WorldWideScience

Sample records for early school age

  1. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs.

  2. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  3. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Danielle; Blank, Helen; Hart, Katherine; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care, early education, and school-age care issues during 2001. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care 2000" and various reports published on this issue between 1997 and 1999. Information in the…

  4. Early and late talkers: school-age language, literacy and neurolinguistic differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Jonathan L; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, William Einar; Fulbright, Robert K; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena; Jacobsen, Leslie; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, 174 elementary school-age children whose parents reported that they started forming sentences 'early', 'on-time' or 'late' were evaluated with standardized measures of language, reading and spelling...

  5. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  6. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  7. Association of Ascariasis with Nutritional and Anemic Status in Early School-Age Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Annrie Eidwina; Lia Faridah; Yudith Setiati Ermaya; Dida Akhmad Gurnida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ascariasis is one of the most frequent helminthias is that occurred in school-age children. Commonly, severe intensity of infection will seriously affect the nutritional and anemic status of the students. The aim of this study was to determine the association of ascariasis with nutritional and anemic status in early school-age students. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted based on the secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort. The secondary data of 74 studen...

  8. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  9. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Early Childhood and Growth at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Goren, Sophy; Cohen, Dani

    2015-12-01

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of H. pylori in children's growth. We examined differences in growth indices at school age according to H. pylori infection acquisition in preschool age. A prospective study was undertaken between 2004 and 2009, in which of healthy children (N = 139, ages 3-5 years at baseline) were tested for the presence of H. pylori antigen in their stool using enzyme-linked immunoassay and followed-up till age 6-9 years (median follow-up time 45 months). Height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were measured, and socioeconomic data were obtained. Z scores of height for age, weight for age, and body mass index for age at baseline and follow-up were calculated using the 2000 Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference curves. Growth velocity (cm/month) between preschool and school age was compared between H. pylori-infected and uninfected children using mixed models. Fifty-three percent of the children were H. pylori positive at baseline, and all except one child tested positive at follow-up. The adjusted mean Z score of height for age at follow-up was significantly lower among H. pylori-infected children than uninfected ones: 0.15 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.02, 0.29) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.29, 0.60), respectively (p = .002). Growth velocity was slower in the former group -0.0264 cm/month (95% CI -0.047, -0.005) (p = .014), after adjusting for baseline height and age. H. pylori infection was not associated with body weight. Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood may have long-term adverse influence on linear growth at school age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumeiko N.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  12. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  13. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  14. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  15. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  16. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  17. Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, T R; Jakobsson, H E; Andersson, A F; Björkstén, B; Engstrand, L; Jenmalm, M C

    2014-06-01

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month and 12 months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Children developing asthma (n = 8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1 week (P = 0.04) and 1 month (P = 0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 13), eczema (n = 12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n = 14) at 7 years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12 months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7 years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  20. Early and School-Age Care in Santa Monica: Current System, Policy Options, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Ashley; Karoly, Lynn A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Beckett, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of early learning and out-of-school-time programs in the City of Santa Monica is complex, with numerous providers and funding streams. This complexity reflects its evolution in response to changes in federal, state, and local priorities and initiatives. Future shifts in funding levels, program auspices, and other features are likely.…

  1. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  2. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  3. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  4. ARTICULATION CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SLI IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  5. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  6. Early elementary school-aged child attachment to parents: a test of theory and implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, M L; Harachi, T W; Catalano, R F; Haggerty, K P; Abbott, R D

    2000-06-01

    Child attachment to parents has been shown in the literature to reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors through enhancing resiliency. Research examining attachment and its relationship to antisocial behavioral outcomes in adolescents has been shaped largely by social control theorists who have theorized that attachment to prosocial others inhibits the expression of antisocial behavioral outcomes (Hirschi, 1969). This paper seeks to expand the literature by investigating the development of child attachment to parent(s) during the early elementary school years as specified theoretically by the social development model (Catalano & Hawkins, 1996). Using structural equation modeling, the results support the theoretical model as proposed by the social development model. School-aged children's attachment to parents can be successfully predicted by constructs outlined in the social development model. Finally, implications for interventions that enhance child attachment to parent(s) are discussed.

  7. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range 38

  8. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range

  9. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  10. Early childhood environment related to microbial exposure and the occurrence of atopic disease at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G; Janssen, NAH; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that the early childhood environment with respect to day care attendance, older siblings, pet ownership, and early life airway infections may protect from developing atopic disease. Few studies have distinguished between atopic sensitization and sympto

  11. Detecting symptoms, early intervention, and preventative education: eating disorders & the school-age child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Margaret

    2013-05-01

    The health of America's youth is a national priority. With obesity increasing dramatically in adolescents and young children, school lunches have experienced makeovers, and "dieting" and "weight loss" messages have permeated parental concern. Eating disorders among our youth, however, have largely been overlooked despite evidence of its steady increase over the past few decades among younger and younger children. The school nurse can become a resource for parents, students, and teachers in regard to eating disorders and serve in a leadership role advocating for students to live healthy, meaningful lives.

  12. AMTA Monograph Series - Effective Clinical Practice in Music Therapy Early Childhood and School Age Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpal, Marcia Earl, Ed.; Colwell, Cynthia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Educators, families, and media in increasing numbers are recognizing the unique role music plays in young children's development. More and more daycare, preschool, and early intervention centers offer employment opportunities that reflect the needs and attitudes of our ever-changing society. Furthermore, Federal and state regulations, a changing…

  13. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Veenstra (René); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television

  14. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Pauline W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time

  15. Is Early Joint Attention Associated with School-Age Pragmatic Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Khalulyan, Allie; del Rosario, Mithi; McCarthy, Brigid; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate evidence for the social-cognitive theory of joint attention, we examined relations between initiation of and response to joint attention at 12 and 18 months of age and pragmatic and structural language approximately 6 years later among children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Initiation of joint attention at 18…

  16. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Pauline W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time th

  17. Is Early Joint Attention Associated with School-Age Pragmatic Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Khalulyan, Allie; del Rosario, Mithi; McCarthy, Brigid; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate evidence for the social-cognitive theory of joint attention, we examined relations between initiation of and response to joint attention at 12 and 18 months of age and pragmatic and structural language approximately 6 years later among children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Initiation of joint attention at 18…

  18. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Pauline W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time th

  19. An association between Helicobacter pylori infection and cognitive function in children at early school age: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpert Gershon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined in healthy children, independently of socioeconomic and nutritional factors. Methods A community-based study was conducted among 200 children aged 6-9 years, from different socioeconomic background. H. pylori infection was examined by an ELISA kit for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples. Cognitive function of the children was blindly assessed using Stanford-Benit test 5th edition, yielding IQ scores. Data on socioeconomic factors and nutritional covariates were collected through maternal interviews and from medical records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to obtain adjusted beta coefficients. Results H. pylori infection was associated with lower IQ scores only in children from a relatively higher socioeconomic community; adjusted beta coefficient -6.1 (95% CI -11.4, -0.8 (P = 0.02 for full-scale IQ score, -6.0 (95% CI -11.1, -0.2 (P = 0.04 for non-verbal IQ score and -5.7 (95% CI -10.8, -0.6 (P = 0.02 for verbal IQ score, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions H. pylori infection might be negatively involved in cognitive development at early school age. Further studies in other populations with larger samples are needed to confirm this novel finding.

  20. Risk factors for executive function difficulties in preschool and early school-age preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meagher, Sari; Kemp, Nenagh; Norris, Kimberley; Anderson, Peter; Skilbeck, Clive

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between executive functioning and social and perinatal risk factors in four- to five-year-old preterm children. Using standardised measures of general intelligence and performance-based executive function (EF) tests prior to starting kindergarten, 141 children born preterm (preterm and the term comparison groups were compared on measures of intelligence and EFs using independent-groups t-tests, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of intelligence and executive functioning in the preterm group. The preterm group performed significantly more poorly than the comparison group on all intelligence and EF tests. The parental reports of the preterm and term comparison children's EF did not differ significantly, but the teachers reported elevated EF difficulties for the preterm group. Higher social risk, in particular lower educational level of the main caregiver, was the strongest predictor for the preterm children's intelligence and EF results. Social risk factors are strongly associated with impaired early EF outcomes in preterm children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Body mass index at school age and hospital admissions for asthma in early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lophaven, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Current international dietary guidelines advise people to reduce their consumption of sugar. Whilst clues are emerging that a high consumption of sugar in childhood may increase the risk of asthma, the relation between maternal sugar intake during pregnancy and respiratory and atopic outcomes...... in the offspring has been little studied.In the population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we analysed associations between maternal intake of total sugar, free sugars and added sugar in pregnancy (estimated by food frequency questionnaire in the last trimester......) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma (n=7677), current wheezing (n=7762), atopy (n=6117), serum total IgE (n=4843), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; n=5308) and forced vital capacity (FVC; n=5387) at 7-9 years of age.After controlling for potential confounders, maternal intake of total sugar...

  2. Transition at Age 3: Steps for Success Transition Guide for Oklahoma Children with Disabilities, Their Families, SoonerStart Early Intervention Services, Schools, and Community Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark, Ed.; Villines-Hackney, Amber, Ed.; Rush, Dathan, Ed.; Shelden, M'Lisa, Ed.; Hansen, Laura, Ed.

    This guide was developed to support families, the SoonerStart Early Intervention Program, schools, and community programs in meeting the federal and state requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 for transition of children at age three. It provides guiding principles, recommended practices, and…

  3. Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M; Belden, Andy C

    2014-07-01

    Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between ages 3 and 6, has demonstrated numerous validated features, including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. This syndrome is characterized by subthreshold DSM criteria for major depressive disorder, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, the authors investigated diagnostic outcomes of preschool children at school age and in adolescence. In a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children, the authors assessed the likelihood of meeting full criteria for major depressive disorder at age 6 or later as a function of preschool depression, other preschool axis I disorders, maternal history of depression, nonsupportive parenting, and traumatic life events. Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of major depressive disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal history of depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted major depression in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting, reducing by 21% the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting major depression. Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for developing full criteria for major depression in later childhood, over and above other established risk factors. The results suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal history of depression and exposure to trauma may be important in identifying young children at highest risk for later major depression and applying early interventions.

  4. The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs in Early Stimulation age into the regular classroom environment, at Nursery Schools, of an average municipality Vale dos Sinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cátia Loose Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education in Brazil has been widely discussed in all areas of the educational. The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN in mainstream schools is increasingly frequent, though still many aspects need to be rethought. This work aimed at checking how the subjects with SEN in Early Stimulation age, from zero to three years and 11 months are included into the regular classroom environment, at Nursery Schools, of an average municipality - Vale dos Sinos. This work involved a cross-sectional survey of quantitative and descriptive statistics. The data collection was carried out directly from a structured questionnaire with open and closed questions, directed to all principals of the thirteen Nursery Schools in the referred municipality. From the thirteen schools of the municipality only one did not take part of the research since there was no enrollment of children with special needs there, totalizing 46 children in processes of educational inclusion. From those, twelve children (26.8% were benefited with an Early Stimulation service maintained by the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children of that referred municipality, Thirty children (65,2% enrolled in school at the initiative of his own family e four children (8% by intervention of the Wakefield council. In this sense, we believe that the professionals of the Early Stimulation have the responsibility of promoting and conveying its importance and, mainly, the benefits of Early Stimulation for the whole development of individuals, as well as its contribution to a process of inclusive education.

  5. American Sign Language Syntax and Analogical Reasoning Skills Are Influenced by Early Acquisition and Age of Entry to Signing Schools for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Jon; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Novogrodsky, Rama; Hoffmeister, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Failing to acquire language in early childhood because of language deprivation is a rare and exceptional event, except in one population. Deaf children who grow up without access to indirect language through listening, speech-reading, or sign language experience language deprivation. Studies of Deaf adults have revealed that late acquisition of sign language is associated with lasting deficits. However, much remains unknown about language deprivation in Deaf children, allowing myths and misunderstandings regarding sign language to flourish. To fill this gap, we examined signing ability in a large naturalistic sample of Deaf children attending schools for the Deaf where American Sign Language (ASL) is used by peers and teachers. Ability in ASL was measured using a syntactic judgment test and language-based analogical reasoning test, which are two sub-tests of the ASL Assessment Inventory. The influence of two age-related variables were examined: whether or not ASL was acquired from birth in the home from one or more Deaf parents, and the age of entry to the school for the Deaf. Note that for non-native signers, this latter variable is often the age of first systematic exposure to ASL. Both of these types of age-dependent language experiences influenced subsequent signing ability. Scores on the two tasks declined with increasing age of school entry. The influence of age of starting school was not linear. Test scores were generally lower for Deaf children who entered the school of assessment after the age of 12. The positive influence of signing from birth was found for students at all ages tested (7;6-18;5 years old) and for children of all age-of-entry groupings. Our results reflect a continuum of outcomes which show that experience with language is a continuous variable that is sensitive to maturational age.

  6. American Sign Language Syntax and Analogical Reasoning Skills Are Influenced by Early Acquisition and Age of Entry to Signing Schools for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Jon; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Novogrodsky, Rama; Hoffmeister, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Failing to acquire language in early childhood because of language deprivation is a rare and exceptional event, except in one population. Deaf children who grow up without access to indirect language through listening, speech-reading, or sign language experience language deprivation. Studies of Deaf adults have revealed that late acquisition of sign language is associated with lasting deficits. However, much remains unknown about language deprivation in Deaf children, allowing myths and misunderstandings regarding sign language to flourish. To fill this gap, we examined signing ability in a large naturalistic sample of Deaf children attending schools for the Deaf where American Sign Language (ASL) is used by peers and teachers. Ability in ASL was measured using a syntactic judgment test and language-based analogical reasoning test, which are two sub-tests of the ASL Assessment Inventory. The influence of two age-related variables were examined: whether or not ASL was acquired from birth in the home from one or more Deaf parents, and the age of entry to the school for the Deaf. Note that for non-native signers, this latter variable is often the age of first systematic exposure to ASL. Both of these types of age-dependent language experiences influenced subsequent signing ability. Scores on the two tasks declined with increasing age of school entry. The influence of age of starting school was not linear. Test scores were generally lower for Deaf children who entered the school of assessment after the age of 12. The positive influence of signing from birth was found for students at all ages tested (7;6–18;5 years old) and for children of all age-of-entry groupings. Our results reflect a continuum of outcomes which show that experience with language is a continuous variable that is sensitive to maturational age. PMID:28082932

  7. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  8. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Arteaga, Irma A; White, Barry A B

    2011-07-15

    Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered understanding. We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for more than 1400 participants. This established, publicly funded intervention begins in preschool and provides up to 6 years of service in inner-city Chicago schools. Relative to the comparison group receiving the usual services, program participation was independently linked to higher educational attainment, income, socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance coverage, as well as lower rates of justice-system involvement and substance abuse. Evidence of enduring effects was strongest for preschool, especially for males and children of high school dropouts. The positive influence of four or more years of service was limited primarily to education and SES. Dosage within program components was mostly unrelated to outcomes. Findings demonstrate support for the enduring effects of sustained school-based early education to the end of the third decade of life.

  9. Features of the Humoral Immune Response in School-age Children with Early-Onset Bronchial Asthma Depending on Acetylation Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the individual indicators of the humoral immune system in school-age children with early-onset bronchial asthma (BA, considering acetylation phenotypes to improve treatment outcomes. There has been carried out a comprehensive examination of 34 school-age children with early-onset BA (disease first manifested at an early age. Depending on the course of the disease, patients were divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group included 16 patients with slow acetylation (average content of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was less than 75.0 %. The second clinical group consisted of 18 pupils with fast acetylation (average level of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was over 75.0 %. All children underwent immunological blood test of II–III levels. The studies found that slow acetylation in patients with early-onset asthma increases the risk of reduction in the amount of interleukin-8 in blood serum < 5.3 pg/ml with odds ratio (OR 4.5 (95% confident interval (CI: 2.3–8.9, as well as the risk of higher concentration of IL-4 more than 4.0 pg/ml (OR = 1.9 that is associated with atopic inflammation of the body and allows you to personalize treatment tactics in these patients.

  10. Neuropsychological Functioning and Attachment Representations in Early School Age as Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B

    2016-06-27

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more "at-risk" samples, these findings could also suggest that parent-child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  11. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  12. School-Age Child Care Trend Report: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2007-01-01

    According to the author, school-age care is the fastest growing segment of the early childhood arena and possibly the least visible. While programs have been serving school-age children in out-of-school hours since the turn of the century, it is only in recent years that professionals have started to view school-age care as a distinct discipline…

  13. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  14. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11years together with 44 newly recruited...... children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  15. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...

  16. A longitudinal investigation of the affective environment in families with young children: from infancy to early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robin A; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-04-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person's emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influences of the partner's emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent's interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents' emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child's development, and declined thereafter. Children's anger was highest at 15 months of age, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one's positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one's anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents' neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships.

  17. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  18. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002017.htm School-age children development To use the sharing features on this page, ... of children ages 6 to 12. Information PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children most often have smooth and strong motor skills. ...

