meet the inclusion and exclusion ... mm Hg. CKD stage was defined based on creatinine clearance value.

  15. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  16. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Kjaer, H F; Høst, A

    2009-01-01

    of AD using Hanifin-Rajka criteria and for FHS using interviews, skin prick test (SPT), specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and food challenge according to EAACI guidelines. Results: Twenty children were confirmed with FHS to milk, egg, and peanut. FHS peaked at 18 months (3.6%) and then decreased to 1......Background: The prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and the relationship with atopic dermatitis (AD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the development of FHS and to correlate this with AD in relation to sensitization and symptoms. Methods: This study combines new data.......2% at 72 months of age. No new cases were found after 3 years. Self-reporting could only be confirmed in 31% of cases. Among the 122 children with AD, 18 had FHS (14.8%). FHS was IgE-mediated in 95% of the cases but 16 of 20 children were additionally sensitized to other foods which they tolerated...

  18. Increasing Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Intercultural Sensitivity through the ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Lisa; Ruan, Jiening

    2018-01-01

    While the early childhood student population has become increasingly diverse in the U.S., its teaching force remains primarily European American. The diverse student population demands that early childhood educators possess intercultural sensitivity in order to teach their culturally diverse learners effectively. This study examined the…

  19. Airborne and food sensitization patterns in children and adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu Ting; Christos, Paul J; Reisacher, William R

    2018-05-01

    The pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is currently unknown, but evidence suggests that allergic sensitization to food and airborne allergens may play a key role. This retrospective study examines the rate of sensitization to both food and airborne allergens in EoE patients, and compares their sensitivity patterns to control groups. We identified 103 patients with a diagnosis of EoE via esophageal eosinophilia (≥15 eosinophils/high-power field [hpf]), who had undergone comprehensive food and/or airborne allergen testing through either skin or in vitro methods. Food and airborne allergen sensitization was defined as positive testing in at least 1 food subgroup (milk, peanut, tree nut, seafood/fish, soy, grain, egg) or airborne subgroup (tree, grass, weed, mite/cockroach, animal, mold), respectively. The same sensitization criterion was applied to allergic rhinitis (AR) patients, with and without a clinical suspicion of food allergy (FA), in order to create control groups. Sensitization in the EoE group to at least 1 subgroup of food allergen and airborne allergen was seen in 77.1% (64/83) and 71.7% (38/53), respectively (p = 0.82). There were significant differences in sensitization between EoE and control groups for tree nut, soy, grain, and egg, but no differences noted in any of the other food or airborne allergen subgroups, even after accounting for age and gender. EoE and control groups had similar airborne allergen sensitization patterns, yet dissimilar food allergen sensitization patterns, suggesting that specific allergens may play a more prominent role in the pathogenesis of EoE. The EoE group had a more uniform distribution pattern for food allergens, compared to controls. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Nanoparticle Photoresists: Ligand Exchange as a New, Sensitive EUV Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Kryask, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid nanoparticle photoresists and their patterning using DUV, EUV, 193 nm lithography and e-beam lithography has been investigated and reported earlier. The nanoparticles have demonstrated very high EUV sensitivity and significant etch resistance compared to other standard photoresists. The current study aims at investigating and establishing the underlying mechanism for dual tone patterning of these nanoparticle photoresist systems. Infrared spectroscopy and UV absorbance studies supported by mass loss and dissolution studies support the current model. © 2013SPST.

  1. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with Urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    N Subedi; S Pudasaini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the common bacterial infections seeking treatment in clinical practice. A variety of organisms are associated with UTI and the most common organisms are Escherichia coli and other coliforms. Bacteriological investigations of UTI are not complete without antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolate. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns and their disease association.Materials and methods...

  2. Behavioral and Single-Neuron Sensitivity to Millisecond Variations in Temporally Patterned Communication Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christa A; Ma, Lisa; Casareale, Chelsea R; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-08-24

    In many sensory pathways, central neurons serve as temporal filters for timing patterns in communication signals. However, how a population of neurons with diverse temporal filtering properties codes for natural variation in communication signals is unknown. Here we addressed this question in the weakly electric fish Brienomyrus brachyistius, which varies the time intervals between successive electric organ discharges to communicate. These fish produce an individually stereotyped signal called a scallop, which consists of a distinctive temporal pattern of ∼8-12 electric pulses. We manipulated the temporal structure of natural scallops during behavioral playback and in vivo electrophysiology experiments to probe the temporal sensitivity of scallop encoding and recognition. We found that presenting time-reversed, randomized, or jittered scallops increased behavioral response thresholds, demonstrating that fish's electric signaling behavior was sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Next, using in vivo intracellular recordings and discriminant function analysis, we found that the responses of interval-selective midbrain neurons were also sensitive to the precise temporal structure of scallops. Subthreshold changes in membrane potential recorded from single neurons discriminated natural scallops from time-reversed, randomized, and jittered sequences. Pooling the responses of multiple neurons improved the discriminability of natural sequences from temporally manipulated sequences. Finally, we found that single-neuron responses were sensitive to interindividual variation in scallop sequences, raising the question of whether fish may analyze scallop structure to gain information about the sender. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a population of interval-selective neurons can encode behaviorally relevant temporal patterns with millisecond precision. The timing patterns of action potentials, or spikes, play important roles in representing

  3. Clinical pattern of gynaecological / early pregnancy complaints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complaints of vaginal bleeding with or without pains, history of amenorrhea or infertility ; clinical and ultrasound impressions of early pregnancy complaints including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) with exclusion of uro-genital and gastrointestinal complaints/ cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  4. Clinical pattern of gynecological/early pregnancy complaints and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complaints of vaginal bleeding, with or without pain, history of amenorrhea or infertility, clinical and ultrasound impression of early pregnancy complaints, including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), with exclusion of urogenital and gastrointestinal complaints/cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  5. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  6. Early Warning Signals of Ecological Transitions: Methods for Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, William A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Livina, Valerie N.; Seekell, David A.; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Dakos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies show that changes in spatial characteristics of the system could provide early warnings of approaching transitions. However, the empirical validation of these indicators lag behind their theoretical developments. Here, we summarize a range of currently available spatial early warning signals, suggest potential null models to interpret their trends, and apply them to three simulated spatial data sets of systems undergoing an abrupt transition. In addition to providing a step-by-step methodology for applying these signals to spatial data sets, we propose a statistical toolbox that may be used to help detect approaching transitions in a wide range of spatial data. We hope that our methodology together with the computer codes will stimulate the application and testing of spatial early warning signals on real spatial data. PMID:24658137

  7. Overweight patterns throughout childhood and cardiometabolic markers in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Rossem, L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    BACKGROUND: Risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease is higher in adults who were relatively thin at birth and had subsequent accelerated weight gain. This specific pattern of weight gain may relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic markers already in childhood. We prospectively assessed whether

  8. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... Abstract. Introduction: The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health ...

  9. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Strains Isolated from the Cholera Epidemic in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Mohammad S.; Mahmud, Zahid H.; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruque, Shah M.; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Shafiqul; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Mazumder, Ramendra N.; Khan, Azharul I.; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Iqbal, Anwarul; Chitsatso, Owen; Mudzori, James; Patel, Sheetal; Midzi, Stanley M.; Charimari, Lincoln; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    This paper details the phenotypic, genotypic, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 88 Vibrio cholerae strains from Zimbabwe. Of the 88 strains, 83 were classified as "altered El Tor" and 5 as "hybrid El Tor" strains. All of the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin,

  10. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE...

  11. Early Holocene humidity patterns in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from lake, pollen and speleothem records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Aranbarri, Josu; Moreno, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.

    2018-02-01

    Comparison of selected, well-dated, lacustrine, speleothem and terrestrial pollen records spanning the Holocene onset and the Early Holocene (ca. 11.7-8 cal kyrs BP) in the Iberian Peninsula shows large hydrological fluctuations and landscape changes with a complex regional pattern in timing and intensity. Marine pollen records from Alboran, the Mediterranean and off shore Atlantic sites show a step-wise increase in moisture and forest during this transition. However, available continental records point to two main patterns of spatial and temporal hydrological variability: i) Atlantic-influenced sites located at the northwestern areas (Enol, Sanabria, Lucenza, PRD-4), characterized by a gradual increase in humidity from the end of the Younger Dryas to the Mid Holocene, similarly to most North Atlantic records; and ii) continental and Mediterranean-influenced sites (Laguna Grande, Villarquemado, Fuentillejo, Padul, Estanya, Banyoles, Salines), with prolonged arid conditions of variable temporal extension after the Younger Dryas, followed by an abrupt increase in moisture at 10-9 cal kyrs BP. Different local climate conditions influenced by topography or the variable sensitivity (gradual versus threshold values) of the proxies analyzed in each case are evaluated. Vegetation composition (conifers versus mesothermophilous taxa) and resilience would explain a subdued response of vegetation in central continental areas while in Mediterranean sites, insufficient summer moisture availability could not maintain high lake levels and promote mesophyte forest, in contrast to Atlantic-influenced areas. Comparison with available climate models, Greenland ice cores, North Atlantic marine sequences and continental records from Central and Northern Europe and the whole Mediterranean region underlines the distinctive character of the hydrological changes occurred in inner Iberia throughout the Early Holocene. The persistent arid conditions might be explained by the intensification

  12. Sensitivity of a Clinical Decision Rule and Early Computed Tomography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin G. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Application of a clinical decision rule for subarachnoid hemorrhage, in combination with cranial computed tomography (CT performed within six hours of ictus (early cranial CT, may be able to reasonably exclude a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. This study’s objective was to examine the sensitivity of both early cranial CT and a previously validated clinical decision rule among emergency department (ED patients with aSAH and a normal mental status. Methods: Patients were evaluated in the 21 EDs of an integrated health delivery system between January 2007 and June 2013. We identified by chart review a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with aSAH in the setting of a normal mental status and performance of early cranial CT. Variables comprising the SAH clinical decision rule (age >40, presence of neck pain or stiffness, headache onset with exertion, loss of consciousness at headache onset were abstracted from the chart and assessed for inter-rater reliability. Results: One hundred fifty-five patients with aSAH met study inclusion criteria. The sensitivity of early cranial CT was 95.5% (95% CI [90.9-98.2]. The sensitivity of the SAH clinical decision rule was also 95.5% (95% CI [90.9-98.2]. Since all false negative cases for each diagnostic modality were mutually independent, the combined use of both early cranial CT and the clinical decision rule improved sensitivity to 100% (95% CI [97.6-100.0]. Conclusion: Neither early cranial CT nor the SAH clinical decision rule demonstrated ideal sensitivity for aSAH in this retrospective cohort. However, the combination of both strategies might optimize sensitivity for this life-threatening disease.

  13. Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Brown, Janet; Naviasky, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This "Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools" report updates the community school case studies through a description of ongoing developments in Cincinnati, OH; Evansville, IN; Multnomah County, OR; and Tulsa, OK and adds to that knowledge base of early learning and…

  14. Patterns of sensitization in infants and its relation to atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, Hanne; Norberg, Lene Annette; Vach, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in infant populations using validated diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis and sensitization are rarely reported, and disease definitions, testing procedures, age of study population and evaluation of objective markers vary between countries and studies. The objectives...... of this prospective birth cohort study were to investigate: (i) the prevalence, the cumulative incidence and the pattern of transient and persistent sensitization to common food- and aeroallergens in unselected infants, (ii) the association between sensitization and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and (iii......) the association between selected perinatal risk factors with respect to AD and post-natal sensitization. During a one-year period a cohort of 562 unselected newborns was established and followed up at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. At all time points infants were examined clinically and by histamine...

  15. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lowe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Kumari, Pinki; Kabungulundabungi, Neema

    2014-09-01

    To determine the antibacterial profile of pregnant women with urinaty tract infections and analyze the antibiotic sensitivity pattern for the effective treatment. A total of 395 urine samples from pregnant women with different gestational age were processed for the isolation of uropathogens and tested against eight groups of antibiotics namely penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides and sulfonamides. A positive culture percentage of 46.6% was obtained with the highest urinary tract infection in third trimester gestational age. Among the uropathogens isolated, 85.6% were Gram negative and 14.4% were Gram positive with Escherichia coli as the predominant bacteria (43.9%) followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (19.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.3%). Antibiotic sensitivity assay revealed that amikacin had the highest overall sensitivity (n=136; 76.7%) and the subsequent highest sensitivity was observed with ciprofloxacin (n=132; 73.3%), clindamycin (n=124; 68.9%), cefotaxime (n=117; 65%) and nalidixic acid (n=115; 63.9%). The findings revealed that uropathogens were more resistant to penicillins, macrolides and glycopeptides which restrict their use in treating urinaty tract infections during pregnancy. In conclusion, common causative bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern are to be determined along with their safety to mother and fetus for the effective treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parenting Supports for Early Vocabulary Development: Specific Effects of Sensitivity and Stimulation through Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B.; Ayoub, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods – ratings of parents’ interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children’s development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers’ cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity. PMID:28111526

  18. East-West cultural differences in context-sensitivity are evident in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  20. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Huoming; Yu, Boying; Xiong, Liming; Xia, Yiji

    2015-01-01

    in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional

  1. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  2. Early positivity signals changes in an abstract linguistic pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Monte-Ordoño

    Full Text Available The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables. Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli. Phoneme deviants differed from standards only in their phonemes. Rule deviants differed from standards in both their phonemes and their composing rule. We observed a significant positivity as early as 300 ms after the presentation of deviant stimuli that violated the abstract rule (Rule deviants. The amplitude of this neural response was correlated with participants' performance in a behavioral rule learning test. Differences in electrophysiological responses observed between learners and non-learners suggest that individual differences in an abstract rule learning task might be related to how listeners select relevant sources of information.

  3. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  4. Early work patterns for gynaecological cancer survivors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachreiner, N M; Ghebre, R G; Virnig, B A; Shanley, R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the balance between work demands and treatment plans for >4.3 million working-age cancer survivors in the USA. To describe changes in work status for gynaecological cancer survivors during the first 6 months following diagnosis and their experience with their employers' programmes and policies. One hundred and ten gynaecological cancer survivors who were working at the time of their cancer diagnosis completed a survey. Case record reviews documented their clinical characteristics and treatment details. Ninety-five women (86%) had surgery; 81 (74%) received chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both in addition to surgery. Nine per cent of women said that they changed their treatment plan because of their jobs; in contrast, 62% of women said that they changed their work situation to accommodate their treatment plan. Overall, the most common month for women to stop working was Month 1 (41%), to decrease hours was Month 2 (32%) and to increase hours was Month 6 (8%). Twenty-eight per cent of women were aware of employer policies that assisted the return to work process; 70% of women were familiar with the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and 56% with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Only 26% completed a formal request for work accommodations. After 6 months, 56 of 83 women (67%) remained working or had returned to work. Work patterns varied for these gynaecological cancer survivors over the first 6 months following diagnosis. Opportunities exist to improve communication about work and treatment expectations between cancer survivors, occupational health professionals, employers and treating clinicians.

  5. Analysis of DNA Cytosine Methylation Patterns Using Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, María Ángeles; de María, Nuria; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Vélez, María Dolores; Cervera, María Teresa; Cabezas, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Different molecular techniques have been developed to study either the global level of methylated cytosines or methylation at specific gene sequences. One of them is the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique (MSAP) which is a modification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It has been used to study methylation of anonymous CCGG sequences in different fungi, plants, and animal species. The main variation of this technique resides on the use of isoschizomers with different methylation sensitivity (such as HpaII and MspI) as a frequent-cutter restriction enzyme. For each sample, MSAP analysis is performed using both EcoRI/HpaII- and EcoRI/MspI-digested samples. A comparative analysis between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI fragment patterns allows the identification of two types of polymorphisms: (1) methylation-insensitive polymorphisms that show common EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns but are detected as polymorphic amplified fragments among samples and (2) methylation-sensitive polymorphisms which are associated with the amplified fragments that differ in their presence or absence or in their intensity between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns. This chapter describes a detailed protocol of this technique and discusses the modifications that can be applied to adjust the technology to different species of interest.

  6. Normal variation in early parental sensitivity predicts child structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Thijssen, Sandra; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Early caregiving can have an impact on brain structure and function in children. The influence of extreme caregiving experiences has been demonstrated, but studies on the influence of normal variation in parenting quality are scarce. Moreover, no studies to date have included the role of both maternal and paternal sensitivity in child brain maturation. This study examined the prospective relation between mothers' and fathers' sensitive caregiving in early childhood and brain structure later in childhood. Participants were enrolled in a population-based prenatal cohort. For 191 families, maternal and paternal sensitivity was repeatedly observed when the child was between 1 year and 4 years of age. Head circumference was assessed at 6 weeks, and brain structure was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at 8 years of age. Higher levels of parental sensitivity in early childhood were associated with larger total brain volume (adjusted β = 0.15, p = .01) and gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.16, p = .01) at 8 years, controlling for infant head size. Higher levels of maternal sensitivity in early childhood were associated with a larger gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.13, p = .04) at 8 years, independent of infant head circumference. Associations with maternal versus paternal sensitivity were not significantly different. Normal variation in caregiving quality is related to markers of more optimal brain development in children. The results illustrate the important role of both mothers and fathers in child brain development. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan N; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; McCurdy-McKinnon, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-12-30

    Recent studies show that higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) and overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensitization effects might underlie pathologic eating behavior when a taste stimulus is administered repeatedly. Recovered AN (RAN, n=14) and BN (RBN, n=15) subjects were studied in order to avoid the confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measured higher-order brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose (caloric) and sucralose (non-caloric). To test sensitization, the neuronal response to the first and second administration was compared. RAN patients demonstrated a decreased sensitization to sucrose in contrast to RBN patients who displayed the opposite pattern, increased sensitization to sucrose. However, the latter was not as pronounced as in healthy control women (n=13). While both eating disorder subgroups showed increased sensitization to sucralose, the healthy controls revealed decreased sensitization. These findings could reflect on a neuronal level the high caloric intake of RBN during binges and the low energy intake for RAN. RAN seem to distinguish between high energy and low energy sweet stimuli while RBN do not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kokila Priya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE. Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control. Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT, and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases. Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.

  9. Frequency of common bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in diabetics presenting with foot ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, F.; Ishfaq, M.; Rahman, S.U.; Afridi, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Foot ulcers are one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus and often lead to lower limb amputation. Diabetic foot ulcers are susceptible to infection. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of common bacteria infecting these ulcers and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from April, 2011 to February, 2012. Specimens collected from ulcers of 131 patients were inoculated on Blood Agar and MacConkey Agar, and antibiotic sensitivity was tested using standard disc diffusion method. Results: Out of 131, specimens from 120 patients yielded 176 bacteria. Sixty-six patients had monomicrobial infection while polymicrobial growth was obtained in 54 patients. Overall, Staphylococcus aureus (38.6%) was the most common isolate followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.3%). Staphylococcus aureus was most often sensitive to Moxifloxacin, Imipenem/Meropenem, Vancomycin and Linezolid while it showed varying sensitivity to Penicillins and Cephalosporins. 47.1% isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to Methicillin. Most of the gram negative rods were sensitive to Imipenem/Meropenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Ticarcillin-Clavulanate. Majority of gram negative bacteria were found resistant to Cephalosporins and Moxifloxacin except Pseudomonas which showed variable sensitivity to Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime and Moxifloxacin. Conclusions: Majority of isolates were found resistant to the commonly used antibiotics. Most commonly isolated bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus was most often sensitive to Moxifloxacin, Imipenem/Meropenem, Vancomycin and Linezolid, while majority isolated gram negative rods were sensitive to Imipenem/Meropenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Ticarcillin-Clavulanate. (author)

  10. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoh RC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RC Onoh,1 OUJ Umeora,1 VE Egwuatu,2 PO Ezeonu,1 TJP Onoh31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Pathology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI.Methodology: This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software.Results: A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5% had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%, Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%, S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%, Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%, Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%, Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1

  11. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Vaginal Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Narayana-Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vagina contains dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and is, therefore, considered a complex environment. Among the microorganisms, bacteria have important repercussions on women’s health. The present study was conducted especially to elucidate this type of vaginal isolates and their sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sapthagiri Hospital, Bangalore, India from January 2012 to December 2013. All symptomatic women who had a high vaginal swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method (modified Kirby-Bauer method. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated microorganisms were studied. Results: Out of 200 patients, 95% had positive vaginal cultures. Fifteen types of microorganisms were isolated. The highest frequency of infection was observed at the age of 20-30 years, followed by 41-50 years and 31-40 years, and a low frequency of infection was observed above 50 years of age. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae and diphtheroids with equal incidence. Among the antibiotics tested, isolated pathogens were completely resistant to nalidixic acid and highly sensitive to meropenem and imepenem. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gynaecological infections demands that patients with symptoms undergo thorough investigation with cultures and sensitivity essays. Changes in treatment protocols are required to treat vaginal infections effectively.

  13. Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

    2014-03-01

    Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Touchscreen typing-pattern analysis for detecting fine motor skills decline in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovakis, Dimitrios; Hadjidimitriou, Stelios; Charisis, Vasileios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2018-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative movement disorder causing progressive disability that severely affects patients' quality of life. While early treatment can produce significant benefits for patients, the mildness of many early signs combined with the lack of accessible high-frequency monitoring tools may delay clinical diagnosis. To meet this need, user interaction data from consumer technologies have recently been exploited towards unsupervised screening for PD symptoms in daily life. Similarly, this work proposes a method for detecting fine motor skills decline in early PD patients via analysis of patterns emerging from finger interaction with touchscreen smartphones during natural typing. Our approach relies on low-/higher-order statistical features of keystrokes timing and pressure variables, computed from short typing sessions. Features are fed into a two-stage multi-model classification pipeline that reaches a decision on the subject's status (PD patient/control) by gradually fusing prediction probabilities obtained for individual typing sessions and keystroke variables. This method achieved an AUC = 0.92 and 0.82/0.81 sensitivity/specificity (matched groups of 18 early PD patients/15 controls) with discriminant features plausibly correlating with clinical scores of relevant PD motor symptoms. These findings suggest an improvement over similar approaches, thereby constituting a further step towards unobtrusive early PD detection from routine activities.

  15. Current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of typhoidal salmonellae in a referral diagnostic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Shujat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by typhoidal salmonellae are an important public health concern in Pakistan. Inappropriate and injudicious use of fluoroquinolones has reduced their efficacy due to development of high level resistance. Aim: To ascertain the current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae thus guiding the physicians for better management of typhoid patients.Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at our institution from January 2012 through December 2013 to investigate current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 107 (53.5% were identified as Salmonella Typhi and 93 (46.5% as Salmonella Paratyphi A. Sensitivities of Salmonella Typhi were as follows: ampicillin (48.6%, chloramphenicol (45.8%, co-trimoxazole (40.1%, ciprofloxacin (11.2%. Sensitivities of Salmonella Paratyphi A were: ampicillin (80.6%, chloramphenicol (89.2%, co-trimoxazole (90.3%, and ciprofloxacin (16.1%. No resistance was detected against third generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Typhoidal salmonellae are still entirely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins in our setting. Marked rise in resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced their empirical usage. Sensitivity of Salmonella Paratyphi A to conventional antityphoid drugs was encouraging.

  16. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made from the poultry feed ingredients. Highest level of C. perfringens contamination was detected in fish meal followed by bone meal, meat and bone meal and dry fish. Antibiogram assay indicated that the organisms are highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, chlortetracycline (96.67%, gatifloxacin (93.33%, ciprofloxacin (86.67%, ofloxacin (86.67% and lincomycin (86.67%. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. Feed ingredients rich in animal proteins are the major source of C. perfringens contamination.

  17. Sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and serum HER2 in the early detection of recurrence of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ann Christina; Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jacobsen, Erik Hugger

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer.......The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer....

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...

  19. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  20. Changes in corneal sensitivity following cross-linking for progressive early-stage keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Medeiros Lago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity following corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive earlier stage keratoconus. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men were included in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. The mean patient age was 22 years (range, 18-26 years. Inclusion criteria were early stage bilateral progressive keratoconus, a transparent cornea, and a thickness of ≥440 µm in the thinnest area of the cornea. Using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, central corneal sensitivity was measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and once a month thereafter until recovery of baseline preoperative levels. Central corneal sensitivity >40 mm was considered normal. Results: Corneal sensitivity gradually returned to preoperative levels in all treated eyes. The mean central corneal sensitivity was 52.2, 24.0, 38.2, 42.5, 50.0, and 52.5 mm before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after surgery, respectively. Normal levels of corneal sensation, but not baseline (preoperative levels, were observed 2 months after surgery. The preoperative levels were observed 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that central corneal sensitivity can be decreased for as long as 3 months after CXL for progressive earlier stage keratoconus.

  1. Improved sensitivity high-definition interline CCD using the KODAK TRUESENSE color filter pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBella, James; Andreghetti, Marco; Enge, Amy; Chen, William; Stanka, Timothy; Kaser, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The KODAK TRUESENSE Color Filter Pattern has technology that for the first time is applied to a commercially available interline CCD. This 2/3" true-HD sensor will be described along with its performance attributes, including sensitivity improvement as compared to the Bayer CFA version of the same sensor. In addition, an overview of the system developed for demonstration and evaluation will be provided. Examples of the benefits of the new technology in specific applications including surveillance and intelligent traffic systems will be discussed.

  2. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au-patterned polydimethylsiloxane membrane for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinchuan; Zhu, Yihao; Nomani, Md W; Koley, Goutam; Wen, Xuejun; Hsia, Tain-Yen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au film patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The strain-induced change in the film resistance was utilized to perform the quantitative measurement of absolute pressure. The highest sensitivity obtained for a 200 µm thick PDMS film sensor was 0.23/KPa with a range of 50 mm Hg, which is the best result reported so far, over that range, for any pressure sensor on a flexible membrane. The noise-limited pressure resolution was found to be 0.9 Pa (0.007 mm Hg), and a response time of ∼200 ms, are the best reported results for these sensors. The ultrahigh sensitivity is attributed to the strain-induced formation of microcracks, the effect of which on the resistance change was found to be highly reversible within a certain pressure range. A physical model correlating the sensitivity with the sensor parameters and crack geometry has been proposed. (paper)

  3. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoh, Rc; Umeora, Ouj; Egwuatu, Ve; Ezeonu, Po; Onoh, Tjp

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics. To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI. This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software. A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5%) had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%), Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%), S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%), Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%), Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%), Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%). Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%), ofloxacin (77.4%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ceftriaxone (66.7%), and gentamicin (50.8%). E. coli was the most common etiological agent of UTI in pregnancy

  4. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M; Sanchez, Sophie; Garwood, Russell J; Edwards, Nicholas P; Wogelius, Roy A; Sellers, William I; Manning, Phillip L; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Francisco J; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cuesta, Elena; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages of development. Comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.

  5. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  6. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion

  8. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  9. Global patterns of NDVI-indicated vegetation extremes and their sensitivity to climate extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guo; Liu Hongyan; Yin Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extremes in climate have significant impacts on ecosystems and are expected to increase under future climate change. Extremes in vegetation could capture such impacts and indicate the vulnerability of ecosystems, but currently have not received a global long-term assessment. In this study, a robust method has been developed to detect significant extremes (low values) in biweekly time series of global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2006 and thus to acquire a global pattern of vegetation extreme frequency. This pattern coincides with vegetation vulnerability patterns suggested by earlier studies using different methods over different time spans, indicating a consistent mechanism of regulation. Vegetation extremes were found to aggregate in Amazonia and in the semi-arid and semi-humid regions in low and middle latitudes, while they seldom occurred in high latitudes. Among the environmental variables studied, extreme low precipitation has the highest slope against extreme vegetation. For the eight biomes analyzed, these slopes are highest in temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland, suggesting a higher sensitivity in these environments. The results presented here contradict the hypothesis that vegetation in water-limited semi-arid and semi-humid regions might be adapted to drought and suggest that vegetation in these regions (especially temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland) is highly prone to vegetation extreme events under more severe precipitation extremes. It is also suggested here that more attention be paid to precipitation-induced vegetation changes than to temperature-induced events. (letter)

  10. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Peng

    2015-02-27

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response.

  11. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K; Guimaraes, A; Kim, Y; Cottrill, E; Gagoski, B; Rollins, C; Ortinau, C; Yang, E; Grant, P E

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities. Triplane MR images were aligned to create a motion-corrected volume for each individual fetal brain, and cortical plate surfaces were extracted. Sulcal basins were automatically identified on the cortical plate surface and compared with a combined set generated from 9 normal fetal brain templates. Sulcal pattern similarities to the templates were quantified by using multivariate geometric features and intersulcal relationships for 14 normal fetal brains and 5 fetal brains that were proved to be abnormal on postnatal MR imaging. Results were compared with the gyrification index. Significantly reduced sulcal pattern similarities to normal templates were found in all abnormal individual fetuses compared with normal fetuses (mean similarity [normal, abnormal], left: 0.818, 0.752; P the primary distinguishing features. The gyrification index was not significantly different between the normal and abnormal groups. Automated analysis of interrelated patterning of early primary sulci could outperform the traditional gyrification index and has the potential to quantitatively detect individual fetuses with emerging abnormal sulcal patterns. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Three Methods for the Early Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J N; Miranda, L H M; Menezes, R C; Gremião, I D F; Oliveira, R V C; Vieira, S M M; Conceição-Silva, F; Ferreiro, L; Pereira, S A

    2018-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is caused by species of fungi within the Sporothrix schenckii complex that infect man and animals. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an epidemic has been observed since 1998, with most of the cases being related to transmission from infected cats. Although the definitive diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis is made by fungal culture, cytopathological and histopathological examinations are used routinely, because the long culture period may delay treatment onset. However, alternative methods are desirable in cases of low fungal burden. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been described as a sensitive method for diagnosing human and canine sporotrichosis, but there are no reports of its application to cats. The aim of this study was to analyse the sensitivity of cytopathological examination (Quick Panoptic method), histopathology (Grocott silver stain) and anti-Sporothrix IHC by blinded comparisons, using fungal culture as the reference standard. Samples were collected from 184 cats with sporotrichosis that exhibited skin ulcers. The sensitivities of Grocott silver stain, cytopathological examination and IHC were 91.3%, 87.0% and 88.6%, respectively. Grocott silver stain showed the best performance. IHC showed high sensitivity, as did cytopathological examination and these may be considered as alternative methodologies. When the three methods were combined, the diagnosis was established in 180 (97.8%) out of 184 cases. Taken together, these findings indicate the need to implement these methods as routine tools for the early diagnosis of sporotrichosis in cats, notably when fungal culture is not available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLonay, A.J.; Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Farag, A.M.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 μg/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations ≥ μg/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress

  14. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  15. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided......: The children were examined eight times from birth to 14 years. Visits included questionnaire-based interviews, clinical examination, skin prick test, and specific IgE. RESULTS: Follow-up rate at 14 years was 66.2%. The 12-month prevalence of any atopic disease was high (40.3%) mostly due to a high prevalence...... comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS...