  19. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  20. Communicating for Quality in School Age Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmel, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Susan

    2014-01-01

    School Age Care (SAC) services have existed in Australia for over 100 years but they have tended to take a back seat when compared with provision for school-aged children and those under school age using early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. Many SAC services are housed in shared premises and many children attending preparatory or…

  1. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  2. Are trajectories of self-regulation abilities from ages 2-3 to 6-7 associated with academic achievement in the early school years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A C P; Chittleborough, C R; Mittinty, M N; Miller-Lewis, L R; Sawyer, M G; Sullivan, T; Lynch, J W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between two key aspects of self-regulation, 'task attentiveness' and 'emotional regulation' assessed from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years, and academic achievement when children were aged 6-7 years. Participants (n = 3410) were children in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents rated children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation abilities when children were aged 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7. Academic achievement was assessed using the Academic Rating Scale completed by teachers. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between developmental trajectories (i.e. rate of change per year) of task attentiveness and emotional regulation, and academic achievement at 6-7 years. Improvements in task attentiveness between 2-3 and 6-7 years, adjusted for baseline levels of task attentiveness, child and family confounders, and children's receptive vocabulary and non-verbal reasoning skills at age 6-7 were associated with greater teacher-rated literacy [B = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.06] and maths achievement (B = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.03-0.06) at 6-7 years. Improvements in emotional regulation, adjusting for baseline levels and covariates, were also associated with better teacher-rated literacy (B = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) but not with maths achievement (B = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.01-0.02) at 6-7 years. For literacy, improvements in task attentiveness had a stronger association with achievement at 6-7 years than improvements in emotional regulation. Our study shows that improved trajectories of task attentiveness from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years are associated with improved literacy and maths achievement during the early school years. Trajectories of improving emotional regulation showed smaller effects on academic outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that improve task attentiveness when children are aged 2-3 to 6-7 years have the potential to improve literacy and maths achievement during

  3. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  4. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  5. Motor performance and functional ability in preschool- and early school-aged children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the level of motor performance and functional skills in young children with JIA. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 56 preschool-aged (PSA and early school- aged children (ESA with JIA according to ILAR classification, motor performance was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Functional skills were measured with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Disease outcome was measured with a joint count on swelling/range of joint motion, functional ability and joint pain. Results Twenty two PSA children (mean age 2.1 years with a mean Developmental Index of the BSID2 of 77.9 indicating a delayed motor performance; 45% of PSA children showed a severe delayed motor performance. Mean PEDI scores were normal, 38% of PSA scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Thirty four ESA children (mean age 5.2 years with a mean M-ABC 42.7, indicating a normal motor performance, 12% of ESA children had an abnormal score. Mean PEDI scores showed impaired mobility skills, 70% of ESA children scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Disease outcome in both age groups demonstrated low to moderate scores. Significant correlations were found between age at disease onset, disease duration and BSID2 or M-ABC and between disease outcome and PEDI in both age cohorts. Conclusion More PSA children have more impaired motor performance than impaired functional skills, while ESA children have more impairment in functional skills. Disease onset and disease duration are correlated with motor performance in both groups. Impaired motor performance and delayed functional skills is primarily found in children with a polyarticular disease course. Clinical follow up and rehabilitation programs should also focus on motor performance and functional skills development in young children with JIA.

  6. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  7. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  8. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  9. Parenting School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Parenting School-Age Children Page Content Article Body During ... in her achievements. This can contribute to her self-esteem, not only because of her accomplishments in the ...

  10. School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Arteaga, Irma A.; White, Barry A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered progress. We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for over 1,400 participants. This established, publicly-funded intervention begins ...

  11. Attention, cognitive control and motivation in ADHD: Linking event-related brain potentials and DNA methylation patterns in boys at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Hartmut; Grunitz, Juliane; Stonawski, Valeska; Frey, Stefan; Wahl, Simone; Albrecht, Björn; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fasching, Peter A; Moll, Gunther H; Eichler, Anna

    2017-06-19

    In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age. Methylation patterns were analysed in buccal cell DNA with the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K array. For CpG sites at genes of the dopaminergic (COMT, ANKK1) and the neurotrophic (BDNF, NGFR) system, associations with the Nogo-P3 as well as ADHD symptom severity were found suggesting that these systems are involved in response control deficits in ADHD. Methylation effects related to both functional aspects and ADHD behaviour were also observed for DPP10 and TPH2. Epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in ADHD-associated deficits but findings need to be replicated in larger samples and are limited by the fact that only peripheral methylation could be considered.

  12. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  13. Validation of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems for Early Care and Education and School-Age Care. Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief. OPRE 2012-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Gail L.; Fiene, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) for early care and education and school age care programs are designed to collect information about quality and to use that information to produce program-level ratings, which are the foundation of a QRIS. The ratings are intended to make program quality transparent for parents and other stakeholders…

  14. Depressive symptoms from kindergarten to early school age: longitudinal associations with social skills deficits and peer victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaker Françoise D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms in children are associated with social skills deficits and problems with peers. We propose a model which suggests different mechanisms for the impact of deficits in self-oriented social skills (assertiveness and social participation and other-oriented social skills (pro-social, cooperative and non-aggressive behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. We hypothesized that deficits in self-oriented social skills have a direct impact on children's depressive symptoms because these children have non-rewarding interactions with peers, whereas the impact of deficits in other-oriented social skills on depressive symptoms is mediated through negative reactions from peers such as peer victimization. Method 378 kindergarten children (163 girls participated at two assessments (Age at T1: M = 5.8, T2: M = 7.4. Teachers completed questionnaires on children's social skills at T1. Teacher reports on peer victimization and depressive symptoms were assessed at both assessment points. Results Our study partially confirmed the suggested conceptual model. Deficits in self-oriented social skills significantly predicted depressive symptoms, whereas deficits in other-oriented social skills were more strongly associated with peer victimization. Longitudinal associations between other-oriented social skills and depressive symptoms were mediated through peer victimization. Conclusion The study emphasizes the role of deficits in self-oriented social skills and peer victimization for the development of internalizing disorders.

  15. Negative affectivity and EEG asymmetry interact to predict emotional interference on attention in early school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beylul; O'Toole, Laura; Hong, Melanie; Dennis, Tracy A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affectivity (NA) is a broad construct that has been associated with the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety, and with exaggerated attention to threatening stimuli. EEG asymmetry reflects biological individual differences in emotional reactivity that may underlie the association between NA and attention to threat. The present study included a sample of 31 five-seven year olds (M age in months=74.39, SD=6.57) to test the hypothesis that greater NA, combined with greater right anterior and posterior asymmetries, predicts increased attention interference following threat stimuli. Children completed an executive attention task which presented task-irrelevant threat (angry) and non-threat (neutral) faces prior to each trial. EEG asymmetry was measured at baseline for anterior, anterior-temporal and posterior scalp regions and child NA was measured via maternal report. As predicted, children showing greater NA and greater right anterior-temporal asymmetry showed more attention interference following angry faces. Additionally, two trend-level effects emerged: children showing greater NA and greater left anterior-temporal asymmetry showed less attention interference following angry faces, and children showing greater NA and greater left posterior asymmetry showed less attention interference, but only following neutral faces. Discussion focuses on the utility of using EEG asymmetry in the study of temperament, attentional biases, and the biological processes by which temperament confers risk for psychopathology.

  16. Early School Dropout: Configurations and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined behavioral, cognitive, and demographic factors associated with early school dropout in 475 seventh graders. Clusters of students most vulnerable to early school dropout were characterized by high levels of aggressiveness and low levels of academic performance. (RJC)

  17. Boosting Early Development: The Mixed Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahui; Xin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of kindergarten enrollment age on four-year-old Chinese children's early cognition and problem behavior using multilevel models. The sample comprised of 1,391 pre-school children (the mean age is 4.58 years old) from 74 kindergartens in six different provinces. The results demonstrated curvilinear…

  18. Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

    2002-01-01

    States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

  19. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  20. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-up on School-Age Academic Achievement through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically…

  1. Cohesion, flexibility, communication and socioeconomic status of families and cognitive development in preschool and early school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Zalewska-Łunkiewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: According to David H. Olson’s circumplex model of family systems, there are particular dimensions that form the basis for good adaptation and growth, namely flexibility, cohesion, communication and family life satisfaction. The study explores the connections between these dimensions of family functioning, socioeconomic status of the family and educational achievements (reading, writing and numeracy skills of preschool and early school-age children. Method: The subjects were 105 children, aged 5–6, and 105 parents of these children from the Silesian region in Poland. The parents filled out Family Rating Scales – Skale Oceny Rodziny, SOR (Margasiński, 2009, i.e. the Polish adaptation of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale known as FACES IV (Olson and Gorall, 2006, and demographic questions to assess the family’s socioeconomic status (SES. The children completed a computer-adaptive test of school ability at the start of school (Test Umiejętności na Starcie Szkolnym, TUNSS, Kaczan and Rycielski, 2014. Results: Multivariate structural equation modeling (SEM was performed, confirming both SES and SOR to influence the children’s level of school skills at the start of school. The children’s age (expressed in months presented as an important variable in the model. These factors explain 78% of variance of early school abilities. The number of books and mother’s education level were found to be the variables the most closely linked to school abilities amongst the SES factors. Children with a balanced family system background reached better scores in school abilities than children from unbalanced family systems.

  2. Early Fives Program Evaluation: Farmington Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, H. Robert

    An evaluation of the Early Fives program of the Farmington (Michigan) Public Schools is reported. This extra-year program began in the 1980-81 school year. By the 1982-83 school year, tuition was no longer charged, and a systematic screening effort was implemented. Each Early Fives classroom contains a maximum of 15 children with a certified…

  3. Who's Who in School-Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In the field of school-age care, there are three organizations that have been instrumental in the development of the profession: (1) School-Age "NOTES"; (2) National Institute on Out-of-School Time; and (3) National AfterSchool Association. In recent years many new players have been effective in promoting the field. In this article, the author…

  4. Age at menarche, schooling, and sexual debut in northern Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Glynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age at sexual debut is a key behavioural indicator used in HIV behavioural surveillance. Early age at menarche may precipitate early sex through perceived readiness for sex, or through school drop-out, but this is rarely studied. We investigated trends and circumstances of sexual debut in relation to schooling and age at menarche. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional sexual behaviour survey was conducted on all individuals age 15-59 within a demographic surveillance site in Karonga District, Malawi. Time trends were assessed using birth cohorts. Survival analysis was used to estimate the median age at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage. The 25(th centile was used to define "early" sex, and analyses of risk factors for early sex were restricted to those who had reached that age, and were done using logistic regression. Of the 8232 women and 7338 men resident in the area, 88% and 78%, respectively, were seen, and, 94% and 92% of these were interviewed. The median reported age at first sex was 17.5 for women and 18.8 for men. For women, ages at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage did not differ by birth cohort. For men, age at sexual debut and first marriage decreased slightly in later birth cohorts. For both men and women increased schooling was associated with later sexual debut and a longer delay between sexual debut and first marriage, but the associations were stronger for women. Earlier age at menarche was strongly associated with earlier sexual debut and marriage and lower schooling levels. In women early sexual debut (<16 years was less likely in those with menarche at age 14-15 (odds ratio (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36, and ≥16 (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.02-0.05 compared to those with menarche at <14. The proportion of women who completed primary school was 46% in those with menarche at <14, 60% in those with menarche at 14-15 and 70% in those with menarche at ≥16. The association between age at menarche and schooling

  5. Early Career Challenges in Secondary School Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G.; Purves, R.; Hargreaves, D.; Marshall, N.

    2011-01-01

    The article reports an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study of the early career experiences of secondary school music teachers in England, set within a wider national picture of decreasing age-related pupil engagement with school music, career perceptions of music teaching, variable patterns of teacher recruitment and possible…

  6. Early Career Challenges in Secondary School Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G.; Purves, R.; Hargreaves, D.; Marshall, N.

    2011-01-01

    The article reports an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study of the early career experiences of secondary school music teachers in England, set within a wider national picture of decreasing age-related pupil engagement with school music, career perceptions of music teaching, variable patterns of teacher recruitment and possible…

  7. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  8. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  9. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  10. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  11. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A cascade from disregard for rules of conduct at preschool age to parental power assertion at early school age to antisocial behavior in early preadolescence: Interplay with the child's skin conductance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Boldt, Lea J

    2017-08-01

    Young children's disregard for conduct rules (failing to experience discomfort following transgressions and violating adults' prohibitions) often foreshadows future antisocial trajectories, perhaps in part because it elicits more power-assertive parental discipline, which in turn promotes children's antisocial behavior. This process may be particularly likely for children with low skin conductance level (SCL). In 102 two-parent community families, we tested a model in which children's SCL, assessed at 8 years, was posed as a moderator of the cascade from children's disregard for conduct rules at 4.5 years to parents' power assertion at 5.5 and 6.5 years to antisocial behavior at 10 and 12 years. Children's disregard for conduct rules was observed in scripted laboratory paradigms, parents' power assertion was observed in discipline contexts, and children's antisocial behavior was rated by parents. Conditional process analyses revealed that the developmental cascade from early disregard for rules to future parental power assertion to antisocial outcomes occurred only for the children with low SCL (below median), but not their high-SCL (above median) peers. By elucidating the specific interplay among children's disregard for rules, the parenting they receive, and their psychophysiology, this study represents a developmentally informed, multilevel approach to early etiology of antisocial behavior.

  13. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  14. Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Resolution During Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136

  15. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  16. Early Literacy Promotion in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Dipesh; Sanders, Lee M

    2015-10-01

    School readiness and educational success is strongly mediated by early literacy skills. In both exam-room and community-based settings, child-health providers can affect the trajectory of early literacy by implementing evidence-based, culturally appropriate interventions that support child development, parenting skills, and child-caregiver interaction. Despite limited research on the subject, these interventions should also attend to the evolving role of digital-media exposure (both positive and negative) on the developmental health of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Education, Schooling and Young Offenders of Secondary School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the evidence about education, schooling and young offenders of secondary school age. Education and experiences of schooling are shown to be potentially risk or protective factors in relation to offending behaviour by young people. The victimisation and vulnerability of more serious young offenders is highlighted in the case…

  18. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  19. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  1. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  2. The Effects of Green Schooling Knowledge Level and Intensity of Parental Guidance on the Environmental Awareness of the Early Age Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihardjo, Sihadi Darmo; Hartati, Sofia; Nurani, Yuliani; Sujarwanta, Agus

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of green schooling knowledge and parents guidance on the environmental awareness of the students. This study used a quantitative approach with the expost facto method. This study was conducted in Muhammadiyah 41 elementary school in East Jakarta at July to December on the 2nd semester of the…

  3. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasitic and mental development of children who are most vulnerable, (2) .... in both male and female school children compared with a marked ... irrespective of the sex - an indicator of nutritional instability (P<0.05). AGE ..... its role in iron deficiency in .African children ... Physical activity and growth of Kenya school children.

  4. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  5. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of the water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  6. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete that includes the transitional thermal effect. The model governs both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model is assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle, and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of the experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  7. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  8. Micromechanical Modeling of Concrete at Early Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleubekov, Kairat

    The focus of this research is a micromechanical characterization of Portland cement concrete at early age (less than 28 days). Concrete's viscoelastic properties change significantly at early age due to solidification of its matrix component. Bazant's solidification theory models concrete as a material solidifying in time. This approach is generalized to a three-dimensional characterization of a composite material with a solidifying matrix and elastic inclusions. An integral constitutive relationship was obtained using a generalized correspondence principle and homogenization techniques for elastic composite materials. In light of this approach, effective creep properties of composite spherical assemblage with an aging matrix are obtained. In addition, the elastic Hashin-Monteiro model is generalized to account for the effect of the interfacial transition zone properties on concrete creep. An effective computational platform was developed to evaluate operator expressions in order to obtain relaxation and creep functions numerically. Through numerical examples, it is shown that triaxial generalization of Bazant's solidification model enables robust and computationally efficient prediction of creep deformations in Portland cement concrete.

  9. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  10. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  11. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  12. Schooling, marriage, and age at first birth in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E

    2015-01-01

    The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.

  13. Consequences of School-Age Pregnancy and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail Hasselbach

    1980-01-01

    School-age mothers, their parents, and school personnel were interviewed independently to determine their perceptions of consequences of school-age pregnancy and motherhood. Perceived consequences differed for the three sets of interviewees. (Author)

  14. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  15. Preparing School Personnel: Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Lorraine, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 25 citations of published and unpublished documents ranging in date from 1964 through 1969 on "the means and methods by which school personnel are prepared to work with preschool age children in such settings as Head Start programs and nursery and kindergarten classes." Citations are subsumed under three headings: 1)…

  16. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  17. Developmental interplay between children's biobehavioral risk and the parenting environment from toddler to early school age: Prediction of socialization outcomes in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    We followed 100 community families from toddler age to preadolescence. Each mother- and father-child dyad was observed at 25, 38, 52, 67, and 80 months (10 hr/child) to assess positive and power-assertive parenting. At age 10 (N = 82), we obtained parent- and child-reported outcome measures of children's acceptance of parental socialization: cooperation with parental monitoring, negative attitude toward substance use, internalization of adult values, and callous-unemotional tendencies. Children who carried a short serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) allele and were highly anger prone, based on anger observed in laboratory from 25 to 80 months, were classified as high in biobehavioral risk. The remaining children were classified as low in biobehavioral risk. Biobehavioral risk moderated links between parenting history and outcomes. For low-risk children, parenting measures were unrelated to outcomes. For children high in biobehavioral risk, variations in positive parenting predicted cooperation with monitoring and negative attitude toward substance use, and variations in power-assertive parenting predicted internalization of adult values and callous-unemotional tendencies. Suboptimal parenting combined with high biobehavioral risk resulted in the poorest outcomes. The effect for attitude toward substance use supported differential susceptibility: children high in biobehavioral risk who received optimal parenting had a more adaptive outcome than their low-risk peers. The remaining effects were consistent with diathesis-stress.

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined in this quick review concerns whether attending Early College High Schools increased postsecondary outcomes. This study is a randomized experiment examining the impact of Early Colleges on a number of outcomes. The study had relatively low attrition rates (approximately 7% in the intervention group and 13% in the comparison…

  19. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  20. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. Study design We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  1. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  2. Charting early trajectories of executive control with the shape school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Chevalier, Nicolas; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2013-08-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the importance of executive control for learning and behavior, there is a dearth of research charting its developmental trajectory as it unfolds against the background of children's sociofamilial milieus. Using a prospective, cohort-sequential design, this study describes growth trajectories for inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility across the preschool period in relation to child sex and sociofamilial resources. At ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years, children (N = 388) from a broad range of social backgrounds were assessed using the Shape School, a graduated measure of executive control incorporating baseline, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility conditions. Measures of children's proximal access to learning resources and social network supports were collected at study entry. Findings revealed substantial gains in accuracy and speed for all Shape School conditions, these gains being particularly accelerated between ages 3 and 3.75 years. Improvements in inhibitory control were more rapid than those in flexible switching. Age-related differences in error and self-correction patterns on the Shape School also suggest qualitative changes in the underlying processes supporting executive performance across early childhood. Children from homes with fewer learning resources showed a subtle lag in inhibition and cognitive flexibility performance that persisted at kindergarten entry age, despite exhibiting gradual catch up to their more advantaged peers for the nonexecutive, baseline task condition. The study provides a unique characterization of the early developmental pathways for inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility and highlights the critical role of stimulating early educational resources for shaping the dynamic ontogeny of executive control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  4. Starting school: The effect of early childhood factors on child well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo

    Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...