  16. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  17. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  18. Electronic characterization of lithographically patterned microcoils for high sensitivity NMR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Bernhardt, Anthony; Malba, Vince; Adams, Kristl L; Evans, Lee; Harvey, Christopher; Maxwell, Robert S; Herberg, Julie L

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a non-destructive, powerful, structure-specific analytical method for the identification of chemical and biological systems. The use of radio frequency (RF) microcoils has been shown to increase the sensitivity in mass-limited samples. Recent advances in micro-receiver technology have further demonstrated a substantial increase in mass sensitivity [D.L. Olson, T.L. Peck, A.G. Webb, R.L. Magin, J.V. Sweedler, High-resolution microcoil H-1-NMR for mass-limited, nanoliter-volume samples, Science 270 (5244) (1995) 1967-1970]. Lithographic methods for producing solenoid microcoils possess a level of flexibility and reproducibility that exceeds previous production methods, such as hand winding microcoils. This paper presents electrical characterizations of RF microcoils produced by a unique laser lithography system that can pattern three dimensional surfaces and compares calculated and experimental results to those for wire wound RF microcoils. We show that existing optimization conditions for RF coil design still hold true for RF microcoils produced by lithography. Current lithographic microcoils show somewhat inferior performance to wire wound RF microcoils due to limitations in the existing electroplating technique. In principle, however, when the pitch of the RF microcoil is less than 100mum lithographic coils should show comparable performance to wire wound coils. In the cases of larger pitch, wire cross sections can be significantly larger and resistances lower than microfabricated conductors.

  19. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria from diabetic foot infections Haji Adam Malik central general hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulolo, B. A.; Pase, M. A.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    Increasing rate of Diabetic Foot Infections (DFIs) caused by multi-drug-resistance pathogens plays a huge role in the duration of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality of diabetic patients. The aim of the study is to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria in DFIs and causative microorganisms. Using cross-sectional retrospective study, data were collected from medical records of DFIs patients previously hospitalized atHaji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan from January to July 2017. 33 patients met the criteria and got enrolled in the study. The classification of DFIs was evaluated according to Wagner’s Classification. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity and identification of causative microorganisms were performed in standard microbiologic methods. The most common grade of DFIs was Grade-4 (48.5%), followed by Grade-3 (39.4%) and Grade-5 (9.1%). A total of 12 pathogens were identified. The most common infecting microorganism isolated on pus cultures was Klebsiella pneumonia (33.3%), followed by Escherichia coli (24.2%), Acinetobacter baumanni (12.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (9.1%). Frequent susceptible antibiotics were Amikacin (88.8%), Imipenem (87%), Meropenem (84.6%), Erythromycin (75%), and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (68.9%). DFIs are polymicrobial infections in this study K. pneumonia was the most common cause microorganism.

  20. An Adolescent and Early Adulthood Dietary Pattern Associated with Inflammation and the Incidence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998 about their high school diet (HS-FFQ) and a FFQ in 1991 when they were ages 27-44 years. Among women who completed the HS-FFQ, 1,477 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during 22 years of follow-up. An adolescent and early adulthood dietary pattern characterized by inflammation was associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Women in the fifth quintile of the inflammatory pattern score had multivariable adjusted HRs for premenopausal breast cancer of 1.35 for adolescent diet [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.73; P trend = 0.002] and 1.41 for early adulthood diet (95% CI, 1.11-1.78; P trend = 0.006) compared with women in the first quintile. The corresponding RRs for postmenopausal breast cancer were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.60-1.17) for adolescent and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-1.06) for adult intake. Overall, our findings support the notion that an adolescent and early adulthood diet characterized by high intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, and margarine, and low intake of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee may increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1179-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576) and early paternal care sensitize males to distressing female vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Anna; Poquérusse, Jessie; Setoh, Peipei; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Bornstein, Marc H; Esposito, Gianluca

    2018-04-01

    The oxytocinergic system is highly involved in social bonding and early caregiver-infant interactions. Here, we hypothesize that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene genotype and parental bonding history interact in influencing social development. To address this question, we assessed adult males' arousal (heart rate changes) in response to different distress vocalizations (human female, human infant and bonobo). Region rs53576 of the OXTR gene was genotyped from buccal mucosa cell samples, and a self-report Parental Bonding Instrument was used (which provide information about parental care or parental overprotection). A significant gene-environment interaction between OXTR genotype and parenting style was found to influence participants' social responsivity to female cry vocalizations. Specifically, a history of appropriate paternal care in participants accentuated the heightened social sensitivity determined by G/G homozygosity, while higher versus lower paternal overprotection lead to distinct levels of physiological arousal particularly in A carriers individuals. These results add to our understanding of the dynamic interplay between genetic susceptibility and early environmental experience in shaping the development of appropriate social sensitivity in males. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  4. Comparison of isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in pediatric and adult cancer patients; is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhash, K; Bajpai, J; Gokarn, A; Arora, B; Kurkure, P A; Medhekar, A; Kelkar, R; Biswas, S; Gupta, S; Naronha, V; Shetty, N; Goyel, G; Banavali, S D

    2014-01-01

    Infection is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. Organisms are becoming resistant to antibiotics; age appears to be one of the factors responsible. We analyzed common organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in the correlation with age. This is a single institutional, retrospective analysis of all culture positive adult and pediatric cancer patients from January 2007 to December 2007. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test for trend was used and P values were obtained. Of 1251 isolates, 262 were from children 12 years of age). Gram-negative organisms were predominant (64.95) while Gram-positive constituted 35.09% of isolates. The most common source in all age groups was peripheral-blood, accounting to 47.8% of all samples. The most common organisms in adults were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.3%) while in children it was coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (19.8%). Antibiotic sensitivity was different in both groups. In pediatric group higher sensitivity was seen for Cefoparazone-sulbactum, Cefipime, Amikacin, and Tobramycin. No resistance was found for Linezolid. The isolates in both children and adults were predominantly Gram-negative though children had proportionately higher Gram-positive organisms. High-dose cytarabine use, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and frequent use of central lines in children especially in hematological malignancies could explain this observation. Children harbor less antibiotic resistance than adults; Uncontrolled, cumulative exposure to antibiotics in our community with increasing age, age-related immune factors and variable bacterial flora in different wards might explain the higher antibiotic resistance in adults. Thus age is an important factor to be considered while deciding empirical antibiotic therapy.

  5. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K J; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Mills, John G; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-05-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  6. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K. J.; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H.; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L.; Mills, John G.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M.; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-01-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.044), activities (χ2 = 6.7, P = 0.036), and areas (χ2 = 9.4, P = 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ2 = 9.3, P = 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ2 = 12.3, P = 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  7. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  8. Anteroposterior axis patterning by early canonical Wnt signaling during hemichordate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Sébastien; Fritzenwanker, Jens H.; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Farrelly, Ellyn; Pani, Ariel M.; Hurley, Imogen A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Osovitz, Michelle; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Mike; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John C.

    2018-01-01

    The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates. We further test the hypothesis by investigating the role of cWnt signaling during early patterning along the A/P axis of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We have cloned and investigated the expression of the complete Wnt ligand and Frizzled receptor complement of S. kowalevskii during early development along with many secreted Wnt modifiers. Eleven of the 13 Wnt ligands are ectodermally expressed in overlapping domains, predominantly in the posterior, and Wnt antagonists are localized predominantly to the anterior ectoderm in a pattern reminiscent of their distribution in vertebrate embryos. Overexpression and knockdown experiments, in combination with embryological manipulations, establish the importance of cWnt signaling for repression of anterior fates and activation of mid-axial ectodermal fates during the early development of S. kowalevskii. However, surprisingly, terminal posterior fates, defined by posterior Hox genes, are unresponsive to manipulation of cWnt levels during the early establishment of the A/P axis at late blastula and early gastrula. We establish experimental support for a conserved role of Wnt signaling in the early specification of the A/P axis during deuterostome body plan diversification, and further build support for an ancestral role of this pathway in early evolution of the bilaterian A/P axis. We find strong support for a role of cWnt in

  9. SELDI-TOF-based serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2004-02-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry that communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity-based processes. Serum proteomic pattern diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. This approach has recently shown tremendous promise in the detection of early-stage cancers. The biomarkers found by SELDI-TOF-based pattern recognition analysis are mostly low molecular weight fragments produced at the specific tumor microenvironment.

  10. A combined sensitivity analysis and kriging surrogate modeling for early validation of health indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Benjamin; Mechbal, Nazih; Massé, Jean-Rémi

    2014-01-01

    To increase the dependability of complex systems, one solution is to assess their state of health continuously through the monitoring of variables sensitive to potential degradation modes. When computed in an operating environment, these variables, known as health indicators, are subject to many uncertainties. Hence, the stochastic nature of health assessment combined with the lack of data in design stages makes it difficult to evaluate the efficiency of a health indicator before the system enters into service. This paper introduces a method for early validation of health indicators during the design stages of a system development process. This method uses physics-based modeling and uncertainties propagation to create simulated stochastic data. However, because of the large number of parameters defining the model and its computation duration, the necessary runtime for uncertainties propagation is prohibitive. Thus, kriging is used to obtain low computation time estimations of the model outputs. Moreover, sensitivity analysis techniques are performed upstream to determine the hierarchization of the model parameters and to reduce the dimension of the input space. The validation is based on three types of numerical key performance indicators corresponding to the detection, identification and prognostic processes. After having introduced and formalized the framework of uncertain systems modeling and the different performance metrics, the issues of sensitivity analysis and surrogate modeling are addressed. The method is subsequently applied to the validation of a set of health indicators for the monitoring of an aircraft engine’s pumping unit

  11. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  12. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  13. Organ involvement in Argentinian systemic sclerosis patients with "late" pattern as compared to patients with "early/active" pattern by nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Claverie, Lucila; Knobel, Elizabeth; Takashima, Lorena; Techera, Lorena; Oliver, Marina; Gonzalez, Paula; Romanini, Félix E; Fonseca, María L; Mamani, Marta N

    2013-06-01

    Changes in nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis patients could be related to the disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with "late" scleroderma (SD) pattern have more organ involvement than patients with "early/active" SD pattern. Forty-six Argentinian patients (44 women and 2 men), with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, were distributed in two groups based on the presence of late and early/active patterns. Organ involvement was assessed as follows: pulmonary function by chest radiography, high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT), lung volume tests, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); esophageal involvement by manometry; and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by Doppler echocardiography and six-minute walk test. Honeycombing of the lungs evaluated by HRCT was more frequently present in patients with late pattern compared with early/active patients (p = 0.01). We also found statistically significant differences in lung volume tests (p = 0.03) and DLCO (p = 0.02) between the two SD pattern groups. Esophageal manometry showed a significantly higher frequency of motility disorders in the group with late pattern (p = 0.0024). In this study, patients with late pattern had higher frequency of pulmonary and esophageal involvement compared with patients with early/active pattern.

  14. RIGIDITY, SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT - THE ROLE OF MATERNAL RIGIDITY IN THE EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y

    1993-01-01

    The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of

  15. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor β immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent

  16. Early sensitivity of left perisylvian cortex to relationality in nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adina; Reddigari, Samir; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-06-01

    The ability to track the relationality of concepts, i.e., their capacity to encode a relationship between entities, is one of the core semantic abilities humans possess. In language processing, we systematically leverage this ability when computing verbal argument structure, in order to link participants to the events they participate in. Previous work has converged on a large region of left posterior perisylvian cortex as a locus for such processing, but the wide range of experimental stimuli and manipulations has yielded an unclear picture of the region's exact role(s). Importantly, there is a tendency for effects of relationality in single-word studies to localize to posterior temporo-parietal cortex, while argument structure effects in sentences appear in left superior temporal cortex. To characterize these sensitivities, we designed two MEG experiments that cross the factors relationality and eventivity. The first used minimal noun phrases and tested for an effect of semantic composition, while the second employed full sentences and a manipulation of grammatical category. The former identified a region of the left inferior parietal lobe sensitive to relationality, but not eventivity or combination, beginning at 170ms. The latter revealed a similarly-timed effect of relationality in left mid-superior temporal cortex, independent of eventivity and category. The results suggest that i) multiple sub-regions of perisylvian cortex are sensitive to the relationality carried by concepts even in the absence of arguments, ii) linguistic context modulates the locus of this sensitivity, consistent with prior studies, and iii) relationality information is accessed early - before 200ms - regardless of the concept's event status or syntactic category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of early afterdepolarizations on excitation patterns in an accurate model of the human ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Gunnar; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Vandersickel, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations. To increase the likelihood of EAD formation at the single cell level, we reduced the repolarization reserve (RR) by reducing the rapid delayed rectifier Potassium current and raising the L-type Calcium current. Varying these parameters defined a 2D parametric space where different excitation patterns could be classified. Depending on the initial conditions, by either exciting the ventricles with a spiral formation or burst pacing protocol, we found multiple different spatio-temporal excitation patterns. The spiral formation protocol resulted in the categorization of a stable spiral (S), a meandering spiral (MS), a spiral break-up regime (SB), spiral fibrillation type B (B), spiral fibrillation type A (A) and an oscillatory excitation type (O). The last three patterns are a 3D generalization of previously found patterns in 2D. First, the spiral fibrillation type B showed waves determined by a chaotic bi-excitable regime, i.e. mediated by both Sodium and Calcium waves at the same time and in same tissue settings. In the parameter region governed by the B pattern, single cells were able to repolarize completely and different (spiral) waves chaotically burst into each other without finishing a 360 degree rotation. Second, spiral fibrillation type A patterns consisted of multiple small rotating spirals. Single cells failed to repolarize to the resting membrane potential hence

  19. The clinical spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of staphylococcal pyodermas in the community and hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in a relentless spread of multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. There are studies conducted in medical colleges in Chandigarh, Chennai, Mumbai and Vellore comparing pyodermas in the community and hospital setting based on clinical and bacteriological parameters. Aims: This study, conducted over 1½ years from March 2009 to August 2010, aimed at analyzing the clinical spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of community and hospital-associated (HA staphylococcal pyoderma. It also assessed the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in the community and hospital cohort settings. Subjects and Methods: The study comprised of 200 cases of staphylococcal pyodermas, derived from the community (150 cases and hospital (50 cases. Patients were evaluated based on their clinical presentation; antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical significance between individual attributes between the community and HA staphylococcal pyoderma groups was analyzed using Chi-square test and mean differences using student′s t-test. Results: Factors associated with community-associated (CA pyodermas were young age (P = 0.0021, primary pyodermas, and involvement of extremities, while those with HA pyodermas were middle age, secondary pyodermas, and significantly increased body surface involvement (P = 0.041. Incidence of CA-MRSA was 11.3%, while that of HA-MRSA was 18%. Conclusions: A high level of resistance to first-line drugs such as penicillin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was observed, more so in the hospital strain than in the community strain. S. aureus demonstrated good susceptibility to cephalosporins. Though the two strains of MRSA differed clinically, they showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin and linezolid.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of discharge patterns of subthalamic nucleus in the model of basal ganglia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, Phool; Malik, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease alters the information patterns in movement related pathways in brain. Experimental results performed on rats show that the activity patterns changes from single spike activity to mixed burst mode in Parkinson disease. However the cause of this change in activity pattern is not yet completely understood. Subthalamic nucleus is one of the main nuclei involved in the origin of motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease. In this paper, a single compartment conductance based model is considered which focuses on subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external). This model shows highly nonlinear behavior with respect to various intrinsic parameters. Behavior of model has been presented with the help of activity patterns generated in healthy and Parkinson condition. These patterns have been compared by calculating their correlation coefficient for different values of intrinsic parameters. Results display that the activity patterns are very sensitive to various intrinsic parameters and calcium shows some promising results which provide insights into the motor dysfunction.

  1. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  2. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  4. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  5. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  6. Sensitivity patterns of pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from clinical specimens in peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.H.; Khan, M.Z.U.; Naeem, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a highly virulent opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections.Affected patients are often hospitalized in an intensive care unit, and are immuno-compromised as a result of disease and treatment. Suspected P. aeruginosa require timely, adequate and empirical antibiotic therapy to ensure improved outcomes. The purpose of the study was to find the sensitivity and resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa to various groups of drugs, in clinical isolates collected from two major tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. Methods: Different clinical isolate were taken from patients admitted in various wards of Khyber Teaching Hospital and Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. Results: A total of 258 clinical isolates were positive for P. aeruginosa out of 2058 clinical isolates. Pseudomonas showed high degree of resistance to third generation Cephalosporins (Ceftazidime, and Ceftriaxone) and moderate degree of resistance to Quinolones and Aminoglycosides (Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin and Amikacin). Low resistance was observed to different combinations (Cefoperazone + Sulbactum, Piperacillin + Tazobactum). Meropenem and Imipenem had negligible resistance. Conclusion: There is growing resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Combination drugs are useful approach for empirical treatment in suspected Pseudomonas infection. Imipenem and Meropenem are extremely effective but should be in reserve. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  8. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  9. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A.; Pruski, Audrey M.; Charles, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m -2 , fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m -2 and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m -2 UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment

  10. Sensitivity of different MRI sequences in the early detection of melanoma brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Michael O.; Schwarz, Daniel; Radbruch, Alexander; Enk, Alexander; Bendszus, Martin; Hassel, Jessica; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background After the emergence of new MRI techniques such as susceptibility- and diffusion-weighted imaging (SWI and DWI) and because of specific imaging characteristics of melanoma brain metastases (MBM), it is unclear which MRI sequences are most beneficial for detection of MBM. This study was performed to investigate the sensitivity of six clinical MRI sequences in the early detection of MBM. Methods Medical records of all melanoma patients referred to our center between November 2005 and December 2016 were reviewed for presence of MBM. Analysis encompassed six MRI sequences at the time of initial diagnosis of first or new MBM, including non-enhanced T1-weighted (T1w), contrast-enhanced T1w (ceT1w), T2-weighted (T2w), T2w-FLAIR, susceptibility-weighted (SWI) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI. Each lesion was rated with respect to its conspicuity (score from 0—not detectable to 3—clearly visible). Results Of 1210 patients, 217 with MBM were included in the analysis and up to 5 lesions per patient were evaluated. A total of 720 metastases were assessed and all six sequences were available for 425 MBM. Sensitivity (conspicuity ≥2) was 99.7% for ceT1w, 77.0% for FLAIR, 64.7% for SWI, 61.0% for T2w, 56.7% for T1w, and 48.4% for DWI. Thirty-one (7.3%) of 425 lesions were only detectable by ceT1w but no other sequence. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced T1-weighting is more sensitive than all other sequences for detection of MBM. Disruption of the blood-brain-barrier is consistently an earlier sign in MBM than perifocal edema, signal loss on SWI or diffusion restriction. PMID:29596475

  11. The early inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates positional effects in floral organ growth and meristem patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Powers, Stephen J; Phillips, Andy L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2018-06-01

    Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only. This phenomenon is demonstrated by mutants partially impaired in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin (GA), in which floral organ growth is retarded in the first flowers to be produced but has recovered spontaneously by the 10th flower. We presently lack systematic data from multiple flowers across the Arabidopsis inflorescence to explain such changes. Using mutants of the GA 20-OXIDASE (GA20ox) GA biosynthesis gene family to manipulate endogenous GA levels, we investigated the dynamics of changing floral organ growth across the early Arabidopsis inflorescence (flowers 1-10). Modelling of floral organ lengths identified a significant, GA-independent gradient of increasing stamen length relative to the pistil in the wild-type inflorescence that was separable from other, GA-dependent effects. It was also found that the first flowers exhibited unstable organ patterning in contrast to later flowers and that this instability was prolonged by exogenous GA treatment. These findings indicate that the development of individual flowers is influenced by hitherto unknown factors acting across the inflorescence and also suggest novel functions for GA in floral patterning.

  12. Breast cancer early detection via tracking of skin back-scattered secondary speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Aviya; Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer has become a major cause of death among women. The lifetime risk of a woman developing this disease has been established as one in eight. The most useful way to reduce breast cancer death is to treat the disease as early as possible. The existing methods of early diagnostics of breast cancer are mainly based on screening mammography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) periodically conducted at medical facilities. In this paper the authors proposing a new approach for simple breast cancer detection. It is based on skin stimulation by sound waves, illuminating it by laser beam and tracking the reflected secondary speckle patterns. As first approach, plastic balls of different sizes were placed under the skin of chicken breast and detected by the proposed method.

  13. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Marosh; Wallace, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, including the eye. This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes. In this study, we investigated the roles of the three vertebrate Glis in mediating midline Shh signaling in early ocular development. We examined the ocular phenotypes of Shh and Gli combination mutant mouse embryos and monitored proximodistal and dorsoventral patterning by the expression of specific eye development regulatory genes using in situ hybridization. We show that midline Shh signaling relieves the repressor activity of Gli3 adjacent to the midline and then promotes eye pattern formation through the nonredundant activities of all three Gli proteins. Gli3, in particular, is required to specify the dorsal optic stalk and to define the boundary between the optic stalk and the optic cup.

  14. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  15. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Okabe-Oho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.

  16. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  17. Peanut sensitization pattern in Norwegian children and adults with specific IgE to peanut show age related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namork, Ellen; Stensby, Berit A

    2015-01-01

    Peanuts contain potent food allergens and the prevalence of allergy is reported to increase, especially in children. Since peanut sensitization may differ between different geographical regions, we wanted to investigate the sensitization pattern to the individual peanut allergens in a Norwegian population. Cases reported to the Norwegian Food Allergy Register with sera positive to peanut extract were analyzed for specific IgE (sIgE) to the recombinant peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8 and Ara h 9 and to birch pollen extract. Serum samples negative to the above allergens were analyzed for sIgE to Ara h 6, and sIgE to Pru p 3 in peach were analyzed in sera positive to the cross-reactive allergen Ara h 9. Highest frequency of sIgE to Ara h 2, often co-sensitized to Ara h 1 and 3, were found in the small children up to 6 years of age. From the age of 6 years, sensitization to Ara h 8 was predominant. The sIgE levels to the storage proteins Ara h 1, 2 and 3 were strongly correlated, as was the sIgE levels to Ara h 8 and birch pollen extract. A low sensitization rate of sIgE to Ara h 9 in young adults was observed, which sIgE levels were very strongly correlated to Pru p 3. The sensitization to peanut allergens in a Norwegian population shows a clear age dependent pattern. The results add to the previously published research on the sensitization patterns of peanut sensitized patients in different geographical areas.

  18. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  19. Culture and sensitivity pattern in patients with external ventricular drain infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, M.F.A.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: External ventricular (EVD) is a life saving procedure and involves insertion of a catheter in ventricular space to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our objective of this study was to determine the culture and sensitivity (C/S) pattern in patients with EVD infection. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Neurosurgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from December 1, 2008 to January 31, 2010. All admitted patients who had acute hydrocephalus, underwent EVD insertion after excluding meningitis and ventriculitis by physical examination and per operative CSF sampling. The EVD was done at right Kocher's point. Prophylactic third generation antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was started and continued till EVD was in place. C/S was sent to PIMS laboratory on first documented fever and or change of CSF color or when plan was to replace EVD with Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP). Once infection was there CSF was sent for C/S initially and routine examination (R/E) daily. Antibiotics were changed according to C/S report and continued till they were needed. Infection rate was also estimated. Results: Among 76 patients 41 (53.9%) were male and 35 (46.1%) were females. Most were adults and were between 31 to 40 years of age. Mean duration of EVD was 11.41 days. Overall infection rate was 11.8%. Among causative organisms Staphylococcus Aureus (44.4%) was most common followed by Acenitobacter and Enterobacter and commonly used prophylactic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) had considerable resistance. Conclusion: EVD is a simple and life saving procedure. Most common organisms causing infection are Staphylococcus Aureus followed by Acenitobacter. Conventional used antibiotic Ceftriaxone has considerable resistance. (author)

  20. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  1. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

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    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  2. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pPermanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  3. Differences in early speech patterns between Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Young Eun; Park, Jongkyu; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Jumin; Jeong, Yuri; Kim, Hee-Tae; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-08-01

    In Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), patterns of early speech impairment and their distinguishing features from Parkinson's disease (PD) require further exploration. Here, we compared speech data among patients with early-stage MSA-P, PD, and healthy subjects using quantitative acoustic and perceptual analyses. Variables were analyzed for men and women in view of gender-specific features of speech. Acoustic analysis revealed that male patients with MSA-P exhibited more profound speech abnormalities than those with PD, regarding increased voice pitch, prolonged pause time, and reduced speech rate. This might be due to widespread pathology of MSA-P in nigrostriatal or extra-striatal structures related to speech production. Although several perceptual measures were mildly impaired in MSA-P and PD patients, none of these parameters showed a significant difference between patient groups. Detailed speech analysis using acoustic measures may help distinguish between MSA-P and PD early in the disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  5. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  6. Widespread molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines, with implications for human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent landmark studies have profiled cancer cell lines for molecular features, along with measuring the corresponding growth inhibitory effects for specific drug compounds. These data present a tool for determining which subsets of human cancer might be more responsive to particular drugs. To this end, the NCI-DREAM-sponsored DREAM7: Drug Sensitivity Prediction Challenge (sub-challenge 1 set out to predict the sensitivities of 18 breast cancer cell lines to 31 previously untested compounds, on the basis of molecular profiling data and a training subset of cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS: With 47 teams submitting blinded predictions, team Creighton scored third in terms of overall accuracy. Team Creighton's method was simple and straightforward, incorporated multiple expression data types (RNA-seq, gene array, RPPA, and incorporated all profiled features (not only the "best" predictive ones. As an extension of the approach, cell line data, from public datasets of expression profiling coupled with drug sensitivities (Barretina, Garnett, Heiser were used to "predict" the drug sensitivities in human breast tumors (using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Drug sensitivity correlations within human breast tumors showed differences by expression-based subtype, with many associations in line with the expected (e.g. Lapatinib sensitivity in HER2-enriched cancers and others inviting further study (e.g. relative resistance to PI3K inhibitors in basal-like cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity are widespread, with potentially hundreds of genes that could be incorporated into making predictions, as well as offering biological clues as to the mechanisms involved. Applying the cell line patterns to human tumor data may help generate hypotheses on what tumor subsets might be more responsive to therapies, where multiple cell line datasets representing various drugs may be used, in order to assess consistency of

  7. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  8. Addressing Early Life Sensitivity Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can provide an effective way to utilize in vitro and in silico based information in modern risk assessment for children and other potentially sensitive populations. In this review, we describe the process of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) to develop PBPK models for a chemical in different ages in order to predict the target tissue exposure at the age of concern in humans. We present our on-going studies on pyrethroids as a proof of concept to guide the readers through the IVIVE steps using the metabolism data collected either from age-specific liver donors or expressed enzymes in conjunction with enzyme ontogeny information to provide age-appropriate metabolism parameters in the PBPK model in the rat and human, respectively. The approach we present here is readily applicable to not just to other pyrethroids, but also to other environmental chemicals and drugs. Establishment of an in vitro and in silico-based evaluation strategy in conjunction with relevant exposure information in humans is of great importance in risk assessment for potentially vulnerable populations like early ages where the necessary information for decision making is limited.

  9. A sensitive detection assay based on signal amplification technology for Alzheimer's disease's early biomarker in exosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Meng, Lingchang; Ye, Weiran; Wang, Qiaolei; Geng, Shizhen; Sun, Chong

    2018-08-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) considered as the third health "killer" has seriously threatened the health of the elderly. However, the modern diagnostic strategies of AD present several disadvantages: the low accuracy and specificity resulting in some false-negative diagnoses, and the poor sensitivity leading to a delayed treatment. In view of this situation, a enzyme-free and target-triggered signal amplification strategy, based on graphene oxide (GO) and entropy-driven strand displacement reaction (ESDR) principle, was proposed. In this strategy, when the hairpin structure probes (H)specially binds with beta-amyloid-(1-42) oligomers (Aβ42 oligomers), it's structure will be opened, causing the bases complementary to FAM-labeled replacement probes R (R1 and R2) exposed. At this time, R1 and R2 will hybridize with H, resulting in the bound Aβ42 oligomers released. The released Aβ42 oligomers would participate in the next cycle reaction, making the signal amplified. As a quencher, GO could absorb the free single-stranded DNA R1 and R2 and quench their fluorescence; however, the DNA duplex still exists free and keeps its signal-on. Through the detection of Aβ42 oligomers in exosomes, this ultrasensitive detection method with the advantages of low limit of detection (LOD, 20 pM), great accuracy, excellent precision and convenience provides an excellent prospect for AD's early diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  11. Sex-sensitive cognitive performance in untreated patients with early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Opjordsmoen, S; Egeland, T; Finset, A

    2003-10-01

    We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n = 33) or the USA (GID-US, n = 19) and in a control group (C, n = 29). The testing was undertaken prior to cross sex hormone treatment. Four-way ANOVA was applied in the final analysis of the cognitive performance and its dependency on different predictors (age, biological sex, education, group). In both GID groups as well as in the control group (C) males excelled in visualization and rotation, also when controlling for potential confounders (biological sex, group, age and education). No female advantage was detected. Furthermore, no interaction between biological sex and group assignment was revealed in the samples. In this study the cognitive pattern of GID patients is consistent with that of their biological sex and not that of their gender identity.

  12. Decision-making patterns and sensitivity to reward and punishment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunami, Taiji; Okazaki, Shinji; Maekawa, Hisao

    2009-06-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Although some studies have focused on real-life decision making in children with ADHD using the Iowa gambling task, the number of good deck choices, a frequently used index of decision-making ability in the gambling task, is insufficient for investigating the complex decision-making strategies in subjects. In the present study, we investigated decision-making strategies in ADHD children, analyzing T-patterns with rewards, with punishments, and without rewards and punishments during the gambling task, and examined the relationship between decision-making strategies and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to rewards and punishments. We hypothesized that ADHD children and normal children would employ different decision-making strategies depending on their sensitivity to rewards and punishments in the gambling task. Our results revealed that ADHD children had fewer T-patterns with punishments and exhibited a significant tendency to have many T-patterns with rewards, thus supporting our hypothesis. Moreover, in contrast to normal children, ADHD children failed to demonstrate differences between reward and punishment SCRs, supporting the idea that they had an aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Therefore, we concluded that ADHD children would be impaired in decision-making strategies depending on their aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. However, we were unable to specify whether large reward SCRs or small punishment SCRs is generated in ADHD children.

  13. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  14. Sensitization and cross-reactions patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    ), elecampane (Inula helenium), large yellow ox-eye (Telekia speciosa) and cosmea (Cosmos) were additional important allergenic plants. The 3 last mentioned were picked up by SL mix. Most of the lettuce-sensitized persons were CM-positive. 19% of the occupationally sensitized group were negative to both SL...... and CM, making very aimed patch testing necessary, notably when suspecting rare sensitizers such as Gerbera and star of the veldt (Osteospermum). The significance of the weeds dandelion, dog fennel and ox-eye daisy as sensitizers is not clarified, but they are probably less important than cultivated...

  15. Understanding the effect of uniaxial tensile strain on the early stages of sensitization in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, P.S., E-mail: psc0126@gmail.com [Techno India Agartala, Maheshkhola, Agartala, West Tripura PIN – 799004 (India); Guchhait, S.K.; Mitra, P.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Mukherjee, P.; Gayathri, N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mitra, M.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of different competing mechanisms controlling the overall degree of sensitization (DOS) of deformed austenitic stainless steel at the early stage of sensitization. The Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) studies were performed to characterize the Degree of Sensitization (DOS) as a function of both pre-defined strain and sensitization temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to explain the phenomena qualitatively. A non monotonous behaviour in the variation of DOS has been observed with deformation and sensitization temperature. The presence of Deformation Induced Martensites (DIM) and their transformation into tempered martensites (α + M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) at higher temperatures was found to play major roles in controlling the overall sensitization and desensitization processes. - Highlights: • Interplay of various dynamic processes (four) in the early sensitization. • Deformation induced martensite (α′) playing major role at low temperature. • α (Tempered martensite) induced processes plays a vital role at higher temperatures. • Results in non monotonous variation in degree of sensitisation (DOS)

  16. Cross-sensitization patterns in guinea pigs between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, H; Hansen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) were performed with cinnamon substances. There was a certain degree of cross-reactivity between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid as animals sensitized to cinnamaldehyde reacted to the challenge with the three substances. Animals sensitized to...

  17. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  18. GROUP-B STREPTOCOCCUS IN PREGNANT WOMEN: Prevalence of Colonization and Sensitivity Pattern in Denpasar during June 2007May 2008

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    N Sri-Budayanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group-B Streptococci (GBS are Gram-positive cocci that are the most common cause of early onset neonatal sepsis. The mortality rate of early onset neonatal sepsis has been reported up to 50%. One of the major risks of early onset neonatal sepsis is GBS colonization in birthcanal of pregnant women that can infect the baby during process of vaginal delivery. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women that is colonized by GBS can reduce the risk of early onset neonatal sepsis. The detection of GBS colonization needs Todd Hewitt (TH enrichment medium toreduce false negative result. Until now, there is no report about either prevalence of colonization or sensitivity pattern of Group B Streptococcus among pregnant women in Denpasar. The aims of this research were to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization and sensitivity pattern of GBS amongpregnant women with Todd Hewitt enrichment medium.Method: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Vaginal swab specimens from 3537 weeks gestation pregnant women were collected and 32 samples that met the inclusion criteria were cultured on Blood agar (BA plates, Chromagar (CA plates, and Todd Hewitt (TH broth. The GBS colonization that grew in culture medium was followed by antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: In the present study, we found that the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women detected with culture method using BA and CA without TH broth was 9.4%, whereas the prevalence with culture method using BA and CA enriched by TH broth was 31.3%. Moreover, GBS showed resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and cefazolin. It is indicated that TH enrichment medium seems to be promising as a screening method for GBS colonization in pregnant women in Bali.Conclusion: There was an enrichment detection of GBS prevalence colonization in pregnant women detected the swab with culture method using BA and CA enriched by TH compare to BA and CA without TH broth

  19. Striatal Dopamine Depletion Patterns and Early Non-Motor Burden in Parkinsons Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Chung

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Parkinson patients with more non-motor symptoms have a different pattern of striatal dopamine depletion, particularly in areas other than the sensorimotor striatum, compared to those with fewer non-motor symptoms.We conducted a prospective survey of the degree of non-motor symptoms (using the Korean version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale; K-NMSS in 151 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease who had undergone a dopamine transporter PET scan as an initial diagnostic procedure. We classified the patients into two groups; high non-motor patients (HNM-PD; K-NMSS score ≥ 41 and low non-motor patients (LNM-PD.Patients in the HNM-PD group (n = 71 were older, had longer symptom duration, exhibited more severe motor deficits, and had been prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those in the LNM-PD group. However, dopamine transporter binding to the striatal sub-regions and inter-sub-regional binding ratios were comparable between the two groups. A general linear model showed that the HNM-PD group had significantly more severe motor deficits than the LNM-PD group after controlling for age, gender, symptom duration, and dopamine transporter binding to the sensorimotor striatum.This study demonstrated that the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion does not contribute to early non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that LNM-PD patients may have a more benign course of motor symptom progression than HNM-PD patients.

  20. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  1. Practice patterns and long-term survival for early-stage rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Sanoff, Hanna K; Penn, Dolly C; Meyers, Michael O; Tepper, Joel E

    2013-12-01

    Standard of care treatment for most stage I rectal cancers is total mesorectal excision (TME). Given the morbidity associated with TME, local excision (LE) for early-stage rectal cancer has been explored. This study examines practice patterns and overall survival (OS) for early-stage rectal cancer. All patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 were initially included. Use of LE versus proctectomy and use of adjuvant radiation therapy were compared over time. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS based on treatment. LE was used to treat 46.5% of patients with T1 and 16.8% with T2 tumors. Use of LE increased steadily over time (P OS than those treated with proctectomy alone or multimodality therapy. Guideline-concordant adoption of LE for treatment of low-risk stage I rectal cancer is increasing. However, use of LE is also increasing for higher-risk rectal cancers that do not meet guideline criteria for LE. Treatment with LE alone is associated with poorer long-term OS. Additional studies are warranted to understand the factors driving increased use of LE.

  2. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2013-01-01

    Consistent left-right (LR patterning of the heart and viscera is a crucial part of normal embryogenesis. Because errors of laterality form a common class of birth defects, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms and stage at which LR asymmetry is initiated. Frog embryos are a system uniquely suited to analysis of the mechanisms involved in orientation of the LR axis because of the many genetic and pharmacological tools available for use and the fate-map and accessibility of early blastomeres. Two major models exist for the origin of LR asymmetry and both implicate pre-nervous serotonergic signaling. In the first, the charged serotonin molecule is instructive for LR patterning; it is redistributed asymmetrically along the LR axis and signals intracellularly on the right side at cleavage stages. A second model suggests that serotonin is a permissive factor required to specify the dorsal region of the embryo containing chiral cilia that generate asymmetric fluid flow during neurulation, a much later process. We performed theory-neutral experiments designed to distinguish between these models. The results uniformly support a role for serotonin in the cleavage-stage embryo, long before the appearance of cilia, in ventral right blastomeres that do not contribute to the ciliated organ.

  3. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  4. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  5. Theta oscillations are sensitive to both early and late conflict processing stages: effects of alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Sanja; Azma, Sheeva; Irimia, Andrei; Sherfey, Jason; Halgren, Eric; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging evidence indicates that decision conflict activates medial and lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Theoretical accounts of cognitive control highlight anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a central node in this network. However, a better understanding of the relative primacy and functional contributions of these areas to decision conflict requires insight into the neural dynamics of successive processing stages including conflict detection, response selection and execution. Moderate alcohol intoxication impairs cognitive control as it interferes with the ability to inhibit dominant, prepotent responses when they are no longer correct. To examine the effects of moderate intoxication on successive processing stages during cognitive control, spatio-temporal changes in total event-related theta power were measured during Stroop-induced conflict. Healthy social drinkers served as their own controls by participating in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) approach was applied to complex power spectra for theta (4-7 Hz) frequencies. The principal generator of event-related theta power to conflict was estimated to ACC, with contributions from fronto-parietal areas. The ACC was uniquely sensitive to conflict during both early conflict detection, and later response selection and execution stages. Alcohol attenuated theta power to conflict across successive processing stages, suggesting that alcohol-induced deficits in cognitive control may result from theta suppression in the executive network. Slower RTs were associated with attenuated theta power estimated to ACC, indicating that alcohol impairs motor preparation and execution subserved by the ACC. In addition to their relevance for the currently prevailing accounts of cognitive control, our results suggest that alcohol-induced impairment of top-down strategic processing

  6. Sensitization patterns in Compositae-allergic patients with current or past atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background. An association between Compositae sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been suggested on the basis of case reports and clinical studies. Objectives. To describe the characteristics of sensitization in Compositae-allergic patients with current and/or past atopic dermatitis. Patients/materials......-atopics, except that dandelion was an important allergen in children. Cobalt allergy was the most frequent other contact allergy, occurring in 37%. Conclusions. Persons with current or past atopic dermatitis may become sensitized to Compositae at any age, both occupationally and non-occupationally. They should...

  7. Evaluation of early systolic flow pattern in left ventricle by tagging cine MRI in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Anno, Naoko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    The tagging method is a new technique, which permits to apply discretionary lines (tags) on MR images. To evaluate intra left ventricular (LV) flow pattern, we performed ECG-gated gradient field echo cine MRI using tagging method in five normal male volunteers, aged 22-42 years. The horizontal long axis view of LV was imaged by multiphasic field echo pulse sequence. The three parallel tags (basal, middle and apical portion) were established on the horizontal long axis view of LV just after the triggered QRS waves. And the initial two images (70 ms and 120 ms after the triggered QRS waves) were analyzed. On the two tags (middle and apical portion) of these three tags, we measured the distance of displacement of the tags on three points (the near site of IVS, middle portion and the near site of free wall) respectively. At 70 ms after the trigger point, the only tagged blood at the near site of free wall flowed toward the apex. At 120 ms after the trigger point, all the tagged blood flowed toward the outflow tract of LV. And the maximum blood flow velocity was observed at the near site of IVS on middle portion of LV (166.0 mm/s). These results coincided with earlier studies by Doppler echocardiography. But we could not observe intra LV blood flow patterns throughout one cardiac cycle in this pulse sequence, because the tags had flowed out from LV and had become unclear due to spin relaxation and mixing. We concluded that the tagging method was useful to evaluate intra left ventricular blood flow patterns in early systolic phase. (author)

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Sensitivity with Their Two Children: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; Linting, Mariëlle; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of child age and birth order on sensitive parenting, 364 families with 2 children were visited when the second-born children were 12, 24, and 36 months old, and their older siblings were on average 2 years older. Mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity than fathers at all assessments. Parental sensitivity increased from…

  9. Nanoparticle Photoresists: Ligand Exchange as a New, Sensitive EUV Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Kryask, Marie; Trikeriotis, Markos; Ouyang, Christine; Chakrabarty, Sovik; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    compared to other standard photoresists. The current study aims at investigating and establishing the underlying mechanism for dual tone patterning of these nanoparticle photoresist systems. Infrared spectroscopy and UV absorbance studies supported by mass

  10. Pattern of pathogens and their sensitivity isolated from superficial surgical site infections in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Tahir, S.M.; Shaikh, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and sensitivity in surgical practice. Surgical site infections (SSI) are defined as an infections that occurs at the incision site within thirty days after surgery. Objectives of the study were to determine the pattern of pathogens involved and their antibiotic sensitivity isolated from superficial surgical site infections in a teaching hospital. This observational study was conducted for 1 year from January 2008 to December 2008 in all 4 surgical units of Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad which caters to patients from low socioeconomic status. Pus culture and sensitivity reports were collected prospectively from hospitalised patients who developed postoperative wound infection. The patients who developed fecal/biliary/urinary fistula or operated for malignancies, and with negative cultures were excluded from the study. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10. During the study period 112 pus culture and sensitivity reports were analyzed. E. coli 68 (60.7%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella 23 (20.5%). The least frequent organism was staph. Epidermidis 1 (0.9%). All isolates were sensitive to penicillin derivatives and carbapenem. Quinolones, Aminoglycosides and Monobactum were also showing some promise in our study. However, Cephalosporins were ineffective against most of the important isolates in our study. E. coli and klebsiella were the most important isolates form SSI in our study, and penicillin derivatives and carbapenem were showing 100% antibiotic sensitivity to all of the isolates. (author)

  11. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  12. Switch of Sensitivity Dynamics Revealed with DyGloSA Toolbox for Dynamical Global Sensitivity Analysis as an Early Warning for System's Critical Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA – a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits. PMID:24367574

  13. Switch of sensitivity dynamics revealed with DyGloSA toolbox for dynamical global sensitivity analysis as an early warning for system's critical transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA - a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits.

  14. Sensitivity of peak flow to the change of rainfall temporal pattern due to warmer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Sherien; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Han, Dawei

    2018-05-01

    The widely used design storms in urban drainage networks has different drawbacks. One of them is that the shape of the rainfall temporal pattern is fixed regardless of climate change. However, previous studies have shown that the temporal pattern may scale with temperature due to climate change, which consequently affects peak flow. Thus, in addition to the scaling of the rainfall volume, the scaling relationship for the rainfall temporal pattern with temperature needs to be investigated by deriving the scaling values for each fraction within storm events, which is lacking in many parts of the world including the UK. Therefore, this study analysed rainfall data from 28 gauges close to the study area with a 15-min resolution as well as the daily temperature data. It was found that, at warmer temperatures, the rainfall temporal pattern becomes less uniform, with more intensive peak rainfall during higher intensive times and weaker rainfall during less intensive times. This is the case for storms with and without seasonal separations. In addition, the scaling values for both the rainfall volume and the rainfall fractions (i.e. each segment of rainfall temporal pattern) for the summer season were found to be higher than the corresponding results for the winter season. Applying the derived scaling values for the temporal pattern of the summer season in a hydrodynamic sewer network model produced high percentage change of peak flow between the current and future climate. This study on the scaling of rainfall fractions is the first in the UK, and its findings are of importance to modellers and designers of sewer systems because it can provide more robust scenarios for flooding mitigation in urban areas.

  15. Macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    in the nasal macula (13.6 (± 5.7) dB versus 19.7 (± 0.7) dB) and in the central macula (14.2 (± 5.1) dB versus 19.9 (± 0.3) dB). The average sensitivity decreased with decreasing BCVA in ADOA (p ... fixation was observed in 35% of ADOA patients versus 14% of controls. Unstable fixation was found only in ADOA, where its prevalence was 7%. CONCLUSION: ADOA was associated with unstable fixation and subnormal microperimetric sensitivity, especially in the central and nasal macula where the ganglion cell...

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates in a tertiary health institution in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwo Emmanuel Onwubiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a persistent nosocomial and community acquired pathogen has become a global health concern. It has a remarkable capability of evolving different mechanisms of resistance to most antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study is to establish the incidence of S. aureus in clinical specimens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antibiotics in this locality. METHODS: One hundred and fifty consecutive isolates of S. aureus obtained from various clinical specimens between January and December 2009 sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH were confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was carried out by disc diffusion method. RESULTS: The age group with the highest number of isolates was (0-10yrs while wound infection had the highest frequency of S. aureus isolates (30.7% in the study. Males (62.0% were more infected than females (38.0%. The sensitivity pattern of S. aureus to the following antibiotics; Gentamicin, Amoxycillin/clavulanate, Streptomycin, Cloxacillin, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillin and vancomycin were 92.4%, 63.0%, 44.2%, 35.8%, 52.4%, 61.9%, 15.5%, 31.2%, 7.1%, 78.9%, 76.6%, 100%, 71.4%, 30.7% and 100% respectively. Methicillin resistant isolates were sensitive to Levofloxacin 93.7% and Ofloxacin 68.7%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that the fluoroquinolones are effective in the management of Staphylococcus aureus infections including methicillin resistant strains in this environment.

  17. Sensitivity Pattern of Second Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Ikram, A.; Abbasi, S. A.; Zaman, G.; Ayyub, M.; Palomino, J. C.; Vandamme, P.; Martin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the current sensitivity pattern of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against clinical isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from November 2011 to April 2013. Methodology: Samples received during the study period were processed on BACTEC MGIT 960 system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture followed by first line drugs susceptibility testing of culture proven MTB isolates. On the basis of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, 100 clinical isolates of MDR-TB were further subjected to susceptibility testing against amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), ofloxacin (OFL) and ethionamide (ETH) as per standard BACTEC MGIT 960 instructions. Results: Out of 100 MDR-TB isolates, 62% were from male patients and 38% from female patients. 97% were sensitive to AMK, 53% to OFL, 87% to CAP; and 87% were sensitive to ETH. Conclusion: The majority of the MDR-TB isolates showed excellent sensitivity against AMK, CAP and ETH. However, sensitivity of MDR-TB isolates against fluoroquinolones like OFL was not encouraging. (author)

  18. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  19. Correlation between RNA Degradation Patterns of Rat's Brain and Early PMI at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Li, Z H; Tuo, Y; Liu, L; Li, K; Bian, J; Ma, J L; Chen, L

    2016-06-01

    To explore the correlation between early postmortem interval (PMI) and eight RNA markers of rat's brain at different temperatures. Total 222 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (PMI=0 h) and four experimental groups. And the rats in the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and respectively kept at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ in a controlled environment chamber. The RNA was extracted from brain tissues, which was taken at 9 time points from 1 h to 24 h postmortem. The expression levels of eight markers, β-actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of normalized RNA markers was performed by SPSS software. Mathematical model for PMI estimation was established using R software. Another 6 SD rats with known PMI were used to verify the mathematical model. 5S rRNA, miR-9 and miR-125b were suitable as internal reference markers for their stable expression. Both β-actin and GAPDH had well time-dependent degradation patterns and degraded continually with prolongation of PMI in 24 h postmortem. The mathematical model of the variation of ΔCt values with PMI and temperature was set up by R software and the model could be used for PMI estimation. The average error rates of model validation using β-actin and GAPDH were 14.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH are well correlated with PMI and environmental temperature. The mathematical model established in present study can provide references for estimating early PMI under various temperature conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urinary tract infection among children with cerebral palsy, Moshi, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryakitimbo, Amon; Philemon, Rune; Mazuguni, Festo; Msuya, Levina

    2018-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania – Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic. All children who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Urine samples were collected at one point by catheterization, and urine dipstick and urine culture were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results A total of 99 children were enrolled in the study. The median age was 4 years (3–8 years); 53.5% were aged between 2 and 4 years. More than half were male. UTI was detected in 13.1% (n=13) of the children. Five causative agents of UTI were isolated, namely Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The two most common organisms, E. coli and P. mirabilis, both had low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole while they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion UTI is a common finding among children with CP. E. coli and P. mirabilis are the commonest causative agents and are sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone but have low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. PMID:29774893

  1. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  2. A sensitive slope: estimating landscape patterns of forest resilience in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; Eliot J.B. McIntire; Eric J. Pedersen; Gregory King; Michael J.F. Pisaric

    2010-01-01

    Changes in Earth's environment are expected to stimulate changes in the composition and structure of ecosystems, but it is still unclear how the dynamics of these responses will play out over time. In long-lived forest systems, communities of established individuals may be resistant to respond to directional climate change, but may be highly sensitive to climate...

  3. Mothers' and fathers' sensitivity with their two children : A longitudinal study from infancy to early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Groeneveld, M.G.; van Berkel, S. R.; Endendijk, J. J.; van der Pol, L. D.; Linting, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of child age and birth order on sensitive parenting, 364 families with two children were visited when the second-born children were 12, 24, and 36 months old, and their older siblings were on average two years older. Mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity than fathers at

  4. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  5. Tuning up mind's pattern to nature's own idea: Eddington's early twenties case for variational derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Ivahn

    This paper sets out to show how Eddington's early twenties case for variational derivatives significantly bears witness to a steady and consistent shift in focus from a resolute striving for objectivity towards "selective subjectivism" and structuralism. While framing his so-called "Hamiltonian derivatives" along the lines of previously available variational methods allowing to derive gravitational field equations from an action principle, Eddington assigned them a theoretical function of his own devising in The Mathematical Theory of Relativity (1923). I make clear that two stages should be marked out in Eddington's train of thought if the meaning of such variational derivatives is to be adequately assessed. As far as they were originally intended to embody the mind's collusion with nature by linking atomicity of matter with atomicity of action, variational derivatives were at first assigned a dual role requiring of them not only to express mind's craving for permanence but also to tune up mind's privileged pattern to "Nature's own idea". Whereas at a later stage, as affine field theory would provide a framework for world-building, such "Hamiltonian differentiation" would grow out of tune through gauge-invariance and, by disregarding how mathematical theory might precisely come into contact with actual world, would be turned into a mere heuristic device for structural knowledge.

  6. Evolutionary patterns in the sequence and structure of transfer RNA: early origins of archaea and viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jie Sun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are ancient molecules that are central to translation. Since they probably carry evolutionary signatures that were left behind when the living world diversified, we reconstructed phylogenies directly from the sequence and structure of tRNA using well-established phylogenetic methods. The trees placed tRNAs with long variable arms charging Sec, Tyr, Ser, and Leu consistently at the base of the rooted phylogenies, but failed to reveal groupings that would indicate clear evolutionary links to organismal origin or molecular functions. In order to uncover evolutionary patterns in the trees, we forced tRNAs into monophyletic groups using constraint analyses to generate timelines of organismal diversification and test competing evolutionary hypotheses. Remarkably, organismal timelines showed Archaea was the most ancestral superkingdom, followed by viruses, then superkingdoms Eukarya and Bacteria, in that order, supporting conclusions from recent phylogenomic studies of protein architecture. Strikingly, constraint analyses showed that the origin of viruses was not only ancient, but was linked to Archaea. Our findings have important implications. They support the notion that the archaeal lineage was very ancient, resulted in the first organismal divide, and predated diversification of tRNA function and specificity. Results are also consistent with the concept that viruses contributed to the development of the DNA replication machinery during the early diversification of the living world.

  7. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  8. [Early total care pattern for intertrochanteric fracture of femur in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Kang, Xin-yong; Xu, Hong-wei; Li, Yong-fu; Zahng, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Zhen-nian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate clinical results of early total care (ETC) treatment for elderly patients with intertrochanteric femur fractures. Clinical data of 106 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated from January 2012 and February 2015 were retrospectively studied. According to whether receiving the early total care mode, the patients were divided into 2 groups, 34 cases were diagnosed and treated with early total care pattern (ETC group), including 14 males and 20 females with an average age of (74.88 ± 4.38) years old ranging from 70 to 86. According to Evans types, 4 cases were type I, 5 cases were type II, 13 cases were type III, 11 cases were type IV, 1 case was type V. Seventy-two patients were treated with conventional trauma method (conventional group), including 35 males and 37 females with an average age of (74.46 ± 3.63) years old ranging from 70 to 85. According to Evans type, 8 cases were type I ,13 cases were type II, 25 cases were type III, 25 cases were type IV, and 1 case was type V. All fractures were treated with proximal femoral nails anti-rotation (PFNA). Operative time, hospital stays, leaving bed time, complications, cases of death at 1 year after operation, postoperative Harris score at 12 months were observed and compared. All patients were followed up, the time of ETC group ranged from 9 to 18 months with an average of 13.29 ± 1.51, and the time in conventional group ranged from 12 to 16 months with an average 12.93 ± 1.15, while there was no significant difference between two groups in time of following-up (t = 1.368, P = 0.174). There was no significant meaning in cases of death between ETC group (2 cases) and conventional group (8 cases). Three cases occurred complications in ETC group, and 20 cases in conventional group,there was obvious meaning between two groups (χ² = 0.739, P = 0.318). Operative time,hospital stays,leaving bed time in ETC group respectively was (2.03 ± 0.67) d, (15.41 ± 2.87) d and (3.62 ± 0.74) d

  9. Reward sensitivity, attentional bias, and executive control in early adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J; Ostafin, Brian D; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether attentional bias for alcohol stimuli was associated with alcohol use in young adolescents, and whether the frequently demonstrated relationship between reward sensitivity and adolescent alcohol use would be partly mediated by attentional bias for alcohol cues. In addition, this study investigated the potential moderating role of executive control (EC), and tested whether the relationship between alcohol-related attentional bias and alcohol use was especially present in young adolescents with weak EC. Participants were 86 adolescents (mean age=14.86), who completed a Visual Probe Task (VPT) as an index of attentional bias, a flanker-task based Attention Network Task (ANT) as an index of EC, the sensitivity of punishment and sensitivity of reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as an index of reward sensitivity, and an alcohol use questionnaire. High reward sensitivity, high alcohol-related attentional bias, and weak EC were all related to alcohol use. The relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use was not mediated by alcohol-related attentional bias. As hypothesized, attentional bias was only associated with alcohol use in participants with weak EC. Together, the present findings are consistent with the view that high reward sensitivity and low EC may be considered as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. The independent contribution of reward sensitivity and attentional bias might suggest that adolescents who are highly reward sensitive and display an attentional bias for alcohol cues are at even higher risk for excessive alcohol use and developing alcohol abuse problems. Future research using a longitudinal approach would allow an examination of these risk factors on subsequent alcohol use. Treatment implications are discussed, including the importance of strengthening EC and reducing the rewarding value of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Poetry in a Spiral-Patterned Methodology for Research about Love in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Research about love in early childhood education and care is rare. Love is difficult topic to research and write about in scholarly contexts. In order to properly explore love in professional contexts, practitioner narratives on the topic were sought through individual, unstructured interviews. A spiral-patterned methodological approach was…

  11. Serotonin signaling is a very early step in patterning of the left-right axis in chick and frog embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukumoto, T; Kema, IP; Levin, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fascinating problem in developmental and evolutionary biology. Conservation of early LR patterning steps among vertebrates as well as involvement of nonprotein small-molecule messengers are very poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key

  12. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  13. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  14. Robustness of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The following results were obtained in tests to check the robustness of the analysis techniques: two independent Latin hypercube samples produced similar uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results; setting important variables to best-estimate values produced substantial reductions in uncertainty, while setting the less important variables to best-estimate values had little effect on uncertainty; similar sensitivity analysis results were obtained when the original uniform and loguniform distributions assigned to the 34 imprecisely known input variables were changed to left-triangular distributions and then to right-triangular distributions; and analyses with rank-transformed and logarithmically-transformed data produced similar results and substantially outperformed analyses with raw (i.e., untransformed) data

  15. Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2018-01-01

    Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome.

  16. Analysis of the Origin of Atypical Scanning Laser Polarimetry Patterns by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Baumann, Bernhard; Hirn, Cornelia; Vass, Clemens; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the physical origin of atypical scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) patterns. To compare polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) scans to SLP images. To present a method to obtain pseudo-SLP images by PS-OCT that are free of atypical artifacts. Methods Forty-one eyes of healthy subjects, subjects with suspected glaucoma, and patients with glaucoma were imaged by SLP (GDx VCC) and a prototype spectral domain PS-OCT system. The PS-OCT system acquires three-dimensional (3D) datasets of intensity, retardation, and optic axis orientation simultaneously within 3 seconds. B-scans of intensity and retardation and en face maps of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) retardation were derived from the 3D PS-OCT datasets. Results were compared with those obtained by SLP. Results Twenty-two eyes showed atypical retardation patterns, and 19 eyes showed normal patterns. From the 22 atypical eyes, 15 showed atypical patterns in both imaging modalities, five were atypical only in SLP images, and two were atypical only in PS-OCT images. In most (15 of 22) atypical cases, an increased penetration of the probing beam into the birefringent sclera was identified as the source of atypical patterns. In such cases, the artifacts could be eliminated in PS-OCT images by depth segmentation and exclusion of scleral signals. Conclusions PS-OCT provides deeper insight into the contribution of different fundus layers to SLP images. Increased light penetration into the sclera can distort SLP retardation patterns of the RNFL. PMID:19036999

  17. Observations of Local Positive Low Cloud Feedback Patterns and Their Role in Internal Variability and Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven E.; Meyer, Kerry

    2018-05-01

    Modeling studies have shown that cloud feedbacks are sensitive to the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, while cloud feedbacks themselves strongly influence the magnitude of SST anomalies. Observational counterparts to such patterned interactions are still needed. Here we show that distinct large-scale patterns of SST and low-cloud cover (LCC) emerge naturally from objective analyses of observations and demonstrate their close coupling in a positive local SST-LCC feedback loop that may be important for both internal variability and climate change. The two patterns that explain the maximum amount of covariance between SST and LCC correspond to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, leading modes of multidecadal internal variability. Spatial patterns and time series of SST and LCC anomalies associated with both modes point to a strong positive local SST-LCC feedback. In many current climate models, our analyses suggest that SST-LCC feedback strength is too weak compared to observations. Modeled local SST-LCC feedback strength affects simulated internal variability so that stronger feedback produces more intense and more realistic patterns of internal variability. To the extent that the physics of the local positive SST-LCC feedback inferred from observed climate variability applies to future greenhouse warming, we anticipate significant amount of delayed warming because of SST-LCC feedback when anthropogenic SST warming eventually overwhelm the effects of internal variability that may mute anthropogenic warming over parts of the ocean. We postulate that many climate models may be underestimating both future warming and the magnitude of modeled internal variability because of their weak SST-LCC feedback.

  18. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  19. Early growth response-1 negative feedback regulates skeletal muscle postprandial insulin sensitivity via activating Ptp1b transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Tao, Wei-Wei; Chong, Dan-Yang; Lai, Shan-Shan; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Tong-Yu; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2018-03-15

    Postprandial insulin desensitization plays a critical role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis by avoiding the excessive absorption of blood glucose; however, the detailed mechanisms that underlie how the major player, skeletal muscle, desensitizes insulin action remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that early growth response gene-1 ( Egr-1) is activated by insulin in skeletal muscle and provides feedback inhibition that regulates insulin sensitivity after a meal. The inhibition of the transcriptional activity of Egr-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (InsR) and Akt, thus increasing glucose uptake in L6 myotubes after insulin stimulation, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 decreased insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, deletion of Egr-1 in the skeletal muscle improved systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, which resulted in lower blood glucose levels after refeeding. Mechanistic analysis demonstrated that EGR-1 inhibited InsR phosphorylation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by binding to the proximal promoter region of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and directly activating transcription. PTP1B knockdown largely restored insulin sensitivity and enhanced glucose uptake, even under conditions of EGR-1 overexpression. Our results indicate that EGR-1/PTP1B signaling negatively regulates postprandial insulin sensitivity and suggest a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of excessive glucose absorption.-Wu, J., Tao, W.-W., Chong, D.-Y., Lai, S.-S., Wang, C., Liu, Q., Zhang, T.-Y., Xue, B., Li, C.-J. Early growth response-1 negative feedback regulates skeletal muscle postprandial insulin sensitivity via activating Ptp1b transcription.

  20. Differentially expressed androgen-regulated genes in androgen-sensitive tissues reveal potential biomarkers of early prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Murat Altintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several data favor androgen receptor implication in prostate cancer initiation through the induction of several gene activation programs. The aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa among androgen-regulated genes (ARG and to evaluate comparative expression of these genes in normal prostate and normal prostate-related androgen-sensitive tissues that do not (or rarely give rise to cancer. METHODS: ARG were selected in non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial RWPE-1 cells stably expressing an exogenous human androgen receptor, using RNA-microarrays and validation by qRT-PCR. Expression of 48 preselected genes was quantified in tissue samples (seminal vesicles, prostate transitional zones and prostate cancers, benign prostatic hypertrophy obtained from surgical specimens using TaqMan® low-density arrays. The diagnostic performances of these potential biomarkers were compared to that of genes known to be associated with PCa (i.e. PCA3 and DLX1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: By crossing expression studies in 26 matched PCa and normal prostate transitional zone samples, and 35 matched seminal vesicle and PCa samples, 14 genes were identified. Similarly, 9 genes were overexpressed in 15 benign prostatic hypertrophy samples, as compared to PCa samples. Overall, we selected 8 genes of interest to evaluate their diagnostic performances in comparison with that of PCA3 and DLX1. Among them, 3 genes: CRYAB, KCNMA1 and SDPR, were overexpressed in all 3 reference non-cancerous tissues. The areas under ROC curves of these genes reached those of PCA3 (0.91 and DLX1 (0.94. CONCLUSIONS: We identified ARG with reduced expression in PCa and with significant diagnostic values for discriminating between cancerous and non-cancerous prostatic tissues, similar that of PCA3. Given their expression pattern, they could be considered as potentially protective against prostate cancer. Moreover, they could

  1. Sensitivity of the Early Development of Ramshorn Snail, Marisa cornuarietis (Ampullariidae) to Environmental Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Sawasdee, Banthita

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the suitability of the M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) for environmental chemicals was investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the recently introduced M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) using selected metals (inorganic pollutants) and pesticides (organic pollutants), and to compare its sensitivity and practicability to other established bioassay. The following endpoints were observed: mortality, formation of tentacl...