  5. Professional Identity in Early Childhood Care and Education: Perspectives of Pre-School and Infant Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of professional identity in the early childhood care and educations sector (ECCE) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). It is concerned with the status, salary and conditions of those working with children aged four to six in pre-school and primary school settings. Using qualitative methodology, the study garnered…

  6. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  7. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  8. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    OpenAIRE

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to engage youth in education, there have been only modest improvements in the rates of school completion across OECD countries since the mid- 1990s. These modest improvements underline the importance of programs that encourage early school leavers to return to post-school education. The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from ...

  9. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  10. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  11. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  12. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  13. On the Feasibility of Early-age English learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静

    2009-01-01

    Children's English learning in China attracts more and more people's attention and is on the teidency of starting at an early age. Under the trend of "learning English from childhood", the author has explored the Criical Period Hypothesis and discussed the younger learners' dsadvantages and older learners'advantages when learning Englsh. and concludes that early-age English learning is not feasible.

  14. Physics and chemistry of aging early developments

    CERN Document Server

    Vagvra, J

    2002-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. The satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, there is little progress made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heighten awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a "pre- LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging, " where the total charge doses is limited to much less than one C/cm. (37 refs).

  15. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation was similar to one found in a previous investigation which used a direct tension test of early age concrete. Moreover, the paper describes how an empirical equation for mature concrete can be applied to the relation between uniaxial tensile strength and splitting tensile strength even in early age concrete. Based on a uniaxial tension test, the paper proposes an empirical equation for the relationship between standard bond stresses and relative slip.

  16. Tracking development from early speech-language acquisition to reading skills at age 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sachse, Steffi; Green, Vanessa A; Zhang, Dajie; Van Der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a link between speech-language and literacy development. To add to this body of knowledge, we investigated whether lexical and grammatical skills from toddler to early school age are related to reading competence in adolescence. Twenty-three typically developing children were followed from age 1;6 to 13;6 (years;months). Parental checklists and standardized tests were used to assess the development of mental lexicon, grammatical and reading capacities of the children. Direct assessment of early speech-language functions positively correlated with later reading competence, whereas lexical skills reported by parents were not associated with this capacity. At (pre-) school age, larger vocabulary and better grammatical abilities predicted advanced reading abilities in adolescence. Our study contributes to the understanding of typical speech-language development and its relation to later reading outcome, extending the body of knowledge on these developmental domains for future early identification of children at risk for reading difficulties.

  17. Behaviour and school achievement in patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, B.A.; Kalverboer, A.F.; Meere, J.J. van der; Molen, M.W. van der; Huisman, J.; Jong, L.W.A. de; Slijper, F.M.E.; Verkerk, P.H.; Spronsen, F.J. van

    2000-01-01

    Thirty patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU) between 8 and 20 years of age were compared with 30 controls, matched individually for age, sex, and educational level of both parents, on behaviour rating scales for parents and teachers as well as a school achievement scale.

  18. Behaviour and school achievement in patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, BA; Kalverboer, AF; van der Meere, JJ; de Jong, LWA; Slijper, FME; Verkerk, PH; van Spronsen, FJ

    2000-01-01

    Thirty patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU) between 8 and 20 years of age were compared with 30 controls, matched individually for age, sex, and educational level of both parents, on behaviour rating scales for parents and teachers as well as a school achievement scale.

  19. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  20. Latium Vetus in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessandri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present an in-depth analysis of the socio-economic dynamics that took place from the Bronze Age until the middle of the eighth century BC, in the Latium Vetus (Italy). To understand the archaeological record, knowledge of the transformations through time of the various lan

  1. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  2. Specific characteristics of abnormal general movements are associated with functional outcome at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Bos, A.F; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of general movements (GMs) is a non-invasive tool to identify at early age infants at risk for developmental disorders. AIM: To investigate whether specific characteristics of definitely abnormal GMs are associated with developmental outcome at school age. STUDY

  3. Specific characteristics of abnormal general movements are associated with functional outcome at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Assessing the quality of general movements (GMs) is a non-invasive tool to identify at early age infants at risk for developmental disorders. Aim: To investigate whether specific characteristics of definitely abnormal GMs are associated with developmental outcome at school age. Study

  4. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  5. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  6. Specific characteristics of abnormal general movements are associated with functional outcome at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of general movements (GMs) is a non-invasive tool to identify at early age infants at risk for developmental disorders. AIM: To investigate whether specific characteristics of definitely abnormal GMs are associated with developmental outcome at school age. STUDY DES

  7. Early to Bed, Early to Rise a Back-To-School Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160532.html Early to Bed, Early to Rise a Back-to-School Challenge ... idea. Allow your kids some quiet time before bed to unwind. "That can include relaxing activities, such ...

  8. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  9. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past ... offices, clinics, and sometimes in schools. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  10. Early Age Fracture Mechanics and Cracking of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Modern high performance concretes have low water cement ratios and do often include silica fume. Also early age high strength cements are often applied and when all these factors sum up, it turns out that the cracking sensibility is dramatically increased in com- parison with ordinary concrete...... if applied in early age. The results are only valid after 24 hours for fast and normal hardening cements and after 48 hours for slow hardening cements. This is con¯rmed in a finite element model. The fracture properties of early age concrete have been determined. The framework of the investigations has been...

  11. Cracking Tendency of Restrained Concrete at Early Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Hengjing; SU Anshuang; GAO Xiaojian; TAO Qi

    2008-01-01

    A modified testing system characterized by full automation, steady operation and high accuracy of strain and stress measurements was developed to determine the cracking tendency of high strength concrete (HSC) in restrained condition at early ages. The shrinkage stress and the tensile creep behavior of HSC at early ages were investigated. The influence of W/C ratio and curing conditions on the early-age shrinkage stress and tensile creep was evaluated. It was found that the lower W/C ratio and drying curing condition resulted in higher shrinkage stress, stress induced tensile creep and greater cracking tendency.

  12. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  13. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  14. School Communication in the Age of Google

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Kitty; Carnes, Meg

    2012-01-01

    The debate about social media in schools--about should we or should we not--is already over. Social media is here to stay. The only relevant question now is how long it will take school leaders to adopt new ways and adapt the new technologies to support teaching, learning, and communication among the adults in schools. For schools to pretend that…

  15. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  16. The Relevance of Media Education in Primary Schools in Hong Kong in the Age of New Media: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this age of new media, children are exposed to media messages at an early age. What can we do when the mass media exert such a great influence on children? One proposal has been for the introduction of a new school subject: media education. Though media education has not been part of the official curriculum in Hong Kong, some schools, both…

  17. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  18. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  19. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Noirfontaine M.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs, especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP, have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  20. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  1. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    OpenAIRE

    De Noirfontaine M.N.; Mounanga P.; Khelidj A.; Dunstetter F.; Cherkaoui K.; Courtial M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on early literacy skills across school grade contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. 'A', 'B') often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school grades. Participants included twins drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading (n = 1313 pairs) aged 4 to 10 years during the 2006-07 school year. Early literacy skills were assessed with DIBELS subtests: Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF). School grade data were retrieved from the Florida Department of Education. Multi-group analyses were conducted separately for subsamples defined by 'A' or 'non-A' schools, controlling for school-level socioeconomic status. Results indicated significant etiological differences on pre-reading skills (ISF, LNF, and PSF), but not word-level reading skills (ORF and NWF). There was a consistent trend of greater environmental influences on pre-reading skills in non-A schools, arguably representing 'poorer' environmental contexts than the A schools. Importantly, this is the case outside of resources linked with school-level SES, indicating that something about the direct environment on pre-reading skills in the non-A school context is more variable than for A schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. On Early Age Crack Formation in FRC Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The problem of early age crack formation in FRC slabs due to restrained temperature and shrinkage deformations, is given an analytical treatment. A model taking into account the ageing properties of the tensile softening curve and the continued development in the temperature and shrinkage...... deformations after crack initiation, is presented. Based on this model a design strategy for FRC slabs is outlined....

  4. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  5. School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddinger, Lucy; Forbush, Janet

    The National Alliance Concerned with School-Age Parents (NACSAP) is a private, non-profit, multidisciplinary membership organization specializing in technical assistance to those working with school-age parents, young families at risk, and sexually active youth. This publication represents a compilation of information relating to adolescent…

  6. What happens after you drop out? Transition to adulthood among early school-leavers in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Utomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of young people dropping out of school prior to completing secondary schooling remains a nationwide problem in Indonesia. While it is commonly assumed that early school-leavers will become child workers, in fact little is known about their transition to adulthood. Objective: Using retrospective data from a sample of 799 young adults (ages 20-34 in Greater Jakarta who dropped out of school by age 16, this paper investigates their patterns of activity and employment in the adolescent years following their exit from the school system, the timing and patterns of reaching various markers of adulthood, and their current life situations. Results: Less than a quarter of early school-leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. Instead about 30Š neither worked nor studied between the ages of 12-18. The likelihood of experiencing idleness was highest at age 13 and was relatively higher for females than males. Among those with early work experience the majority worked in the manufacturing industry, as domestic servants, or as informal traders. Early school-leavers left their parental home, married, and became parents at a younger age compared to those who left school at ages 17-19. Conclusions: Female early school-leavers are likely to spend a longer time economically and educationally inactive during their formative years, progress faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return to school, relative to their male counterparts. Qualitative insights suggest that adolescent dropouts who enter employment early are better off in their young adulthood than those who experience inactivity prior to adulthood.

  7. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    ) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...... inactivity from age 50 to 60 to 70 on disability at age 75 when adjusting for functional ability at age 70. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for disability among old people. Thus, old people should be encouraged to take up and maintain physical training throughout the aging process....

  8. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  9. Computer-Based Assessment of School Readiness and Early Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Beno; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, József

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of using online tests for the assessment of school readiness and for monitoring early reasoning. Four tests of a face-to-face-administered school readiness test battery (speech sound discrimination, relational reasoning, counting and basic numeracy, and deductive reasoning) and a paper-and-pencil inductive…

  10. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  11. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  12. Beginners' Progress in Early Arithmetic in the Swedish Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gota

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on spontaneous knowledge-building in the field of "the arithmetic "of" the child." The aim is to investigate the conceptual progress of fifteen children during their early school years in the compulsory school. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of "multiple clinical…

  13. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  14. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  15. School Building in Early Development. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    This bulletin, concerned mainly with the educational problems in developing lands, focuses on school development, the future of education, and the schools that will have to be built to meet the needs of the future. The report deals with problems arising from the present rates of dropout in traditional primary education, and proposes possible…

  16. Lessons Learned: How Early College High Schools Offer a Pathway for High School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan; Vickers, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Early College High Schools Initiative became a reality across the United States for students and educators looking for ways to improve student graduation rates, college attendance, and overall student achievement. This mixed method case study found that (a) the early college high school environment supported the academic success of…

  17. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  18. Infant brain responses associated with reading-related skills before school and at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, P H T; Hämäläinen, J A; Guttorm, T K; Eklund, K M; Salminen, H; Tanskanen, A; Torppa, M; Puolakanaho, A; Richardson, U; Pennala, R; Lyytinen, H

    2012-01-01

    In Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia, we have investigated neurocognitive processes related to phonology and other risk factors of later reading problems. Here we review studies in which we have investigated whether dyslexic children with familial risk background would show atypical auditory/speech processing at birth, at six months and later before school and at school age as measured by brain event-related potentials (ERPs), and how infant ERPs are related to later pre-reading cognitive skills and literacy outcome. One half of the children came from families with at least one dyslexic parent (the at-risk group), while the other half belonged to the control group without any familial background of dyslexia. Early ERPs were correlated to kindergarten age phonological processing and letter-naming skills as well as phoneme duration perception, reading and writing skills at school age. The correlations were, in general, more consistent among at-risk children. Those at-risk children who became poor readers also differed from typical readers in the infant ERP measures at the group level. ERPs measured before school and at the 3rd grade also differed between dyslexic and typical readers. Further, speech perception at behavioural level differed between dyslexic and typical readers, but not in all dyslexic readers. These findings suggest persisting developmental differences in the organization of the neural networks sub-serving auditory and speech perception, with cascading effects on later reading related skills, in children with familial background for dyslexia. However, atypical auditory/speech processing is not likely a sufficient reason by itself for dyslexia but rather one endophenotype or risk factor. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Early School Leavers and Social Disadvantage in Spain: From Books to Bricks and Vice-Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Claudia; Dooly, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    It can be argued that in Spain there is a relationship between the high rates of early school leaving (ESL) and inactive or unemployed young people, as is evidenced by the current situation in which over half the working population aged 25 or younger is unemployed, many having completed compulsory education only. ESL and its social and economic…

  20. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  1. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M.; Bolander, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. PMID:28772590

  2. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  3. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  4. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  5. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  6. Biological age as a basis for determining prenozological states in elementary school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko T.G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of determining the biological age (BA in elementary school-age children as an important criterion for prenozological diagnostics is justified from the theoretical as well as practical prospective. The classification of prenozological states based on the BA is presented. The experiment features data of 159 children aged 7-10 years. Analyses of the obtained mean functional age (FA data shows deviation from the calendar age (CA in all age and gender groups which enables to diagnose prenozological state of elementary school-age children.

  7. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  8. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  9. Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Analysis of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with mathematical models for concrete at early age. In the hardening process chemical reactions take place and the concrete skeleton is created. The processes changes the moisture content and produces heat. The associated temperature rise gives expansion of the material which may...

  10. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  11. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C. (Chao); Cahill, N.D. (Nathan D.); Arbabshirani, M.R. (Mohammad R.); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Baum, S.A. (Stefi A.); Michael, A.M. (Andrew M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFunctional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood

  12. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  13. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

  14. Point of Proof: A Template for Evaluating Early College High Schools and Demonstrating Their Value to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Early College High Schools are unique, almost counter intuitive, creations. By design, they are to enable low income, minority, and even low performing students to earn a high school diploma and up to two years of college or an Associate Degree simultaneously. In order for this to happen youth, often as young as 14 or 15 years of age, must begin…

  15. Manifestation and coping aggressiveness in the pre-school age

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis occupies with manifestation of aggressive behaviour in kindergartens and designs ways how to prevent their implications. Theoretical part is about aggressiveness as a problem of present society with accent to the pre-school and primary school age, to its manifestations, implications and presumption to its coping. Practical part contains observation of aggressiveness in the kindergarten by pre-school teachers, development is made as a question {--} form. It contains games and a...

  16. Early Learning: Readiness for School. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Current research seeks to determine if today's pre-K programs provide strong returns on investment similar to the returns from the classic 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. These were known for the positive academic effects that children experienced as they moved through school. Policy-makers…

  17. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…

  18. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  19. Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management,…

  20. [Stress in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, R G

    1994-10-01

    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  1. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  2. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  3. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... on children's family characteristics, parents' socio-economic characteristics; and their dietary habits.

  4. The Prevention of Childhood Anxiety and Promotion of Resilience among Preschool-Aged Children: A Universal School Based Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticich, Sarah A. J.; Barrett, Paula M.; Silverman, Wendy; Lacherez, Philippe; Gillies, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of the "Fun FRIENDS" programme, a school-based, universal preventive intervention for early childhood anxiety and promotion of resilience delivered by classroom teachers. Participants (N = 488) included children aged 4-7 years attending 1 of 14 Catholic Education schools in Brisbane,…

  5. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Normative value of spleen size among school age children is important for objective assessment of the ... subjects were recruited from some primary and secondary schools within Nsukka metropolis and also ... technology have advanced the use of this modality ..... textbook of body measurement for sports and.

  6. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  7. [Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among preschool- and school-aged pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonyte, Zaneta; Kacerauskiene, Justina; Budryte, Brigita; Keizeris, Tadas; Junevicius, Jonas; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials. A study of 243 preschool- and 300 school-aged pupils was conducted during 2003-2004. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was made with plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk). A total of 292 (53.8%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified (113 (46.5%) from preschool- and 179 (59.7%) from school-aged pupils). The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool-aged pupils varied from 46.5% to 47%. It increased to 59.0% (P>0.05) among schoolchildren aged from 11 to 15 years and to 73.0% (Ppreschool-aged and four (2.2%) from school-aged pupils. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains with beta-lactamase activity increased from 70.7 to 76.6% in preschool-aged pupils, and it varied from 72.0 to 79.0% in school-aged pupils (P>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (32.2-43.4%) were prevailing; nontypable Staphylococcus aureus strains made up 19.2-33.6%. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus among preschool-aged children is 41.7 to 48.8%, and it increases among 9th-12th-grade pupils (73.0%, Ppreschool- and school-aged pupils. Pupils were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to phage group III phagotype 83A and 77.

  8. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  9. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  10. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Drew H. Bailey; Siegler, Robert S.; David C Geary

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first...

  11. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  12. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cahill, Nathan D; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; White, Tonya; Baum, Stefi A; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6670 FC measures). rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed. We report the following findings. (1) Males exhibited greater FC than females in 1352 FC measures (1025 survived Bonferroni correction; [Formula: see text]). In 641 FC measures, females exhibited greater FC than males but none survived Bonferroni correction. Significant FC differences were mainly present in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Although the average FC values for males and females were significantly different, FC values of males and females exhibited large overlap. (2) Age effects were present only in 29 FC measures and all significant age effects showed higher FC in younger subjects. Age and sex differences of FC remained significant after controlling for cognitive measures. (3) Although sex [Formula: see text] age interaction did not survive multiple comparison correction, FC in females exhibited a faster cross-sectional decline with age. (4) Male brains were more locally clustered in all lobes but the cerebellum; female brains had a higher clustering coefficient at the whole-brain level. Our results indicate that although both male and female brains show small-world network characteristics, male brains were more segregated and female brains were more integrated. Findings of this study further our understanding of FC in early adulthood and provide evidence to support that age and sex should be controlled for in FC studies of young adults.

  13. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  14. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress.

  15. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  16. Moulding Faces at an Early Age-A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Sunil; Mathew, Neethu; Parambath, Anvar Kizhakke; Madhusudanan, Amla

    2016-01-01

    Certain malocclusions have to be treated at an early age to avoid surgeries for the correction in the future. Introduction of functional appliances has reduced the elimination and correction of skeletal as well as dental discrepancies. Proper case selection taking into consideration skeletal and dental age with the use of various diagnostic aids helps us to identify and treat the malocclusions before it is too late. In this case series, we report three patients with skeletal jaw malrelationship treated with functional and orthopaedic appliances. PMID:27656599

  17. Honour and Fighting Social Advancement in the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the importance of military service in social advancement, here understood as filling the role of “prince” in feudal law and thus participating in the government of an estate, in the transition from the Late Middle Ages to the Renaissance or Early Modern Age. In the context of a city burgher or a petty noble or knight advancing into a government role, did honour require that the individual have experience in fighting – in war, military organisation and leadership? How did mercenaries figure? What role, if any, did Fechtmeister, Fechtbücher, Fechtschulen or Kriegsbücher play?