  2. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  3. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  4. Tracking of eating patterns and overweight - a follow-up study of Norwegian schoolchildren from middle childhood to early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Martin V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe eating patterns in early adolescence and to determine associations between eating patterns and overweight from middle childhood (4th grade, 9 to 10 years old to early adolescence (7th grade, 12 to 13 years old. Methods Children were recruited from primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Dietary data were obtained by parental report using a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were objectively measured, and overweight was defined using international standard cut-off points. Complete data were obtained for 924 4th grade and 691 7th children, and 427 children provided complete data at both time points. Principal component analysis was applied to identify eating patterns. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for being overweight. Results The same four distinct eating patterns were identified at both time points. Correlation coefficients for the factor scores of corresponding eating patterns at baseline and follow up ranged from 0.44 to 0.60. In the follow-up sample, 345 children (80% were still of normal weight, while 41 (10% remained overweight. Children with high "dieting" pattern scores and low "varied Norwegian" pattern scores in the 7th grade had an increased risk of being overweight. Children with stable or increased "varied Norwegian" pattern scores had a lower risk of remaining overweight over time than children with decreased scores for this pattern; adjusted OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8. This pattern included foods and meals close to current dietary guidelines, including vegetables, fruit and unrefined cereal products. We did not observe an increased risk of overweight in children with high "unhealthy" eating pattern scores, termed "snacking" or "junk/convenient" in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Slight to moderate stability of eating patterns was observed. Children

  5. Early pattern recognition in severe perinatal asphyxia: a prospective MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baenziger, O. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Martin, E. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Steinlin, M. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Good, M. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Largo, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Burger, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Fanconi, S. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Duc, G. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Buchli, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Rumpel, H. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Boltshauser, E. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of MRI examinations in 88 neonates and infants with perinatal asphyxia, we defined 6 different patterns on T2-weighted images: pattern A-scattered hyperintensity of both hemispheres of the telencephalon with blurred border zones between cortex and white matter, indicating diffuse brain injury; pattern B-parasagittal hyperintensity extending into the corona radiata, corresponding to the watershed zones; pattern C-hyper- and hypointense lesions in thalamus and basal ganglia, which relate to haemorrhagic necrosis of iron deposition in these areas; pattern D-periventricular hyperintensity, mainly along the lateral ventricles, i.e. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), originating from the matrix zone; pattern E-small multifocal lesions varying from hyper- to hypointense, interpreted as necrosis and haemorrhage; pattern F-periventricular centrifugal hypointense stripes in the centrum semiovale and deep white matter of the frontal and occipital lobes. Contrast was effectively inverted on T1-weighted images. Patterns A, B and C were found in 17%, 25% and 37% of patients, and patterns D, E and F in 19%, 17% and 35%, respectively. In 49 patients a combination of patterns was observed, but 30% of the initial images were normal. At follow-up, persistent abnormalities were seen in all children with patterns A and D, but in only 52% of those with pattern C. Myelination was retarded most often in patients with diffuse brain injury and PVL (patterns A and D). (orig.)

  6. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  7. MICROBIOLOGY AND SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF LACTATIONAL AND NON-LACTATIONAL BREAST ABSCESS IN SOUTHERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Sahoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast abscess is one of the most frequently encountered cases in the General Surgery OPD among females. This fact can be supported by the fact that 4.6% and 11% of the women in developed and developing countries are affected by breast abscess. Breast abscesses are generally categorised as one of two types: Lactational abscesses and non-lactational abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted from December 2015 to January 2017 on female patients visiting the General Surgery OPD of MKCG Medical College and Hospital with presumptive diagnosis of breast abscess. Both lactational and non-lactational females were included in the study. A total of 53 subjects with breast abscess were included in the study. The diagnosis of breast abscess was made from the clinical signs and symptoms of infection. Patients having any benign or malignant disease of breast were excluded from the study. RESULTS Of the 53 specimens found positive for bacterial yield, 43 were monomicrobial and only 10 were polymicrobial. Out of the 53 samples collected, only 6 showed anaerobic growth. Most common aerobic Gram positive isolate found in the sample was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Most common aerobic Gram negative organism isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in 14 cases followed by Escherichia coli in 10 cases. Anaerobic bacteria were found only in nonlactational breast abscess. Of the anaerobic isolates, 5 are monomicrobial and 1 was polymicrobial. Aerobic Gram positive isolates showed sensitivity to most of the commonly used antibiotics. All the 4 gram negative isolates were found to be 100% sensitive to Piperacillin Tazobactam combination and Imipenem/Cilastatin combination. Pseudomonas was found to be somewhat resistant to Amikacin, Levofloxacin and Cephalosporins. Anaerobes were found to be fully sensitive to Metronidazole, Clindamycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam combination. CONCLUSION Hence, this

  8. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more

  9. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven [Affidea Centre de Diagnostic Radiologique de Carouge CDRC, Geneva (Switzerland); Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Direction, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p < 0.05). The dCON group had a less pronounced effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p < 0.05 corrected) and reduced default mode network (DMN) deactivation compared to sCON (p < 0.01 corrected). dCON cases are characterized by decreased sensitivity to caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits. (orig.)

  10. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p < 0.05). The dCON group had a less pronounced effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p < 0.05 corrected) and reduced default mode network (DMN) deactivation compared to sCON (p < 0.01 corrected). dCON cases are characterized by decreased sensitivity to caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits. (orig.)

  11. Structural sensitivity of x-ray Bragg projection ptychography to domain patterns in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Zhang, Q.; Holt, M. V.; Highland, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent diffraction imaging technique capable of mapping the spatial distribution of the Bragg structure factor in nanostructured thin films. Here, we show that, because these images are projections, the structural sensitivity of the resulting images depends on the film thickness and the aspect ratio and orientation of the features of interest and that image interpretation depends on these factors. Lastly, we model changes in contrast in the BPP reconstructions of simulated PbTiO_3 ferroelectric thin films with meandering 180° stripe domains as a function of film thickness, discuss their origin, and comment on the implication of these factors on the design of BPP experiments of general nanostructured films.

  12. Stretchable Spin Valve with Stable Magnetic Field Sensitivity by Ribbon-Patterned Periodic Wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Liu, Luping; Yang, Huali; Zuo, Zhenghu; Shang, Tian; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-04-26

    A strain-relief structure by combining the strain-engineered periodic wrinkles and the parallel ribbons was employed to fabricate flexible dual spin valves onto PDMS substrates in a direct sputtering method. The strain-relief structure can accommodate the biaxial strain accompanying with stretching operation (the uniaxial applied tensile strain and the induced transverse compressive strain due to the Poisson effect), thus significantly reducing the influence of the residual strain on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) performance. The fabricated GMR dual spin-valve sensor exhibits the nearly unchanged MR ratio of 9.9%, magnetic field sensitivity up to 0.69%/Oe, and zero-field resistance in a wide range of stretching strain, making it promising for applications on a conformal shape or a movement part.

  13. Pattern of access determines influence of junk food diet on cue sensitivity and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleff, Alisa R; Araki, Jingwen; Hsueh, Jennifer; Le, Andrew; Quizon, Kevin; Ostlund, Sean B; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P

    2018-04-01

    Like drug addiction, cues associated with palatable foods can trigger food-seeking, even when sated. However, whether susceptibility to the motivating influence of food-related cues is a predisposing factor in overeating or a consequence of poor diet is difficult to determine in humans. Using a rodent model, we explored whether a highly palatable 'junk food' diet impacts responses to reward-paired cues in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test, using sweetened condensed milk (SCM) as the reward. The hedonic impact of SCM consumption was also assessed by analyzing licking microstructure. To probe the effects of pattern and duration of junk food exposure, we provided rats with either regular chow ad libitum (controls) or chow plus access to junk food for either 2 or 24 h per day for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. We also examined how individual susceptibility to weight gain related to these measures. Rats provided 24 h access to the junk food diet were insensitive to the motivational effects of a SCM-paired cue when tested sated even though their hedonic experience upon reward consumption was similar to controls. In contrast, rats provided restricted, 2 h access to junk food exhibited a cue generalization phenotype under sated conditions, lever-pressing with increased vigor in response to both a SCM-paired cue, and a cue not previously paired with reward. Hedonic response was also significantly higher in these animals relative to controls. These data demonstrate that the pattern of junk food exposure differentially alters the hedonic impact of palatable foods and susceptibility to the motivating influence of cues in the environment to promote food-seeking actions when sated, which may be consequential for understanding overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica H; Lee-Sarwar, Kathleen A; Sordillo, Joanne; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Zhou, Yanjiao; O'Connor, George; Sandel, Megan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Gold, Diane R; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high-dose vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed. Food allergy was defined as caretaker report of healthcare provider-diagnosed allergy to the above foods prior to age 3 with evidence of IgE sensitization. Analysis was performed using Phyloseq and DESeq2; P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Complete data were available for 225 children; there were 87 cases of food sensitization and 14 cases of food allergy. Microbial diversity measures did not differ between food sensitization and food allergy cases and controls. The genera Haemophilus (log 2 fold change -2.15, P=.003), Dialister (log 2 fold change -2.22, P=.009), Dorea (log 2 fold change -1.65, P=.02), and Clostridium (log 2 fold change -1.47, P=.002) were underrepresented among subjects with food sensitization. The genera Citrobacter (log 2 fold change -3.41, P=.03), Oscillospira (log 2 fold change -2.80, P=.03), Lactococcus (log 2 fold change -3.19, P=.05), and Dorea (log 2 fold change -3.00, P=.05) were underrepresented among subjects with food allergy. The temporal association between bacterial colonization and food sensitization and allergy suggests that the microbiome may have a causal role in the development of food allergy. Our findings have therapeutic implications for the prevention and treatment of food allergy. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. Early Imperial Tableware in Roman Asia Minor: a perspective on the diachronic patterns and morphological developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Willet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of tablewares has a long history in the Roman East, research has been hindered by the relatively few, and only very recent, interdisciplinary research projects that study and publish their tableware in depth. But in the last decades, advanced provenancing techniques, combined with efforts to study tableware en masse have been employed, resulting in a better understanding of tableware in the east. Distribution patterns for the major wares found in the East during the Late Hellenistic and Early Imperial period (e.g. Eastern Sigillata A, B, C, D; Italian terra sigillata were successfully mapped by Philip Bes by compiling published data into a single database of the ICRATES (Inventory of Crafts and Trade in the Roman East project (Bes and Poblome 2008. Yet many questions remain on the relationship between production and consumption of these wares and on the role more local products played, both of which are not helped by the relative paucity of well-studied closed archaeological contexts. This article addresses some of these issues through study of the tableware data for Asia Minor. As a first step, the data from Sagalassos, a city located in Pisidia (south-west Asia Minor are discussed. The incorporation of Asia Minor into the Roman Republic and later Empire was accompanied by civic turmoil and increased Roman intervention. Sagalassos, for example, started to produce tableware at a time when Roman colonies were being founded in the region of Pisidia. At the same time, the period of the first century BCE to second century CE saw increased urbanisation in the region, while concurrently the 'Greek' culture seems to have continued. At Sagalassos, substantial production facilities for tableware (Sagalassos Red Slip Ware or SRSW are archaeologically attested and the excavations have yielded a vast amount of ceramics. As a production site, with few numbers of SRSW being attested elsewhere at present, the next logical step is to compare

  16. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder in the DSM-5: Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansz, Jessica A.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months…

  18. Antibiotic resistant pattern of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients durining 2009-2010, Ahvaz, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parhizgari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important nosocomial infecting agents resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is considered one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify the antibiotic resistance pattern of methicicllin- resistant and susceptible strains in Ahwaz, Iran. Methods: In the present cross - sectional study, a number of 255 clinically suspected cases of Staphylococcus aureus were collected during a 19 month period. The bacteria were investigated using standard biochemical tests such as catalase, mannitol fermentation, coagulase and Dnase. Sensitive strains were confirmed by disk diffusion method compared to commonly used antibiotics. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests. Results: of 255 suspected cases, 180 were confirmed as S.aureus, a total of 59 strains of S. aureus (2/37 percent were resistant to methicillin. Resistance to S. aureus strains resistant to methicillin included: chloramphenicol (3.38%, rifampin (45.76%, norfloxacin (89.83%, gentamicin (89.83%, ciprofloxacin, (91.52%, azithromycin, (88.13%, cotrimoxazole (86.44% and all isolates strains were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin. A total of 10 different patterns of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were identified. Conclusion: Expression of new resistance factor in nosocomial infection is one of the major challenges in treating these infections. This study showed a high prevalence of resistance against some class of antibiotics in MRSA isolated from Imam Khomeini and Golestan hospital of Ahwaz, Iran. Key words: Nosocomial infection, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Antibiotic Resistant Pattern

  19. MELDOQ - astrophysical image and pattern analysis in medicine: early recognition of malignant melanomas of the skin by digital image analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunk, W.; Pompl, R.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.; Abmayr, W.

    1999-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is at present the most powerful clinical method for early detection of malignant melanomas. However, the application requires a lot of expertise and experience. Therefore, a quantitative image analysis system has been developed in order to assist dermatologists in 'on site diagnosis' and to improve the detection efficiency. Based on a very extensive dataset of dermatoscopic images, recorded in a standardized manner, a number of features for quantitative characterization of complex patterns in melanocytic skin lesions has been developed. The derived classifier improved the detection rate of malignant and benign melanocytic lesions to over 90% (sensitivity =91.5% and specificity =93.4% in the test set), using only six measures. A distinguishing feature of the system is the visualization of the quantified characteristics that are based on the dermatoscopic ABCD-rule. The developed prototype of a dermatoscopic workplace consists of defined procedures for standardized image acquisition and documentation, components of a necessary data pre-processing (e.g. shading- and colour-correction, removal of artefacts), quantification algorithms (evaluating asymmetry properties, border characteristics, the content of colours and structural components) and classification routines. In 2000 an industrial partner will begin marketing the digital imaging system including the specialized software for the early detection of skin cancer, which is suitable for clinicians and practitioners. The primary used nonlinear analysis techniques (e.g. scaling index method and others) can identify and characterize complex patterns in images and have a diagnostic potential in many other applications. (orig.) [de

  20. Enteric fever in Mumbai--clinical profile, sensitivity patterns and response to antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, S; Soman, R; Singhal, T; Rodrigues, C; Mehta, A; Dastur, F D

    2008-04-01

    Enteric fever is endemic in Mumbai and its diagnosis poses several problems. Our main aim was to study the clinical profile, haematological features of culture proven typhoid cases, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and the time to defervescence with the treatment received. This was a retospective chart review of all cases of culture proven enteric fever carried out at a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai over the period January 2003 to September 2005. Culture positivity in our study was 52.6%. Sixty one percent of the isolates were Salmonella typhi while 39% were Salmonella paratyphi A. An absolute eosinopenia was seen in 76.9% of the patients. Before being admitted to the hospital, 46.2% received antibiotics. The mean time to defervescence in patients who received prior antibiotics was 4.5 days while that in those who did not receive prior antibiotics was 5.1 days. A high culture positivity despite prior or ongoing antibiotic treatment was seen. Absolute eosinophil count of 0% could be an important marker of typhoid. High prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance, a marker of resistance to fluoroquinolones was observed. Combination treatment was not found to be superior to treatment with a single antibiotic.

  1. Uncertainty of Wheat Water Use: Simulated Patterns and Sensitivity to Temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarano, Davide; Roetter, Reimund P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Wallach, Daniel; Martre, Pierre; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Ruane, Alex C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Projected global warming and population growth will reduce future water availability for agriculture. Thus, it is essential to increase the efficiency in using water to ensure crop productivity. Quantifying crop water use (WU; i.e. actual evapotranspiration) is a critical step towards this goal. Here, sixteen wheat simulation models were used to quantify sources of model uncertainty and to estimate the relative changes and variability between models for simulated WU, water use efficiency (WUE, WU per unit of grain dry mass produced), transpiration efficiency (Teff, transpiration per kg of unit of grain yield dry mass produced), grain yield, crop transpiration and soil evaporation at increased temperatures and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). The greatest uncertainty in simulating water use, potential evapotranspiration, crop transpiration and soil evaporation was due to differences in how crop transpiration was modelled and accounted for 50 of the total variability among models. The simulation results for the sensitivity to temperature indicated that crop WU will decline with increasing temperature due to reduced growing seasons. The uncertainties in simulated crop WU, and in particularly due to uncertainties in simulating crop transpiration, were greater under conditions of increased temperatures and with high temperatures in combination with elevated atmospheric [CO2] concentrations. Hence the simulation of crop WU, and in particularly crop transpiration under higher temperature, needs to be improved and evaluated with field measurements before models can be used to simulate climate change impacts on future crop water demand.

  2. In vitro sensitivity pattern of chloroquine and artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin (ART and its derivatives form the mainstay of antimalarial therapy. Emergence of resistance to them poses a potential threat to future malaria control and elimination on a global level. It is important to know the mechanism of action of drug and development of drug resistance. We put forwards probable correlation between the mode of action of chloroquine (CQ and ART. Modified trophozoite maturation inhibition assay, WHO Mark III assay and molecular marker study for CQ resistance at K76T codon in Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistant transporter gene were carried out on cultured P. falciparum. On comparing trophozoite and schizont growth for both CQ-sensitive (MRC-2 and CQ-resistant (RKL-9 culture isolates, it was observed that the clearance of trophozoites and schizonts was similar with both drugs. The experiment supports that CQ interferes with heme detoxification pathway in food vacuoles of parasite, and this may be correlated as one of the plausible mechanisms of ART.

  3. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Connectivity diagnostics in the Mediterranean obtained from Lagrangian Flow Networks; global patterns, sensitivity and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Pedro; Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian Flow Network (LFN) is a modeling framework in which geographical sub-areas of the ocean are represented as nodes in a network and are interconnected by links representing the transport of water, substances or propagules (eggs and larvae) by currents. Here we compute for the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin four connectivity metrics derived from LFN that measure retention and exchange processes, thus providing a systematic characterization of propagule dispersal driven by the ocean circulation. Then we assess the sensitivity and robustness of the results with respect to the most relevant parameters: the density of released particles, the node size (spatial-scales of discretization), the Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) and the modality of spawning. We find a threshold for the number of particles per node that guarantees reliable values for most of the metrics examined, independently of node size. For our setup, this threshold is 100 particles per node. We also find that the size of network nodes has a non-trivial influence on the spatial variability of both exchange and retention metrics. Although the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the circulation affect larval transport in a complex and unpredictable manner, our analyses evidence how specific biological parametrization impact the robustness of connectivity diagnostics. Connectivity estimates for long PLDs are more robust against biological uncertainties (PLD and spawning date) than for short PLDs. Furthermore, our model suggests that for mass-spawners that release propagules over short periods (≃ 2 to 10 days), daily release must be simulated to properly consider connectivity fluctuations. In contrast, average connectivity estimates for species that spawn repeatedly over longer duration (a few weeks to a few months) remain robust even using longer periodicity (5 to 10 days). Our results give a global view of the surface connectivity of the Mediterranean Sea and have implications for the design of

  5. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ADVANCED CASES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations are significant and frequent events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Majority of these exacerbations are of infectious aetiology, bacteria being responsible for 30-50% of these cases. With not many studies of similar type being conducted in the Indian context, this study was undertaken with the purpose of determining the bacteriology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospitalized patients with advanced disease and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to formulate a cost effective algorithm for antibiotic usage while at the same time reducing the chances of emergence of drug resistance. Sputum sample from a total of 338 patients were send for Gram’s stain and culture sensitivity testing using an array of the commonly used antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 203 (60.1% samples. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 79.8 percent (162/203 cases while the rest were Gram positive. Klebsiella species were the commonest (49.2%; 100/203 Gram negative isolates from the sputum samples. Among the gram negative organisms, Carbapenem had the highest sensitivity (90.2% followed by Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. Linezolid was found to be 100 percent sensitive amongst the Gram positive organisms while both Amoxicillin Clavulanate and Azithromycin showed a rather low sensitivity profile overall. 5.0 percent of the Klebsiella infections were multi drug resistant. It was thereby concluded that either Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin or Piperacillin-Tazobactam for be considered for Gram negative organisms and Linezolid be considered for Gram positive organisms as first line antibiotics in empirical therapy while Carbapenems may be kept as reserve drugs should the first line drugs fail.

  6. Benthic foraminiferal and isotopic patterns during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Aktulagay section, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Arne; Tesseur, Steven; Stassen, Peter; D'haenens, Simon; Steurbaut, Etienne; King, Christopher; Claeys, Philippe; Speijer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    The early Eocene is characterized by long-term global warming culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time interval, the Peri-Tethys was connected to the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans by north-south and east-west trending seaways. The Aktulagay section in Kazakhstan provides an expanded record of the middle Ypresian (NP11-13, ~54-50 Ma; King et al., 2013), including the EECO. The marl sequence features a series of sapropel beds, observed throughout the Peri-Tethys, indicative of basin-wide episodic hypoxic events. In order to unravel paleoenvironmental changes, we carried out quantitative faunal studies and stable isotopic (C, O) investigations on excellently preserved foraminiferal assemblages. The period from 54 to 52.5 Ma (NP11 to lower NP12; Alashen Formation) is characterized by a diverse assemblage of deep outer neritic (~200-250 m) benthic foraminifera, with common Pulsiphonina prima and Paralabamina lunata. The initially (54 Ma) well-ventilated oligo- to mesotrophic seafloor conditions gradually changed to more eutrophic and oxygen-limited. These conditions were more permanent in the sapropel-bearing unit at 52.5-52 Ma (middle NP12; Aktulagay B1 unit). This observation is based on the dominance of Anomalinoides acutus and Bulimina aksuatica and the lower diversity. Also the upward migration of endobenthic species, as suggested by rising δ13Cendobenthic, supports this interpretation. These low-oxygen conditions might have been caused by a transgression, flooding lowlands. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages dominated by Epistominella minuta at ~52-50 Ma (top NP12-NP13; Aktulagay B2 unit) suggest an oligotrophic environment, with transient pulses of phytodetritus. Dinoflagellate blooms and Acarinina isotope values at ~50.5 Ma indicate lower salinity (lower δ18O) and higher productivity (higher δ13C), possibly due to riverine input. Large river plumes, episodically reaching the area, in a monsoonal climate context, might explain this

  7. Early spatiotemporal-specific changes in intermediate signals are predictive of cytotoxic sensitivity to TNFα and co-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Bougen-Zhukov, Nicola Michelle; Tan, Wei-Ling Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Signaling pathways can generate different cellular responses to the same cytotoxic agents. Current quantitative models for predicting these differential responses are usually based on large numbers of intracellular gene products or signals at different levels of signaling cascades. Here, we report a study to predict cellular sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) using high-throughput cellular imaging and machine-learning methods. We measured and compared 1170 protein phosphorylation events in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines based on different signals, subcellular regions, and time points within one hour of TNFα treatment. We found that two spatiotemporal-specific changes in an intermediate signaling protein, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), are sufficient to predict the TNFα sensitivity of these cell lines. Our models could also predict the combined effects of TNFα and other kinase inhibitors, many of which are not known to target RSK directly. Therefore, early spatiotemporal-specific changes in intermediate signals are sufficient to represent the complex cellular responses to these perturbations. Our study provides a general framework for the development of rapid, signaling-based cytotoxicity screens that may be used to predict cellular sensitivity to a cytotoxic agent, or identify co-treatments that may sensitize or desensitize cells to the agent.

  8. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  9. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  10. T Helper Lymphocyte and Mast Cell Immunohistochemical Pattern in Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Losurdo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS is a gluten-related emerging condition. Since few data about NCGS histopathology is available, we assessed the markers of lymphocyte and innate immunity activation. Materials and Methods. We retrieved duodenal biopsy samples of patients with NCGS diagnosis according to the Salerno criteria. We selected specimens of positive (seropositive celiac disease/Marsh 1-2 stage and negative (normal microscopic picture controls. Immunohistochemistry for CD3 (intraepithelial lymphocytes-IELs, CD4 (T helper lymphocytes, CD8 (T cytotoxic lymphocytes, and CD1a/CD117 (Langerhans/mast cells was performed. ANOVA plus Bonferroni’s tests were used for statistical analysis. Results. Twenty NCGS, 16 celiac disease, and 16 negative controls were selected. CD3 in NCGS were higher than negative controls and lower than celiac disease (18.5 ± 6.4, 11.9 ± 2.8, and 40.8 ± 8.1 IELs/100 enterocytes; p<0.001. CD4 were lower in NCGS than controls and celiac disease (31.0 ± 22.1, 72.5 ± 29.5, and 103.7 ± 15.7 cells/mm2; p<0.001. CD8 in NCGS were similar to negative controls, but lower than celiac disease (14.0 ± 7.4 and 34.0 ± 7.1 IELs/100 enterocytes, p<0.001. CD117 were higher in NCGS than celiac disease and negative controls (145.8 ± 49.9, 121.3 ± 13.1, and 113.5 ± 23.4 cells/mm2; p=0.009. Conclusions. The combination of CD4 and CD117, as well as IEL characterization, may be useful to support a clinical diagnosis of NCGS.

  11. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  12. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  13. Neural stem cell-encoded temporal patterning delineates an early window of malignant susceptibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Lanet, Elodie; Dillard, Caroline; Foppolo, Sophie; Chen, Ching-Huan; Parrinello, Hugues; Rialle, Stéphanie; Sokol, Nicholas S; Maurange, Cédric

    2016-06-14

    Pediatric neural tumors are often initiated during early development and can undergo very rapid transformation. However, the molecular basis of this early malignant susceptibility remains unknown. During Drosophila development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide asymmetrically and generate intermediate progenitors that rapidly differentiate in neurons. Upon gene inactivation, these progeny can dedifferentiate and generate malignant tumors. Here, we find that intermediate progenitors are prone to malignancy only when born during an early window of development while expressing the transcription factor Chinmo, and the mRNA-binding proteins Imp/IGF2BP and Lin-28. These genes compose an oncogenic module that is coopted upon dedifferentiation of early-born intermediate progenitors to drive unlimited tumor growth. In late larvae, temporal transcription factor progression in NSCs silences the module, thereby limiting mitotic potential and terminating the window of malignant susceptibility. Thus, this study identifies the gene regulatory network that confers malignant potential to neural tumors with early developmental origins.

  14. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  15. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  16. Analysis of serial coronary artery flow patterns early after primary angioplasty: new insights into the dynamics of the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Dawod; Rofe, Guy; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Goldhammer, Ehud; Makhoul, Nabeel; Shefer, Arie; Hassan, Amin; Rauchfleisch, Shmuel; Rosenschein, Uri

    2008-06-01

    The temporal behavior of the coronary microcirculation in acute myocardial infarction may affect outcome. Diastolic deceleration time and early systolic flow reversal derived from coronary artery blood flow velocity patterns reflect microcirculatory function. To assess left anterior descending coronary artery flow velocity patterns using Doppler transthoracic echocardiography after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, in patients with anterior AMI. Patterns of flow velocity patterns of the LAD were obtained using transthoracic echocardiography-Doppler in 31 consecutive patients who presented with anterior AMI. Measurements were done at 6 hours, 36-48 hours, and 5 days after successful PPCI. Measurements of DDT and pressure half times (Pt%), as well as observation for ESFR were performed. In the first 2 days following PPCI, the average DDT (600 +/- 340 msec) was shorter than on day 5 (807 +/- 332 msec) (P 600 msec) and vice versa. On day 5 most DDTs became longer. Pt1/2 at 6 hours was not different than at day 2 (174 +/- 96 vs. 193 +/- 99 msec, P = NS) and became longer on day 5 (235 +/- 98 msec, P = 0.012). Bidirectional patterns were also observed in the ESFR in 6 patients (19%) at baseline, in 4 (13%) at 36 hours, and in 2 (6.5%) on day 5 after PPCI. Flow velocity patterns of the LAD after PPCI in AMI are dynamic and reflect unpredictable changes in microcirculation.

  17. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  18. Specificity and sensitivity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale for suicidal ideation among adolescents entering early intervention service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granö, Niklas; Oksanen, Jorma; Kallionpää, Santeri; Roine, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between hopelessness and suicidal behaviour in clinical populations. The aim of the study was to investigate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for suicidal ideation in adolescents who show early risk signs on the psychiatric disorder continuum. Three-hundred and two help-seeking adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) who were entering an early intervention team at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, completed questionnaires of BHS and suicidal ideation, derived from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results suggest that a BHS cut-off score ≥8 (sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.76) or cut-off score ≥9 (sensitivity = 0.63, specificity = 0.80) may be useful to detect suicidal ideation with BHS in help-seeking adolescents population. Results remain mainly the same in a separate analysis with adolescents at risk for psychosis. The results support previous cut-off points for BHS in identification of suicidal ideation. The results suggest also that lower cut-off scores may be useful in sense of sensitivity, especially in clinical settings.

  19. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T2 relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Lu Guangming; Zee Chishing

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T 2 relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T 2 relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T 2 -map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T 2 relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P 2 relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T 2 relaxation time.

  20. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFα) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face TM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO 4 , DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  1. Transcription mapping and expression patterns of genes in the major immediate-early region of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Zhu, Fan; Yuan, Yan

    2002-08-01

    Viral immediate-early (IE) genes are the first class of viral genes expressed during primary infection or reactivation from latency. They usually encode regulatory proteins that play crucial roles in viral life cycle. In a previous study, four regions in the KSHV genome were found to be actively transcribed in the immediate-early stage of viral reactivation in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Three immediate-early transcripts were characterized in these regions, as follows: mRNAs for ORF50 (KIE-1), ORF-45 (KIE-2), and ORF K4.2 (KIE-3) (F. X. Zhu, T. Cusano, and Y. Yuan, 1999, J. Virol. 73, 5556-5567). In the present study, we further analyzed the expression of genes in these IE regions in BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells. One of the immediate-early regions (KIE-1) that encompasses ORF50 and other genes was intensively studied to establish a detailed transcription map and expression patterns of genes in this region. This study led to identification of several novel IE transcripts in this region. They include a 2.6-kb mRNA which encodes ORF48/ORF29b, a family of transcripts that are complementary to ORF50 mRNA and a novel K8 IE mRNA of 1.5 kb. Together with the IE mRNA for ORF50 which was identified previously, four immediate-early genes have been mapped to KIE-1 region. Therefore, we would designate KIE-1 the major immediate-early region of KSHV. In addition, we showed that transcription of K8 gene is controlled by two promoters, yielding two transcripts, an immediate-early mRNA of 1.5 kb and a delayed-early mRNA of 1.3 kb.

  2. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-08-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties.

  5. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  7. Reduced plantar sole sensitivity facilitates early adaptation to a visual rotation pointing task when standing upright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Billot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of pointing to a target with accuracy. However, when vision is distorted through a visual rotation or mirror-reversed vision, the performance is initially degraded and thereafter improves with practice. There are suggestions this gradual improvement results from a sensorimotor recalibration involving initial gating of the somatosensory information from the pointing hand. In the present experiment, we examined if this process interfered with balance control by asking participants to point to targets with a visual rotation from a standing posture. This duality in processing sensory information (i.e., gating sensory signals from the hand while processing those arising from the control of balance could generate initial interference leading to a degraded pointing performance. We hypothesized that if this is the case, the attenuation of plantar sole somatosensory information through cooling could reduce the sensorimotor interference, and facilitate the early adaptation (i.e. improvement in the pointing task. Results supported this hypothesis. These observations suggest that processing sensory information for balance control interferes with the sensorimotor recalibration process imposed by a pointing task when vision is rotated.

  8. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  9. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth.

  11. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  12. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of microbial pattern in early and late onset neonatal sepsis in referral center Haji Adam Malik hospital Medan Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes a significant rate of infants mortality and morbidity. The pathogens are diverse from region to another and change time to time even in the same place. To analyze the microbial pattern in early and late onset neonatal sepsis andthe pattern of antibiotic resistance of the causative microbes at one of referral center hospital in Indonesia, Haji Adam Malik Hospital, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on neonates with sepsis diagnosis proven with positive blood culture within one year period (2015-2016). Among 626 neonates admitted to perinatology unit, the total of 154 neonates was proven to have neonatal sepsis with positive blood culture with the incidence rate 24.6%. Seventy-nine (51.3%) neonates were diagnosed with early onset sepsis while 75 (48,7%) neonates had late-onset sepsis. Klebsiella pneumonia was the most commonly isolated organism in both early and late onset sepsis, encompassing 19.5% of cases. Periodic surveillance of the causative agents of neonatal sepsis is needed to implement the rational, empirical choice of antibiotic prescription while waiting for blood culture result to come out.

  14. Rapid DNA Synthesis During Early Drosophila Embryogenesis Is Sensitive to Maternal Humpty Dumpty Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesly, Shera; Bandura, Jennifer L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-11-01

    Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty ( hd ), and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd 272-9 , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality. Here, we show that expression of an hd transgene in somatic cells of the ovary rescues amplification and eggshell synthesis but not embryo viability. The germline of these mothers remain mutant for the hd 272-9 allele, resulting in reduced maternal Hd protein and embryonic arrest during mitosis of the first few S/M nuclear cleavage cycles with chromosome instability and chromosome bridges. Epistasis analysis of hd with the rereplication mutation plutonium indicates that the chromosome bridges of hd embryos are the result of a failed attempt to segregate incompletely replicated sister chromatids. This study reveals that maternally encoded Humpty dumpty protein is essential for DNA replication and genome integrity during the little-understood embryonic S/M cycles. Moreover, the two hd 272-9 maternal-effect phenotypes suggest that ovarian gene amplification and embryonic cleavage are two time periods in development that are particularly sensitive to mild deficits in DNA replication function. This last observation has broader relevance for interpreting why mild mutations in the human ortholog of humpty dumpty and other DNA replication genes cause tissue-specific malformations of microcephalic dwarfisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  16. CO2 sensitivity of the complexity of phrenic neurograms in the piglet during early maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Metin

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of hypercapnia on the dynamics of the phrenic neurogram in the piglet in two different age groups: 3-7 days (n = 11) and 10-16 days (n = 9). The phrenic neurogram was recorded from 17 piglets (3-16 days old) during control (40% O2 with 3-5% end-tidal CO2), mild hypercapnia (40% O2 with 7% CO2) and severe hypercapnia (40% O2 with 15% CO2) and analyzed using the approximate entropy (ApEn) method. The mean values of the approximate entropy (complexity) of phrenic neurograms during the first 7 days of the postnatal age were 1.56 ± 0.1 (standard deviation) during normal breathing, 1.51 ± 0.1 during mild hypercapnia and 1.37 ± 0.08 during severe hypercapnia. These values for the 10-16 days age group were 1.51 ± 0.1 during control, 1.49 ± 0.11 during mild hypercapnia and 1.38 ± 0.05 during severe hypercapnia. The mean values of phrenic neurogram durations during the first 7 days of the postnatal age were 0.82 ± 0.03 (standard deviation) s during normal breathing, 0.85 ± 0.007 s during mild hypercapnia and 0.65 ± 0.05 s during severe hypercapnia. These values for the 10-16 days age group were 0.97 ± 0.09 s during control, 1.10 ± 0.05 during mild hypercapnia and 0.78 ± 0.05 s during severe hypercapnia. Our results show that the complexity values of the phrenic neurogram were significantly decreased when the CO2 concentration was shifted from control or mild to severe hypercapnia (p phrenic neurogram decreased when the concentration was shifted from control or mild to severe hypercapnia (p phrenic neurogram were observed between control and mild hypercapnia concentration. These results suggest that severe hypercapnia can be characterized with a significant decrease of the complexity values and durations of the phrenic neurogram during inspiration during early maturation.

  17. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  18. Stability and Patterns of Classroom Quality in German Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuger, Susanne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Kaplan, David; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Many education systems worldwide have dedicated a significant amount of resources to improve quality levels in early childhood education and care. Research can contribute to this goal by providing information about conditions of high-quality education and care and reasons for changes in the quality provided to children. This study therefore…

  19. Early warning signals of regime shifts from cross-scale connectivity of land-cover patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Kenneth Bruce Jones; Kurt Hans Riitters; Bai-Lian Li; Irene Petrosillo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing external pressures from human activities and climate change can lead to desertification, affecting the livelihood of more than 25% of the world’s population. Thus, determining proximity to transition to desertification is particularly central for arid regions before they may convert into deserts, and recent research has focused on devising early warning...

  20. Patterns of Early Reading and Social Skills Associated with Academic Success in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Moore, Julia E.; Powers, C. J.; Cleveland, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Researchers and policymakers emphasize that early childhood is a critical developmental stage with the potential to impact academic and social-emotional outcomes (G. Conti & J. J. Heckman, 2012; J. J. Heckman, 2012; R. Murnane, I. Sawhill, & C. Snow, 2012). Although there is substantial evidence that children's early…

  1. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  2. Patterns of and Influences on Elementary School Attendance in Early Victorian Industrial Monmouthshire 1839-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David C.; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issues associated with school absenteeism have attracted considerable attention and have long been one of the focal points of government strategies for school improvement. Pupil non-attendance is not a new phenomenon and featured prominently in Her Majesty's Inspectors' reports from 1839. This paper outlines the patterns of and influences on…

  3. Early clinical manifestations and eating patterns in patients with urea cycle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeitchik, T.; Humphrey, M.; Nation, J.; Boneh, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary habits and eating patterns in patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD), and to identify dietary habits that may serve as clues to lead to earlier diagnosis of these disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of clinical and dietary data from hospital

  4. EGS in sedimentary basins: sensitivity of early-flowback tracer signals to induced-fracture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    -effective aperture, in a water fracture (WF), or - fracture thickness and porosity, for a gel-proppant fracture (GPF). We find that parameter determination from SW early signals can significantly be improved by concomitantly using a number of solute tracers with different transport and retardation behaviour. We considered tracers of different sorptivity to proppant coatings, and to matrix rock surfaces, for GPF, as well as contrasting-diffusivity or -sorptivity tracers, for WF. An advantage of this SW approach is that it requires only small chaser volumes (few times the fracture volume), not relying on advective penetration into the rock matrix. Thus, selected tracer species are to be injected during the very last stage of the fracturing process, when fracture sizes and thus target parameters are supposed to attain more or less stable values. We illustrate the application of these tracer test design principles using hydro- and lithostratigraphy data from the Geothermal Research Platform at Groß Schönebeck [4], targeting a multi-layer reservoir (sedimentary and crystalline formations in 4-5 km depth) in the NE-German Sedimentary Basin. Acknowledgments: This work benefited from long-term support from Baker Hughes (Celle) and from the Lower-Saxonian Science and Culture Ministry (MWK Niedersachsen) within the applied research project gebo (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling, 2009-2014). The first author gratefully acknowledges continued financial support from the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) to pursuing Ph. D. work. References: [1] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610214017391 [2] http://www.geothermal-energy.org/cpdb/record_detail.php?id=7215 [3] http://www.geothermal-energy.org/cpdb/record_detail.php?id=19034 [4] http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/scientific-services/laboratories/gross-schoenebeck/

  5. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S

    2004-01-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD

  6. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Opendak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  7. Lifestyle patterns in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnoses when using IADPSG criteria. The St Carlos gestational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gracia, Teresa; Duran, Alejandra; Fuentes, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Carrera, Evelyn F; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Valle, Laura Del; García de la Torre, Nuria; Bedia, Ana R; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-06-01

    Early-pregnancy lifestyle (EPL) could influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), depending on the diagnostic criteria used. We studied EPL in 1750 pregnant women using Carpenter-Coustan criteria(CCc), and in 1526 with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria(IADPSGc). GDM risk factors were assessed in women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age during two consecutive years. A semiquantitative frequent-food-consumption questionnaire was used to evaluate lifestyle during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess GDM risk with different lifestyle patterns. Using IADPSGc, the GDM ORs (95%CI) for intake/week were: nuts >3 times: 0.59 (0.39-0.91; p < 0.015), refined cereals ≤1 serving: 0.72(0.58-0.89; p < 0.003), juices <4 servings: 0.77 (0.62-0.95; p < 0.017), cookies and pastries <4 servings: 0.71(0.57-0.89; p < 0.003) as compared to opposite habits. No significant nutritional patterns were found to be significant using CCc. The OR (95%CI) for GDM with none of the four risk patterns as compared to having three-four risk factors was 0.21(0.07-0.62; p < 0.005), remaining significant after stratification by BMI, age, obstetric events, parity and family history. The multiple logistic regression model including nutritional categories and pregestational BMI, age, obstetric history, parity, personal/family history, had an area under the curve(AUC) of the receiver operating curve(ROC) for the probability to predict GDM of 0.66 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.69; p < 0.001). Our study is the first to identify four early-pregnancy nutritional patterns associated with the GDM when using IADPSGc. Adherence to a low-risk nutritional pattern from early pregnancy on could be an effective strategy for GDM prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  9. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  10. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Salmonella: comparison of isolates from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolday, D; Erge, W

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of all cases of Salmonella infections occurring between 1991 and 1995 was undertaken in order to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected Ethiopian patients. During the 5-year study period, we identified 147 cases of Salmonella infections. Only in 49 cases was the HIV serostatus known; 22 (44.9%) of the infections were in HIV seronegative patients while 27 (55.9%) were in HIV seropositive patients. The strains were isolated from blood (71.4%), urine (18.4%) and stool (8.2%). Salmonella infection was found to be more frequent (55.15% versus 44.9%) among HIV positive than HIV-negative patients. Moreover, Salmonella isolates recovered from HIV-seropositive patients were significantly resistant to many of the antibiotics tested when compared to the isolates from HIV-seronegative patients. The only chloramphenicol resistant Salmonella typhi occurred in a patient who was seropositive for HIV. According to these results, Ethiopian patients infected with HIV may be at risk of acquiring infections, especially non-typhoidal salmonellas, that are multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains than HIV-uninfected subjects. The emergence of MDR Salmonella infection among HIV-positive patients requires reassessment of chemotherapeutic approaches in this patient population, and warrants continued laboratory surveillance.

  12. Opposite patterns of hemisphere dominance for early auditory processing of lexical tones and consonants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hao; Ni, Jing-Tian; Li, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Da-Ren; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2006-01-01

    in tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese, a lexical tone carries semantic information and is preferentially processed in the left brain hemisphere of native speakers as revealed by the functional MRI or positron emission tomography studies, which likely measure the temporally aggregated neural events including those at an attentive stage of auditory processing. Here, we demonstrate that early auditory processing of a lexical tone at a preattentive stage is actually ...

  13. Spatial Patterns of Excitation at Tissue and Whole Organ Level Due to Early Afterdepolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Vandersickel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early after depolarizations (EAD occur in many pathological conditions, such as congenital or acquired channelopathies, drug induced arrhythmias, and several other situations that are associated with increased arrhythmogenicity. In this paper we present an overview of the relevant computational studies on spatial EAD dynamics in 1D, 2D, and in 3D anatomical models and discuss the relation of EADs to cardiac arrhythmias. We also discuss unsolved problems and highlight new lines of research in this area.

  14. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  16. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  17. Patterns of early gut colonization shape future immune responses of the host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Kverka, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The most important trigger for immune system development is the exposure to microbial components immediately after birth. Moreover, targeted manipulation of the microbiota can be used to change host susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. Our aim was to analyze how differences in early gut...... production. In conclusion, a time window exists that enables the artificial colonization of GF mice by a single oral dose of caecal content, which may modify the future immune phenotype of the host. Moreover, delayed microbial colonization of the gut causes permanent changes in the immune system....

  18. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans; Luecke, Thomas; Hoy, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  19. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  20. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  1. Early patterning and blastodermal fate map of the head in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkan, Michael; Schaeper, Nina D; Chipman, Ariel D

    2011-01-01

    The process of head development in insects utilizes a set of widely conserved genes, but this process and its evolution are not well understood. Recent data from Tribolium castaneum have provided a baseline for an understanding of insect head development. However, work on a wider range of insect species, including members of the hemimetabolous orders, is needed in order to draw general conclusions about the evolution of head differentiation and regionalization. We have cloned and studied the expression and function of a number of candidate genes for head development in the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus. These include orthodenticle, empty spiracles, collier, cap 'n' collar, and crocodile. The expression patterns of these genes show a broad conservation relative to Tribolium, as well as differences from Drosophila indicating that Tribolium + Oncopeltus represent a more ancestral pattern. In addition, our data provide a blastodermal fate map for different head regions in later developmental stages and supply us with a "roadmap" for future studies on head development in this species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression pattern of the homeotic gene Bapx1 during early chick gastrointestinal tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; Georges, Maxime; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Regulation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is essential for the normal development of vertebrate gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but also for the differentiation of the digestive mesenchymal layer into smooth muscles and submucosal layer. Different studies demonstrated that Bapx1 (for bagpipe homeobox homolog 1) negatively regulates the BMP pathway, but its precise expression pattern during the development and the differentiation of the GI tract mesenchyme actually remains to be examined. Here, we present the spatio-temporal expression profile of Bapx1 in the chick GI tract. We show that Bapx1 is first expressed in the undifferentiated mesenchyme of the gizzard and the colon. After the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme, we found Bapx1 strongly expressed in the gizzard smooth muscle and in the submucosa layer of the colon. This expression pattern provides new insights into the roles of Bapx1 during the regionalization of the GI tract and the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme of the colon and the stomach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  4. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  5. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affect the patterns of drug sensitivity obtained for melphalan and CCNU. Irrespective of the different lipophilicities, transport properties and chemical reactivities of the nitrogen mustards, RIF-1 clones showed the same pattern of sensitivity as previously observed for melphalan. Similarly, RIF-1 clones when exposed to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, showed the same pattern of sensitivity as that obtained for CCNU exposure. These data suggest (a) that the variation in the sensitivity of RIF-1 clones to treatment by the nitrogen mustards is unlikely to reflect differences in either membrane permeability or in drug transport and (b) that the ploidy dependent nitrosourea responses shown by RIF-1 clones similarly do not reflect differences in drug uptake. PMID:6466534

  6. Sensitivity of selected landscape pattern metrics to land-cover misclassification and differences in land-cover composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    1997-01-01

    Calculation of landscape metrics from land-cover data is becoming increasingly common. Some studies have shown that these measurements are sensitive to differences in land-cover composition, but none are known to have tested also their a sensitivity to land-cover misclassification. An error simulation model was written to test the sensitivity of selected land-scape...

  7. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  8. [Utilization patterns of prevention and early diagnosis for cancer in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ángeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis Litai; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the utilization patterns of cancer prevention programs in women during the period 2000-2012 in Mexican women who participated in three national surveys. We analyzed data from the ENSA 2000, ENSANUT 2006 and ENSANUT 2012 that are representative of the Mexican population. Prevalences were obtained, trend tests and Poisson regression were used to determine the possibility of having more coverage. The coverage of Papanicolaou use in the last 12 months in 2012 was 45.5%, HPV testing in the last four years was 11.9% and mammography use in the past two years was 29.4% and 17.2% in women aged 50-69 years and 40-49 years, respectively. Although there was an increase in the coverage of screening programs, there should be a boost in the service quality and universal coverage.

  9. Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Schneider, Barry H; Dalessio, Maria; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Coplan, Robert J; Koszycki, Diana; Flament, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore patterns of communication between adolescents and their friends across both "online" and "in-person" contexts. The participants were adolescents (n = 727) aged 11-16 years attending middle schools in urban and rural areas of Italy. Participants completed daily logs of their in-person and online contacts with friends for 20 consecutive school days. Girls reported more total contacts with their friends than did boys as well as friendships that were closer and more intimate. However, boys indicated more contact than girls via electronic communication and online. Contacts with peers in general were less frequent among the older participants, perhaps because of increasing academic demands. Participants who complemented in-person contact with friends with electronic contact were less lonely than their counterparts who were less versatile in accessing different modalities of making contact with friends.

  10. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  11. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns in the Eomes + lineage of excitatory neurons during early neocortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron David A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical neurons display dynamic patterns of gene expression during the coincident processes of differentiation and migration through the developing cerebrum. To identify genes selectively expressed by the Eomes + (Tbr2 lineage of excitatory cortical neurons, GFP-expressing cells from Tg(Eomes::eGFP Gsat embryos were isolated to > 99% purity and profiled. Results We report the identification, validation and spatial grouping of genes selectively expressed within the Eomes + cortical excitatory neuron lineage during early cortical development. In these neurons 475 genes were expressed ≥ 3-fold, and 534 genes ≤ 3-fold, compared to the reference population of neuronal precursors. Of the up-regulated genes, 328 were represented at the Genepaint in situ hybridization database and 317 (97% were validated as having spatial expression patterns consistent with the lineage of differentiating excitatory neurons. A novel approach for quantifying in situ hybridization patterns (QISP across the cerebral wall was developed that allowed the hierarchical clustering of genes into putative co-regulated groups. Forty four candidate genes were identified that show spatial expression with Intermediate Precursor Cells, 49 candidate genes show spatial expression with Multipolar Neurons, while the remaining 224 genes achieved peak expression in the developing cortical plate. Conclusions This analysis of differentiating excitatory neurons revealed the expression patterns of 37 transcription factors, many chemotropic signaling molecules (including the Semaphorin, Netrin and Slit signaling pathways, and unexpected evidence for non-canonical neurotransmitter signaling and changes in mechanisms of glucose metabolism. Over half of the 317 identified genes are associated with neuronal disease making these findings a valuable resource for studies of neurological development and disease.

  12. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Ronald A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in

  13. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-08-18

    Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdh(ex4/5) huntingtin deficient embryos. In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0-7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease.

  14. Early CD3+/CD15+ peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism patterns correlate with long-term engraftment in non-malignant hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, T G; Flesher, M; Shanley, R; Miller, W

    2014-04-01

    Following hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for non-malignant disorders (NMDs) variable donor chimerism among lympho-hematopoietic lines may be observed. We retrospectively evaluated early post-HSCT, lineage-sorted (CD3+ and CD15+) peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism data to characterize patterns and assess for association with long-term CD15+ engraftment. 'Early' was defined as the first value obtained between days +14 and +42, 'late' as the last recorded value after day +90. 'High' donor chimerism was defined as 80% on either fraction at all time-points. Patients were classified into four subgroups with respect to early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns (high/low) then analyzed for long-term CD15+ chimerism status. A total of 135 transplants were evaluable, with all three time-points available in 97. Underlying disease, graft source, patient age and conditioning intensity varied. 'Split' early chimerism (discordant high/low CD3+/CD15+ status) was common. Multivariable analysis revealed strong association between conditioning regimen and primary disease on early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns and a dominant predictive effect of early CD15+ chimerism on long-term CD15+ donor engraftment (observed at median day +365). These data may guide real-time clinician decisions (restraint vs intervention, when available) when faced with unfavorable or unusual early lympho-hematopoietic chimerism patterns following HSCT for NMD.

  15. Ectopic expression of soybean gmsbh1 confers aba sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling establishment in transgenic arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, M.; Huang, L.; Ma, H.

    2017-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeobox transcription factors are known to play an important role in maintenance of plant phenotype, especially leaves and flowers. In this study, a soybean KNOX I homeobox transcription factor, GmSBH1, was analyzed and confirmed to play important roles in the process of seed germination and developing. Real time quantitative PCR assay showed that the transcript level of GmSBH1 in soybean seedlings was modulated by plant hormones, such as IAA, GA, MeJA and ABA.Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that GmSBH1 could bind to the ABRE cis-element. Overexpression of GmSBH1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the abnormal phenotype of flowers and siliques. In GmSBH1 transgenic lines, both seed germination and seedlings growth showed hypersensitive to ABA. Moreover, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI3 and ABI5, were increased in the transgenic line seedlings. Taken together, ectopic expression of GmSBH1 could alter the morphology and confer ABA sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth in transgenic Arabidopsis. (author)

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  17. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  18. Early Marquesan settlement and patterns of interaction : new insights from Hatiheu Valley, Nuku Hiva Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.S.; McAlister, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hatiheu, one of Nuku Hiva's largest and most fertile valleys, is an ideal setting for settlement but the valley's early human history is poorly known. Its importance in late prehistory is well attested, with six major community ceremonial complexes (tohua) and hundreds of domestic structures (paepae). Recent excavations and AMS dating at Pahumanoo-te-tai indicate use of the area began around the late 13th to late 14th century AD and continued into the post-contact period. Evidence from the earliest occupation suggests a structure and domestic activities, including preparation and cooking of both wild and domesticated animals, and tool maintenance and adze manufacture involving both local and exotic raw materials, as identified through pXRF analysis. A remarkable number of stone sources are represented in the relatively small sample, including the newly identified East Hatiheu Quarry (described herein), four other Nuku Hiva localities, Eiao Island and a possible southern Marquesan source. A ∼600-year stratigraphic sequence of repeated burning, erosion, and colluviation informs on long-term geomorphic dynamics at this locality. Pahumano joins a number of similarly-aged sites from throughout the archipelago which, as a whole, identify the 13th to 14th centuries AD as a period of widespread established settlement. (author). 58 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Patterns of Growth in Early Childhood and Infectious Disease and Nutritional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia. These factors contribute to fetal growth restriction and premature delivery, which put many infants on a different growth trajectory. Postnatal exposure to microbes resulting in diarrhea and febrile infectious diseases and poor quality diet further compromise growth. Determinants of growth faltering after birth vary by setting and are not independent of each other. For example, the adverse effects of diarrhea on growth may be mitigated by a high-quality diet. Global estimates suggest that 25% of stunting can be attributed to fetal growth restriction and even more in countries in South Asia with a high prevalence of low birth weight. Infectious diseases may contribute a similar amount and subclinical enteric infections can result in intestinal dysfunction with adverse effects on nutrition and growth. Dietary factors, especially consumption of complementary foods of insufficient quality, have a paramount role in growth faltering in the critical period of infancy. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    Full Text Available During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  1. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  2. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits.

  3. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  4. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.

  5. Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Weisbecker, Vera; Mock, Orin; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive data set of ossification sequences including seven marsupial, 13 placental and seven sauropsid species. Data are provided for the first time for two major mammalian clades, Chiroptera and Soricidae, and for two rodent species; the published sequences of three species were improved with additional sampling. The relative timing of the onset of ossification in 17 cranial elements was recorded, resulting in 136 event pairs, which were treated as characters for each species. Half of these characters are constant across all taxa, 30% are variable but phylogenetically uninformative, and 19% potentially deliver diagnostic features for clades of two or more taxa. Using the conservative estimate of heterochronic changes provided by the program Parsimov, only a few heterochronies were found to diagnose mammals, marsupials, or placentals. A later onset of ossification of the pterygoid with respect to six other cranial bones characterizes therian mammals. This result may relate to the relatively small size of this bone in this clade. One change in relative onset of ossification is hypothesized as a potential human autapomorphy in the context of the sampling made: the earlier onset of the ossification of the periotic with respect to the lacrimal and to three basicranial bones. Using the standard error of scaled ranks across all species as a measure of each element's lability in developmental timing, we found that ossification of early, middle, and late events are similarly labile, with basicranial traits the most labile in timing of onset of ossification. Despite marsupials and placental mammals diverging at least 130 Ma, few heterochronic shifts in cranial ossification diagnose these clades.

  6. Radiation therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease: Australasian patterns of care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H; Morgan, Graeme; O' Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity.

  7. Radiation therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease: Australasian patterns of care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J.; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H.; Morgan, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity

  8. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Association of Pattern of Bacteria Sensitivity During the Empirical Antibiotics Use to the Achievement of Clinical Outcome in Pediatric Patients with Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesara A. Gatera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of infectious diseases that require a comprehensive and effective effort in its treatment, including in the use of empirical antibiotics. The use of empirical antibiotics should be based on patterns of sensitivity toward bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics based on the sensitivity patterns by clinical outcomes as the goal of treatment. This study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in October–December 2013 using a retrospective cross-sectional study design. Secondary data were obtained from medical records during January 2011–December 2012. This study consisted of 24 patients with positive culture test and received antibiotic prescription. The results showed the percentage of the use of cefotaxime-ampicillin (37.5%, cefotaxime (33.3%, ceftriaxone (20.8%, and Ampicillin (8.4%. The most influential antibiotics for achieving clinical outcome using 95% confidence level is combination of cefotaxime-ampiciline (P=0.044 with 77.7% sensitivity level. This study suggested that the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity affected the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with pneumonia.

  10. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was dete...

  11. Combining High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Cardiac Troponin T in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Noreen; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; Pickering, John W; Than, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Greenslade, Jaimi; Parsonage, William; Nestelberger, Thomas; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Badertscher, Patrick; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Bekers, Otto; Schöni, Aline; Keller, Dagmar I; Sabti, Zaid; Puelacher, Christian; Cupa, Janosch; Schumacher, Lukas; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Grimm, Karin; Shrestha, Samyut; Flores, Dayana; Freese, Michael; Stelzig, Claudia; Strebel, Ivo; Miró, Òscar; Rentsch, Katharina; Morawiec, Beata; Kawecki, Damian; Kloos, Wanda; Lohrmann, Jens; Richards, A Mark; Troughton, Richard; Pemberton, Christopher; Osswald, Stefan; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Mingels, Alma M; Reichlin, Tobias; Meex, Steven J R; Mueller, Christian

    2018-04-24

    Background -Combining two signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of AMI. Methods -The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected AMI. The optimal rule out and rule in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule out was compared with the ESC 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. Results -Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the ESC 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6-24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34-41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value (NPV) 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%); product: NPV 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% (95%CI: 99.0-99.9%); product: NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 98.8-99.8%). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule out (40-43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% (95%CI: 99.2-100%); NPV

  12. Genetic and proteomic evidence for roles of Drosophila SUMO in cell cycle control, Ras signaling, and early pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Nie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMO is a protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development. Here we present the first system-wide analysis, combining multiple approaches, to correlate the sumoylated proteome (SUMO-ome in a multicellular organism with the developmental roles of SUMO. Using mass-spectrometry-based protein identification, we found over 140 largely novel SUMO conjugates in the early Drosophila embryo. Enriched functional groups include proteins involved in Ras signaling, cell cycle, and pattern formation. In support of the functional significance of these findings, sumo germline clone embryos exhibited phenotypes indicative of defects in these same three processes. Our cell culture and immunolocalization studies further substantiate roles for SUMO in Ras signaling and cell cycle regulation. For example, we found that SUMO is required for efficient Ras-mediated MAP kinase activation upstream or at the level of Ras activation. We further found that SUMO is dynamically localized during mitosis to the condensed chromosomes, and later also to the midbody. Polo kinase, a SUMO substrate found in our screen, partially colocalizes with SUMO at both sites. These studies show that SUMO coordinates multiple regulatory processes during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. In addition, our database of sumoylated proteins provides a valuable resource for those studying the roles of SUMO in development.

  13. Replication labeling patterns and chromosome territories typical of mammalian nuclei are conserved in the early metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Olga; Solovei, Irina; Cremer, Thomas; David, Charles N

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the evolutionary conservation of higher order nuclear architecture previously described for mammalian cells we have analyzed the nuclear architecture of the simple polyp Hydra. These diploblastic organisms have large nuclei (8-10 microm) containing about 3x10(9) bp of DNA organized in 15 chromosome pairs. They belong to the earliest metazoan phylum and are separated from mammals by at least 600 million years. Single and double pulse labeling with halogenated nucleotides (bromodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine and chlorodeoxyuridine) revealed striking similarities to the known sequence of replication labeling patterns in mammalian nuclei. These patterns reflect a persistent nuclear arrangement of early, mid-, and late replicating chromatin foci that could be identified during all stages of interphase over at least 5-10 cell generations. Segregation of labeled chromatids led after several cell divisions to nuclei with single or a few labeled chromosome territories. In such nuclei distinct clusters of labeled chromatin foci were separated by extended nuclear areas with non-labeled chromatin, which is typical of a territorial arrangement of interphase chromosomes. Our results indicate the conservation of fundamental features of higher order chromatin arrangements throughout the evolution of metazoan animals and suggest the existence of conserved mechanism(s) controlling this architecture.

  14. Application of some pattern recognition methods for the early detection of failures at NPP components by means of noise diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    The automation of the decisions on normality or abnormality of the plant condition being based on automated measurements is an essential step for the integration of noise diagnostics into the control and safety system of a nuclear power plant. By reason of the stochastic character of noise diagnostic measuring quantities principles of statistical pattern recognition are used in order automatically to get a decision on the plant condition. Four different pattern recognition methods complementing each other have been developed respectively tested with data from a WWER-440 type reactor. These four methods are included in a specially written software package. According to stationarity, correlation and probability distribution type of the state describing features and according to the necessary detection sensitivity to failures either the decorrelation method, the cluster method, the Parzen method or the distribution test of Wilcoxon, Mann and Whitney has to be applied. The efficiency and the limits of the investigated methods are discussed in detail. In context with the surveillance of the WWER-440 core by means of the power spectral densities of neutron flux fluctuations it could as well experimentally as theoretically be shown that the logarithmic power spectral densities follow a Gaussian probability distribution. (author)

  15. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  16. Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Kerr, Jessica A; Wake, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Social patterning of dietary-related diseases may partly be explained by population disparities in children's diets. This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed children's consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. All dietary trajectory outcomes across both cohorts showed profound gradients by composite socioeconomic position but not by neighbourhood disadvantage. For example, odds for children in the lowest relative to highest socioeconomic position quintile being in the 'never healthy' relative to the 'always healthy' score trajectory were OR=16.40, 95% CI 9.40 to 28.61 (B Cohort). Among the single variables, only parental education consistently predicted dietary trajectories. Child dietary trajectories vary profoundly by family socioeconomic position. If causal, reducing dietary inequities may require researching underlying pathways, tackling socioeconomic inequities and targeting health promoting interventions to less educated families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  17. Segment polarity gene expression in a myriapod reveals conserved and diverged aspects of early head patterning in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    Arthropods show two kinds of developmental mode. In the so-called long germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the fly Drosophila), all segments are formed almost simultaneously from a preexisting field of cells. In contrast, in the so-called short germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the vast majority of arthropods), only the anterior segments are patterned similarly as in Drosophila, and posterior segments are added in a single or double segmental periodicity from a posterior segment addition zone (SAZ). The addition of segments from the SAZ is controlled by dynamic waves of gene activity. Recent studies on a spider have revealed that a similar dynamic process, involving expression of the segment polarity gene (SPG) hedgehog (hh), is involved in the formation of the anterior head segments. The present study shows that in the myriapod Glomeris marginata the early expression of hh is also in a broad anterior domain, but this domain corresponds only to the ocular and antennal segment. It does not, like in spiders, represent expression in the posterior adjacent segment. In contrast, the anterior hh pattern is conserved in Glomeris and insects. All investigated myriapod SPGs and associated factors are expressed with delay in the premandibular (tritocerebral) segment. This delay is exclusively found in insects and myriapods, but not in chelicerates, crustaceans and onychophorans. Therefore, it may represent a synapomorphy uniting insects and myriapods (Atelocerata hypothesis), contradicting the leading opinion that suggests a sister relationship of crustaceans and insects (Pancrustacea hypothesis). In Glomeris embryos, the SPG engrailed is first expressed in the mandibular segment. This feature is conserved in representatives of all arthropod classes suggesting that the mandibular segment may have a special function in anterior patterning.