  18. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  19. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  20. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  1. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  2. Predicting School Readiness: The Validity of Developmental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the predictive validity of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test with 84 kindergarten-age children found the procedure effective in predicting child success or failure in kindergarten and that within four-six years the chronological age of children entering kindergarten is unrelated to eventual success of failure in…

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  4. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  5. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  6. Limited motor performance and minor neurological dysfunction at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor performance and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at school age. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-three children (158 boys, 95 girls; mean age 8 years and 7 months) of whom 167 children received mainstream education and 86 children special educatio

  7. Nordic and Celtic: religion in southern Scandinavia during the late bronze age and early iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of modern archeological research it is today possible to gain much information even from non-written material, This paper covers the late bronze age and early iron age, ca. 1000 B.C. —O. It is based on material from Denmark, the Southwest of Sweden, and the Southeast of Norway. This region formed a cultural unity since the sea bound the area together. Our main sources of knowledge of Nordic religion during this time span are votive offerings and rock-carvings. During the bronze age and early iron age the Nordic peasant population had intensive contacts with the Southeastern and Centralparts of Europe. A great quantity of imported objects bear evidence of widespread connections. The inhabitants of the Nordic area not only brought home objects, but also ideas and religious conceptions. This is clearly reflected in the iconography. The cultures with which connections were upheld and from which ideas were introduced were those of Hallstatt and La Tène. They were both Celtic iron age cultures prospering in Central Europe at the same time as the late bronze age and early iron age in the Nordic area. This means that the new symbols in the Nordic area come from a Celtic environment. Consequently, Celtic religion such as it may be found in the pre-Roman period, can clarify the meaning of the conceptions, linked with these symbols.

  8. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  9. Control of Early Age Concrete. Phase 3: Creep in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the "Road Directorate Concrete" at early ages are studied. Creep in tension at 24 and 72 maturity hours are measured on dogbone shaped specimens. The development of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength are measured with a method developed here. The results...... are compared to compression values and splitting strengths. It is found that the properties of creep in tension are similar to the properties in compression. Further the influence form temperature on creep is found to be significant....

  10. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  11. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  12. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  13. Parental perception and management of school-age children's fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A R

    1988-05-01

    Fever is a major childhood complaint. Parents have numerous means at their disposal to assess and manage childhood fevers. Previous studies of parents of infants and preschoolers have uncovered parental fears and misconceptions surrounding fever ("fever phobia"). A study of 84 parents of otherwise well school-age children revealed that these misconceptions remain, regardless of the child's age or parental level of education. The nurse practitioner must understand both parental fears and the body-temperature dynamics of children to successfully access and manage fever in the school-age child.

  14. Parental background, early scholastic ability, the allocation into secondary school tracks and language skills at the age of 15 years in a highly differentiated system: a test of the contradictions between a two- or three-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Dunne (2010) and Dronkers, van der Velden & Dunne (2011) introduced a three-level model: countries, schools, and students. They showed that school characteristics like socioeconomic composition and ethnic diversity have substantial effects on achievement levels and also affect the relation

  15. An Examination of Primary School Attendance and Completion among Secondary School Age Adolescents in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Leone was ravaged by a civil war between 1991 and 2002. Since the end of the war, it has witnessed an unprecedented increase in school enrollments. Although school enrollment has increased, the number of school age children who are out of school remains high. The focus of international agencies is on children of primary school age, yet a…

  16. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  17. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  19. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  20. Monitoring early age cementitious materials using ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerson, Jacob L.

    The evaluation of early age concrete is critical for reducing construction times and ensuring quality. In this study, the use of ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the development of early age cementitious materials is investigated. A torsional wave is transmitted and received through a waveguide that is embedded in early age mortar or concrete. As the cementitious material sets and hardens, the received wave(s) change, indicating the transition from a semifluid to a solid state. This thesis proposes two systems. The first system is a through-transmission system; a wave is transmitted on one end of an embedded waveguide using a sensor arrangement and then it is received on the opposite end of the rod with another sensor. This approach monitors the attenuation of the fundamental torsional wave mode, resulting from the leakage of energy from the cylindrical steel rod to the surrounding cementitious material. The evolution of the material's properties is related to the energy leakage or attenuation of the guided wave. The second system is a pulse-echo system; a wave is transmitted on one end of a partially embedded waveguide via a sensor arrangement that also receives the reflected signals. This approach monitors both the reflection from the end of the rod and the reflection from the point where the waveguide enters the material. The development of the cementitious material's mechanical properties is related to both the energy leaked into the surrounding material and the energy reflected at the point of entry. The ability of this method to only require access to one side of the specimen makes it attractive for monitoring early age cementitious materials in the field. Experiments were performed on mixtures with varying water-cement ratios (w/c = 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60), chemical admixtures (accelerant and retardant), mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash), and coarse aggregate (pea gravel). The time of setting and compressive strength of the various mixtures

  1. DISABILITY OF 'STUDENT IN SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERROTTA Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools should play a significant role in spreading the message understanding and acceptance of disability rights, helping to dispel fears, myths and prejudices, supporting the efforts of the whole community.Should develop and disseminate educational resources to support students to develop an awareness individual's disability or that of others, helping them to consider in a positive diversity. It is necessary to achieve the goal of 'education for all in compliance the principles of full participation and equality. Education has a roleinstrumental in building from future for all, both for the individual, both for the person as members of society and the world of work. The education system must therefore be the central place that will ensure personal development and social inclusion, that allows children and young people to be as independent as possible. Theeducation system is the first step toward a society of 'integration. [the Declaration of Madrid, Non-discrimination as affirmative action equal social integration, Madrid, 2002

  2. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of schooling – and in this case the history of professionalization of teachers encountering the 'immigrant of school age'. Hence, the paper aims to write a history of classifications, normalizations, modifications and expertise analyzed through the history of subjects (i.e. foreign-language or bilingual...... teachers, mother tongue teachers, students, immigrant students, bilingual students, ethnic minority students), practices (i.e. grouping, bussing, exoticizing, integration, Danish language teaching, mother tongue teaching), and discourses/epistemes (i.e. linguistics, anthropology, learning capabilities......This paper investigates how and why the appearance of the "immigrant of school age" in Danish basic schooling from 1970-2012 forced and/or inspired Danish teachers to specialize their understanding and professionalize their instruction of this new target group of educational provision...

  3. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  4. Core competencies and the prevention of school failure and early school leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; O'Brennan, Lindsey M; McNeely, Clea A

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase youths' likelihood of successfully completing high school. This chapter applies the core competencies framework to the promotion of youths' success within the school environment. We conclude with a brief review of evidence-based prevention strategies that address the five competencies and identify avenues for future research.

  5. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2009-02-01

    In breastfed infants, iron deficiency at deficiency. The study assessed the effect of early iron supplementation of breastfed infants and tested the hypothesis that iron supplementation enhances iron status. Potential adverse effects (tolerance and growth) were monitored. The prospective, placebo-controlled study involved exclusively breastfed infants who were randomly assigned at 1 mo of age to iron (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38). Iron (7 mg/d as multivitamin preparation with ferrous sulfate) or placebo (multivitamin preparation without iron) was given from 1 to 5.5 mo of age. Complementary foods were allowed at >4 mo. Infants were followed to 18 mo. Blood concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, and red cell indexes were determined at bimonthly intervals. Stool consistency and color and feeding behavior were recorded. Iron supplementation caused modest augmentation of iron status during the intervention at 4 and 5.5 mo but not thereafter. Iron supplements were well tolerated and had no measurable effect on growth. One infant developed iron deficiency anemia by 5.5 mo of age. Plasma ferritin and hemoglobin tracked over time. Early iron supplementation of breastfed infants is feasible and transiently increases iron status but not hematologic status. Iron is tolerated by most infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is low (3%) among unsupplemented breastfed infants in the first 6 mo of life.

  6. School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: the role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas R; Iachan, Ronaldo; Overpeck, Mary; Ross, James G; Gross, Lori A

    2006-09-01

    School connectedness includes liking school and positive relations with teachers and peers. School connectedness is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods that are related to school connectedness. In the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, school connectedness was reported by 13,207 students (grades 6-10) in 340 schools. HBSC measured a variety of student characteristics. Characteristics of schools were culled from data maintained by Quality Education Data, and school neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2000 decennial census. Associations between connectedness and student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics were estimated using hierarchical linear models. Characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods were associated with school connectedness. Connectedness was greater among younger students, females, students with better academic performance and greater extracurricular involvement, students with greater self-rated physical attractiveness, students with more friends, students from 2-parent families, and students whose parents were more involved with school. Connectedness was greater in smaller schools, more racially homogeneous schools, and schools with more students from relatively wealthy households. School connectedness was higher in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of non-US citizens. As the percent of renters in the neighborhood increased beyond 20%, school connectedness tended to decrease. The findings point to possible strategies for fostering school connectedness.

  7. How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy at an early age has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents. Postulated mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include alterations in the relative dynamics of hormone and growth factor-initiated cell fate-determining signaling pathways within the hierarchically organized mammary gland epithelium. Recent studies in epithelial cell subpopulations isolated from mouse and human mammary glands have shown that early pregnancy decreases the proportion of hormone receptor-positive cells and causes pronounced changes in gene expression as well as decreased proliferation in stem/progenitor cells. The changes include downregulation of Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. These new findings highlight the importance of cell-cell interactions within the mammary gland epithelium in modulating cancer risk and provide potential targets for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  8. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar

    2011-01-01

    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  9. ACTUAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL MEALS, AGE APPROPRIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current state of school meals, determination of ways of optimization for food, biological values and balanced school meals relevant age-related physiological needs. The greatest contribution to the optimization of school meals can make enriched products of mass consumption, first of necessity, the need and favorite products to children. In this regard, the fol-lowing tasks were defined: analysis of normative documents on creation of school meals , the relevant age-related physiological needs for nutrients and energy for protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and organic acids; definition of the balance of the products of the school menu categories for children aged 7-11 years, 11 - 17; study of the composition of food school menu; comparison of total deviation calorie Breakfast, lunch and development of measures on optimization of the system of school nutrition. In the structure of nutrition of children and adolescents major role bread, drinks, confectionery products as are the sources of energy and nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, macro - and microelements, organic acids, including polyunsaturated fatty CI slot, Therefore one of the ways of solving of optimization problems of preschool and school meals are of great TRANS-perspective bakery and confectionery products, drinks of high food and biological value and coordination and composition, as on the basic structural elements and micronutrients obtained innovative technology complex processing of raw sources with maximum preservation of their original nutritional value. TA-thus, the performed literature analysis found that rational nutrition of schoolchildren aimed at prevention of alimentary (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, allergic diseases that meet energy, plastic and other needs of the body, provides the necessary level of metabolism.

  10. Observations on early school failure in Zulu children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frets-Van Buuren, J J; Letuma, E; Daynes, G

    1990-02-03

    The outcome of the screening of 2,190 children who had to repeat the school entry grades (Substandard A) in 25 junior primary schools in two KwaZulu townships is reported and the implications are discussed. The high number of repeaters did not appear to be due to an excess of mentally retarded children, the percentage being similar to that which could be expected in such a community world-wide. Difficulty in intelligence testing was experienced, but we describe how this was overcome by testing speed of learning. Visual defects, hearing defects and having no food before school accounted for the failure of many repeaters. Lack of preschool teaching by parents and schools and very strict discipline necessitated by large classes and a wide range in ages, which both led to anxiety on the part of the pupils, and sending children to school at too young an age were regarded as additional factors. Simple interventions were suggested to the school teachers; more than 1,000 pupils were followed up, with encouraging results.

  11. Declining age of puberty of school girls in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Atchariya Chanpong; Nuttaporn Tassanakijpanich; Hutcha Sriplung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Declines in the onset age of secondary sexual development have been reported in a number of recent studies in western and Asian countries. A study of Hat-Yai school girls in 1994 in Thailand showed that the ages at thelarche and menarche were 9.9 and 12.4 years, respectively. This study was to determine whether there was a decline in the average age of puberty in Hat-Yai school girls from 1994 to 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2140 healthy Hat-Yai school girls, aged 6-18 years, from June 2011 to March 2012. Breast and pubic hair development was assessed by the Tanner staging method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median ages of different stages of breast and pubic hair development, and the age of menarche. Results: The median ages of girls having thelarche and menarche were 9.6 (95% CI, 9.4-9.8) and 12.2 (95% CI, 11.9-12.4) years, which declined from 9.9 (95% CI, 9.7-10.1) and 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.2-12.6) in the 1994 study respectively, however, without statistical significance. The youngest ages of girls who had breast stage 2 and menarche were 7.2 and 9.2 years, respectively. The fi nal height at age 14 years in this cohort (157.3 cm) was 2.3 cm greater than that of girls in 1994 (155.0 cm). Conclusions: From 1994 to 2012, the age at onset of thelarche and menarche of girls in Hat-Yai municipality declined by 0.2 and 0.3 years, respectively. The earlier age at onset of puberty had no effect on fi nal adult height.

  12. SCHOOL AGED THERAPEUTIC GROUP THERAPY IN CHILDREN- PARENTS AND- TEACHERS INCREASED MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Istiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School aged called as intelectual time in industrial development stage. Industrial development stage is important in human development stages. The purpose of this tudy was to know the effect of school aged therapeutic group therapy to mental development. Method: The design was quasi experimental pre-post test with control group. One hundred and sixteen children at 9–11 years old were used as sample of this study that divided to 38 children on first intervention group (childparents, 36 children on second intervention group (child-teacher and 40 children on control group. Result: Result of the study showed that cognitive, psychomotor and industrial development ability had increased significantly after therapeutic group therapy was given (p-value < 0.005 in intervention group. Discussion: The study was recomended in child-parents and child-teacher to increase mental development in school aged children.

  13. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  14. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  15. Early Sexual Debut and Associated Factors among In-school Adolescents in Six Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (< age 15 years) among 15-year old in-school adolescents in six Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: The total sample included 9948 school children aged primarily 13–16 years from nationally representative samples from six Caribbean countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and substance use, unintentional injuries and violence, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socio-economic status variables. Results: Approximately one-fourth of the sample (26.9%) had experienced sexual debut before age 15 years, 37.2% among boys and 16.9% among girls. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that male gender, substance use (smoking and alcohol use), having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, sedentary behaviour, truancy and lack of parental or guardian attachment were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut. The risk factors identified were consistent with the Problem Behaviour Theory, which can be incorporated into broader sexual health promotion programmes. PMID:26624586

  16. Middle Grades' School Models and Their Impact on Early Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…

  17. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  18. Middle Grades' School Models and Their Impact on Early Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…

  19. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  20. Early detection of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Galbinur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify factors associated with early detection of choroidal neovascularization CNV in clinical practice.Methods: Seventy six AMD patients who had history of CNV in one eye and presented with CNV in the second eye and evaluated for association with visual acuity (VA at time of presentation. Demographics, clinical data and lesion characteristics were retrospectively collected.Results: Better VA was associated with history of CNV in the fellow eye (p<0.0001, adherence to follow-up every four-months (p=0.015, younger age (p=0.03, smaller lesion (p<0.0001, and non-subfoveal localization (p=0.048. VA of the fellow eye did not correlate with VA at presentation with CNV.Conclusion: these data suggest that experience of CNV, regardless of VA, facilitates early diagnosis in the fellow eye. Adherence to follow-up in the routine clinic setting also facilitates early detection of CNV.

  1. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of integration', and as such act on behalf of the imagined collective good (Larsen 2012). This educational optimism is understood in terms of the development of the universal welfare state (Sandin 2012) and its rational engineering of social life (Petersen 1997). Petersen (1997) argues that the government...... the archive seems saturated. This chain search begins with the professional newsletter, UFE Nyt (newsletter of the organization for teachers of bilingual students, 1977-2006) as it stands out as a key player in the Danish field of educational interventions vis-á-vis the 'immigrant of school age......This paper investigates how and why the appearance of the "immigrant of school age" in Danish basic schooling from 1970-2012 forced and/or inspired Danish teachers to specialize their understanding and professionalize their instruction of this new target group of educational provision...

  2. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  3. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  4. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  5. Teaching in the Age of Accountability: Restrained by School Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasebø, Turid Skarre; Midtsundstad, Jorunn H.; Willbergh, Ilmi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how "teaching communication" in the classroom is connected to school culture. In the age of accountability, the outcome focus force to the forefront, a "blame game" which either blames students' achievements on the teachers and teacher education, or the students and their socio-economic background. We…

  6. Early childhood otitis media and later school performance - A prospective cohort study of associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Vincent; Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Niclasen, Janni; Lous, Jørgen; Homøe, Preben

    2017-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common disease in childhood and hearing loss (HL) is the most common complication. Prolonged HL may lead to language delay and cognitive difficulties. However, the consequences of HL due to OM are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the possible association between number of OM episodes in childhood and self-rated school performance controlling for potential confounders. Prospectively gathered systematic interview data on OM episodes in early childhood and school performance at 11 years of age were obtained from The Danish National Birth Cohort, involving >100,000 individual pregnancies and their offspring. We defined four exposure groups (0, 1-3, 4-6 and ≥7 OM episodes) and assessed general school performance, mathematics and literacy. Possible confounders were recognized à priori and associations were determined using proportional odds regression. Out of 94,745 successful pregnancies, 35,946 children without malformations and their parents completed a questionnaire at age 11 years. No associations were observed between number of OM episodes and school performance, even in children with ≥7 OM episodes. This national birth-cohort study did not support the hypothesis that the number of OM episodes in childhood is associated with reduced self-reported school performance in children at 11 years of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal Study of Children in Somerset County Who Were Permitted to Enter School Early under Act 312 of the 1949 Pennsylvania General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James J.; Breniman, Emery R.

    The academic careers of three groups of children were followed from grade 1 to grade 12 to determine the effectiveness of early school admission criteria. Children with chronological ages of less than 5 years, 7 months could qualify for early admission into first grade if they achieved a mental age of six years on the Stanford Binet, Form L. Group…

  8. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  9. A school-aged child with delayed reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Zentall, S; Shaywitz, S E; Shaywitz, B A

    1999-10-01

    During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7.5-year-old African American second-grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent teacher-parent conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared with others in his class. She said that he had difficulty sounding out some words correctly. In addition, he could not recall words he had read the day before. The teacher commented that Darren was a gregarious, friendly child with better-than-average verbal communication skills. His achievement at math was age-appropriate; spelling, however, was difficult for Darren, with many deleted letters and reversals of written letters. A focused history did not reveal any risk factors for a learning problem in the prenatal or perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and social milestones were achieved on time. Darren had not experienced any head injury, loss of consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He had several friends, and his father denied any behavioral problems at home or at school. His teacher completed a DSM-IV-specific behavioral survey for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It did not show any evidence of ADHD. Darren's father completed 1 year of college and is currently the manager of a neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a high school education; she recalled that she found it difficult to complete assignments that required reading or writing. She is employed as a waitress. Darren does not have any siblings. The pediatrician performed a complete physical examination, the results of which were normal, including visual acuity, audiometry, and a neurological examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to pause several times in response to questions or commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose testing and a request to assess tandem gait, directions required repetition. Overall, he was pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit. His

  10. Epidemiology of enuresis among school-age children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya

    2005-10-01

    Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.

  11. Preterm birth, age at school entry and educational performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Odd

    Full Text Available To investigate if the lack of gestational age correction may explain some of the school failure seen in ex-preterm infants.A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. The primary outcome was a low Key Stage 1 score (KS1 score at age 7 or having special educational needs (SEN. Exposure groups were defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation, n = 722 or term (37-42 weeks, n = 11,268. Conditional regression models were derived, matching preterm to term infants on date of birth (DOB, expected date of delivery (EDD or expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing covariate data.When matching for DOB, infants born preterm had an increased odds of a low KS1 score (OR 1.73 (1.45-2.06 and this association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.57 (1.25-1.97. The association persisted in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.53 (1.21-1.94 but attenuated substantially after additionally restricting to those infants who entered school at the same time as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.25 (0.98-1.60. A compatible reduction in the population attributable risk fraction was seen from 4.60% to 2.12%, and year of school entry appeared to modify the association between gestational age and the risk of a poor KS1 score (p = 0.029.This study provides evidence that the school year placement and assessment of ex-preterm infants based on their actual birthday (rather than their EDD may increase their risk of learning difficulties with corresponding school failure.

  12. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law.

  13. Predicting Early School Achievement with the EDI: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    School readiness tests are significant predictors of early school achievement. Measuring school readiness on a large scale would be necessary for the implementation of intervention programs at the community level. However, assessment of school readiness is costly and time consuming. This study assesses the predictive value of a school readiness…

  14. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  15. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  16. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  17. Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Flannery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

  18. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  19. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  20. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  1. Early manifestations of replicative aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim I. Sorokin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully used as a model organism to find genes responsible for lifespan control of higher organisms. As functional decline of higher eukaryotes can start as early as one quarter of the average lifespan, we asked whether S. cerevisiae can be used to model this manifestation of aging. While the average replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae mother cells ranges between 15 and 30 division cycles, we found that resistances to certain stresses start to decrease much earlier. Looking into the mechanism, we found that knockouts of genes responsible for mitochondriato-nucleus (retrograde signaling, RTG1 or RTG3, significantly decrease the resistance of cells that generated more than four daughters, but not of the younger ones. We also found that even young mother cells frequently contain mitochondria with heterogeneous transmembrane potential and that the percentage of such cells correlates with replicative age. Together, these facts suggest that retrograde signaling starts to malfunction in relatively young cells, leading to accumulation of heterogeneous mitochondria within one cell. The latter may further contribute to a decline in stress resistances.

  2. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  3. Early Elementary School Adjustment of Maltreated Children in Foster Care: The Roles of Inhibitory Control and Caregiver Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyoun K.; Yoerger, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 85 maltreated foster children and 56 nonmaltreated community children (M age = 3-6 years) were assessed across kindergarten and first grade to examine the hypothesis that inhibitory control and caregiver involvement mediate associations between a history of maltreatment and foster placement and early school adjustment. Specifically,…

  4. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

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    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  5. Age at Menarche and its Related Factors among School Girls, in Zanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Khoshnevisasl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are differences in the age at menarche in different countries and it seems that in recent decades gradually the age of puberty is declining. The aim of the present study was to determine the age at menarche and its related factors in school girls in Zanjan city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,500 healthy school girls between 6-17 years old who were selected on the basis of a multistage probability sampling. Age at menarche, birth weight, family size, Body Mass Index (BMI, fast food consumption, and physical activity, were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.ResultsOut of 1,500 students, 273 girls (18.2% had experienced menarche with a mean age of 12.6±1.6 (95% confidence interval [C]: 12.4-12.8, and a median age of 13 years. The prevalence of early menarche, was 10.3%, (95% CI: 6.6%-14.1%. A significant association between menarche and BMI, frequency of fast food consumption and birth rank was observed; however, we didn’t find a significant association between physical activity (P>0.05 and birth weight (P>0.05 with menarche. ConclusionThe mean age of menarche in our study was 12.6±1.6 years old, similar to other studies in Iran, and it was significantly associated with higher BMI.

  6. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  7. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  8. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  9. Fetal and childhood growth patterns associated with bone mass in school-age children: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H. Raat (Hein); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight is associated with lower bone accrual in children and peak bone mass in adults. We assessed how different patterns of longitudinal fetal and early childhood growth influence bone properties at school age. In 5431 children participating in a population-based prospective

  10. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  11. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  12. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  13. Longitudinal Predictors of School-Age Academic Achievement: Unique Contributions of Toddler-Age Aggression, Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic…

  14. Early executive control and risk for overweight and obesity in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; James, Tiffany D; Hankey, Maren; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Lundahl, Alyssa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2016-05-17

    An emerging literature suggests that poor executive control (EC) may be associated with clinical weight problems, e.g., body mass index (BMI) for age percentile ≥85 in children. However, our understanding of the impact of EC on overweight and obesity in childhood is limited by the lack of longitudinal studies spanning critical developmental periods and assessing EC using comprehensive performance-based batteries. The current study addresses these limitations in a longitudinal examination of 212 children who completed an extensive laboratory-based EC task battery in preschool (age 4 years and 6 months) and were followed through elementary school (Grades 1 through 4) with objective measures of weight status. The logistic regression results indicate that poorer EC in preschool is associated with significantly greater risk for clinical weight problems (either overweight or obese status, as defined by BMI-for-age percentile ≥ 85) in elementary school, controlling for maternal education. EC in preschool was not significantly associated with risk for obese status, specifically (defined by BMI-for-age percentile ≥ 95), but the trend was in the expected direction. The results suggest that early executive abilities are relevant for children's subsequent health status, with deficits in EC in the critical period of preschool conferring risk for later problems with weight. Based on these findings, early interventions to promote stronger EC may be a promising, yet currently overlooked, component in pediatric obesity prevention efforts.

  15. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

  16. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  17. The Intention to Leave Education Early among Irish Junior Certificate Students: Variation by School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael; Freeney, Yseult

    2011-01-01

    Early school-leaving imposes costs on the individual and society, and is linked to factors including gender, family income and parental education, community deprivation, and academic history. In Ireland, the role of the school in shaping patterns of early school-leaving is unclear. Employing the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) from social…

  18. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  19. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  20. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Money and age in schools: Bullying and power imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Castellanos, Melisa

    2015-05-01

    School bullying continues to be a serious problem around the world. Thus, it seems crucial to clearly identify the risk factors associated with being a victim or a bully. The current study focused in particular on the role that age and socio-economic differences between classmates could play on bullying. Logistic and multilevel analyses were conducted using data from 53,316 5th and 9th grade students from a representative sample of public and private Colombian schools. Higher age and better family socio-economic conditions than classmates were risk factors associated with being a bully, while younger age and poorer socio-economic conditions than classmates were associated with being a victim of bullying. Coming from authoritarian families or violent neighborhoods, and supporting beliefs legitimizing aggression, were also associated with bullying and victimization. Empathy was negatively associated with being a bully, and in some cases positively associated with being a victim. The results highlight the need to take into account possible sources of power imbalances, such as age and socio-economic differences among classmates, when seeking to prevent bullying. In particular, interventions focused on peer group dynamics might contribute to avoid power imbalances or to prevent power imbalances from becoming power abuse. Aggr. Behav. 41:280-293, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effect of the Infant Health and Development Program on special education use at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; Glymour, Maria; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Hehir, Thomas; McCormick, Marie C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of an intensive early intervention on special service use at school-age. The Infant Health and Development Program was a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for low birth weight (special education, remedial reading and math, and speech therapy at age 8 years. We also compared rates of service use between study arms among those with learning disabilities (LDs). There were 875 complete cases at 8-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in risk of special education (risk ratio [RR] 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.15), remedial reading (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68-1.14), remedial math (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.63-1.34), or speech therapy (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.23). The treatment arms did not differ in rates of LDs, and service use for those with LDs was low and unaffected by study group. Early gains in IQ from infant interventions may not protect children as they face the educational demands of grade school. Only a fraction of those having a LD were receiving school-based support services, indicating a high level of unmet need among low birth weight children with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of the Norton High School Early College Program on the Academic Performance of Students at Norton High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Eric Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Norton High School Early College Early College Program on academic measures for students at Norton High School. Measures of achievement include the results of the English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, Social Science, and Science portions of the California Standards Test (CST), Student…

  4. Adaptive behavior and later school achievement in children with early-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Caplan, Rochelle; Baca, Christine B; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether early measures of adaptive behavior are predictive of later school difficulties and achievement in otherwise neurotypical (unimpaired) children with onset of epilepsy during the preschool years. In a prospective cohort study, parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) for children who were aged 5 years or less at epilepsy diagnosis. Eight to 9 years later, the children were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC), the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations of VABS scores with later WRAT and CBCL scores were tested. A total of 108 neurotypical children (64 males, 44 females; mean age at testing 11 y 11 mo, SD 2 y) were studied. After adjustment for IQ and other factors, there was an increase of 0.15 points (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.27 points; p=0.03) and 0.14 points (95% CI 0.0-0.28 points; p=0.05) in WRAT reading and spelling scores for each 1-point increment in the VABS communication score. Corresponding numbers for the VABS socialization score were 0.20 (95% CI 0.08-0.32; p=0.005) and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05-0.29; p=0.005). In neurotypical preschool children with epilepsy, early social and communication scores predict later school performance. These findings raise questions about opportunities for early identification and intervention for children at greatest risk. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  5. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  6. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  7. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  8. Preparing Students for College: The Implementation and Impact of the Early College High School Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Unlu, Fatih; Bartz, Deborah; Silberman, Todd; Scales, W. David; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    As implemented in North Carolina, Early College High Schools are small, autonomous schools designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and are prepared for postsecondary education. Targeted at students who are underrepresented in college, these schools are most frequently located on college campuses and are intended…

  9. Preparing Students for College: The Implementation and Impact of the Early College High School Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Unlu, Fatih; Bartz, Deborah; Silberman, Todd; Scales, W. David; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    As implemented in North Carolina, Early College High Schools are small, autonomous schools designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and are prepared for postsecondary education. Targeted at students who are underrepresented in college, these schools are most frequently located on college campuses and are intended…

  10. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  11. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  12. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  13. Factors associated with school nurses' HPV vaccine attitudes for school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K

    2017-06-01

    School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p < .001). Positive attitudes regarding the HPV vaccine were predicted by higher HPV and vaccine knowledge (β = .096, p < .001) and stronger perceptions of role as opinion leaders for the vaccine (β = .665, p < .001). No other variables were found to be statistically significant. These results suggest knowledge is essential in predicting positive attitudes, but not the strongest predictor as perceptions of role as opinion leaders was more crucial in terms of predicting school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.

  14. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  15. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    evaluate the effect of four extra school-based PE lessons per week on future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children aged 6 to 13(paper III). 4.To examine the prospective associations of cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) and direct and indirect indicators of adiposity with CVD risk factors...... cardiovascular health consequences and linked to subsequent morbidity and mortality in adolescence and adulthood. The issue is of growing concern for public health and therefore an important area for health researchers to address. Physical activity is essential for the wellbeing and normal growth of children...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  16. The Determinants of Early Refractive Error on School-Going Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayaraman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error is a common social issue in every walks of human life, and its prevalence recorded the highest among Chinese population, particularly among people living in southern China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia. Refractive error is the simplest disorder to treat and supposed to cost the effective health care intervention. The present study included 168 Chinese school-going children aged 10 to 12 years; they were selected from different schools of urban Malaysia. It was surprising to see that 112 (66.7% children had the early onset of refractive error; refractive error was also detected late among the primary school or secondary school students. The findings revealed that the determinants of refractive error among Chinese children were personal achievements and machine dependence. The possible reasons for the above significant factors emerged could be attributed to the inbuilt culture and traditions of Chinese parents who insist that their children should be hardworking and focus on school subjects so that their parents allow them to use luxury electronic devices.

  17. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

  18. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  19. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Caton

    Full Text Available Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332 aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy. Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40% who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23% since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

  20. Early plant embryogenesis-dark ages or dark matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Martin; Slane, Daniel; Jürgens, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    In nearly all flowering plants, the basic body plan is laid down during embryogenesis. In Arabidopsis, the crucial cell types are established extremely early as reflected in the stereotypic sequence of oriented cell divisions in the developing young embryo. Research into early embryogenesis was especially focused on the role of the infamous tryptophan derivative auxin in establishing embryo polarity and generating the main body axis. However, it is becoming obvious that the mere link to auxin does not provide any mechanistic understanding of early embryo patterning. Taking recent research into account, we discuss mechanisms underlying early embryonic patterning from an evolutionary perspective.

  1. Permeating the Social Justice Ideals of Equality and Equity within the Context of Early Years: Challenges for Leadership in Multi-Cultural and Mono-Cultural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice,…

  2. What motivates early adolescents for school? A longitudinal analysis of associations between observed teaching and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have

  3. What motivates early adolescents for school? A longitudinal analysis of associations between observed teaching and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have

  4. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  5. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  6. Adaptive behavior and later school achievement in children with early-onset epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Caplan, Rochelle; Baca, Christine B; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether early measures of adaptive behavior are predictive of later school difficulties and achievement in otherwise neurotypical (unimpaired) children with onset of epilepsy during the pre-school years. Method In a prospective cohort study, parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) for children who were aged 5 years or less at epilepsy diagnosis. Eight to nine years later, the children were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC), the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations of VABS scores with later WRAT and CBCL scores were tested. Results A total of 108 neurotypical children (64 males, 44 females; mean age at testing 11y 11mo, SD 2y) were studied. After adjustment for IQ and other factors, there was an increase of 0.15 points (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.27 points; p=0.03) and 0.14 points (95% CI 0.0–0.28 points; p=0.05) in WRAT reading and spelling scores for each 1-point increment in the VABS communication score. Corresponding numbers for the VABS socialization score were 0.20 (95% CI 0.08–0.32; p=0. 005) and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05–0.29; p=0.005). Conclusion In neurotypical preschool children with epilepsy, early social and communication scores predict later school performance. These findings raise questions about opportunities for early identification and intervention for children at greatest risk. PMID:23534842

  7. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  8. 1st International Early Research Career Enhancement School

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Valentin; Rybina, Galina

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research focused on current challenges towards the realization of Biologically Inspired intelligent agents, or Cognitive Architectures (BICA). The chapters are written by both world-recognized experts (including Antonio Chella, Olivier Georgeon, Oliver Kutz, Antonio Lieto, David Vernon, Paul Verschure, and others) and young researchers. Together, they constitute a good mixture of new findings with tutorial-based reviews and position papers, all presented at the First International Early Research Career Enhancement School on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (FIERCES on BICA 2016), held April 21-24 in Moscow, Russia. Most works included here cross boundaries between disciplines: from neuroscience to social science, from cognitive science to robotics, and from bioengineering to artificial intelligence. A special emphasis is given to novel solutions to urgent problems that have been resisting traditional approaches for decades. Intended for providing readers with an up...

  9. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid Chlori

  10. College expectations in high school mitigate weight gain over early adulthood: Findings from a national study of American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Lee, Hedwig; Colabianchi, Natalie; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-07-01

    Research conducted on school-based interventions suggests that school connectedness protects against a variety of risk behaviors, including substance abuse, delinquency and sedentary behavior. The line of research is extended by examining the link between college expectations and early adult weight gain using nationally representative panel data from thirty cohorts of American high school seniors followed prospectively to age 30 in the Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2009). Growth mixture models identified two latent classes of trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from age 19 to 30: a persistently overweight class (BMI ≥ 25) and a second class exhibiting more moderate growth in BMI to age 30. Compared to those who did not expect to graduate from college, students fully expecting to graduate from college had 34% lower odds of being in the persistently overweight class (adjusted odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.54, 0.81), controlling for academic performance and socioeconomic status. Successful prevention of obesity early in the life course is based on a multifactorial approach incorporating strategies that address the contexts in which adolescents are embedded. The school setting may be one avenue where successful educational attachment could have positive consequences for subsequent weight gain in early adulthood. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  11. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... teachers. Danish National Registers were used to measure the outcome of any first time ICD-10 diagnosis for hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit disorder and/or prescription of central stimulants during years 2005-2012. Screening potentials of the SDQ's predictive algorithms were described, and Cox...

  12. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  13. Oral Health Intervention in School-age Children with Oral Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Álvarez Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: malocclusions are considered a major oral health problem and they are mostly associated with oral habits which are not corrected at an early age.Objective: to analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years.Methods: a before and after intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from October 2008 to April 2009. It included children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years who attend the Guerrillero Heroico Primary School of the Area II in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Parents and guardians signed the consent for their children participation in the research. Preventive and therapeutic educational measures were used. The results of the intervention were assessed through a before-and-after interview with children, parents or guardians and educators. Results: the level of awareness of children, parents and teachers increased significantly as well as the correction of oral habits in the majority of children, especially tongue thrusting, the use of feeding bottle and pacifier. Better results were found in females. Dentomaxillofacial deformities diminished after the intervention, primarily upper incisors deviated towards the oral vestibule and increased overjet. Conclusions: educational intervention in school-age children contributed to the correction of oral habits.

  14. Treasure bequest: death and gift in the early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Dominic

    1998-01-01

    Book synopsis: This collection of twenty-two original essays investigates the organising forces of social identity and power in early Medieval Europe, spanning literary and historical texts, artefacts and archeological evidence.

  15. Specific characteristics of abnormal general movements are associated with functional outcome at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Elisa G; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-04-01

    Assessing the quality of general movements (GMs) is a non-invasive tool to identify at early age infants at risk for developmental disorders. To investigate whether specific characteristics of definitely abnormal GMs are associated with developmental outcome at school age. Observational cohort study (long-term follow-up). Parents of 40 children (median age 8.3 years, 20 girls) participated in this follow-up study. In infancy (median corrected age 10 weeks), the children (median gestational age 30.3 weeks; birth weight 1243 g) had shown definitely abnormal GMs according to Hadders-Algra (2004). Information on specific GM characteristics such as the presence of fidgety movements, degree of complexity and variation, and stiff movements, was available (see Hamer et al. 2011). A standardised parental interview (presence of CP, attendance of school for special education, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale to determine functional performance) and questionnaires (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire [DCD-Q] to evaluate mobility and Child Behavior Checklist to assess behaviour) were used as outcome measures. Six children had cerebral palsy (CP), ten children attended a school for special education, and eight children had behavioural problems. Both the absence of fidgety movements and the presence of stiff movements were associated with CP (p=0.001; p=0.003, respectively). Stiff movements were also related to the need of special education (p=0.009). A lack of movement complexity and variation was associated with behavioural problems (p=0.007). None of the GM characteristics were related to DCD-Q scores. The evaluation of fidgety movements and movement stiffness may increase the predictive power of definitely abnormal GMs for motor outcome--in particular CP. This study endorses the notion that the quality of GMs reflects the integrity of the infant's brain, assisting prediction of long-term outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  17. School-Age Child Care Arrangements. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Kreader, J. Lee

    2006-01-01

    School-age children ages 5 through 12 years spend their out-of-school time in many different types of arrangements. In addition to parental care, these include relative care, non-relative care (either in their own or another family's home), center- or school-based programs, sports and extracurricular activities, summer activities, and self-care.…

  18. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  19. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (pschool age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  20. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...... characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA...

  1. Correlation between event-related potential and behavioral problems in early school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%学龄早期注意缺陷多动障碍儿童事件相关电位和行为问题的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦旭姣; 董选; 沈惠娟; 江凯华; 陈琳; 赵方乔; 钱金强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognitive characteristics in early school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related potential (ERP) and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), as well as the correlation between ERP and behavioral problems. Methods A total of 22 children aged 6-7 years with ADHD and 19 healthy children matched by age were enrolled. Continue Performance Test-AX (CPT-AX) was performed for ERP test. The amplitude and latency of N2 and P3 of Go and Nogo were compared. The CBCL was completed by the parents, and the correlation between behavioral factors and ERP was analyzed. Results The ADHD group had a significantly higher number of ERP omissions than the normal control group (10±8 vs 5±4; P0.05). The ADHD group showed a significantly lower Go-N2 amplitude than the normal control group (-8±5 μV vs -10±4 μV;P0.05)。ADHD 组 ERP 的 Go-N2波幅明显低于正常对照组(-8±5μV vs -10±4μV, P<0.05)。ADHD 组多动、攻击问题检出率均为27%,违纪问题检出率为9%。攻击及违纪因子得分与 ERP 的Go-N2波幅呈负相关(分别 r=-0.43、r=-0.48,均 P<0.05),多动因子得分与 Go-P3潜伏期呈正相关(r=0.50, P<0.05)。结论学龄早期 ADHD 儿童已出现注意执行功能受损趋势,但抑制功能缺陷尚不明显。学龄早期ADHD 儿童多动、攻击及违纪问题与 ERP 相关。

  2. From Ottoman colonial rule to nation statehood: Schooling and national identity in the early Greek school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G. Zervas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After Ottoman colonial rule, education in Greece became an important institution for the ideological construction of a Greek national identity. This paper looks at schooling in Greece just prior to the Greek Revolution and immediately after Greek Independence, and how the Greek national school system assisted in the construction of a Greek national identity. This paper is divided into several sections. The introductory section discusses how a newly independent Greek nation-state struggled to unite the Greek people under a collective national identity. While most people at the time identified with their families, communities, and Greek Orthodox Christian religion, after Greek independence people began to see themselves as members of a broader Greek nation. The section that follows provides a discussion of Greek education during Ottoman colonial rule, and how a type of Greek identity (centered around the Greek Orthodox Christian faith was maintained through the Greek Orthodox mileu. The Greek Church ran schools, and taught Greek children how to read and write, as well as the virtues of the Orthodox Christian faith. Section three of the article looks at Greek education during the early years of the Greek nation-state. In this section the general contours of the Greek educational system are delineated. The section also discusses how the organization of the Greek national school system was borrowed from extant school models found in Western Europe. Section four describes the Greek national curriculum and how the national curriculum would help to teach future generations of Greek citizens what it meant to be Greek. This is further reinforced in the Greek school textbook, which is part of the discussion in section five. Section five concludes with the role of education and its implications in uniting nations from around the world.

  3. Early school leavers and dropouts : A matter of educationalappeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugino Binanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto es analizar el complejo fenómeno de la dispersión escolar y contextualizarlo dentro del sistema escolar italiano, centrándose en el sur de Italia y en particular en la Puglia y en la provincia de Lecce. La primera parte se concentra en las tesis teóricas relacionadas con este fenómeno. La misma definición de dispersión escolar transmite la idea de multidimensionalidad de este problema que comprende una variedad de acontecimientos y comportamientos que conducen en último análisis a la dispersión, y por supuesto tiene que ser diferente al término «drop out» o abandono, que se refiere específicamente a los estudiantes que interrumpen sus cursos de estudios sin acabarlos. En la segunda parte el texto describe el sistema escolar italiano y evidencia los recientes cambios en la estructura educativa, demostrando como los poderes y las responsabilidades competenciales de la administración del Estado y del Ministerio de la educación pública ahora se han trasladado a las autoridades locales como las Regiones, las Provincias y los Ayuntamientos, en una óptica de descentralización y desregulación. La tercera parte se centra en la dispersión escolar prematura en el sur de Italia, donde este comportamiento es muy común, debido a factores socioeconómicos, pero también a la desmotivación personal.The purpose of this text is to analyse the complex phenomenon of early school-leaving and to contextualize it within the Italian school system, with a focus on Southern Italy and, in particular, on Apulia and the Province of Lecce. Part one concentrates on the theoretical assumptions linked to this phenomenon. The definition itself of school-leaving conveys the idea of the multidimensionality of this problem, which covers a variety of events and behaviours — i.e. lack of admission, failures, irregular attendance, etc. — ultimately leading to dispersion, and has to be necessarily distinguished from the term

  4. Do Children Who Move Home and School Frequently Have Poorer Educational Outcomes in Their Early Years at School? An Anonymised Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Hayley A.; Evans, Annette; Barnes, Peter; Demmler, Joanne; Heaven, Martin; Hyatt, Melanie A.; James-Ellison, Michelle; Lyons, Ronan A.; Maddocks, Alison; Paranjothy, Shantini; Rodgers, Sarah E.; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Frequent mobility has been linked to poorer educational attainment. We investigated the association between moving home and moving school frequently and the early childhood formal educational achievement. We carried out a cohort analysis of 121,422 children with anonymised linked records. Our exposure measures were: 1) the number of residential moves registered with a health care provider, and 2) number of school moves. Our outcome was the formal educational assessment at age 6–7. Binary regression modeling was used to examine residential moves within the three time periods: 0 – <1 year; 1 – <4 years and 4 – <6 years. School moves were examined from age 4 to age 6. We adjusted for demographics, residential moves at different times, school moves and birth related variables. Children who moved home frequently were more likely not to achieve in formal assessments compared with children not moving. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for 3 or more moves within the time period 1 –<4 years and for any number of residential moves within the time period 4–<6 years. There was a dose response relationship, with increased odds ratios with increased frequency of residential moves (2 or more moves at 4–<6 years, adjusted odds ratio 1.16 (1.03, 1.29). The most marked effect was seen with frequent school moves where 2 or more moves resulted in an adjusted odds ratio of 2.33 (1.82, 2.98). This is the first study to examine the relationship between residential and school moves in early childhood and the effect on educational attainment. Children experiencing frequent mobility may be disadvantaged and should be closely monitored. Additional educational support services should be afforded to children, particularly those who frequently change school, in order to help them achieve the expected educational standards. PMID:23940601

  5. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifah, Yotsawee

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

  6. Theory and Application of Early Warning Systems for High School and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Bradley; Richardson, Jed T.; Cheng, Emily; Kim, HeeJin; Meyer, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of early warning indicators for high school and beyond in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) by the Value-Added Research Center (VARC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, working in conjunction with staff from the Division of Research and Evaluation at MPS. Our work in MPS builds on prior early warning…

  7. Latino Immigrant Children and Inequality in Access to Early Schooling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Morant, Tamyka

    2009-01-01

    Latino children in immigrant families are less likely than their peers to participate in early schooling programs, which puts them at increased risk for learning problems and school failure. Factors such as family structure and size, parental education, and income are strongly associated with early learning experiences, participation in early…

  8. Student-Teacher Relationships and Early School Adaptation of Children with ASD: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Bush, Hillary Hurst; Blacher, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article, we integrate existing literature on early school transitions, ecological systems theory, and student-teacher relationships to propose a framework for investigating the transition to school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A review of the literature suggests that the quality of early student-teacher…

  9. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  10. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. We included 376 early preterm, 688 born moderately-late preterm, and 403 full term-born children from the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project (LOLLIPOP) cohort study. Developmental problems were assessed by the total score and the 5 domain scores of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at ages 4 (ASQ-4) and 5 (ASQ-5). From the combinations of normal and abnormal ASQ-4 and ASQ-5 scores we constructed 4 categories: consistently normal, emerging, resolving, and persistent problems. The ASQ-4 total score was abnormal more frequently in moderately-late preterm (7.9%, P = .016) and early preterm-born children (13.0%, P preterm-born children had persistence and change comparable with full term-born children, and early preterm-born children had significantly greater rates than full term-born children of persistent (8.4% vs 2.2%, P preterm and moderately-late preterm-born children had mainly emerging motor problems and resolving communication problems, but the changing rates of moderately-late preterm-born children were lower. After school entry, the overall development of moderately-late preterm-born children had stability patterns comparable with full term-born children, whereas early preterm-born children had greater rates of persistent and emerging problems. On the underlying domains, moderately-late preterm-born children had patterns comparable with early preterm-born children but at lower rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk

  12. Zinc deficiency and school-age children’s memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setianingsih, Djaswadi Dasuki, Indria Laksmi Gamayanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency is associated with cognitive and motor delay in children. Moreover, it is associatedwith deficits in activity and attention in nutritional deficiency children. This study was conductedto evaluate the correlation between zinc deficiency with memory of children. A cross sectionalstudy design was employed from June 1st to 30th, 2013 among school-age children in KlatenDistrict, Central Java who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixty five eligible children wereassessed their health, socio-economic and nutritional status. Hemoglobin levels were measuredby the standart cyanoblue method. Plasma zinc levels were analyzed with flame atomic absorptionspectrophotometry (AAS. Short-term memory (STM was measured using the instrument WechslerIntellegence Scale for Children (WISC0 subtest Digit Span Memory Test and long term memory(LTM was assessed using the recall of narrative. Independent t-test was used to compare theSTM or LTM between groups of each independent factors. Linear regression analysis was usedto determine the independent factors associated with the STM or LTM. The STM scores of thechildren with zinc deficiency (6.1 ± 1.3 was significantly higher than those with normal zinclevel (10.7 ± 3.1 [p=0.0004; 95%CI= -6.98 – (-2.14]. However, the LTM for both group ofthe children were not significantly different (p=0.658; 95%CI= -3.16 – 2.01. A significantcorrelations between zinc levels, hemoglobin level and socio-economic status with the STM scoreswere observed (p<0.05, whereas nutritional status was not (p>0.05. In contrast, no significantcorrelations between zinc levels, hemoglobin levels, socio-economic status, nutritional status andthe LTM scores was observed in the school age children (p>0.05. In conclusion, zinc deficiency isassociated with STM loss in the school age children, however it is not associated with LTM loss.Moreover, hemoglobin level and socio-economic status are found to be independent factors forSTM loss

  13. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China: e67928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  14. Impact of prematurity on language skills at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A R; Channell, Ron W; Petrill, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control group of twins born at full term, analyzing both standardized test results and language sample data from the population-based Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP; Petrill, Deater-Deckard, Thompson, DeThorne, & Schatschneider, 2006). Fifty-seven children born prematurely, at ≤32 weeks or children born at full term and were matched for age, gender, race, and parental education. Data included discourse-level language samples and standardized test results, collected at average ages 7, 8, and 10 years. The language samples were analyzed to yield a number of semantic and syntactic measures that were consolidated via factor analysis. Regression models showed significant differences between the 2 groups for standardized test results, although the mean score for both groups fell in the normal range. For the discourse-level language measures, however, differences never reached statistical significance. Parental education was significantly associated with improved standardized test scores. These findings suggest that in the absence of frank neurological impairment, sophisticated semantic and syntactic skills may be relatively intact in the discourse-level language of children born prematurely. Implications for assessment, particularly the potential role of attention and executive function in standardized testing tasks, are reviewed.

  15. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  16. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic......BackgroundAsthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later...

  17. Too young to leave the nest ? : the effects of school starting age

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Does it matter when a child starts school? While the popular press seems to suggest it does, there is limited evidence of a long-run effect of school starting age on student outcomes. This paper uses data on the population of Norway to examine the role of school starting age on longer-run outcomes such as IQ scores at age 18, educational attainment, teenage pregnancy, and earnings. Unlike much of the recent literature, we are able to separate school starting age from test age effects using sc...

  18. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  19. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  20. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  1. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  2. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  3. Variability in neurocognitive performance: Age, gender, and school-related differences in children and from ages 6 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Renata; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Viapiana, Vanisa Fante; Fonseca, Flavia Dos Passos; Salles, Jerusa Fumagali; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-04-20

    Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.

  4. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  5. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  6. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  7. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  8. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  9. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  10. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age chil

  11. Face recognition is similarly affected by viewpoint in school-aged children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Nordt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the question when face processing abilities mature. One aspect that has been part of this debate is the ability to recognize faces in and across different viewpoints. Here, we tested 128 participants consisting of school-age children (ages, 5–10 years and adults (ages, 19–37 years in two experiments to investigate the effects of different viewpoints (including front, three-quarter, profile view on face recognition during development. Furthermore, we compared recognition performance for faces to that of another object category (cars. In the first experiment (n = 88 we tested if the pattern of performance for faces presented in different viewpoints is similar in school-aged children and adults. Participants completed a two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC memory task comprising images of both faces and cars in front, three-quarter and profile view, which were presented in the same viewpoint during learning and testing. In the second experiment (n = 40 we tested if face recognition is similarly affected by viewpoint changes in children and adults. In this experiment the 2AFC memory task included a change of viewpoint between learning and testing. While in both experiments we found higher recognition performance for faces with increasing age, the overall pattern of both viewpoint and viewpoint-change-effects and also the difference between view-change- and no-change-conditions was similar across age groups. In contrast to faces, no viewpoint effects were observed in cars (experiment 1, viewpoint change effects, however, were similar for cars and faces (experiment 2. In sum, our results suggest early maturity of the ability to recognize faces in and across different viewpoints.

  12. Overweight and obesity in young and middle age and early retirement: the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Denise K; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between weight status in young and middle age and early retirement in African-American and white men and women. Data were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Analyses were restricted to participants aged 45-55 years at baseline (n = 6,483). Associations between weight status at age 25 and ages 45-55 and age at early retirement (prior to age 65) over 9 years of follow-up were examined using proportional hazard regression analyses in models stratified by race and gender. Models were adjusted for education, household income, health insurance status, occupation, occupational physical activity, marital status, smoking, and field center. Between 18.7 and 21.6% of African-American and white men and women reported retiring prior to age 65. Although not always statistically significant, overweight and obesity were associated with early retirement in all but white women. Overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) at age 25 was significantly associated with early retirement in African-American women (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.62 (1.17-2.23)) and white men (1.32 (1.12-1.57)). There was also a trend between overweight at age 25 and early retirement in African-American men (1.43 (0.99-2.07)). Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) in middle age was significantly associated with early retirement in white men only (1.32 (1.03-1.69)). Furthermore, overweight at age 25 and obesity at ages 45-55 were associated with early retirement for health reasons among African-American and white men and women. In conclusion, analyses of the economic impact of obesity may need to consider its effects on early retirement.

  13. Supporting Language in Schools: Evaluating an Intervention for Children with Delayed Language in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy; Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists that many children who experience early socio-economic disadvantage have delayed language development. These delays have been shown to exist when children start school and appear to persist through their education. Interventions that can help these children are desirable to ease the difficulties they have in school and to…

  14. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bergen B; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Coker, Tumaini R; Barnert, Elizabeth S; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Chung, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor's degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Of Helping and Measuring for Early Childhood Intervention: Reflections on Issues and School Psychology's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the topic of early identification and intervention to accelerate learning for young children. It presents the author's reflections on issues and school psychology's role in early care childhood care and education. It focuses on four central themes or issues which require resolution about early childhood care and education…

  16. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  17. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  18. Social Awareness on Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Bladder Cancer: Importance of Age and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Değer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the recognition level of bladder cancer in the society by conducting a survey with regards to social awareness in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in this study. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted on 100 randomly selected patients who were admitted to our clinic in May 2016 for any complaints. In the survey, the main focus was hematuria which is the first and the most common symptom of bladder cancer and questions and statements on this subject was used. Results: Of 100 patients, 67 (66.7% were male, and 33 (33.3% were female. Thirty six of the patients were younger than 50 (36%, and 64 of them (64% were 50 years and older. Education level of 40 (40% patients was found to be university level, and 60 (60% patients we high school graduates or lower. Twenty seven (27% patients had complains about blood in the urine, while 67 (67% of them had no such complaint. Of 27 patients that had complaint about hematuria, which is the most important symptom of bladder cancer 22 (81% were male and 5 (19% were female. We divided the patients into two groups based on 50 age limit. Group 1 included patients who were below 50, while the group 2 consisted of patients who were 50 years old and above. The rates of immediate consultation were determined to be significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The rate of consulting urology department in the presence of hematuria, and the rates of considering the risk of bladder cancer as a possible diagnosis were higher in group 2, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference found between the two groups who were separated by age in terms of required diagnostic tests. The patients were divided into two more groups based on their education level. Group 3 included patients of university graduates, and group 4 included patients with high school graduates or lower. The rates of immediate consultation were significantly higher in group 4

  19. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR = 95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships.

  20. Early exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, breastfeeding and asthma at age six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Ribas-Fitó, N; Carrizo, D; Romieu, I; Antó, J M; Grimalt, J O

    2006-10-01

    Our aims were to assess association of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with childhood asthma measured up to age 6 and the effect of DDE on the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma. In addition, we attempted to assess the relevant time-window of DDE exposure (i.e. at birth or at 4 years). All women presenting for antenatal care in Menorca, Spain over a 12-month period beginning in mid-1997 were invited to take part in a longitudinal study that included a yearly visit. Four hundred eighty-two children were enrolled and 462 provided complete outcome data after 6.5 years of follow-up. Organochlorine compounds were measured in cord serum of 402 (83%) infants and in blood samples of 285 children aged 4. We defined asthma as the presence of wheezing at age 6 and during any preceding year or doctor-diagnosed asthma, and used skin prick test at age 6 to determine atopic status. Results At birth and 4 years of age, all children had detectable levels of DDE (median 1 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively). From birth to age 4, the mean DDE level among children with artificial feeding decreased by 72%, while among breastfed children it increased by 53%. Diagnosed asthma and persistent wheezing were associated with DDE at birth [odds ratio (OR) for an increase in 1 ng/mL, OR=1.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.01-1.39 and OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.98-1.30, respectively], but not with DDE at 4 years. Neither breastfeeding nor atopy modified these associations (P>0.3). Breastfeeding protected against diagnosed asthma (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.08-0.87) and wheezing (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34-0.82) in children with low and high DDE levels at birth. Conclusion In a community without known dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane environmental releases, this study strengthens the evidence for an effect of DDE on asthma by measuring the disease at age 6 and does not support the hypothesis that DDE modifies the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma.

  1. School sport participation during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Rachel; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Scarapicchia, Tanya; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between participation in school sport during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 853) reported participation in school sport in each grade throughout the 5 years of secondary school. In early adulthood, participants reported depressive symptoms, level of stress, and self-rated mental health. Involvement in school sport during adolescence was a statistically significant predictor of lower depression symptoms, lower perceived stress, and higher self-rated mental health in young adulthood. School sport participation may protect against poor mental health in early adulthood. Policies to increase school sport participation may be warranted as part of public health strategies to promote mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal-assisted therapy in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since ancient times, humans and animals have interacted for different purposes. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT is used for the assistance and treatment in humans and educational projects where animals are used as co-therapists or co-educators. The use of animals facilitates the process of teaching and learning, and stimulates physical and therapeutic activities. So that knowledge on AAT could be expanded, current study analyzes the opinion of people directly involved in education on AAT implementation as an educational model in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Questionnaires were handed out to 10 pedagogical coordinators, 32 teachers, 23 parents and 26 children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed that AAT is not well-known for most interviewees, including pedagogical coordinators, teachers and parents. However, interviewees believe in the benefits of child-pet interactions and are favorable to the implementation of AATs in schools. Projects should be interdisciplinary and must involve professionals from other areas, such as psychologists and veterinarians. Regarding the educational model, interviewees believe in the innovation capacity of AAT and in the possibilities of interdisciplinarity among teachers in the use of animals. Research also demonstrated that children like and support the use of animals in the school.

  3. Detecting bullying in early elementary school with a computerized peer-nomination instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ringoot, Ank P; Jansen, Pauline W; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-06-01

    In this study we describe the PEERS Measure, a computerized assessment instrument that takes an innovative approach to using the peer-nomination method to identify bullying among elementary school children in Grades 1-2. Its psychometric characteristics were measured in 4,017 children from 190 school classes. The intercorrelations between the peer-nomination scores showed congruence of the data (e.g., bullying and peer rejection r = .51, defending and prosocial behavior r = .71). Boys were more involved in bullying, more rejected, and less prosocial. As reports by different informants were used, correlations of peer-reported bullying with aggressive behavior reported by a child him- or herself (r = .37) or by a teacher (r = .42) were in the expected range. Good test-retest reliability as measured by the intraclass correlations (average: .72) further suggests that the instrument has good psychometric properties. In line with earlier research, lower maternal educational levels, younger maternal age, and lower household income were related to more bullying and victimization. Overall, our findings show that the instrument provides a reliable measure of peer relations, thus making the use of peer nominations feasible in early elementary school.

  4. Student engagement and its relationship with early high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S

    2009-06-01

    Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.

  5. New Directions for Early Literacy in a Digital Age: The iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewitt, Rosie; Messer, David; Kucirkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how iPads offer innovative opportunities for early literacy learning but also present challenges for teachers and children. We lent iPads to a Children's Centre nursery (3- to 4-year-olds), a primary school reception class (4- to 5-year-olds) and a Special School (7- to 13-year-olds), discussed their potential uses with…

  6. New Directions for Early Literacy in a Digital Age: The iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewitt, Rosie; Messer, David; Kucirkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how iPads offer innovative opportunities for early literacy learning but also present challenges for teachers and children. We lent iPads to a Children's Centre nursery (3- to 4-year-olds), a primary school reception class (4- to 5-year-olds) and a Special School (7- to 13-year-olds), discussed their potential uses with…

  7. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  8. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Carol E; Finkel, Deborah; Panizzon, Matthew S;

    2017-01-01

    ,900 twins (Mage = 63.38, range = 25-102) from nine studies in the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies Consortium: self-rated health (SRH), health compared with others (COMP), and health interfering with activities (ACT). RESULTS: Analyses indicated age and sex differences in mean...... scores depending on the measure. SRH and ACT showed significant linear and non-linear moderation by age for individual differences in both genetic and environmental variance. Significant sex differences in components of variance were found for SRH and ACT, but not COMP. DISCUSSION: Subjective health......OBJECTIVE: Subjective health is a complex indicator predicting longevity independent of objective health. Few studies examine genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying different facets of subjective health across the life course. METHOD: Three subjective health measures were examined in 12...

  9. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Lurbe, Empar; Laurent, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    Early vascular ageing is common in patients with hypertension and increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors, often influenced by chronic inflammation. One aspect of this vascular ageing is arterial stiffening, as measured by increased pulse wave velocity or augmentation index and central pressure. Several studies have indicated that this process starts early in life and that arterial function and ageing properties could be programmed during foetal life or influenced by adverse growth patterns in early postnatal life. This could explain the repeated findings in observational epidemiology that an inverse association exists between birth weight, adjusted for gestational age, and systolic blood pressure elevation in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as for increased cardiovascular risk. One new marker of increased pulse pressure and arterial ageing is telomere length, as regulated by telomerase enzymatic activity. Future studies will hopefully shed light on the possibilities to halt or even reverse vascular ageing, and thereby also influence telomere biology and its different expressions.

  10. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  11. THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik ISMAYILOV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

  12. Leading Schools in the Digital Age: A Clash of Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A cultural gap is widening in English secondary schools: between a twentieth-century ethos of institutional provision and the twenty-first century expectations and digital lifestyles of school students. Perhaps disaffected by traditional teaching methods and the competitive target culture of schools, many students have turned to social networking…

  13. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy Ravikiran; Eranki Vivek; Pillai Anand; Hadidi Mahar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B ...

  14. Progeria and the early aging in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania O; Celli, Adriane; Bancke Laverde, Bruno Leonardo; Cunico, Caroline; Santos Piedade, Guilherme; Lucas de Mello, Manuela; Beirao Junior, Paulo Sergio

    2016-02-17

    The Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome or progeria is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by premature aging and involvement of internal systems, such as the circulatory and locomotor. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and the manifestations become more evident from the first year of life. Long term outcome data from Progeria Research Foundation clinical trials have demonstrated an increase in survival in recent years. Even though new trials are ongoing, the recognition of this syndrome is essential to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. A patient, initially asymptomatic, who developed characteristic signs of the syndrome at the age of 6 months is reported. She was referred for evaluation only when she was two years and eleven months old. The diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome was suspected owing to clinical characteristics. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. A mutation c.1824C> T in exon 11 of the LMNA gene was detected. She was registered in the Progeria Research Foundation and was invited to participate in the weighing and supplementation program. She was included in the lonafarnib protocol study. This medication is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor that prevents the production of progerina and slows cardiovascular and neurological complications of the syndrome. This case highlights the importance of diagnosing progeria patients because they may be referred to the Progeria Research Foundation, which offers genetic screening and inclusion in clinical and therapeutic follow-up protocols without any costs. Progeria trials and research may also contribute to new drug developments related to prevention of aging and atherosclerosis in the near future.

  15. [Bladder cancer at an early age in father and son].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, D; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A; Böttrich, R; Hengstler, J G; Golka, K

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer may be caused by external factors like tobacco smoking, but may also be familial. We report on a father and son who developed this tumour at the ages of 45 and 35. Testing various genetic markers including the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6, whose loss is associated with a higher risk for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome), did not point to a familial disease. Thus the heavy smoking habits of the two patients must be considered as causal.

  16. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laryngeal pathology at school age following very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2015-03-01

    Intubation injury resulting in laryngeal pathology is recognised as a possible complication of preterm birth, yet few published studies have examined such pathology and its relation to voice outcomes. This study reports on the results of prospective laryngeal function examinations of a cohort of very preterm children, all of whom presented with significant dysphonia at school age. The laryngeal pathology of 20 very preterm children, born between 23 and 29 weeks gestation, was examined under halogen and stroboscopic conditions. Laryngeal structure and function were assessed using a rigid laryngoscope or a flexible nasendoscope. The approach was selected based on the age and/or likely compliance of the child. Nineteen children were found to have structural laryngeal pathology. Fourteen children presented with a chink to the posterior glottis and all demonstrated at least a mild degree of supraglottic hyperfunction. Other common findings were arytenoid prolapse and vocal fold immobility. More isolated findings included posterior scar band, vocal fold atrophy, arytenoid oedema and growth on the vocal folds. One child who presented with structural laryngeal pathology was never intubated. Supraglottic hyperfunction was common to all participants, regardless of the nature and extent of underlying structural laryngeal pathology. Posterior glottic chink was the most common pattern of incomplete vocal fold closure. These data support the hypothesis that very preterm children adopt supraglottic tightening to compensate for underlying laryngeal pathology. The mechanism underlying laryngeal damage in the child who was not intubated is unclear. Voice quality of very preterm children is affected by both laryngeal structure and function. A trial of behavioural voice treatment is recommended to evaluate any therapeutic response in this population. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocognitive profiles in MSUD school-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau, Juliette; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie; Pichard, Samia; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barbier, Valérie; Brassier, Anaïs; Broué, Pierre; Cano, Aline; Chabrol, Brigitte; Damon, Gilles; Gay, Claire; Guillain, Isabelle; Habarou, Florence; Lamireau, Delphine; Ottolenghi, Chris; Paermentier, Laetitia; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; de Lonlay, Pascale; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse neurocognitive profiles of French MSUD patients. This was a multicentre retrospective study on MSUD patients who underwent neurocognitive evaluation at primary school age. Twenty-one patients with classical neonatal onset MSUD were included. The patients' mean age at the time of evaluation was 8.7 years. The mean intellectual quotient (IQ) score was in the normal range (95.1 ± 12.6). In a subset of eight patients, a consistent developmental pattern of higher verbal than performance IQ was observed (mean of the difference 25.7 ± 8.7, p < 0.0001). No correlation could be established between this pattern and long-term metabolic balance (BCAA blood levels), or severity of acute metabolic imbalances, or leucine blood levels at diagnosis and time to toxin removal procedure. These data show that some MSUD patients may exhibit an abnormal neurocognitive profile with higher verbal than performance abilities. This might suggest an executive dysfunction disorder that would need to be further investigated by specialized testing. This pattern is important to detect in MSUD, as appropriate neuropsychological treatment strategies should be proposed.

  19. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  20. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  1. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  2. Repairing and Renovating Aging School Facilities. ERIC Digest Series Number EA28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    Recent influxes of baby boomers coupled with state reforms reducing student-teacher ratios are stretching the limits on available school facilities across the country. Several aspects of the school facilities issue are covered in question-and-answer format; (1) What is the current status of aging school buildings? (2) What are the financial…

  3. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  4. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  5. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  6. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  7. Paleomagnetism of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1983-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from 13 sites of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses were carried out. Two types of partial progressive demagnetization were applied, one using alternating magnetic fields, the other heating.

  8. Developing and Implementing an Early Retirement Incentive Program for Marin County School Districts. Vol. 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzy, Byron W.

    In creating an early retirement incentive program for the Marin County (California) schools, the author examined the early retirement ethic, other early retirement plans in the public and private sectors, the impact of early retirement on Social Security benefits, opposition to such programs, and the factors in the California school districts that…

  9. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  10. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  11. Duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding and school-age lung function and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meel, Evelien R; de Jong, Mandy; Elbert, Niels J; den Dekker, Herman T; Reiss, Irwin K; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2017-07-01

    Breastfeeding reduces the risk of asthma in early childhood, but it is not clear whether its effect on respiratory morbidity is still present in later childhood. To examine the associations of any breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration, and breastfeeding exclusiveness with lung function and asthma in school-aged children and whether associations were influenced by respiratory tract infections and maternal or child's atopic status. This study of 4,464 children was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on breastfeeding was obtained by multiple questionnaires from birth until 1 year of age. At 10 years of age, lung function was measured by spirometry, and information on asthma was obtained by questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) only (z score change, -0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to -0.00) per month shorter breastfeeding, but not asthma. When categorized, breastfeeding for 2 to 4 months was associated with a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (z score change, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.03) compared with breastfeeding for 6 months or longer. Nonexclusive breastfeeding for 4 months was associated with a lower FVC (z score change, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.01) compared with exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months. Results did not materially change after additional adjustment for lower respiratory tract infections and were not modified by maternal history of asthma or atopy, child's eczema, or inhalant allergic sensitization. Shorter duration and nonexclusivity of breastfeeding were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC but not asthma at school-age. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  13. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  14. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  15. 4-H and School-Age Care: A Great Combination! Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbergh, Barbara D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the positive relationship between 4-H programs and school-age care programs, advocating the use of 4-H programs as a model for care, or as a source of care, caregiver training, or curriculum. Notes the role of the Cooperative Extension System in training and supporting school-age care providers. (JPB)

  16. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  17. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  18. Functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with high-dose dexamethasone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. A.; de Bok, Marijn; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Roze, Elise; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment is associated with adverse motor outcome. It is largely unknown as to what extent functional outcome at school age is affected. Aims: Our first aim was to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm-born children tr

  19. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  20. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  1. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity.

  2. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A.; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run lateincluding sleep timesyet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects

  3. Patterns of Age Mixing and Gender Mixing among Children and Adolescents at an Ungraded School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)

  4. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  5. Gender and Family Disparities in Suicide Attempt and Role of Socioeconomic, School, and Health-Related Difficulties in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kénora Chau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt (SA is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents’ education, father’s occupation, family income, and social support, grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P<0.001. The girls living with parents divorced/separated, in reconstructed families, and with single parents had a 3-fold higher SA risk than those living in intact families. Over 63% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. No family disparities were observed among boys. Girls had a 1.74-time higher SA risk than boys, and 45% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and mental difficulties and violence. SA prevention should be performed in early adolescence and consider gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.

  6. Renaissance Schools Fund-Supported Schools: Early Outcomes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Viki M.; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Wang, Haiwen; Bosetti, Kristin R.; Cassidy, Lauren; Wechsler, Marjorie E.; Rivera, Elizabeth; Murray, Samantha; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    Chicago's Renaissance 2010 seeks to create 100 new and autonomous schools by 2010. These new schools are expected to increase choice for parents and students, enact innovative practices, and help create a portfolio of schools designed to make the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) more diversified, responsive, and effective. Renaissance Schools Fund…

  7. Korean Diaspora in the Age of Globalization: Early Study Abroad (ESA) College Students in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Young

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of international Korean college students in the Midwest who have gone through the early study abroad (ESA) period in the US during their formative secondary school education and the influence of the experiences into their college lives in the mega campus. Two overarching research questions are: 1) how do…

  8. (De)professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the Problematized Immigrant of School Age, 1970-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    The paper explores (de)professionalizations of Danish teachers in the time span of 1970-2012 in regards to handling the immigrant subject of compulsory school age. This period is characterized by a change in the immigration flow pointing to a growing population stock of immigrants of school age......, which left the teachers with a group of schoolchildren diversified due to immigration. Among other factors, this change of the immigrant population stock also caused successive changes in immigration policies (and vice versa) consecutively influencing education policies and educational management...... of immigrants of school age. The paper argues that (de)professionalizations of Danish teachers encountering the immigrant of school age emerge with the identifications and descriptions of the immigrant of school age as an educational problem. The theoretical establishment of the problematization of a population...

  9. Dexmedetomidine improves early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ming-Zheng; Zhou, Yu-Bing; Zhang, Jing-Min; Han, Li; Peng, You-Mei; Jiang, Jin-hua; Wang, Qing-Duan

    2015-01-05

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a frequent complication following major surgery in the elderly. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor agonist, was revealed anesthesia and brain protective role. The present study aimed to examine whether dexmedetomdine protects against POCD induced by major surgical trauma under general anesthesia in aged mice. In the present study, cognitive function was assessed by Y-maze. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), apoptosis-related factor caspase-3 and Bax were detected by real-time PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. The results showed that anesthesia alone caused weak cognitive dysfunction on the first day after general anesthesia. Cognitive function in mice with splenectomy under general anesthesia was significantly exacerbated at the first and third days after surgery, and was significantly improved by dexmedetomidine administration. Splenectomy increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, Bax and caspase-3 in hippocampus. These changes were significantly inversed by dexmedetomidine. These results suggest that hippocampal inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to POCD, and selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor excitation play a protective role.

  10. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  12. The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: the early window project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J C; Huston, A C; Murphy, K C; St Peters, M; Piñon, M; Scantlin, R; Kotler, J

    2001-01-01

    For two cohorts of children from low- to moderate-income families, time-use diaries of television viewing were collected over 3 years (from ages 2-5 and 4-7 years, respectively), and tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness were administered annually. Relations between viewing and performance were tested in path analyses with controls for home environment quality and primary language (English or Spanish). Viewing child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted high subsequent performance on all four measures of academic skills. For both cohorts, frequent viewers of general-audience programs performed more poorly on subsequent tests than did infrequent viewers of such programs. Children's skills also predicted later viewing, supporting a bidirectional model. Children with good skills at age 5 selected more child-audience informative programs and fewer cartoons in their early elementary years. Children with lower skills at age 3 shifted to viewing more general-audience programs by ages 4 and 5. The results affirm the conclusion that the relations of television viewed to early academic skills depend primarily on the content of the programs viewed.

  13. Early Reading Programs in High-Poverty Schools: Emerald Elementary Beats the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles; Adler, Martha A.

    This report describes the early reading program in Emerald Elementary School, located in a Midwest urban fringe district. From 1996 through 1998, Emerald's students performed well above the district average or near the state average on reading achievement. During this period, the school had at least half of its students eligible for free or…

  14. Congruence of Perceptions among Texas Early College High School Leadership Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Laurie Anne

    2010-01-01

    The Early College High School (ECHS) Initiative commenced in 2004 to provide underrepresented youths the opportunity to attain a high school diploma and up to two years of college coursework concurrently. The intent of the ECHS Initiative was defined in five ECHS Core Principles, a requirement for all ECHS. An ECHS required a collaborative…

  15. Motivation for Teaching Career of Students from Early Childhood Education and Primary School Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Gianina-Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines why teaching is chosen as a career, and considers the extent to which a range of factors identified within a sample of 173 students from kindergarten and primary school pedagogy, early childhood education and applied didactics in primary school. The study is based on the responses to a questionnaire applied to students involved…

  16. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  17. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  18. Therapeutic Responses to "At Risk" Disengaged Early School Leavers in a Rural Alternative Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The identification of disengaged early school leavers as young people "at risk" can lead to a deficit-based framing of how educational institutions respond to them. A rural secondary school in Victoria, Australia established an alternative education programme to cater for local disengaged young people. A critical ethnographic study was…

  19. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools: Start up and Early Implementation. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research for Action, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, Superintendent Arlene Ackerman announced her reform plan for the School District of Philadelphia (the District)--"Imagine 2014". Among other major initiatives, "Imagine 2014" laid the groundwork for Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative. The Renaissance Initiative, set to enter its second year in 2011-12, is an effort to…

  20. EARLY SCHOOL LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES IN KAZAKHSTANI EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Mukhtarova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the school leadership has increased significantly in the last decades. Leadership, especially effectiveness of the principal may play a key role in the success and sustainability of a school. The aim of this study was to identify the first year principalship challenges in the comprehensive schools of Kazakhstan. The small-scale study conducted in 2011 utilized a blend of qualitative and quantitative methodology approach with mixed-method techniques: the questionnaire and the semi-structured interview. The total number of the participants was 49 (43 questionnaire respondents and 6 interviewees; representatives of rural, suburban and urban schools. While some key findings of the study replicated previous research results, some other findings were indicated as unique to the Kazakhstani context. Specifically, the need for prior and after appointment trainings, especially in budget and finance areas, allocation of teaching hours among the staff and changing parental attitude towards the schooling were the most challenging issues of the principals in their first year of headship. The perceived gap between the government’s desires to integrate into the global educational arena and the schooling status quo demands rethinking and reviewing the current school leadership development. Although the findings are based on a limited sample, there is persuasive evidence for the necessity of a new systematic and strategic approach to the school leaders’ preparation and training which will take into account values of the post-soviet Kazakhstan people and needs of a modernized world.

  1. A history of the founding and early development of the Journal of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K; Jack, Sabrina L

    2012-12-01

    Historical aspects of the founding and early development of the Journal of School Psychology are discussed. Emphases are placed on the first decade of the journal, the factors in its founding and development, persons who have served as editors and members of the editorial boards and corporate leadership, and the journal's changing formats. The publication's relationships to the Journal of School Psychology, Inc. and later to the Society for the Study of School Psychology are briefly mentioned.

  2. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  3. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  4. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  5. From the cradle to the grave: age differences in attachment from early adulthood to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J; Edelstein, Robin S; Fraley, R Chris

    2013-04-01

    Although attachment dynamics are thought to be important across the life span, relatively few studies have examined attachment processes beyond young adulthood. Extant research on age differences in attachment orientation has yielded conflicting results and interpretations. The purpose of this study was to provide a more complete picture of age-related differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance. We examined attachment anxiety and avoidance in 86,555 Internet respondents (71.8% female) ranging in age from 18 to 70. We found that attachment anxiety was highest among younger adults and lowest among middle-aged and older adults. Attachment avoidance showed less dramatic age differences overall but was highest among middle-aged adults and lowest among younger and older adults. In addition, partnered individuals reported lower levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to single individuals, particularly in younger and older adulthood. Women also reported slightly higher anxiety and avoidance compared to men, especially in young adulthood. Findings are discussed in the context of life span changes in social roles, normative personality development, and emotion regulation throughout adulthood. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sendela

    2015-10-01

    Depressive symptoms were observed in 1 out of 12 T1D children in a primary school and in 1 out of 5 teenagers. Depressive symptoms may affect metabolic control and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms in T1D school children is needed.

  7. Time-dependent Early-age Behaviors of Concrete under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; CAO Lixin; R D Hooton; H Lam; NIU Changren

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the early-age behaviors of concrete under a restrained condition, a set of apparatus was developed. In this way, the tensile creep and other early-age properties can be investigated in depth. By measuring the modulus of elasticity of concrete, synchronous shrinkage of concrete and steel rings and free shrinkage of concrete, the deformations of concrete ring can be quantified respectively. The experimental results show the tensile stress in concrete is time-dependent, and the stress at cracking is much lower than the tensile strength at that age; the tensile creep plays an important role in relaxing the tensile stress and postponing the cracking of concrete.

  8. Effects of Early Childhood Education on Children with Hearing Impairments in Special Schools in Kiambu, Murang'A and Nyeri Counties, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loise W., Chege; Wamocho, Franciscah I.; Orodho, John Aluko

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to find out the effects of Early Childhood Education on children with hearing impairment (HI). Vigotsky's theory of cognitive development guided the study. Descriptive survey method was used. Target population included children with HI between ages 3-6 years and their parents, teachers, head teachers all from special schools in…

  9. High School Psychology: A Coming of Age Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Kenneth D.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost; Blair-Broeker, Charles T.; Ernst, Randal M.

    2013-01-01

    Although institutional recognition of high school psychology is fairly recent, psychology and psychological subject matters have a history dating to at least the 1830s. By the middle of the twentieth century, high school psychology courses existed in nearly all U.S. states, and enrollments grew throughout the second half of the century. However,…

  10. High School Psychology: A Coming of Age Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Kenneth D.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost; Blair-Broeker, Charles T.; Ernst, Randal M.

    2013-01-01

    Although institutional recognition of high school psychology is fairly recent, psychology and psychological subject matters have a history dating to at least the 1830s. By the middle of the twentieth century, high school psychology courses existed in nearly all U.S. states, and enrollments grew throughout the second half of the century. However,…

  11. Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Webster, Richard; Birnbaum, Rena

    2005-08-01

    The later developmental trajectory of young children diagnosed early with global developmental delay was determined. Using a prospective study, preschool children diagnosed with global developmental delay were systematically reassessed during the early school years with standardized developmental and functional outcome measures (Battelle Developmental Inventory and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale). Of an original cohort of 99 children assessed and diagnosed at a mean age of 3.4 +/- 1.1 years, 48 were reassessed at a mean age of 7.3 +/- 0.9 years. Group performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory overall was 66.4 +/- 4.3 (mean 100 +/- 15). Between 75% and 100% of the cohort performed at least 1.5 SD below the normative mean on the individual domains of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Similarly, the group mean on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale overall was 63.5 +/- 20.8 (mean 100 +/- 15), with between 61% and 76% of the cohort scoring more than 1.5 SD below the mean on each of the domains. Univariate and multivariate analyses on potential predictor variables identified a lack of an underlying etiology as predictive of poorer performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory fine motor and motor domains and increasing severity of initial delay as predictive of poorer performance on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication domain and overall score. Similarly, maternal employment and paternal postsecondary education improved Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication scores, whereas paternal postsecondary education alone predicted better socialization and total scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Children with early global developmental delay demonstrate persistent and consistently poor performance across all developmental and functional domains. Few variables are apparent at intake to predict later performance.

  12. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  13. Early Intervening for Students with Speech Sound Disorders: Lessons from a School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Stephen P.; Montgomery, Judy K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of early intervening services was introduced into public school systems with the implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004. This article describes a program developed for students with speech sound disorders that incorporated concepts of early intervening services, response to…

  14. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...

  15. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  16. Children's Reading Ability in Early Primary Schooling: Challenges for a Kenyan Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    School outcomes and good performance in different subjects depends on children's ability to read. Thus teaching children on how to read during early grades is critical in promoting learning to read. More advanced skills acquired in later grades depend on early grade learning, so children who do not acquire these reading skills in their early…

  17. Assessment in Early Primary Education: An Empirical Study of Five School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; Hughes, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Within the current standards-based framework of early primary education, teachers must negotiate the integration of assessment with traditional, developmental orientations to teaching and learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine teachers' approaches to early primary assessment within five different school contexts: public,…

  18. A Spatial Re-Consideration of the Early Childhood-School Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda; Nuttall, Joce; Kriegler, Lili-Ann; Schiele, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper undertakes a spatial examination of the early childhood-school relational space. It theorizes space as a product of interrelationships, moving therefore beyond an understanding of space as fixed and horizontal. Drawing on data from a pilot project with early childhood and junior primary teachers working in an independent (i.e. private,…

  19. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  20. Depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories from school age through young adulthood in samples with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Brunwasser, Steven M; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to model growth in anxiety and depressive symptoms from late school age through young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls with developmental delay (DD), and to assess relationships among internalizing growth patterns, participant characteristics, baseline predictors, and distal outcomes. Data were collected between ages 6 and 24 years in 165 participants (n = 109 with ASD; n = 56 with nonspectrum DD), most of whom received diagnostic evaluations in both childhood and early adulthood. Questionnaires were collected approximately every 3 to 6 months between ages 9 and 24 years. Parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL), and Developmental Behaviour Checklist anxiety- and depression-related subscale distributions were modeled with mixed-effects Poisson models, covarying diagnosis, age, verbal IQ (VIQ), gender, and significant 2- and 3-way interactions. Anxiety was positively associated with VIQ, and controlling for VIQ, both anxiety and depressive symptoms were greater in ASD than nonspectrum participants. Female gender predicted greater increases over time in anxiety and depressive symptoms for both diagnostic groups. Lower maternal education was associated with increasing internalizing symptoms in a subset of less verbal individuals with ASD. In exploratory post hoc analyses, internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer emotional regulation in school age, and with lower life satisfaction and greater social difficulties in early adulthood. Findings support previous claims that individuals with ASD are at particular risk for affect- and anxiety-specific problems. Although symptom levels in females increase at a faster rate throughout adolescence, males with ASD appear to have elevated levels of depressive symptoms in school age that are maintained into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by

  1. The effect of early interventions in health and nutrition on on-time school enrollment: evidence from the Oportunidades Program in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jessica E; Winters, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses whether early intervention to improve children's health and nutrition increases the probability of enrolling in primary school on time. Using experimental data from the Mexican conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, Oportunidades, a cross-sectional double-difference estimator on observations from two age cohorts of children is used to identify the impact of early intervention. The results indicate that early health and nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on the timing of enrollment and that caregiver characteristics affect the magnitude of the impact. Early intervention also appears to decrease days of school missed. Overall the results indicate that the full impact of CCT programs on education cannot be measured in the short run as benefits of early health and nutrition interventions may be also felt in the distant future.

  2. The neglected shadow: European perspectives on emotional supports for early school leaving prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Downes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OECD reports emphasise ten key steps to equity in education, with concrete targets related to low attainment and early school leaving. Such steps, however, neglect the importance of emotional dimensions to early school leaving and the consequent need for system level emotional supports. The current study involves qualitative research interviews with senior government officials and secondary school management representatives across eight European countries, with a particular focus on school climate and emotional support issues. Issues raised by interviewees for students at risk of early school leaving include supports for withdrawn children, for those at risk of suicide and those being bullied at school affecting their nonattendance. Other emerging themes include alternatives to suspension and teacher education for improving their conflict resolution skills. Some interviewees explicitly observe the dearth of emotional support services available in practice in their countries. The pervasive policy gaps across national levels for a mental health and emotional support strategy, as part of an early school leaving prevention strategy, requires serious and immediate attention.

  3. School failure in early adolescence: the psychopathological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G; Brovedani, P; Poli, P

    1998-01-01

    School difficulties and learning disorders in adolescence can become significant risk factors for psychopathology. This study investigates emotional and cognitive patterns in adolescents with school difficulties. Four clinical conditions that can determine adolescence-onset learning disorders are outlined. These are adolescent turmoil, intellectual inhibition, delay in reasoning development, and metacognitive dysfunctioning. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral features of these conditions are discussed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  4. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  5. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  6. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  7. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  9. Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

  10. Sexual Abuse of School Age Children : Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to th...

  11. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arrighetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  12. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  14. DEVELOPING OF HIGH QUALITY COURSE MATERIALS TO IMPROVE EARLY AGE PRACTITIONERS’ EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONA VINTILA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The pre-primary age is an especially sensitive period in children’s development but high quality education and care from a very early age creates a good foundation for lifelong learning. This is why performant teacher education is needed.This paper addresses the issue of early age practitioners’ education presenting an European project that aims to develop course materials that focus on the major areas in early learning and contribute to the development of research based, pedagogical approaches within three areas that are crucial in respect to get all toddlers on a successful life learning road: learning of language(s and focus on the teacher-child communication, improved knowledge of how to foster toddlers'wellbeing, identifying crucial aspects for improved parental involvement.

  15. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  16. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  17. Prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in 5-10-year-old school children in Chidambaram town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Shaheed Ahamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. Aim : The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. Settings and Design : A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. Materials and Methods : An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Statistical Analysis Used : Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows (version 10.0. Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P 0.05. The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%, and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%. It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study

  18. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  19. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M.; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disa...

  20. School age experiences of university students for transition towards higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Yousuf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to examine the school age experiences of university students, specifically the roles their school teachers, parents, and they themselves played in their preparation for higher education. One thousand students from twenty universities were randomly selected. Data collected through developed questionnaire was tabulated, analysed and discussed. Chi Square was applied to determine whether the observed frequencies were significantly different from the expected frequencies. Main conclusions of study were that the students negated the role of school teachers, student self, peers and school environment with the preparation skills needed for university level work, while only parents’ role was found significant in preparing students for higher education. Keywords: School Age, Role of teachers, Role of Parents, Role of Peers, Role of School Environment, Transition to Higher Education.

  1. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  2. Professional Development Schools and Early Childhood Education: Interactive Skills of Students, Playgroup and Kindergarten Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Simone A.; van der Heijden, Monique H. R. M. A.; Gorter, Ruud J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines professional development activities for students and teachers in two Dutch professional development schools (PDSs). The PDSs consist of a partnership between the kindergarten classes of the elementary school and accompanying playgroup (with children aged 4-6 and 2.6-4, respectively), a teacher's training college and a research…

  3. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  4. Effect of Superplasticizers on the Early Age Hydration of Sulfoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiaohui; CHEN Wei; YANG Mo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two types of superplasticizers on the properties of CSA cement pastes during early hydration were studied. The influences of two types of superplasticizers on the properties of cement pastes, including the normal consistency, setting time, fluidity, and compressive strength, were investigated by using various methods. The hydration products of the cement pastes cured for 1 day and 3 days were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the PCE type superplasticizer retards the early age hydration while the FDN type superplasticizer accelerates the early age hydration of the CSA cement. Both types of superplasticizers have no influence on the further hydration of CSA cement, confirmed by the calorimeter tests as well. The ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were used to probe the influence of two types of superplasticizers on the hydration of CSA cement pastes at a high water-cement ratio (0.45). The results show that the PCE type superplasticizer retards the early age hydration of the CSA cement while the FDN type superplasticizer has little influence on the early age hydration of the CSA cement.

  5. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  6. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  7. Sensory processing, school performance, and adaptive behavior of young school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kartin, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    This study described sensory processing behaviors and sensory-motor abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and explored their relationship to home and school function. A clinic-referred sample of 25 children with FASD, ages 5 to 8 years, was compared with 26 children with typical development, balanced for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, on standardized tests examining sensory processing, sensory-motor performance, school performance, and adaptive behavior. Children with FASD scored significantly more poorly on sensory processing, sensory-motor, adaptive, and academic achievement measures, and demonstrated more problem behaviors at home and school. Correlations were significant between measures of sensory processing and sensory-motor performance, adaptive behavior, and some aspects of academic performance. Sensory processing and related foundational sensory-motor impairments should be considered when determining the developmental needs of children with FASD. These impairments may co-occur with and contribute, at least in part, to decreased adaptive and school function.

  8. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-01-01

    to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. this was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English). Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance). Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%), followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48%) and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%). premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

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    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  10. Acoustic Emission Behavior of Early Age Concrete Monitored by Embedded Sensors

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    Lei Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE is capable of monitoring the cracking activities inside materials. In this study, embedded sensors were employed to monitor the AE behavior of early age concrete. Type 1–3 cement-based piezoelectric composites, which had lower mechanical quality factor and acoustic impedance, were fabricated and used to make sensors. Sensors made of the composites illustrated broadband frequency response. In a laboratory, the cracking of early age concrete was monitored to recognize different hydration stages. The sensors were also embedded in a mass concrete foundation to localize the temperature gradient cracks.

  11. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

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    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  12. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia

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    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer and barley (possibly hulled. Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the cultivation and use of certain cereal grains at Early Bronze sites such as Tsaghkasar can tentatively be added to a constellation of practices associated with the Kura‐Araxes culture in the South Caucasus.

  13. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

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    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.

  14. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

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    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  15. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

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    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  16. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

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    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  17. "I've Never Seen People Work So Hard!" Teachers' Working Conditions in the Early Stages of School Turnaround

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    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Rooney, Erin; Robertson-Kraft, Claire

    2015-01-01

    School turnaround--a reform strategy that strives for quick and dramatic transformation of low-performing schools--has gained prominence in recent years. This study uses interviews and focus groups conducted with 86 teachers in 13 schools during the early stages of school turnaround in a large urban district to examine teachers' perceptions of the…

  18. Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

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    Mispireta, Monica L; Division of Health Sciences, Idaho State University. Idaho, EE.UU. Médico maestra en Ciencias de la Salud.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement...

  19. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

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    Shenoy Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64, group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age, and group C (patients over the age of 85. Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time.

  20. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

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    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.