  18. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaschen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length

  19. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  20. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the dose-effect relationships adopted for early biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Simmonds, J.R.; Smith, H.; Stather, J.W.

    1979-07-01

    This study considered the sensitivity to the dose-response relationships adopted for the estimation of early biological effects from notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors. Two distinct aspects were considered: the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the dose-mortality relationships for irradiation of the bone marrow and the lung; and the influence of simple supportive medical treatment in reducing the incidence of early deaths in the exposed population. The numbers of early effects estimated in the initial study were relatively insensitive to variation in the dose-mortality relationships within the bounds proposed. The few exceptions concerned releases of particular nuclide composition, and the variation in the predicted consequences could be around an order of magnitude; the absolute numbers of effects however were in general small when the sensitivity was most pronounced. The reduction in the incidence of early deaths when using simple supportive treatment varied markedly with the nuclide composition of the release. Areas of uncertainty were identified where further research and investigation might most profitably be directed with a view to improving the reliability of the dose-effect relationships adopted and hence of the predicted consequences of the release considered. (author)

  1. Characteristic pattern of cerebral perfusion in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT has been commonly used to evaluate several different types of dementia. The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVD (mean age; 68.0±7.0 years, educational period; 6.3±5.6 years, CDR; 0.80±0.26). 46 AD (mean age; 69.9±7.4 years, educational period; 5.4±4.7 years, CDR; 0.86±0.23) and 12 normal control subjects (mean age; 67.1±7.7 years, educational period; 6.2±4.2 years) participated in this study. We included the patients with SVD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable or possible VD. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia scale scores. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and right thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyral regions in patients with SVD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in patients with AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus, right cingulated gyrus, left insula, and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hyperperfusion in right superior frontal gyrus, left pre- and postcentral gyri, left paracentral lobule, left precuneus and both medial frontal gyri compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness

  2. Whole-body and pinhole bone scintigraphic manifestations of Reiter`s syndrome: distribution patterns and early and characteristic signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Soo-Kyo; Park, Young-Ha; Lee, Sung-Yong; Sohn, Hyung-Sun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University Hospitals, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bahk, Yong-Whee [Department of Radiology, Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The characteristic whole-body and pinhole scintigraphic manifestations of osteo-enthesopathy and arthropathy in Reiter`s syndrome (RS) are described, with an emphasis on early diagnosis. We analysed 59 sets of whole-body and pinhole bone scintigrams of 59 patients with RS. The population comprised 47 men and 12 women with an age range from 15 to 53 years (mean=29.4). Bone scintigraphy was carried out 2-2.5 h after intravenous injection of technetium-99m hydroxydiphosphonate using a single-head gamma camera (Siemens Orbiter Model 6601) with a low-energy high-resolution and a 4-mm pinhole collimator for whole-body and pinhole scintigraphy, respectively. In total 262 lesions of osteo-enthesopathy and arthritis were detected on 59 whole-body scintigrams, an incidence of 4.4 lesions per patient. As anticipated, the lesional distribution was asymmetrical: 68% were in the lower limb skeleton and 32% in the axial and upper limb skeleton. Pinhole bone scintigraphy, applied selectively to one region of interest in each case, enabled us to accurately diagnose arthritis and osteo-enthesopathy. It was noteworthy that osteo-enthesopathy, alone or in combination with arthritis, occurred in 78.9%, and had a strong predilection for the foot bones, especially the calcaneus (25.6%). Pinhole scintigraphy detected enthesopathy in the absence of radiographic alteration in 14.1% of cases and portrayed characteristic signs of RS in 6.9%. Whole-body bone scintigraphy augmented with pinhole scintigraphy was found to be useful in order to panoramically display the systemic involvement pattern, to assess the characteristic bone and articular alterations and to detect early signs of RS. (orig.) With 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs.

  3. Proteomic biomarkers apolipoprotein A1, truncated transthyretin and connective tissue activating protein III enhance the sensitivity of CA125 for detecting early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charlotte H; Yip, Christine; Badgwell, Donna; Fung, Eric T; Coombes, Kevin R; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Karen H; Bast, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    The low prevalence of ovarian cancer demands both high sensitivity (>75%) and specificity (99.6%) to achieve a positive predictive value of 10% for successful early detection. Utilizing a two stage strategy where serum marker(s) prompt the performance of transvaginal sonography (TVS) in a limited number (2%) of women could reduce the requisite specificity for serum markers to 98%. We have attempted to improve sensitivity by combining CA125 with proteomic markers. Sera from 41 patients with early stage (I/II) and 51 with late stage (III/IV) epithelial ovarian cancer, 40 with benign disease and 99 healthy individuals, were analyzed to measure 7 proteins [Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), truncated transthyretin (TT), transferrin, hepcidin, ß-2-microglobulin (ß2M), Connective Tissue Activating Protein III (CTAPIII), and Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4)]. Statistical models were fit by logistic regression, followed by optimization of factors retained in the models determined by optimizing the Akaike Information Criterion. A validation set included 136 stage I ovarian cancers, 140 benign pelvic masses and 174 healthy controls. In a training set analysis, the 3 most effective biomarkers (Apo-A1, TT and CTAPIII) exhibited 54% sensitivity at 98% specificity, CA125 alone produced 68% sensitivity and the combination increased sensitivity to 88%. In a validation set, the marker panel plus CA125 produced a sensitivity of 84% at 98% specificity (P=0.015, McNemar's test). Combining a panel of proteomic markers with CA125 could provide a first step in a sequential two-stage strategy with TVS for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  5. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  6. Coincidence of pollen season with the first fetal trimester together with early pet exposure is associated with sensitization to cat and dog allergens in early childhood: A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrhönen, K; Kulmala, P; Näyhä, S

    2018-03-01

    Children whose 11th fetal week falls in pollen season (spring) reportedly have an increased risk of sensitization to food allergens. No such finding has been reported for pet allergens. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the incidence of pet (dog and cat) sensitization according to the season of the 11th fetal week and (ii) whether the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization is modified by the coincidence of the 11th fetal week with pollen season. The study population comprised all children (born between 2001 and 2006) in the province of South Karelia, Finland (N = 5920). Their data of immunoglobulin E antibodies and skin prick tests to pet allergens (N = 538) were collected from patient records and linked with questionnaire data on pet exposure. The seasonal incidence peak of cat sensitization was observed in children whose 11th fetal week occurred in June (7.4%) and that of dog sensitization in April (3.8%) and June (4.7%). The relative rate (RR) for cat sensitization was 2.92 (95% CI 1.40-6.08) in children with cat exposure alone, 8.53 (4.07-17.86) in children with cat and fetal pollen exposures and 0.61 (0.20-1.83) in children exposed to pollen alone, compared with children without these exposures. The respective RRs for dog sensitization were 2.17 (1.13-4.19), 4.40 (2.19-8.83) and 1.65 (0.77-3.53). Coincidence of the first fetal trimester with pollen season strengthens the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization. Pollen exposure at early pregnancy may deviate immune system towards Th2-type reactivity promoting development of specific allergy in case allergen exposure occurred. Therefore, primary prevention of allergic diseases may need to begin during early pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Etiological pattern and early outcome of patients presenting with obstructive jaundice at isra university hospital, hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanbhro, R.J.; Maheshwari, T.; Jarwar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiological pattern and early outcome of patients presenting with obstructive jaundice. Methodology: This prospective case series was conducted on 82 patients through convenient sampling for one year from July 2010 to June 2011 at Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan. All patients with obstructive jaundice were included in this study. After making final diagnosis, depending upon the etiology and stage of disease, the patient was offered the appropriate treatment. SPSS version 16.0 was used to for data analysis. Results: Mean age of the participants was 54.16+-11.50. Males were predominant as compare to females, 57.3% and 42.7%. Gallstones were the most common cause; seen in 74 (90.2%) patients. Seventy (96.3%) were managed conservatively as compare to those patients in which surgery performed (1 case, 1.2%). 97.6% improved and were discharged where as 2(1.64%) did not improve. Conclusion: Gallstones were the predominant cause of obstructive jaundice in our setup. Most of the patients did not require surgical treatment, and outcome was very good with conservative treatment. (author)

  8. High Energy Conversion Efficiency with 3-D Micro-Patterned Photoanode for Enhancement Diffusivity and Modification of Photon Distribution in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Sim, Yeon Hyang; Cha, Seung I; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2017-11-08

    Dye sensitize solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as the promising alternatives silicon based solar cell with their characteristics including high efficiency under weak illumination and insensitive power output to incident angle. Therefore, many researches have been studied to improve the energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs. However the efficiency of DSSCs are still trapped at the around 10%. In this study, micro-scale hexagonal shape patterned photoanode have proposed to modify light distribution of photon. In the patterned electrode, the appearance efficiency have been obtained from 7.1% to 7.8% considered active area and the efficiency of 12.7% have been obtained based on the photoanode area. Enhancing diffusion of electrons and modification of photon distribution utilizing the morphology of the electrode are major factors to improving the performance of patterned electrode. Also, finite element method analyses of photon distributions were conducted to estimate morphological effect that influence on the photon distribution and current density. From our proposed study, it is expecting that patterned electrode is one of the solution to overcome the stagnant efficiency and one of the optimized geometry of electrode to modify photon distribution. Process of inter-patterning in photoanode has been minimized.

  9. A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

  10. Bacteriological Study of 100 Cases of Pyodermas with Special Reference to Staphylococci, Their Antibiotic Sensitivity and Phage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Ramani

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred new cases of pyodenna attending King George Hospital, Vishakhapatnam were investigated bacteriologically with antibiotic sensitivity of all the strains isolated and phage typing of coagulm positive staphylocci. Among these 50 had impetigo and 15 each ahd furunculosis and fouiculitis. The remaining included various other clinical entities. Children under 10 years were observed to have high incidence of pyoderma. A total of 88 strains of staphylococci (77 coagulase positive and 11 coagulase negative strains 25 strains of beta haemolytic streptococci and 3 strains of Klebsiella were isolated. Staphylococci were found to be the commonest aetiological agents either single or in association with other organisms. Of the 76 strains of coagulase positive staphylococci 32 strains were not phage typable and among the 44 typable strains 17 (38% belonged to group III and 15 (36.5% to mixed group. Coagulase positive staphylococci showed high sensitivity to garamycin, kanamycin and erythromycin and high resistance to penicillin and streptomycin. Multiple drug resistance was also high among these strains. Coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be more sensitive with less incidence of multiple drug resistance. Most of multiple drug resistant strains belonged to group III phage types. Beta haemolytic streptococci were found to be highly sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.

  11. Simulating occupant behaviour and energy performance of dwellings : A sensitivity analysis of presence patterns in different dwelling types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings is an emerging research topic: Not only the amount of studies is insufficient, but also they provide contradictory results. The aim of this study is to reveal the sensitivity of dwelling energy performance to the presence of

  12. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Kingston

    Full Text Available Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants' first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families.

  14. Comparative Analysis of WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Genes Revealed Their Parent-of-Origin and Cell Type-Specific Expression Pattern During Early Embryogenesis in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome. Comparative analysis of 13 WOX family genes with their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals relatively conserved expression pattern of WUS and WOX5 in shoot/root apical meristem. Whereas variations were also found, e.g., lacking homolog of WOX8 (a marker for suspensor cell in tobacco genome and the expression of WOX2/WOX9 in both apical cell and basal cell. Transient transcriptional activity analysis revealed that WOXs in WUS clade have repressive activities for their target's transcription, whereas WOXs in ancient and intermediate clade have activation activities, giving a molecular basis for the phylogenetic classification of tobacco WOXs into three major clades. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some WOXs (e.g., WOX 13a expressed in both male and female gametes and some WOXs (e.g., WOX 11 and WOX 13b displayed the characteristics of parent-of-origin genes. Interestingly, some WOXs (e.g., WOX2 and WOX9, which are essential for early embryo patterning, were de novo transcribed in zygote, indicating relevant mechanism for embryo pattern formation is only established in zygote right after fertilization and not carried in by gametes. We also found that most WOXs displayed a stage-specific and cell type-specific expression pattern. Taken together, this work provides a detailed landscape of WOXs in tobacco during fertilization and early embryogenesis, which will facilitate the understanding of their specific roles

  15. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  16. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.

  17. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  18. Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze1, Holger Lemm2, Anke Heyer2, Karin Müller31Department of Internal Medicine, German Red Cross Hospital Sondershausen, Sondershausen, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Saale-Unstrut Hospital Naumburg, Naumburg, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this observational study was to test the diagnostic performance of the Elecsys® troponin T high-sensitive system combined with copeptin measurement for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (MI in clinical practice.Methods: Troponin T high-sensitive (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pg/mL and copeptin (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pmol/L levels were determined at admission in addition to other routine laboratory parameters in patients with suspected acute MI presenting to the emergency department of a general hospital over a period of five months.Results: Data from 142 consecutive patients (mean age 71.2 ± 13.5 years, 76 men were analyzed. Final diagnoses were acute MI in 13 patients (nine ST elevation MI, four non-ST elevation MI, 9.2% unstable angina pectoris in three (2.1%, cardiac symptoms not primarily associated with myocardial ischemia in 79 (55.6%, and noncardiac disease in 47 patients (33.1%. The patients with acute MI were younger and had higher troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin values than patients without acute MI. Seventeen patients had very high copeptin values (>150 pmol/L, one of whom had a level of >700 pmol/L and died of pulmonary embolism. A troponin T high-sensitive level of <14 pg/mL in combination with copeptin <14 pmol/L at initial presentation ruled out acute MI in 45 of the 142 patients (31.7%, each with a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%.Conclusion: According to this early experience, a single determination of troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin may enable early and accurate exclusion of acute MI in one third of patients, even in an emergency department of a general hospital.Keywords: highly sensitive troponin T

  19. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. In vitro studies on the sensitivity pattern of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs and local herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, Grace I; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adeyeba, Adegboyega O; Fagade, Obasola E; Valecha, Neena; Ayanda, Isaac O; Ajayi, Adesola A; Egwari, Louis O

    2014-02-20

    The resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds has become considerable concern, particularly in view of the shortage of novel classes of anti-malarial drugs. One way to prevent resistance is by using new compounds that are not based on existing synthetic antimicrobial agents. Sensitivity of 100 Plasmodium falciparum isolates to chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, artemisinin, Momordica charantia ('Ejirin') Diospyros monbuttensis ('Egun eja') and Morinda lucida ('Oruwo') was determined using the in vitro microtest (Mark III) technique to determine the IC50 of the drugs. All the isolates tested were sensitive to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were resistant to chloroquine, 13% to amodiaquine and 5% to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Highest resistance to chloroquine (68.9%) was recorded among isolates from Yewa zone while highest resistance to amodiaquine (30%) was observed in Ijebu zone. Highest resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine was recorded in Yewa and Egba zones, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the responses to artemisinin and mefloquine (P0.05). Highest anti-plasmodial activity was obtained with the ethanolic extract of D. monbuttensis (IC50 = 3.2 nM) while the lowest was obtained from M. lucida (IC50 = 25 nM). Natural products isolated from plants used in traditional medicine, which have potent anti-plasmodial action in vitro, represent potential sources of new anti-malarial drugs.

  1. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early identification of technical issues: a sensitivity study to check LISTRA1A internal consistency and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.; Maninger, R.C.; Rabsatt, S.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes a sensitivity study using LISTRA1A, a model for use in the development of a long-range, time-dependent plan for licensing nuclear waste repositories. The objectives of the model are: (1) to provide information concerning the impact of various licensing strategies on the ability to dispose of nuclear waste effectively; and (2) to provide long-range budget forecasts for differing strategies of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The model is designed to analyze the interaction between NRC regulatory policy and DOE technical programs. A sensitivity study is reported for a single parameter in a hypothetical review process

  3. Patterns of dioxin-altered mRNA expression in livers of dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Monique A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacogenomics, 1000 Route 202 South, P.O. Box 300, Raritan, NJ (United States); Moffat, Ivy D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Okey, Allan B. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kuopio (Finland); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Dioxins exert their major toxicologic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and altering gene transcription. Numerous dioxin-responsive genes previously were identified both by conventional biochemical and molecular techniques and by recent mRNA expression microarray studies. However, of the large set of dioxin-responsive genes the specific genes whose dysregulation leads to death remain unknown. To identify specific genes that may be involved in dioxin lethality we compared changes in liver mRNA levels following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three strains/lines of dioxin-sensitive rats with changes in three dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines. The three dioxin-resistant strains/lines all harbor a large deletion in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Despite this deletion, many genes exhibited a ''Type-I'' response - that is, their responses were similar in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats. Several genes that previously were well established as being dioxin-responsive or under AHR regulation emerged as Type-I responses (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and Gsta3). In contrast, a relatively small number of genes exhibited a Type-II response - defined as a difference in responsiveness between dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rat strains. Type-II genes include: malic enzyme 1, ubiquitin C, cathepsin L, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and ferritin light chain 1. In silico searches revealed that AH response elements are conserved in the 5'-flanking regions of several genes that respond to TCDD in both the Type-I and Type-II categories. The vast majority of changes in mRNA levels in response to 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD were strain-specific; over 75% of the dioxin-responsive clones were affected in only one of the six strains/lines. Selected genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in dose-response and time-course experiments and responses of some genes were

  4. Water Activated Graphene Oxide Transfer Using Wax Printed Membranes for Fast Patterning of a Touch Sensitive Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Pires, Luis; Mayorga-Martínez, Carmen C; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Montón, Helena; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-26

    We demonstrate a graphene oxide printing technology using wax printed membranes for the fast patterning and water activation transfer using pressure based mechanisms. The wax printed membranes have 50 μm resolution, longtime stability and infinite shaping capability. The use of these membranes complemented with the vacuum filtration of graphene oxide provides the control over the thickness. Our demonstration provides a solvent free methodology for printing graphene oxide devices in all shapes and all substrates using the roll-to-roll automatized mechanism present in the wax printing machine. Graphene oxide was transferred over a wide variety of substrates as textile or PET in between others. Finally, we developed a touch switch sensing device integrated in a LED electronic circuit.

  5. Mobile technology habits: patterns of association among device usage, intertemporal preference, impulse control, and reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H; Chein, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Mobile electronic devices are playing an increasingly pervasive role in our daily activities. Yet, there has been very little empirical research investigating how mobile technology habits might relate to individual differences in cognition and affect. The research presented in this paper provides evidence that heavier investment in mobile devices is correlated with a relatively weaker tendency to delay gratification (as measured by a delay discounting task) and a greater inclination toward impulsive behavior (i.e., weaker impulse control, assessed behaviorally and through self-report) but is not related to individual differences in sensitivity to reward. Analyses further demonstrated that individual variation in impulse control mediates the relationship between mobile technology usage and delay of gratification. Although based on correlational results, these findings lend some backing to concerns that increased use of portable electronic devices could have negative impacts on impulse control and the ability to appropriately valuate delayed rewards.

  6. [Constructing ecological security patterns in mountain areas based on geological disaster sensitivity: A case study in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Guo, Xiao Nan; Hu, Yi Na; Liu, Yan Xu

    2017-02-01

    As one of the key topics in the research of landscape ecology, regional ecological security patterns can effectively promote regional sustainable development and terrestrial ecological barriers construction. It is extremely important for middle Yunnan, with frequent disasters and fragile ecolo-gical environment, to construct ecological security patterns so as to effectively avoid the geological disasters, maintain ecosystem health, and promote the coordinated development of regional ecological system and social economic system. Taking Yuxi City as a case study area, this study firstly estimated the ecosystem services importance of water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, soil conservation, and biodiversity according to the basal characteristics of regional ecological environment, and then identified ecological sources in consideration of the quality of integrated ecosystem services and single types. Secondly, the resistance surface based on land use types was modified by the sensitivity of regional geological disasters. Lastly, the ecological corridors were identified using minimum cumulative resistance model, and as a result, the ecological security pattern of Yuxi City was constructed. The results showed that there were 81 patches for ecological sources in Yuxi City, accounting for 38.4% of the total area, and overlaying 75.2% of nature protection areas. The ecological sources were mainly distributed in the western mountainous areas as well as eastern water areas of the city. The length of ecological corridors was 1642.04 km, presenting a spatial pattern of one vertical and three horizontals, and extending along river valleys and fault basins with high vegetation coverage. This paper constructed ecological security patterns in mountainous areas aiming at the characteristics of geological disasters, providing spatial guidance for development and conservation decision-making in mountain areas.

  7. Early continuous white noise exposure alters auditory spatial sensitivity and expression of GAD65 and GABAA receptor subunits in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2010-04-01

    Sensory experiences have important roles in the functional development of the mammalian auditory cortex. Here, we show how early continuous noise rearing influences spatial sensitivity in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) and its underlying mechanisms. By rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous, moderate level white noise, we found that noise rearing markedly attenuated the spatial sensitivity of A1 neurons. Compared with rats reared under normal conditions, spike counts of A1 neurons were more poorly modulated by changes in stimulus location, and their preferred locations were distributed over a larger area. We further show that early continuous noise rearing induced significant decreases in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor alpha1 subunit expression, and an increase in GABA(A) receptor alpha3 expression, which indicates a returned to the juvenile form of GABA(A) receptor, with no effect on the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. These observations indicate that noise rearing has powerful adverse effects on the maturation of cortical GABAergic inhibition, which might be responsible for the reduced spatial sensitivity.

  8. Radiographic patterns and survival of patients with early and late brain metastases in EGFR wild type and mutant non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Ren; Yamada, Andrew; Weber, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in NSCLC is a negative prognostic indicator. In the era of EGFR mutations we evaluated the difference between early (≤6 months from diagnosis) versus late BM (>6 months), in EGFR wild type (WT) and mutant (MT) NSCLC patients with respect to radiographic patterns and overall...... BM: WT 24.9 months versus MT 25.6 months (p = 0.51). In multivariate analysis chemotherapy, single lesion and late BM were associated with better survival in WT patients whereas age, and systemic treatment but not BM timing or single lesion were predictive of better outcomes in MT patients. In early...

  9. Relations of Shyness-Sensitivity and Unsociability with Adjustment in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence in Suburban Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in Chinese children and adolescents. Participants included 564 children (272 boys, M[subscript age] = 9 years) and 462 adolescents (246 boys, M[subscript age] = 13 years) in a suburban region in China. Data were obtained…

  10. Pilot evaluation of short-term changes in macular pigment and retinal sensitivity in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration after carotenoid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Federico; Souied, Eric H; Falfoul, Yousra; Georges, Anouk; Jung, Camille; Querques, Lea; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the response of carotenoid supplementation in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and retinal sensitivity. Consecutive patients with only medium/large drusen and only reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled. At baseline, participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), MPOD and retinal sensitivity. Patients were put on vitamin supplementation (lutein 10 mg/day, zeaxanthin 2 mg/day) and 3 months later underwent a repeated ophthalmological examination. Twenty patients with medium/large drusen, 19 with RPD and 15 control subjects were included. At baseline, in controls, mean MPOD and BCVA were significantly higher compared with RPD (p=0.001 and p=0.01) but similar to medium/large drusen (p=0.9 and p=0.4). Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly higher in controls compared with RPD and medium/large drusen (for all p<0.0001). After 3 months of carotenoid supplementation the mean MPOD significantly increased in RPD (p=0.002), thus showing no more difference compared with controls (p=0.3); no significant changes were found in mean retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.3 and p=0.7). Medium/large drusen did not show significant changes on MPOD, retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.5, p=0.7 and p=0.7, respectively). Patients with early AMD, especially RPD phenotype, show lower macular sensitivity and MPOD than controls. After supplementation, MPOD significantly increased in RPD. These results suggest different pathophysiology for RPD as compared with medium/large drusen and may open new ways to identifying further therapeutic targets in this phenotype of early AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Patterns of cytosine methylation in an elite rice hybrid and its parental lines, detected by a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L Z; Xu, C G; Saghai Maroof, M A; Zhang, Q

    1999-04-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in the rice genome, using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), which is a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method that makes use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of isoschizomers to cytosine methylation. The tissues assayed included seedlings and flag leaves of an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63, and the parental lines Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. In all, 1076 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 195 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in one or both parents, and the two parents showed approximately the same overall degree of methylation (16.3%), as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion by the isoschizomers. Four classes of patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the parents and hybrid; increased methylation was detected in the hybrid compared to the parents at some of the recognition sites, while decreased methylation in the hybrid was detected at other sites. A small proportion of the sites was found to be differentially methylated in seedlings and flag leaves; DNA from young seedlings was methylated to a greater extent than that from flag leaves. Almost all of the methylation patterns detected by MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrate that the MSAP technique is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the rice genome. We believe that the technique can be adapted for use in other plant species.

  12. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Japoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19 to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.

  13. Polarity-sensitive transient patterned state in a twisted nematic liquid crystal driven by very low frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M Vijay

    2013-02-01

    We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.

  14. Early insulin sensitivity after restrictive bariatric surgery, inconsistency between HOMA-IR and steady-state plasma glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dielen, Francois M H; Nijhuis, Jeroen; Rensen, Sander S M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Wiebolt, Janneke; Koks, Afra; Prakken, Fred J; Buurman, Wim A; Greve, Jan Willem M

    2010-01-01

    The low-grade inflammatory condition present in morbid obesity is thought to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR). Bariatric surgery fails to improve this inflammatory condition during the first months after surgery. Considering the close relation between inflammation and IR, we conducted a study in which insulin sensitivity was measured during the first months after bariatric surgery. Different methods to measure IR shortly after bariatric surgery have given inconsistent data. For example, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels have been reported to decrease rapidly after bariatric surgery, although clamp techniques have shown sustained insulin resistance. In the present study, we evaluated the use of steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) levels to assess insulin sensitivity 2 months after bariatric surgery. Insulin sensitivity was measured using HOMA-IR and SSPG levels in 11 subjects before surgery and at 26% excess weight loss (approximately 2 months after restrictive bariatric surgery). The SSPG levels after 26% excess weight loss did not differ from the SSPG levels before surgery (14.3 +/- 5.4 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 mmol/L). In contrast, the HOMA-IR values had decreased significantly (3.59 +/- 1.99 versus 2.09 +/- 1.02). During the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, we observed a discrepancy between the HOMA-IR and SSPG levels. In contrast to the HOMA-IR values, the SSPG levels had not improved, which could be explained by the ongoing inflammatory state after bariatric surgery. These results suggest that during the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, HOMA-IR might not be an adequate marker of insulin sensitivity. Copyright 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No Weight Catch-Up Growth of SGA Infants Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Sensitivity during the Early Postnatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-yan Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between weight catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods. Forty-four singleton SGA subjects met the inclusion criteria and finished-3-month followup. Body weight, length, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (FI levels were measured at 3 days and 3 months. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by FI and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. According to the change of weight Z-score, forty-four subjects were divided into two groups: noncatch-up growth (NCUG and catch-up growth (CUG. By 3 months of age, the body weight, body length and BMI of NCUG group were significantly lower than those of CUG group. The FI and HOMA were significantly higher in NCUG group. The change of weight Z-score during 3 months was inversely related to the HOMA at 3 months. Conclusion. Our data exemplified that no weight catch-up growth during the first 3 months was associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in SGA infants.

  16. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels ( I h currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential ontogenetic patterns of levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin NT2 receptors and of NT1 receptors in the rat brain revealed by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépée-Lorgeoux, I; Betancur, C; Rostène, W; Pélaprat, D

    1999-03-12

    The postnatal ontogeny of the levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin receptor (NT2) mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization in the rat brain and compared with the distribution of the levocabastine-insensitive NT1 receptor. NT2 receptor mRNA was absent at birth from all brain structures except the ependymal cell layer lining the ventricles. The development of NT2 receptor mRNA followed three ontogenetic patterns. The first pattern, involving the majority of the cerebral gray matter, was characterized by a continuous increase from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P30. The second one, involving regions rich in myelinated fibers such as the corpus callosum and lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus, exhibited a pronounced increase between P5 and P10, peaked at P15 and was followed by a plateau or a slight decrease. The third pattern was observed in the ependymal cell layer lining the olfactory and lateral ventricles, where the high labeling already present at birth continued to increase during development. These different developmental patterns could reflect the variety of cells expressing NT2 receptor mRNA, including neurons, protoplasmic astrocytes in gray matter, fibrous astrocytes present in myelinated fibers tracts, and ependymal cells. In contrast, NT1 receptor mRNA, which seems to be associated only with neurons, was highly and transiently expressed during the perinatal period in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatal neuroepithelium. Other regions, notably the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra compacta, exhibited a gradual increase in NT1 receptor signal, reaching adult levels by P21. Both the differential localization and ontogenetic profiles of NT1 and NT2 receptor mRNAs suggest different involvement of these two receptors in brain functions and development. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Impact of chronic maternal stress during early gestation on maternal-fetal stress transfer and fetal stress sensitivity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiling, Michelle; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine; Rupprecht, Sven; Kroegel, Nasim; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development. Six pregnant ewes underwent repeated isolation stress (CMS) between 30 and 100 days of gestation (dGA, term: 150 dGA) and seven pregnant ewes served as controls. At 110 dGA, ewes were chronically instrumented and underwent acute isolation stress. The acute stress decreased UBF by 19% in both the CMS and control groups (p stress-induced cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations indicating a hyperactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Increased fetal norepinephrine is endogenous as maternal catecholamines do not cross the placenta. Cortisol in the control but not in the CMS fetuses was correlated with maternal cortisol blood concentrations; these findings indicate: (1) no increased maternal-fetal cortisol transfer with CMS, (2) cortisol production in CMS fetuses when the HPA-axis is normally inactive, due to early maturation of the fetal HPA-axis. CMS fetuses were better oxygenated, without shift towards acidosis compared to the controls, potentially reflecting adaptation to repeated stress. Hence, CMS enhances maternal-fetal stress transfer by prolonged reduction in UBF and increased fetal HPA responsiveness.

  20. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50, cheese (50, ice-cream (50, mawa (50 and dahi (50 were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of the organism from the collected samples, MacConkey broth was used and inoculation was carried out on MacConkey agar and EMB agar. Later on, to confirm the isolates, various biochemical tests such as IMViC test, Urease test were performed. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli was assessed by disk diffusion method. Finally the E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of virulence associated genes by PCR . Results: The prevalence of E. coli was observed 32 % in the samples comprising of milk (52.00%, cheese (28.00%, icecream (20.00%, mawa (44.00%, and dahi (16.00%. Antibiotic sensitivity was recorded high for Co-trimoxazole (100% followed by Gentamicin (96.73%, Trimithoprime (93.47% and Doxycycline hydochloride (92.39%. Least sensitivity was recorded for Ampicillin (8.69%. In this study, out of 80 E. coli isolates, 25 isolates (31.25% were positive for stx genes, of which 7 (8.75% isolates were positive for stx1 gene only, while 12 (15.00% isolates were positive for stx2 gene only and 5 (6.25% isolates were positive for both stx1 and stx2, 7 isolates (8.75% were positive for eaeA gene and all the isolate were negetive for rfb O157 gene. Conclusions: Current study supports the finding that raw milk and various milk products can be regarded as critical source of pathogenic E. coli This explains the need of strict monitoring and surveillance for effective measures of hygiene and sanitary practice during production of milk and various milk

  1. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity of the incidence of early effects to the duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.; Hallam, J.; Kelly, G.N.

    1979-12-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB-R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. In this study the sensitivity of the predicted incidence of early effects to the release duration, in so far as it affects the crosswind spread of the activity, is investigated. Two situations are considered; a short release in which the crosswind distribution of the activity is assumed to be Gaussian and a more prolonged release (as modelled in the initial study) in which the crosswind distribution of activity is assumed uniform over a 30 0 sector. For the particular conditions and population distributions considered, the incidence of early effects is greater for the short compared with the more prolonged release. The size of the increase depends upon the radionuclide composition, the magnitude of the release, the distribution of the exposed population, and the prevailing meteorological conditions, but in general the increase is not large. This relatively limited sensitivity indicates that the results obtained in the initial study can be assumed, to a good approximation, to be applicable irrespective of the release duration. (author)

  2. Variation of Oriental Oak (Quercus variabilis Leaf δ13C across Temperate and Subtropical China: Spatial Patterns and Sensitivity to Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the carbon-13 isotope (leaf δ13C in leaves is negatively correlated with the mean annual precipitation (MAP atlarge geographical scales. In this paper, we explain the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C variation for deciduous oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Bl. across temperate and subtropical biomes and its sensitivity to climate factors such as MAP. There was a 6‰ variation in the leaf δ13C values of oak with a significant positive correlation with latitude and negative correlations with the mean annual temperature (MAT and MAP. There was no correlation between leaf δ13C and altitude or longitude. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that leaf δ13C decreased 0.3‰ per 100 mm increase in MAP. MAP alone could account for 68% of the observed variation in leaf δ13C. These results can be used to improve predictions for plant responses to climate change and particularly lower rainfall.

  3. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic early induces MAPK pathway in R. arenarum embryos and larvae. • The MAPKs MEK-ERK in turn upregulate the transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN. • SOD, CAT and GST would be affected by ROS at synthesis and degradation level. • Low As levels inducing molecular biomarkers have high probabilities of exceedence. • Molecular biomarkers are most adequate to ascertain As impact in R. arenarum. - Abstract: Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15 mg L"–"1. The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of

  4. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés, E-mail: a.venturino@conicet.gov.ar

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic early induces MAPK pathway in R. arenarum embryos and larvae. • The MAPKs MEK-ERK in turn upregulate the transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN. • SOD, CAT and GST would be affected by ROS at synthesis and degradation level. • Low As levels inducing molecular biomarkers have high probabilities of exceedence. • Molecular biomarkers are most adequate to ascertain As impact in R. arenarum. - Abstract: Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15 mg L{sup –1}. The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of

  5. A New High-sensitivity solar X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX:early operations and databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr; Trzebinski, Witold; Plocieniak, Stefan; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument operating aboard Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite. A short description of this unique instrument will be presented and its unique capabilities discussed. SphinX is presently the most sensitive solar X-ray spectrophotometer measuring solar spectra in the energy range above 1 keV. A large archive of SphinX mea-surements has already been collected. General access to these measurements is possible. The SphinX data repositories contain lightcurves, spectra, and photon arrival time measurements. The SphinX data cover nearly continuously the period since the satellite launch on January 30, 2009 up to the end-of November 2009. Present instrument status, data formats and data access methods will be shown. An overview of possible new science coming from SphinX data analysis will be discussed.

  6. Balance between early life tolerance and sensitization in allergy: dependence on the timing and intensity of prenatal and postnatal allergen exposure of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Ana Elisa; de Brito, Cyro Alves; Taniguchi, Eliana Futata; Muniz, Bruno Pacola; Victor, Jefferson Russo; Orii, Noemia Mie; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2009-09-01

    Allergens can be maternally transferred to the fetus or neonate, though it is uncertain how this initial allergen exposure may impact the development of allergy responses. To evaluate the roles of timing and level of maternal allergen exposure in the early life sensitization of progeny, female BALB/c mice were given ovalbumin (OVA) orally during pregnancy, lactation or weekly at each stage to investigate the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production and cellular responsiveness of their offspring. Exposure to OVA during pregnancy was also evaluated in OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (DO11.10) mice. The effect of prenatal antigen exposure on offspring sensitization was dependent on antigen intake, with low-dose OVA inducing tolerance followed by neonatal immunization that was sustained even when pups were immunized when 3 weeks old. These offspring received high levels of transforming growth factor-beta via breastfeeding. High-dose exposure during the first week of pregnancy or perinatal period induced transient inhibition of IgE production following neonatal immunization; although for later immunization IgE production was enhanced in these offspring. Postnatal maternal antigen exposure provided OVA transference via breastfeeding, which consequently induced increased offspring susceptibility to IgE antibody production according to week post-birth. The effect of low-dose maternal exposure during pregnancy was further evaluated using OVA transgenic TCR dams as a model. These progeny presented pronounced entry of CD4(+) T cells into the S phase of the cell cycle with a skewed T helper type 2 response early in life, revealing the occurrence of allergen priming in utero. The balance between tolerance and sensitization depended on the amount and timing of maternal allergen intake during pregnancy.

  7. Meaning in meaninglessness: The propensity to perceive meaningful patterns in coincident events and randomly arranged stimuli is linked to enhanced attention in early sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Christian; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Papousek, Ilona

    2018-05-01

    Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Self-reported and behavioral indicators of the perception of meaningful patterns were assessed in non-clinical individuals, along with EEG auditory evoked potentials during the performance of an attention related lateralized speech perception task (Dichotic Listening Test). A greater propensity to perceive meaningful patterns was associated with higher N1 amplitudes of the evoked potentials to the onset of the dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllables, indicating enhanced automatic attention in early sensory processing. The study suggests that more basic mechanisms in how people associate events may play a greater role in the cognitive biases that are manifest in personality expressions such as positive schizotypy, rather than that positive schizotypy moderates these cognitive biases directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Snow Patterns in Swiss Ski Resorts to Shifts in Temperature, Precipitation and Humidity Under Condition of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, B.; Goyette, S.; Beniston, M.

    2008-12-01

    The value of snow as a resource has considerably increased in Swiss mountain regions, in particular in the context of winter tourism. In the perspective of a warming climate, it is thus important to quantify the potential changes in snow amount and duration that could have large repercussions on the economy of ski resorts. Because of the fine spatial variability of snow, the use of a Surface Energy Balance Model (SEBM) is adequate to simulate local snow cover evolution. A perturbation method has been developed to generate plausible future meteorological input data required for SEBM simulations in order to assess the changes in snow cover patterns. Current and future snow depths have also been simulated within the ski areas themselves. The results show a large decrease of the snow depths and duration, even at high elevation in a warmer climate and emphasize the sensitivity of snow to topographical characteristics of the resorts. The study highlights the fact that not only the altitude of a domain but also its exposure, localization inland and slope gradients need to be taken into account when evaluating current and future snow depths. This method enables a precise assessment of the snow pattern over a small area.

  9. The comparison of printed resources bacterial contamination in libraries of Al-Zahra Hospital and Sciences Faculty of Isfahan University and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Hosein; Chadeganipour, Mostafa; Ojaghi, Rezvan; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Nouri, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    During the library loan process, the printed resources can be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, it was tried to compare the Bacterial Contamination Rates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in printed resources of a hospital and a non-hospital library. This is a cross-sectional study. Returning books from the Al-Zahra hospital library and library of Sciences faculty of Isfahan University provides the research community. The sample size, 96 cases, was calculated using quota sampling. For sampling sterile swab dipped in trypticase soy broth medium and transfer trypticase soy broth medium were used. To identify different type of isolated bacteria from Gram-staining test and biochemical tests such as; TSI, IMViC and etc., were used. 76 (79.2%) and 20 (20.8%) of cultured samples were negative and positive, the respectively. Of 20 positive samples, 11 samples (55%) belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae that after detecting by Differential teste identified all 11 samples of Enterobacter that all of them were sensitive to Gentamicin and Ofloxacin. Also the most resistance to Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin was observed. 9 cases remained (45%) were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus that all of them were sensitive to the Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and Cephalexin antibiotics also the most resistance to Cefixime was observed. Considering that the Enterobacter sp and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were separated from the books, the books as well as other hospital and medical equipment can transmit the infection to librarians, library users, patients and hospital staff, and also it can produce serious infections in patients with immune deficiency.

  10. Study of Pre-disposing Factors of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern with Reference to Antibiotic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Shakya Shrestha, S; Pant, A; Prajapati, B; Karmacharya, B M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects about 329 million people worldwide, which is nearly 5% of the entire global population. In the context of Nepal, COPD accounts for 43% of the non-communicable disease burden and 2.56% of hospitalizations. Various pre-disposing factors like bacterial, viral, fungal, smoking, occupational exposures and genetic factors have been proposed to precipitate COPD and its exacerbation though, the definitive pre-disposing factors and factors related to acute exacerbation have not been determined in the context of Nepal. Objective To find out the pre-disposing factors and the related causative agents for COPD. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients of all age group who were diagnosed as COPD and admitted in the hospital were included in this study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The sociodemographic data including personal and medical history were recorded from those participants. In addition, sputum from those patients was sent for culture to investigate the possible responsible pathogens as well as its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Result A total of 150 patients having Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) who have admitted from either emergency or out-patient department of the hospital were included in this study. Among the total number of patients, more than half of them were female (n=82). In addition, analysis of occupations shows that most of them were either farmer (36.0%) or housewife (30.7%). In total studied patients (n=150), most of them were using traditional firewood (83%) for cooking purpose and majority of patients (91%) were smokers. Most of the sputum samples show growth of gram-positive cocci (26.7%) and gram negative bacilli (27.5%). Considering the overall sensitivity pattern, the higher sensitivity was recorded for Co-trimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin while higher rate of resistance was noted

  11. Computationally-generated nuclear forensic characteristics of early production reactors with an emphasis on sensitivity and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, Evan M.; Sjoden, Glenn; Erickson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •X-10 reactor is used as a case study for nuclear forensic signatures. •S/U analysis is conducted to derive statistically relevant markers. •Computationally-generated signatures aid with proliferation pathway identification. •Highest uncertainty in total plutonium production originates from 238 Pu and 242 Pu. -- Abstract: With nuclear technology and analysis advancements, site access restrictions, and ban on nuclear testing, computationally-generated nuclear forensic signatures are becoming more important in gaining knowledge to a reclusive country’s weapon material production capabilities. In particular, graphite-moderated reactors provide an appropriate case study for isotopics relevant in Pu production in a clandestine nuclear program due to the ease of design and low thermal output. We study the production characteristics of the X-10 reactor with a goal to develop statistically-relevant nuclear forensic signatures from early Pu production. In X-10 reactor, a flat flux gradient and low burnup produce exceptionally pure Pu as evident by the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio. However, these design aspects also make determining reactor zone attribution, done with the 242 Pu/ 240 Pu ratio, uncertain. Alternatively, the same ratios produce statistically differentiable results between Manhattan Project and post-Manhattan Project reactor configurations, allowing for attribution conclusions.

  12. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Ultra-sensitive molecular MRI of cerebrovascular cell activation enables early detection of chronic central nervous system disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, Axel; Gauberti, Maxime; Jullienne, Amandine; Briens, Aurelien; Docagne, Fabian; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric; Macrez, Richard; Defer, Gilles; Raynaud, Jean-Sebastien; Louin, Gaelle; Buisson, Alain; Haelewyn, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuro-inflammation. (authors)

  14. Resting early peak diastolic filling rate: a sensitive index of myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Kemper, A.J.; Bianco, J.A.; Parisi, A.F.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) was used to derive left-ventricular (LV) peak diastolic filling rates (PFR) in normals (Group 1:N . 12) and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both without (Group 2:N . 27) and with previous myocardial infarction (Group 3:N . 23). Resting peak filling rates were significantly depressed in both Group 2 (1.61 +/- 0.36; p less than 0.01) and Group 3 (1:35 +/- 0.26; p less than 0.001) patients when compared with Group 1, normals (2.14 +/- 0.63). Even though LV systolic function of Group 2 patients was normal and comparable to that in Group 1 (EF . 0.55 +/- 0.06 against EF 0.55 +/- 0.06 NS), diastolic dysfunction [PFR less than 1.61 end diastolic volume/sec (EDV/sec)] was present at rest in 14 of 27 (52%). Depressed PFR values was also seen in 20 of 23 Group 3 patients (87%). It appears that (a) resting PFR is a sensitive and easily obtainable parameter of the diastolic dysfunction associated with CAD; (b) abnormal PFR values are seen in almost all patients with previous myocardial damage, and (c) a significant proportion of CAD patients without any evidence of abnormal systolic function have depressed resting PFR of the LV

  15. Pattern of Tumor Shrinkage during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated with Prognosis in Low-Grade Luminal Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Ippei; Araki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kokoro; Shibayama, Tomoko; Takahashi, Shunji; Gomi, Naoya; Kokubu, Yumi; Oikado, Katsunori; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji; Ohno, Shinji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Sata, Naohiro; Ito, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between tumor shrinkage patterns shown with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and prognosis in patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The low-grade luminal breast cancer was defined as hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative with nuclear grades 1 or 2. The patterns of tumor shrinkage as revealed at MR imaging were categorized into two types: concentric shrinkage (CS) and non-CS. Among 854 patients who had received NAC in a single institution from January 2000 to December 2009, 183 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated for the development set. Another data set from 292 patients who had received NAC in the same institution between January 2010 and December 2012 was used for the validation set. Among these 292 patients, 121 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Results In the development set, the median observation period was 67.9 months. Recurrence was observed in 31 patients, and 16 deaths were related to breast cancer. There were statistically significant differences in both the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between patterns of tumor shrinkage (P breast cancer. DFS rate was significantly longer in patients with the CS pattern (72.8 months; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.9, 75.6 months) than in those with the non-CS pattern (56.0 months; 95% CI: 49.1, 62.9 months; P ≤ .001). The CS pattern was associated with an excellent prognosis (median OS, 80.6 months; 95% CI: 79.3, 81.8 months vs 65.0 months; 95% CI: 60.1, 69.8 months; P = .004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CS pattern had the only significant independent association with DFS (P = .007) and OS (P = .037) rates. Conclusion

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of climate-sensitive disease risk: Towards an early warning system for dengue in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor C.; Stephenson, David B.; Graham, Richard J.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Barcellos, Christovam

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the potential for using seasonal climate forecasts in developing an early warning system for dengue fever epidemics in Brazil. In the first instance, a generalised linear model (GLM) is used to select climate and other covariates which are both readily available and prove significant in prediction of confirmed monthly dengue cases based on data collected across the whole of Brazil for the period January 2001 to December 2008 at the microregion level (typically consisting of one large city and several smaller municipalities). The covariates explored include temperature and precipitation data on a 2.5°×2.5° longitude-latitude grid with time lags relevant to dengue transmission, an El Niño Southern Oscillation index and other relevant socio-economic and environmental variables. A negative binomial model formulation is adopted in this model selection to allow for extra-Poisson variation (overdispersion) in the observed dengue counts caused by unknown/unobserved confounding factors and possible correlations in these effects in both time and space. Subsequently, the selected global model is refined in the context of the South East region of Brazil, where dengue predominates, by reverting to a Poisson framework and explicitly modelling the overdispersion through a combination of unstructured and spatio-temporal structured random effects. The resulting spatio-temporal hierarchical model (or GLMM—generalised linear mixed model) is implemented via a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Dengue predictions are found to be enhanced both spatially and temporally when using the GLMM and the Bayesian framework allows posterior predictive distributions for dengue cases to be derived, which can be useful for developing a dengue alert system. Using this model, we conclude that seasonal climate forecasts could have potential value in helping to predict dengue incidence months in advance of an epidemic in South East Brazil.

  17. Ultra-Sensitive NT-proBNP Quantification for Early Detection of Risk Factors Leading to Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Soo Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and heart failure accounted for the death of 17.5 million people (31% of all global deaths in 2015. Monitoring the level of circulating N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP is crucial for the detection of people at risk of heart failure. In this article, we describe a novel ultra-sensitive NT-proBNP test (us-NT-proBNP that allows the quantification of circulating NT-proBNP in 30 min at 25 °C in the linear detection range of 7.0–600 pg/mL. It is a first report on the application of a fluorescence bead labeled detection antibody, DNA-guided detection method, and glass fiber membrane platform for the quantification of NT-proBNP in clinical samples. Limit of blank, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were 2.0 pg/mL, 3.7 pg/mL, and 7 pg/mL, respectively. The coefficient of variation was found to be less than 10% in the entire detection range of 7–600 pg/mL. The test demonstrated specificity for NT-proBNP without interferences from bilirubin, intra-lipid, biotin, and hemoglobin. The serial dilution test for plasma samples containing various NT-proBNP levels showed the linear decrement in concentration with the regression coefficient of 0.980–0.998. These results indicate that us-NT-proBNP test does not suffer from the interference of the plasma components for the measurement of NT-proBNP in clinical samples.

  18. The Impact of Early French Immersion Education on Language Use Patterns and Language Attitude of Post-Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix-Victorian, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there are increasing numbers of Early Partial Immersion (EPI) programs in Louisiana, there was no data available on the long-term impact of these programs. The purpose of this study is to delve into the experiences of 10 former immersion students in order to reveal their accounts and perceptions of their bilingual abilities, their…

  19. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Rice; C.B. Halpern; J.A. Antos; J.A. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions of grasslands are occurring globally, with profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function. We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of tree invasion of a montane meadow in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, where meadow loss is a conservation concern. We examine the early stages of invasion, where extrinsic and intrinsic processes can be clearly...

  20. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads…

  1. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  2. Practice patterns and outcomes associated with early sedation depth in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert J; Dettmer, Matthew R; Roberts, Brian W; Fowler, Susan A; Fuller, Brian M

    2017-06-09

    Mechanical ventilation is a commonly performed intervention in critically ill patients. Frequently, these patients experience deep sedation early in their clinical course. Emerging data suggest that the practice of early deep sedation may negatively impact patient outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess the world's literature to describe and determine the impact of early deep sedation on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies will be eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. With the assistance of a medical librarian, we will comprehensively search MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews and Effects, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for peer-reviewed literature. Grey literature from appropriate professional society conferences, held from 2010 to 2017, will be reviewed manually. Two authors will independently review all search results, and disagreements will be resolved through arbitration by a third author. If appropriate, meta-analysis will be used for quantitative analysis of the data. Heterogeneity between studies will be assessed using the I 2 statistic. The proposed systematic review will not collect data that are associated with individual patients and does not require ethical approval. Results of this study will contribute to the understanding of early sedation, identify future research targets and guide early care in mechanically ventilated patients. This systematic review has been registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO #CRD42017057264). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A comparative study of the sensitivity of diffusion-related parameters obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, diffusional kurtosis imaging, q-space analysis and bi-exponential modelling in the early disease course (24 h) of hyperacute (6 h) ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Gaëtan; Peeters, Frank; Peeters, André; Duprez, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    To compare the sensitivity and early temporal changes of diffusion parameters obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), q-space analysis (QSA) and bi-exponential modelling in hyperacute stroke patients. A single investigational acquisition allowing the four diffusion analyses was performed on seven hyperacute stroke patients with a 3T system. The percentage change between ipsi- and contralateral regions were compared at admission and 24 h later. Two out of the seven patients were imaged every 6 h during this period. Kurtoses from both DKI and QSA were the most sensitive of the tested diffusion parameters in the few hours following ischemia. An early increase-maximum-decrease pattern of evolution was highlighted during the 24-h period for all parameters proportional to diffusion coefficients. A similar pattern was observed for both kurtoses in only one of two patients. Our comparison was performed using identical diffusion encoding timings and on patients in the same stage of their condition. Although preliminary, our findings confirm those of previous studies that showed enhanced sensitivity of kurtosis. A fine time mapping of diffusion metrics in hyperacute stroke patients was presented which advocates for further investigations on larger animal or human cohorts.

  4. A Punctate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pattern in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an Early Sign of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Clinicopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Junko; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Michi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Imai, Yukihiro; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kohara, Nobuo

    2018-04-27

    A 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed small, punctate, T2-/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense and T1-hypointense lesions without gadolinium enhancement, which is atypical for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). On a pathological examination of biopsied brain tissues, JC virus-infected cells were hardly detected via immunohistochemistry but were certainly detected via in situ hybridization, conclusively verifying the PML diagnosis. After tapering off the immunosuppressant and mefloquine administration, the MRI findings revealed gradual improvement, and she has been stable for over 18 months. A punctate MRI pattern is not specific to natalizumab-associated PML but may be a ubiquitous early sign useful for the early diagnosis of PML.

  5. Investigating skin-to-skin care patterns with extremely preterm infants in the NICU and their effect on early cognitive and communication performance: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonya, Jenn; Ray, William C; Rumpf, R Wolfgang; Brock, Guy

    2017-03-20

    The primary objective of the study was to investigate how patterns of skin-to-skin care might impact infant early cognitive and communication performance. This was a retrospective cohort study. This study took place in a level-IV all-referral neonatal intensive care unit in the Midwest USA specialising in the care of extremely preterm infants. Data were collected from the electronic medical records of all extremely preterm infants (gestational age communication subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III); and skin-to-skin patterns including: total hours of maternal and paternal participation throughout hospitalisation, total duration in weeks and frequency (hours per week). Extracted data were analysed through a multistep process of logistic regressions, t-tests, χ 2 tests and Fisher's exact tests followed with exploratory network analysis using novel visual analytic software. Infants who received above the sample median in total hours, weekly frequency and total hours from mothers and fathers of skin-to-skin care were more likely to score ≥80 on the cognitive and communication scales of the Bayley-III. However, the results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Mothers provided the majority of skin-to-skin care with a sharp decline at 30 weeks corrected age, regardless of when extremely preterm infants were admitted. Additional exploratory network analysis suggests that medical and skin-to-skin factors play a parallel, non-synergistic role in contributing to early cognitive and communication performance as assessed through the Bayley-III. This study suggests an association between early and frequent skin-to-skin care with extremely preterm infants and early cognitive and communication performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zee Chishing, E-mail: chishing@usc.edu [Department of Radiology, USC Keck School of Medicine (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T{sub 2} relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T{sub 2}-map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in affected side compared to the unaffected, healthy side; no difference in T{sub 2} relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T{sub 2} relaxation time.

  7. Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces high sensitivity and specificity for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Ching; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chen, Wen-Ho; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Bing-Shen; Chen, Yin-Ju; Li, Hsiao-Fang; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the oncogenic microRNA family members miR-196a and miR-196b can be circulating biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. To determine the stability of circulating miRNA, the blood sample was aliquot and stored at different temperature conditions for analysis. To assess the diagnostic efficacy, we determined the levels of miR-196s in plasma samples, including 53 from healthy individuals, 16 from pre-cancer patients, and 90 from oral cancer patients. In general, circulating miRNA was very stable when storing plasma samples at -20°C or below. In clinical study, both circulating miR-196a and miR-196b were substantially up-regulated in patients with oral pre-cancer lesions (5.9- and 14.8-fold, respectively; P oral cancer patients (9.3- and 17.0-fold, respectively; P cancer patients (AUC = 0.764 or 0.840, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively), and between normal and cancer patients (AUC = 0.864 or 0.960, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively). The combined determination of miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces excellent sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of patients with oral pre-cancer (AUC = 0.845) or oral cancer (AUC = 0.963), as well as in the prediction of potential malignancy (AUC = 0.950, sensitivity = 91%, specificity = 85%). Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels may serve as panel plasma biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by a reduced sensitivity of Kv7.2 potassium channels to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Ambrosino, Paolo; Mosca, Ilaria; De Maria, Michela; Moretto, Edoardo; Miceli, Francesco; Alaimo, Alessandro; Iraci, Nunzio; Manocchio, Laura; Medoro, Alessandro; Passafaro, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits underlie the M-current, a neuronal K + current characterized by an absolute functional requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). Kv7.2 gene mutations cause early-onset neonatal seizures with heterogeneous clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting benign familial neonatal seizures to severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (Kv7.2-EE). In this study, the biochemical and functional consequences prompted by a recurrent variant (R325G) found independently in four individuals with severe forms of neonatal-onset EE have been investigated. Upon heterologous expression, homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channels were non-functional, despite biotin-capture in Western blots revealed normal plasma membrane subunit expression. Mutant subunits exerted dominant-negative effects when incorporated into heteromeric channels with Kv7.2 and/or Kv7.3 subunits. Increasing cellular PIP 2 levels by co-expression of type 1γ PI(4)P5-kinase (PIP5K) partially recovered homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channel function. Currents carried by heteromeric channels incorporating Kv7.2 R325G subunits were more readily inhibited than wild-type channels upon activation of a voltage-sensitive phosphatase (VSP), and recovered more slowly upon VSP switch-off. These results reveal for the first time that a mutation-induced decrease in current sensitivity to PIP 2 is the primary molecular defect responsible for Kv7.2-EE in individuals carrying the R325G variant, further expanding the range of pathogenetic mechanisms exploitable for personalized treatment of Kv7.2-related epilepsies.

  9. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...... to characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  10. Radiation therapy for early stage (T1 - T2) sarcomatoid carcinoma of true vocal cords: outcomes and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballo, Matthew T.; Garden, Adam S.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian

    1997-01-01

    Objectives/hypothesis: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of head and neck mucosal sites is a rare malignancy surrounded with much controversy. One factor consistently reported yet not well supported throughout the literature is their relative radioresistance and a general belief that surgery is the treatment of choice. Our objective was to determine if patients treated with radiation for early glottic carcinoma with this histologic diagnosis had worse outcomes than typical squamous cell carcinoma of similar stage. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight cases of early stage sarcomatoid carcinoma of the larynx treated with definitive doses of megavoltage irradiation between 1969 and 1995 at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center form the cohort for this analysis. All pathologic material was reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Follow-up ranged from 1.5 - 24 years (median, 10 years). Results: Twenty-one patients were staged T1 and 7 patients had stage T2 disease. Sixteen tumors had the more typical polypoid morphology of sarcomatoid carcinoma. All patients were treated with small laryngeal fields, median size 20 cm2, and to a median dose of 65 Gy. Four patients (14%) had local disease recurrence. All 4 patients had salvage total laryngectomies and remained free of local disease. Only one patient manifested regional and distant disease. The 10-year actuarial survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Patients with early staged sarcomatoid carcinoma of the glottis treated with radiation had similar control rates to irradiated patients with similar volume disease with the more typical squamous cell carcinoma. We do not believe that the histologic diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma by itself should influence the decision to not treat a patient with early staged glottic disease with irradiation

  11. Gene Expression Patterns during the Early Stages of Chemically Induced Larval Metamorphosis and Settlement of the Coral Acropora millepora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Motti, Cherie A.; Tebben, Jan; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA) and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI) were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT–qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement. PMID:24632854

  12. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Altered growth pattern, not altered growth per se, is the hallmark of early lesions preceding cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doratiotto, S; Marongiu, F; Faedda, S; Pani, P; Laconi, E

    2009-01-01

    Many human solid cancers arise from focal proliferative lesions that long precede the overt clinical appearance of the disease. The available evidence supports the notion that cancer precursor lesions are clonal in origin, and this notion forms the basis for most of the current theories on the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease. In contrast, far less attention has been devoted to the analysis of the phenotypic property that serves to define these focal lesions, i.e. their altered growth pattern. In fact, the latter is often considered a mere morphological by-product of clonal growth, with no specific relevance in the process. In the following study, evidence will be presented to support the concept that focal growth pattern is an inherent property of altered cells, independent of clonal growth; furthermore, it will be discussed how such a property, far from being merely descriptive, might indeed play a fundamental role in the sequence of events leading to the development of cancer. Within this paradigm, the earliest steps of neoplasia should be considered and analysed as defects in the mechanisms of tissue pattern formation.

  14. Prolonged early G1 arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle–coupled loss of IRF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G1 arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G1 and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G1 block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy. PMID:22718837

  15. Prolonged early G(1) arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle-coupled loss of IRF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C; Staudt, Louis M; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A S; Chen-Kiang, Selina

    2012-08-02

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G(1) arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G(1) and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G(1) block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy.

  16. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng-Chung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR, reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold. Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml. In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5 level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods.

  17. A direct comparison of decision rules for early discharge of suspected acute coronary syndromes in the era of high sensitivity troponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Pei Gee; Frost, Fredrick; Mullen, Liam; Fisher, Michael; Zadeh, Heidar; Grainger, Ruth; Albouaini, Khaled; Dodd, James; Patel, Bilal; Velavan, Periaswamy; Kunadian, Babu; Rawat, Anju; Obafemi, Toba; Tong, Sarah; Jones, Julia; Khand, Aleem

    2018-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a single high sensitivity troponin at limits of detection (LOD HSTnT) (Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) (acute coronary syndrome. In a prospective cohort study, risk scores were computed in consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome presenting to the Emergency Room of a large English hospital. Adjudication of myocardial infarction, as per third universal definition, involved a two-physician, blinded, independent review of all biomarker positive chest pain re-presentations to any national hospital. The primary and secondary outcome was a composite of type 1 myocardial infarction, unplanned coronary revascularisation and all cause death (MACE) at six weeks and one year. Of 3054 consecutive presentations with chest pain 1642 had suspected acute coronary syndrome (52% male, median age 59 years, 14% diabetic, 20% previous myocardial infarction). Median time from chest pain to presentation was 9.7 h. Re-presentations occurred in eight hospitals with 100% follow-up achieved. Two hundred and eleven (12.9%) and 279 (17%) were adjudicated to suffer MACE at six weeks and one year respectively. Only HEART ≤3 (negative predictive value MACE 99.4%, sensitivity 97.6%, %discharge 53.4) and LOD HSTnT strategy (negative predictive value MACE 99.8%, sensitivity 99.5%, %discharge 36.9) achieved pre-specified negative predictive value of >99% for MACE at six weeks. For type 1 myocardial infarction alone the negative predictive values at six weeks and one year were identical, for both HEART ≤3 and LOD HSTnT at 99.8% and 99.5% respectively. HEART ≤3 or LOD HSTnT strategy rules out short and medium term myocardial infarction with ≥99.5% certainty, and short-term MACE with >99% certainty, allowing for early discharge of 53.4% and 36.9% respectively of suspected acute coronary syndrome. Adoption of either strategy has the potential to greatly reduce Emergency Room pressures and minimise follow-up investigations. Very early presenters (<3 h

  18. Enhancement pattern of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), MDCT, and MRI: Intermodality agreement and comparison of diagnostic sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, Alessandro; Marin, Daniele; Cabassa, Paolo; Taibbi, Adele; Brunelli, Elena; Agnello, Francesco; Lagalla, Roberto; Brancatelli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate agreement between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of typical and atypical enhancement patterns of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); and to compare diagnostic sensitivity of 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009, we included cirrhotic patients with newly diagnosed 10–20 mm HCC imaged at two contrast-enhanced imaging techniques among CEUS, MDCT, and MRI. Dynamic studies were reviewed by two radiologists to assess enhancement pattern. Percentage of cases with concordant findings and Cohen coefficient (k) were calculated. McNemar's test was used to compare sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 AASLD guidelines. Results: There were 91 patients (69 M; 22 F; mean age, 68 years) with 96 HCCs, studied with a combination of CEUS and MDCT (n = 59), CEUS and MRI (n = 26), or MDCT and MRI (n = 11). Intermodality agreement for assessment of tumor enhancement pattern was 67% (k = 0.294, P = 0.001). Typical enhancement pattern was detected coincidentally at two imaging modalities in 50 (52%) HCCs. Sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC increased significantly using the 2010 AASLD (81/96 (84%) vs. 50/96 (52%), P < 0.001). Conclusions: Agreement between two imaging modalities for the detection of typical tumor enhancement pattern was reached in 52% of cases. The 2010 AASLD guidelines significantly increased the sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC

  19. Risks and Outcomes Associated with Disorganized/Controlling Patterns of Attachment at Age Three in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; McCartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2011-07-01

    Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age three. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age three and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes.

  20. Rosettes, Engrailed Edges, and Star-Shaped Patterns: Between Rediscovery and Forgetfulness in the Early Accounts of Vibrating Liquid Drops Floating over Hot Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Seán M

    2017-12-01

    Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling. The episode serves not only as a valuable reminder of the importance the history of science can play in highlighting past achievements that would otherwise remain unknown to the modern practitioner. It also provides an example of how external pressures and personal ambition can often influence the work of a scientist in their pursuit of self-recognition and acclaim amongst their peers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design Principles for resilient cyber-physical Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Experiences, Design Patterns, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, S.; Wächter, J.; Schnor, B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are safety-critical IT-infrastructures that serve the purpose of potentially saving lives or assets by observing real-world phenomena and issuing timely warning products to authorities and communities. An EWS consists of sensors, communication networks, data centers, simulation platforms, and dissemination channels. The components of this cyber-physical system may all be affected by both natural hazards and malfunctions of components alike. Resilience engineering so far has mostly been applied to safety-critical systems and processes in transportation (aviation, automobile), construction and medicine. Early warning systems need equivalent techniques to compensate for failures, and furthermore means to adapt to changing threats, emerging technology and research findings. We present threats and pitfalls from our experiences with the German and Indonesian tsunami early warning system, as well as architectural, technological and organizational concepts employed that can enhance an EWS' resilience. The current EWS is comprised of a multi-type sensor data upstream part, different processing and analysis engines, a decision support system, and various warning dissemination channels. Each subsystem requires a set of approaches towards ensuring stable functionality across system layer boundaries, including also institutional borders. Not only must services be available, but also produce correct results. Most sensors are distributed components with restricted resources, communication channels and power supply. An example for successful resilience engineering is the power capacity based functional management for buoy and tide gauge stations. We discuss various fault-models like cause and effect models on linear pathways, interaction of multiple events, complex and non-linear interaction of assumedly reliable subsystems and fault tolerance means implemented to tackle these threats.

  2. A spiking neural network model of self-organized pattern recognition in the early mammalian olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bernhard A.; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory information passes through several processing stages before an odor percept emerges. The question how the olfactory system learns to create odor representations linking those different levels and how it learns to connect and discriminate between them is largely unresolved. We present a large-scale network model with single and multi-compartmental Hodgkin–Huxley type model neurons representing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the epithelium, periglomerular cells, mitral/tufted cells and granule cells in the olfactory bulb (OB), and three types of cortical cells in the piriform cortex (PC). Odor patterns are calculated based on affinities between ORNs and odor stimuli derived from physico-chemical descriptors of behaviorally relevant real-world odorants. The properties of ORNs were tuned to show saturated response curves with increasing concentration as seen in experiments. On the level of the OB we explored the possibility of using a fuzzy concentration interval code, which was implemented through dendro-dendritic inhibition leading to winner-take-all like dynamics between mitral/tufted cells belonging to the same glomerulus. The connectivity from mitral/tufted cells to PC neurons was self-organized from a mutual information measure and by using a competitive Hebbian–Bayesian learning algorithm based on the response patterns of mitral/tufted cells to different odors yielding a distributed feed-forward projection to the PC. The PC was implemented as a modular attractor network with a recurrent connectivity that was likewise organized through Hebbian–Bayesian learning. We demonstrate the functionality of the model in a one-sniff-learning and recognition task on a set of 50 odorants. Furthermore, we study its robustness against noise on the receptor level and its ability to perform concentration invariant odor recognition. Moreover, we investigate the pattern completion capabilities of the system and rivalry dynamics for odor mixtures. PMID

  3. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  4. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  5. Expression pattern of cdkl5 during zebrafish early development: implications for use as model for atypical Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Marta; Cunha, Nídia; Conceição, Natércia; Cancela, M Leonor

    2018-05-11

    Atypical Rett syndrome is a child neurodevelopmental disorder induced by mutations in CDKL5 gene and characterized by a progressive regression in development with loss of purposeful use of the hands, slowed brain and head growth, problems with walking, seizures, and intellectual disability. At the moment, there is no cure for this pathology and little information is available concerning animal models capable of mimicking its phenotypes, thus the development of additional animal models should be of interest to gain more knowledge about the disease. Zebrafish has been used successfully as model organism for many human genetic diseases; however, no information is available concerning the spatial and temporal expression of cdkl5 orthologous in this organism. In the present study, we identified the developmental expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish by quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization. cdkl5 is expressed maternally at low levels during the first 24 h of development. After that the expression of the gene increases significantly and it starts to be expressed mainly in the nervous system and in several brain structures, such as telencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish is in accordance with the tissues known to be affected in humans and associated to symptoms and deficits observed in Rett syndrome patients thus providing the first evidence that zebrafish could be an alternative model to study the molecular pathways of this disease as well as to test possible therapeutic approaches capable of rescuing the phenotype.

  6. First record of plicidentine in Synapsida and patterns of tooth root shape change in Early Permian sphenacodontians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kirstin S; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2014-11-01

    Recent histological studies have revealed a diversity of dental features in Permo-Carboniferous tetrapods. Here, we report on the occurrence of plicidentine (infolded dentine around the base of the tooth root) in Sphenacodontia, the first such documentation in Synapsida, the clade that includes mammals. Five taxa were examined histologically, Ianthodon schultzei, Sphenacodon ferocior, Dimetrodon limbatus, Dimetrodon grandis, and Secodontosaurus obtusidens. The tooth roots of Ianthodon possess multiple folds, which is generally viewed as the primitive condition for amniotes. Sphenacodon and D. limbatus have distinctive "four-leaf clover"-shaped roots in cross section, whereas Secodontosaurus has an elongate square shape with only subtle folding. The most derived and largest taxon examined in this study, D. grandis, has rounded roots in cross section and therefore no plicidentine. This pattern of a loss of plicidentine in sphenacodontids supports previous functional hypotheses of plicidentine, where teeth with shallow roots require folds to increase the area of attachment to the tooth-bearing element, whereas teeth with long roots do not. This pattern may also reflect differences in diet between co-occurring sphenacodontids as well as changes in feeding niche through time, specifically in the apex predator Dimetrodon.

  7. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  8. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  9. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  10. Global and stage specific patterns of Krüppel-associated-box zinc finger protein gene expression in murine early embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corsinotti

    Full Text Available Highly coordinated transcription networks orchestrate the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cell and the earliest steps of mammalian development. KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins represent the largest group of transcription factors encoded by the genomes of higher vertebrates including mice and humans. Together with their putatively universal cofactor KAP1, they have been implicated in events as diverse as the silencing of endogenous retroelements, the maintenance of imprinting and the pluripotent self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, although the genomic targets and specific functions of individual members of this gene family remain largely undefined. Here, we first generated a list of Ensembl-annotated KRAB-containing genes encoding the mouse and human genomes. We then defined the transcription levels of these genes in murine early embryonic cells. We found that the majority of KRAB-ZFP genes are expressed in mouse pluripotent stem cells and other early progenitors. However, we also identified distinctively cell- or stage-specific patterns of expression, some of which are pluripotency-restricted. Finally, we determined that individual KRAB-ZFP genes exhibit highly distinctive modes of expression, even when grouped in genomic clusters, and that these cannot be correlated with the presence of prototypic repressive or activating chromatin marks. These results pave the way to delineating the role of specific KRAB-ZFPs in early embryogenesis.

  11. Analyses of patterns-of-failure and prognostic factors according to radiation fields in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Lorraine; Guillerm, Sophie; Menard, Jean; Hennequin, Christophe; Quero, Laurent; Amorin, Sandy; Brice, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Doses and volumes of radiation therapy (RT) for early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have been reduced over the last 30 years. Combined modality therapy (CMT) is currently the standard treatment for most patients with early-stage HL. The aim of this study was to analyze the site of relapse after RT according to the extent of radiation fields. Between 1987 and 2011, 427 patients were treated at our institution with RT ± chemotherapy for stage-I/II HL. Among these, 65 patients who experienced a relapse were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had nodular sclerosis histology (86 %) and stage-II disease (75.9 %). Bulky disease was present in 21 % and 56 % of patients belonged to the unfavorable risk group according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/The Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) definitions. CMT was delivered to 91 % of patients. All patients received RT with doses ranging from 20 to 45 Gy (mean = 34 ± 5.3 Gy). The involved-field RT technique was used in 59 % of patients. The mean time between diagnosis and relapse was 4.2 years (range 0.3-24.5). Out-of-field relapses were suffered by 53 % of patients. Relapses occurred more frequently at out-of-field sites in patients with a favorable disease status, whereas in-field relapses were associated with bulky mediastinal disease. Relapses occurred later for favorable compared with the unfavorable risk group (3.5 vs. 2.9 years, p = 0.5). From multivariate analyses, neither RT dose nor RT field size were predictive for an in-field relapse (p = 0.25 and p = 0.8, respectively), only bulky disease was predictive (p = 0.018). In patients with bulky disease, RT dose and RT field size were not predictive for an in-field relapse. In this subgroup of patients, chemotherapy should be intensified. We confirmed the bad prognosis of early relapses. (orig.) [de

  12. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1979-01-01

    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  13. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  14. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon-Brito, Anabela; Cardeira, João; Cancela, Maria Leonor; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard

    2012-10-09

    In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans) or ossify (osteichthyans). Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Osteocalcin (Oc). Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine.Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and Oc signals were clearly produced both by the

  15. Socio-economic patterning in early mortality of patients aged 0-49 years diagnosed with primary bone cancer in Great Britain, 1985-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Feltbower, Richard G; James, Peter W; Libby, Gillian; Stiller, Charles; Norman, Paul; Gerrand, Craig; McNally, Richard J Q

    2018-04-01

    Studies have shown marked improvements in survival between 1981 and 2000 for Ewing sarcoma patients but not for osteosarcoma. This study aimed to explore socio-economic patterning in early mortality rates for both tumours. The study analysed all 2432 osteosarcoma and 1619 Ewing sarcoma cases, aged 0-49 years, diagnosed in Great Britain 1985-2008 and followed to 31/12/2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate risk of dying within three months, six months, one year, three years and five years after diagnosis. Associations with Townsend deprivation score and its components were examined at small-area level. Urban/rural status was studied at larger regional level. For osteosarcoma, after age adjustment, mortality at three months, six months and one year was associated with higher area unemployment, OR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06) respectively per 1% increase in unemployment. Mortality at six months was associated with greater household non-car ownership, OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.00, 1.03). For Ewing sarcoma, there were no significant associations between mortality and overall Townsend score, nor its components for any time period. For both tumours increasing mortality was associated with less urban and more remote rural areas. This study found that for osteosarcoma, early mortality was associated with residence at diagnosis in areas of higher unemployment, suggesting risk of early death may be socio-economically determined. For both tumours, distance from urban centres may lead to greater risk of early death. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensionality of the relationship between social status and dietary patterns in early childhood: longitudinal results from the French EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soumaïla; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline; Botton, Jérémie; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Forhan, Anne; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Lioret, Sandrine

    2015-09-24

    The association between socioeconomic position and diet in early childhood has mainly been addressed based on maternal education and household income. We aimed to assess the influence of a variety of social factors from different socio-ecological levels (parents, household and child-care) on multi-time point dietary patterns identified from 2 to 5 y. This study included 974 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Two multi-time point dietary patterns were derived in a previous study: they correspond to consistent exposures to either core- or non-core foods across 2, 3 and 5 y and were labelled "Guidelines" and "Processed, fast-foods". The associations of various social factors collected during pregnancy (age, education level) or at 2-y follow-up (mother's single status, occupation, work commitments, household financial disadvantage, presence of older siblings and child-care arrangements) with each of the two dietary patterns, were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. The adherence to a diet close to "Guidelines" was positively and independently associated with both maternal and paternal education levels. The adherence to a diet consistently composed of processed and fast-foods was essentially linked with maternal variables (younger age and lower education level), household financial disadvantage, the presence of older sibling (s) and being cared for at home by someone other than the mother. Multiple social factors operating at different levels (parents, household, and child-care) were found to be associated with the diet of young children. Different independent predictors were found for each of the two longitudinal dietary patterns, suggesting distinct pathways of influence. Our findings further suggest that interventions promoting healthier dietary choices for young children should involve both parents and take into account not only household financial disadvantage but also maternal age, family size and options for child-care.

  17. Effects of early focal brain injury on memory for visuospatial patterns: selective deficits of global-local processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Joan; Stern, Catherine; Appelbaum, Mark; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris; Hesselink, John

    2008-01-01

    Selective deficits in visuospatial processing are present early in development among children with perinatal focal brain lesions (PL). Children with right hemisphere PL (RPL) are impaired in configural processing, while children with left hemisphere PL (LPL) are impaired in featural processing. Deficits associated with LPL are less pervasive than those observed with RPL, but this difference may reflect the structure of the tasks used for assessment. Many of the tasks used to date may place greater demands on configural processing, thus highlighting this deficit in the RPL group. This study employed a task designed to place comparable demands on configural and featural processing, providing the opportunity to obtain within-task evidence of differential deficit. Sixty-two 5- to 14-year-old children (19 RPL, 19 LPL, and 24 matched controls) reproduced from memory a series of hierarchical forms (large forms composed of small forms). Global- and local-level reproduction accuracy was scored. Controls were equally accurate on global- and local-level reproduction. Children with RPL were selectively impaired on global accuracy, and children with LPL on local accuracy, thus documenting a double dissociation in global-local processing.

  18. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  19. Early socialization of prosocial behavior: Patterns in parents’ encouragement of toddlers’ helping in an everyday household task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Whitney; Brownell, Celia; Pollock, Brianna

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in parents’ socialization of prosocial behavior in 18- and 24-month-olds (n=46) were investigated during an everyday household chore that parents were asked to complete with their toddlers. Two socialization approaches were distinguished, one focused on specific requests for concrete actions needed to complete an immediate, concrete goal (“action-oriented”), and a second focused on the more abstract needs and emotions of the parent and the child's role as a helper (“need-oriented’). Parents were equally active at both ages in trying to elicit children's help but used different strategies with younger and older toddlers. With 18-month-olds they used more action-oriented approaches, whereas with 24-month-olds they increased their use of needoriented approaches. They also regulated the attention of younger toddlers more, and more often socially approved older toddlers’ helping. Thus, how parents prompt, support, and encourage prosocial behavior changes over the second year from utilizing primarily concrete, goal-directed requests in the service of the immediate task, to increasingly emphasizing more abstract needs and emotions of the recipient and the child's role as a helper. PMID:25682218

  20. Application of Nanotrap technology for high sensitivity measurement of urinary outer surface protein A carboxyl-terminus domain in early stage Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Ruben; Espina, Benjamin H; Shah, Ketul; Lepene, Benjamin; Mayuga, Christine; Douglas, Temple A; Espina, Virginia; Rucker, Sally; Dunlap, Ross; Petricoin, Emanuel F Iii; Kilavos, Mary Frekko; Poretz, Donald M; Irwin, Gilbert R; Shor, Samuel M; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra

    2015-11-04

    Prompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB. We employed Nanotrap particles to concentrate urinary OspA and used a highly specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a detector of the C-terminus peptides. We mapped the mAb epitope to a narrow specific OspA C-terminal domain OspA236-239 conserved across infectious Borrelia species but with no homology to human proteins and no cross-reactivity with relevant viral and non-Borrelia bacterial proteins. 268 urine samples from patients being evaluated for all categories of LB were collected in a LB endemic area. The urinary OspA assay, blinded to outcome, utilized Nanotrap particle pre-processing, western blotting to evaluate the OspA molecular size, and OspA peptide competition for confirmation. OspA test characteristics: sensitivity 1.7 pg/mL (lowest limit of detection), % coefficient of variation (CV) = 8 %, dynamic range 1.7-30 pg/mL. Pre-treatment, 24/24 newly diagnosed patients with an erythema migrans (EM) rash were positive for urinary OspA while false positives for asymptomatic patients were 0/117 (Chi squared p antibiotic therapy, 10/10 were positive for urinary OspA. Urinary OspA of 8/8 patients switched from detectable to undetectable following symptom resolution post-treatment. Specificity of the urinary OspA test for the clinical symptoms was 40/40. Specificity of the urinary OspA antigen test for later serology outcome was 87.5 % (21 urinary OspA positive/24 serology positive, Chi squared p = 4.072e(-15)). 41 of 100 patients under

  1. Analyses of patterns-of-failure and prognostic factors according to radiation fields in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Lorraine; Guillerm, Sophie; Menard, Jean; Hennequin, Christophe; Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Paris (France); Amorin, Sandy; Brice, Pauline [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Hematooncology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Doses and volumes of radiation therapy (RT) for early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have been reduced over the last 30 years. Combined modality therapy (CMT) is currently the standard treatment for most patients with early-stage HL. The aim of this study was to analyze the site of relapse after RT according to the extent of radiation fields. Between 1987 and 2011, 427 patients were treated at our institution with RT ± chemotherapy for stage-I/II HL. Among these, 65 patients who experienced a relapse were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had nodular sclerosis histology (86 %) and stage-II disease (75.9 %). Bulky disease was present in 21 % and 56 % of patients belonged to the unfavorable risk group according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/The Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) definitions. CMT was delivered to 91 % of patients. All patients received RT with doses ranging from 20 to 45 Gy (mean = 34 ± 5.3 Gy). The involved-field RT technique was used in 59 % of patients. The mean time between diagnosis and relapse was 4.2 years (range 0.3-24.5). Out-of-field relapses were suffered by 53 % of patients. Relapses occurred more frequently at out-of-field sites in patients with a favorable disease status, whereas in-field relapses were associated with bulky mediastinal disease. Relapses occurred later for favorable compared with the unfavorable risk group (3.5 vs. 2.9 years, p = 0.5). From multivariate analyses, neither RT dose nor RT field size were predictive for an in-field relapse (p = 0.25 and p = 0.8, respectively), only bulky disease was predictive (p = 0.018). In patients with bulky disease, RT dose and RT field size were not predictive for an in-field relapse. In this subgroup of patients, chemotherapy should be intensified. We confirmed the bad prognosis of early relapses. (orig.) [German] Waehrend der letzten 30 Jahre wurden die Strahlentherapie-(RT-)Dosis und die RT-Volumina fuer die Behandlung der Fruehstadien

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Pattern of Failure Is Distant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam; Drzymala, Robert E.; Trovo, Marco; Jones, Griffin; Denning, Mary Dee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) represents a substantial paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with medically inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer. We reviewed our experience using either three- or five-fraction SBRT for peripheral or central tumors, respectively. Methods and Materials: A total of 91 patients signed an institutional review board-approved consent form, were treated with SBRT, and have had ≥6 months of follow-up. Patients were referred for SBRT because of underlying comorbidities (poor performance status in 31 or poor lung function in 52) or refusal of surgery (8 patients). Of the cancers, 83 were peripheral and eight were central. Peripheral cancers received a mean dose of 18 Gy x three fractions. Cancers within 2 cm of the bronchus, esophagus, or brachial plexus were treated with 9 Gy x five fractions. Results: The median follow-up duration for these patients was 18 months (range, 6-42 months). TNM staging was as follows: 58 patients with T1N0M0, 22 with T2N0M0, 2 with T3N0M0 (chest wall), and 6 with T1N0M1 cancers. The median tumor diameter was 2 cm (range, 1-5 cm). The median forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 46% (range, 17-133%) and the median carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was 49% (range, 15-144%). Two-year local tumor control was achieved in 86% of patients. The predominant pattern of failure was the development of distant metastasis or second lung cancer. The development of distant metastasis was the only significant prognostic factor for overall survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local tumor control was shown to be high using SBRT for non-small-cell lung cancer. Overall survival is highly coerrelated with the development of distant metastasis.

  3. Genetic Patterns of Common-Bean Seed Acquisition and Early-Stage Adoption Among Farmer Groups in Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkus, Erin L.; Berny Mier y Teran, Jorge C.; Mukankusi, Clare M.; Gepts, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Widespread adoption of new varieties can be valuable, especially where improved agricultural production technologies are hard to access. However, as farmers adopt new varieties, in situ population structure and genetic diversity of their seed holdings can change drastically. Consequences of adoption are still poorly understood due to a lack of crop genetic diversity assessments and detailed surveys of farmers' seed management practices. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an excellent model for these types of studies, as it has a long history of cultivation among smallholder farmers, exhibits eco-geographic patterns of diversity (e.g., Andean vs. Mesoamerican gene-pools), and has been subjected to post-Columbian dispersal and recent introduction of improved cultivars. The Hoima district of western Uganda additionally provides an excellent social setting for evaluating consequences of adoption because access to improved varieties has varied across farmer groups in this production region. This study establishes a baseline understanding of the common bean diversity found among household producers in Uganda and compares the crop population structure, diversity and consequences of adoption of household producers with different adoption practices. Molecular diversity analysis, based on 4,955 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, evaluated a total of 1,156 seed samples that included 196 household samples collected from household producers in the Hoima district, 19 breeder-selected varieties used in participatory breeding activities that had taken place prior to the study in the region, and a global bean germplasm collection. Households that had participated in regional participatory breeding efforts were more likely to adopt new varieties and, consequently, diversify their seed stocks than those that had not participated. Of the three farmer groups that participated in breeding efforts, households from the farmer group with the longest history of bean production

  4. Wholebody and pinhole bone scan manifestations of reiter's syndorme: distribution pattern and specific and early signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Chung, S. K.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Han, B. H.; Bahk, Y. W. [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    We wish to describe the characteristics panoramic wholebody bone distribution, and specific and preradiographic pinhole bone scan signs of Reiter's syndrome(RS) featured by pauciarthritis and enthesopathies in and about weight-bearing joints of the lower extremities and axial bones. We analyzed 55 sets of wholebody and pinhole bone scintigraphs of 55 patients with RS. The population was 44 men and 11 women with age ranging from 15 to 52 yr (mean=29.3). The scintigraphy was performed 2-2.5 hr pi of Tc-99m-HDP using a single-head gamma camera with a LEHR collimator and a 4-mm pinhole collimator for the wholebody and pinhole scintigraphy, respectively. We found 223 lesions with increased tracer uptake in total. Wholebody scans showed asymmetric pauciarticular distribution in weight bearing joints and periarticular entheses in the lower extremities in 63.2% (calcaneus=24.2%, ankle=8.1%, tibia=8.1% and others). The sternum, sacroiliac joint and spine were involved in 8.5%, 5.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Pinhole scan portrayed many specific signs including the 'tear-drop' sign of paravertebral ossification. 'whiskers' sign of femoral osteophytes and 'knuckle bone' sign of sausage digit. Twenty-four lesions (10.8%) showed preradiogrpahic signs in symptomatic ehthesopathies mostly in the calcaneus and proximal tibia. Nine cases with calcaneal enthesopathies and four cases with proximal tibial enthesopathy without radiographic bone change showed intense tracer uptake. Wholebody and pinhole magnification scans were useful in studying RS. The asymmetric pauciarticular distribution in the weight-bearing bones with enthesopathies was characteristic. Pinhole scan portrayed many specific signs and was sensitive permitting accurate preradiographic diagnosis in many cases.

  5. Six-Year Outcome of Subjects Without Overt Heart Disease With an Early Repolarization/J Wave Electrocardiographic Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Argirò, Alessia; Mollo, Roberto; De Vita, Antonio; Spera, Francesco; Golino, Michele; Rota, Elisabetta; Filice, Monica; Crea, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    "Early repolarization" (ER) is a frequent finding at standard electrocardiogram (ECG). In this study we assessed whether ER is associated with an increased risk of events, as recently suggested by some studies. We prospectively enrolled 4,176 consecutive subjects without any heart disease who underwent routine ECG recording. ER was diagnosed in case of typical concave ST-segment elevation ≥0.1 mV; a J wave was diagnosed when the QRS showed a notch or a slur in its terminal part. In this study we compared the 6-year outcome of all 687 subjects with ER/J wave and 687 matched subjects without ER/J wave (controls). Both groups included 335 males and 352 females, and age was 48.8 ± 18 years. Overall, 145 deaths occurred (11%), only 11 of which attributed to cardiac causes. No sudden death was reported. Cardiac deaths occurred in 5 (0.8%) and 6 (0.9%) ER/J wave subjects and controls, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26 to 2.80, p = 0.79). Both ER (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.21 to 13.3, p = 0.62) and J wave (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.00, p = 0.88) showed no association with cardiac death. Total mortality was 11.5% in the ER/J wave group and 10.6% in the control group (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.56, p = 0.58). Both ER (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.24, p = 0.12) and J wave (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.70, p = 0.30) showed also no association with all-cause death. In subjects without any evidence of heart disease, we found no significant association of ER/J wave with the risk of cardiac, as well as all-cause, death at medium-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression patterns of Xenopus FGF receptor-like 1/nou-darake in early Xenopus development resemble those of planarian nou-darake and Xenopus FGF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuichi; Itoh, Mari; Taira, Sumiko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Taira, Masanori

    2004-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate many cell-to-cell signaling events during early development. Nou-darake (ndk), a gene encoding an FGF receptor (FGFR)-like molecule, was found to be highly and specifically expressed in the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and its functional analyses provided strong molecular evidence for the existence of a brain-inducing circuit based on the FGF signaling pathway. To analyze the role of ndk during vertebrate development, we isolated the Xenopus ortholog of ndk, the vertebrate FGFR-like 1 gene (XFGFRL1). Expression of XFGFRL1/Xndk was first detected in the anterior region at the late gastrula stage and dramatically increased at the early neurula stage in an overall anterior mesendodermal region, including the prechordal plate, paraxial mesoderm, anterior endoderm, and archenteron roof. This anterior expression pattern resembles that of ndk in planarians, suggesting that the expression of FGFRL1/ndk is conserved in evolution between these two distantly diverged organisms. During the tail bud stages, XFGFRL1/Xndk expression was detected in multiple regions, including the forebrain, eyes, midbrain-hindbrain boundary, otic vesicles, visceral arches, and somites. In many of these regions, XFGFRL1/Xndk was coexpressed with XFGF8, indicating that XFGFRL1/Xndk is a member of the XFGF8 synexpression group, which includes sprouty, sef, and isthmin. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Risk factors for alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project: impact of early life adversity and family history on affect regulation and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Carnes, Nathan C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Lovallo, William R

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the impact of early lifetime adversity (ELA) on affect regulation and personality in persons with family history (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of alcoholism. We examined the impact of early life adversity in healthy young adults, 18-30 years of age enrolled in a long-term study on risk for alcohol and other substance abuse. ELA was assessed by a composite score of low socioeconomic status and personal experience of physical or sexual abuse and/or separation from parents before age 16, resulting in a score of 0, 1-2, or >3 adverse events. Unstable affect regulation and personality variables were obtained via self-report measures. Higher ELA scores were seen in FH+ (χ(2)=109.2, paffect regulation, negative moods, and have risky drinking and drug abuse tendencies independent of ELA level. ELA predicts reduced stress reactivity and poorer cognitive control over impulsive behaviors as shown elsewhere. The present work shows that FH+ have poor mood regulation and antisocial characteristics. The greater prevalence of ELA in FH+ persons indicates that life experience and FH+ work in tandem to result in risky patterns of alcohol and drug experimentation to elevate risk for alcoholism. Further studies of genetic and environmental contributions to alcoholism are called for. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Effects of a two-hour early awakening and of bright light exposure on plasma patterns of cortisol, melatonin, prolactin and testosterone in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Y; Benoit, O; Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Bogdan, A; Clodoré, M; Touitou, C

    1992-03-01

    Bright light is a synchronizing agent that entrains human circadian rhythms and modifies various endocrine and neuroendocrine functions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how the exposure to a bright light stimulus during the 2 h following a 2 h earlier awakening could modify the disturbance induced by the the sleep deprivation on the plasma patterns of hormones whose secretion is sensitive to light and/or sleep, namely melatonin, prolactin, cortisol and testosterone. Six healthy and synchronized (lights on: 07.00-23.00) male students (22.5 +/- 1.1 years) with normal psychological profiles volunteered for the study in winter. The protocol consisted of a baseline control night (customary sleep schedule) followed by three shortened nights with a rising at 05.00 and a 2 h exposure to either dim light (50 lux; one week) or bright light (2000 lux; other week). Our study showed a phase advance of the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol without significant modifications of the hormone mean or peak concentration. Plasma melatonin concentration decreased following bright light exposure, whereas no obvious modifications of plasma testosterone or prolactin patterns could be observed in this protocol.

  9. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  10. Histologic Subtype in Core Lung Biopsies of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma is a Prognostic Factor for Treatment Response and Failure Patterns After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeman, Jonathan E.; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Montecalvo, Joseph [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Reibnitz, Donata von; Panchoo, Kelly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Adusumilli, Prasad S. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Travis, William [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for early-stage lung cancer. The histologic subtype of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma is recognized as a prognostic factor, with the presence of solid or micropapillary patterns predicting poor outcomes. We describe the outcomes after SBRT for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma stratified by histologic subtype. Methods and Materials: We identified 119 consecutive patients (124 lesions) with stage I to IIA lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone definitive SBRT at our institution from August 2008 to August 2015 and had undergone core biopsy. Histologic subtyping was performed according to the 2015 World Health Organization classification. Of the 124 tumors, 37 (30%) were a high-risk subtype, defined as containing a component of solid and/or micropapillary pattern. The cumulative incidences of local, nodal, regional, and distant failure were compared between the high-risk and non–high-risk adenocarcinoma subtypes using Gray's test, and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from propensity score–weighted Cox regression models. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 17 months and for surviving patients was 21 months. The 1-year cumulative incidence of and adjusted HR for local, nodal, regional, and distant failure in high-risk versus non–high-risk lesions was 7.3% versus 2.7% (HR 16.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-81.4), 14.8% versus 2.6% (HR 3.8; 95% CI 0.95-15.0), 4.0% versus 1.2% (HR 20.9; 95% CI 2.3-192.3), and 22.7% versus 3.6% (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.2-21.1), respectively. No significant difference was seen with regard to overall survival. Conclusions: The outcomes after SBRT for early-stage adenocarcinoma of the lung correlate highly with histologic subtype, with micropapillary and solid tumors portending significantly higher rates of locoregional and metastatic progression. In this context, the histologic subtype

  11. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  12. High-sensitivity troponin assays for the early rule-out or diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in people eith acute chest pain: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westwood (Marie); T. van Asselt (Thea); B. Ramaekers (Bram); P. Whiting (Penny); P. Tokala (Praveen); M.A. Joore (Manuela); N. Armstrong (Nigel); J. Ross (Janine); J.L. Severens (Hans); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can ensure quick and effective treatment but only 20% of adults with emergency admissions for chest pain have an AMI. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays may allow rapid rule-out of AMI and avoidance of

  13. High-sensitivity troponin assays for the early rule-out or diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in people with acute chest pain : a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westwood, Marie; van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Whiting, Penny; Thokala, Praveen; Joore, Manuela; Armstrong, Nigel; Ross, Janine; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can ensure quick and effective treatment but only 20% of adults with emergency admissions for chest pain have an AMI. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays may allow rapid rule-out of AMI and avoidance of unnecessary

  14. Phase Angle and Handgrip Strength Are Sensitive Early Markers of Energy Intake in Hypophagic, Non-Surgical Patients at Nutritional Risk, with Contraindications to Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20, while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10. The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5–2.3 (p = 0.005 for PhA and +0.23 (0.20–0.43 (p = 0.033 for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23–0.77; p = 0.0023. PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of Ph

  15. Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT