WorldWideScience

Sample records for early research phase

  1. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Research biopsies in the context of early phase oncology studies: clinical and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Saggese

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Personalised medicine’ approach in oncology is a direct result of improved understanding of complex tumour biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumour analysis in early clinical trials to foster-proof-of-concept biomarker development, understand resistance mechanisms and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase-1 studies are aimed to define drug safety, pharmacokinetics and to recommend a phase-2 dose for further testing, there is now increasing evidence of mandatory tumour biopsies even at the earliest dose-finding stages of drug development. The increasing demand for fresh tumour biopsies adds to the complexity of novel phase-1 studies and results in different challenges ranging from logistical support to ethical concerns. This paper investigates key issues including patients’ perceptions towards research biopsies, the need for accurate informed consent and alternative strategies that may guide in the drug development process.

  3. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    2016-12-06

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in the analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.

  4. Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E; Ballard, Rachel M; Starke-Reed, Pamela E; Galuska, Deborah A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2017-10-01

    The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies. Once the ICHNR was reassembled after a 10-y hiatus, the ICHNR recognized a need for a written roadmap to identify critical human nutrition research gaps and opportunities. This commentary provides an overview of the process the ICHNR undertook to develop a first-of-its-kind National Nutrition Research Roadmap, which was publicly released on 4 March 2016. The primary audience for the Roadmap is federal science agency leaders, along with relevant program and policy staff who rely on federally supported human nutrition research, in addition to the broader scientific community. The Roadmap is framed around the following 3 questions: 1 ) How can we better understand and define eating patterns to improve and sustain health? 2 ) What can be done to help people choose healthy eating patterns? 3 ) How can we develop and engage innovative methods and systems to accelerate discoveries in human nutrition? Within these 3 questions, 11 topical areas were identified on the basis of the following criteria: population impact, feasibility given current technological capacities, and emerging scientific opportunities. This commentary highlights initial federal and some professional research society efforts to address the Roadmap's research and resource priorities. We conclude by noting examples of early collaborations and partnerships to move human nutrition research forward in the 21st century. © 2017

  5. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  6. Perceptions of Equipoise, Risk-Benefit Ratios, and "Otherwise Healthy Volunteers" in the Context of Early-Phase HIV Cure Research in the United States: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Dee, Lynda; Evans, David; Sylla, Laurie; Taylor, Jeff; Brown, Brandon; Miller, Veronica; Corneli, Amy; Skinner, Asheley; Greene, Sandra B; Tucker, Joseph D; Rennie, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Early-phase HIV cure research is conducted against a background of highly effective antiretroviral therapy, and involves risky interventions in individuals who enjoy an almost normal life expectancy. To explore perceptions of three ethical topics in the context of HIV cure research-(a) equipoise, (b) risk-benefit ratios, and (c) "otherwise healthy volunteers"-we conducted 36 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with three groups of purposively selected key informants: clinician-researchers ( n = 11), policy-makers and bioethicists ( n = 13), and people living with HIV (PLWHIV; n = 12). Our analysis revealed variability in perceptions of equipoise. Second, most key informants believed there was no clear measure of risk-benefit ratios in HIV cure research, due in part to the complexity of weighing (sometimes unknown) risks to participants and (sometimes speculative) benefits to science and society. Third, most clinician-researchers and policy-makers/bioethicists viewed potential HIV cure study participants as "otherwise healthy volunteers," but this perception was not shared among PLWHIV in our study.

  7. Early Childhood Special Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolery, Mark; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The written testimony of the authors before the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education in April, 2002, identifies five areas of needed effort in early childhood special education research: (1) early identification and eligibility; (2) services; (3) outcomes; (4) infrastructure; and (5) the research funding process. Specific…

  8. shortened lag phase with seeds from early exponential phase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... exponential or early stationary phase was selected as optimal. In the current study, the authors optimised inoculum conditions using a strategy that combined inoculum age and size as inoculum cell number to shorten the lag phase in yeast cultivation. Inoculum from the middle exponential phase (7th h).

  9. Developmental process and early phases of implementation for the United States Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Congress first called for improved coordination of human nutrition research within and among federal departments and agencies in the 1977 Farm Bill. Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and commu...

  10. Early-Phase Studies of Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Janes, Holly; Li, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer biomarker research studies seek to develop markers that can accurately detect or predict future onset of disease. To design and evaluate these studies, one must specify the levels of accuracy sought. However, justified target levels are rarely available. METHODS: We describe...... a way to calculate target levels of sensitivity and specificity for a biomarker intended to be applied in a defined clinical context. The calculation requires knowledge of the prevalence or incidence of cases in the clinical population and the ratio of benefit associated with the clinical consequences...... for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to specify target levels of biomarker performance that enable evaluation of the potential clinical impact of biomarkers in early-phase studies. Nevertheless, biomarkers meeting the criteria should still be tested rigorously in studies that measure the actual...

  11. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... the provision of knowledge and information required in the early phases of technology decisions. This article reports on the first part of this project, and provides a descriptive model for understanding the complexity in the early phase intuitive decision-making process, answering the specific research...... question: How are decisions regarding technologies informed in the early phases of innovation, when dealing with paradigmatic “new to the company” knowledge fields? To explore the question, a case study; investigating the decisions made for radical new innovations, and the knowledge needed for supporting...

  12. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies: Microarray Analysis and Photodynamic Therapy implementation, which methodology can be extrapolated to other nanotechnologies in oncology. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is used for the introduction of technologies that are still in a dynamic phase of development or in an early stage of diffusion. The selection of studied aspects in CTA is based on: clinical aspects (safety, efficacy, and effectiveness), economic (cost-effectiveness), patient related (QoL, ethical/juridical and psychosocial), organizational aspects (diffusion and adoption) and scenario drafting. The features of the technology and the phase of implementation are decisive for choices and timing of the specific aspects to be studied. A framework was drafted to decide on the relevant aspects. In the first case, early implementation of Microarray Analysis; clinical effectiveness, logistics, patient centeredness and scenario drafting were given priority. Related to the diffusion-phase of Photodynamic Therapy however other aspects were evaluated, such as early cost-effectiveness analysis for possible reimbursement. Often CTA will result in a mixed method design. Especially scenario drafting is a powerful instrument to predict possible developments that can be anticipated upon in the assessment. CTA is appropriate for the study of early implementation of new technologies in oncology. In early TA small series often necessitate a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The features of nanotechnology

  13. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  14. Physiotherapy in early phase of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Paatelma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Markku PaatelmaDepartment of Education, Auron – OMT Center, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Low back pain (LBP is a substantial health problem and has subsequently attracted a considerable amount of research both in the early and chronic phases. Chronic, nonspecific LBP indicates limited effectiveness from most commonly applied interventions and approaches, but it seems to be opposite in the early phase. Intervention is more effective than advice on staying active in acute LBP, leading to more rapid improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and general health. We compared physiotherapy (PT that involved 3–7 treatment sessions based on subclassification in early phase LBP (acute and subacute LBP lasting <3 months to one session of PT that advised staying active, in 134 LBP patients. Low back and leg pain, disability, and days of sick-leave were evaluated. After 12 months, all groups had only minimal pain and disability. In the advice-only group, those patients who had radiating pain had less improvement compared with other groups, and increasing days of sick-leave because of LBP after 12 months. Compared with the advice-only group, orthopedic manual therapy and McKenzie methods seemed to be slightly more effective than one session of assessment in pain and disability.Keywords: OMT, advice, low back pain 

  15. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  16. THE DURATION AND PHASES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha ANGELOSKA-GALEVSKA

    1998-01-01

    Text points to the main characteristics of the research process when we use qualitative approach. Qualitative research design differs from the conventional linear model, which is typical for quantitative research. Qualitative research begins with selection of a research problem and then follows a cyclical pattern in which changes can be made in any phase of the research. New questions, tasks and hypotheses generate during the research and collection and analysis of data can be done in success...

  17. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  18. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  19. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  20. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Hummer, Tom A; Yung, Matthew G; Francis, Michael M; Lysaker, Paul H; Breier, Alan

    2015-06-29

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis.

  1. Healthy volunteers and early phases of clinical experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Gori, Giovanni; Blandizzi, Corrado; Tacca, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of early phase trials is to gain knowledge about the clinical suitability of novel compounds, without pursuing specific therapeutic purposes. Healthy volunteers usually represent the ideal model for conducting phase I clinical trials, in order to investigate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as to document safety and tolerability without interference by concomitant pathological conditions. The increasing cost of novel drug development, in conjunct...

  2. Quantum chromodynamics phase transition in the early Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A first-order quark hadron phase transition in the early Universe may lead to the formation of quark nuggets. The baryon number distribution of these quark nuggets have been calculated and it has been found that there are sizeable number of quark nuggets in the stable sector. The nuggets can clump and form bigger ...

  3. Uptake of novel statistical methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the success rate of confirmatory studies has been poor resulting in more emphasis on the conduct of exploratory studies. As one possibility to improve decision-making during the early stages of development, adaptive and Bayesian methods have been recommended. To investigate the current practice in designing early-phase studies in UK public sector research institutions and the use of adaptive and Bayesian methods in particular and to determine factors that hinder the penetration of methodological advances into practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK clinical trials units (CTUs) to gauge their involvement in early-phase studies and to learn about the designs used in these studies. Follow-up visits to units conducting early-phase studies with round-table discussions around the methods used and the obstacles faced when using adaptive methods were undertaken. More than half of the CTUs are involved in early-phase studies, but conservatism in the methods used in these studies is present. Reasons for novel methodology not being used include a lack of expertise, incompatible funding and unit structure, and a lack of software. Information is collected from UK CTUs, which undertake a large portion (but not all) publicly funded trials. The use of adaptive and Bayesian methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector is at present limited. Various different initiatives aim to support and facilitate the use of these methods, however, so that an increased use of these methods can be anticipated in the future.

  4. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  5. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7/8 (2010), s. 226-228 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision support * early phase * Gaussian model * radioactive pollution transport Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident.pdf

  6. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...... in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is supported by a set of tools. The main idea of the procedure is utilization of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's (SSA Global...

  7. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......¬eling in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is sup¬ported by a set of tools. The main idea of the pro¬cedure is utili¬zation of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's cus...

  8. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... question: How are decisions regarding technologies informed in the early phases of innovation, when dealing with paradigmatic “new to the company” knowledge fields? To explore the question, a case study; investigating the decisions made for radical new innovations, and the knowledge needed for supporting...... early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...

  9. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P. [ed.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  10. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  11. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2013-01-01

    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  12. Reported Research Funding in Four Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Funding for research in the area of early childhood is an ongoing challenge. The present research objective was to identify the frequency of acknowledgment of federal funding in articles published by four leading early childhood journals from 1999 to 2008. We conducted a content analysis of 1,338 publications found in "Early Child Development and…

  13. Early phase Technology Assessment of Nanotechnology in Oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca; Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Harten, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  14. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety. The uncertainty and ambiguity that are inherent to concept development impede the evaluation and improvement of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety in early design. A taxonomy was therefore developed to assess the information about...... these attributes that current methods require, and to address the need for clarity about design issues that result in risks. The concept development phase fosters ambiguity on how to satisfy requirements of robustness, reliability and safety, which is exacerbated by complexity in the individual solution...... alternatives. This prompts designers to reuse working principles that are inherently flawed, as they are liable to disturbances, failures and hazards. To address this issue, an approach based upon individual records of early design issues consists of comparing failures and benefits from prior working...

  15. Data assimilation in the early phase: Kalman filtering RIMPUFF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Turcanu, C.; Puch, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the DAONEM project (Data Assimilation for Off-site Nuclear Emergency Management), a data assimilation module, ADUM (Atmospheric Dispersion Updating Module), for the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion program RIMPUFF (Risø Mesoscale Puffmodel) – part of the early-phase programs......, and this based on time averaged measurements. Given reasonable conditions, i.e. a spatially densedistribution of gamma monitors and a realistic wind field, the developed ADUM module is found to be able to enhance the prediction of the gamma dose field. Based on some of the Kalman filtering parameters, another...

  16. Small Business Innovation Research GRC Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) for NASA Glenn Research Center. The report also highlights the number of Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II contracts awarded by mission directorate. The 2015 Phase I contract awards to companies in Ohio and their corresponding technologies are also discussed.

  17. Action Research: Its Origins and Early Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…

  18. 40 CFR 26.1123 - Early termination of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1123 Early termination of research. The Administrator may...

  19. No research without publication: early mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    In every college in Indonesia, Tridharma with three pillars: education, research and community service is the task of institutions and individuals within the educational institution. In this paper, we want to prove the implementation of research either by the institution or personally lecturers in Indonesia. Based on the data of scientific publications as research evidence derived from the indexing database, Scopus, it is found that less than 11% of colleges are proven to conduct research, not until of 17.08% lecturers who proved to conduct research.

  20. Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education (DARCEE). Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

    This document is the first in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education (DARCEE) which was established at the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Tennessee, in…

  1. Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

  2. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  3. Creating an information quantum leap in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Heller, Alfred; Hurup-Felby, Brian

    2014-01-01

    role in stabilizing the energy demand through e.g. thermal storage in building components. Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering also defines the reality in which we live, work, and play. Thus, it borders other fields such as architecture, landscape design, and urban planning -­‐ influencing...... urban environment climatic conditions, broad multi-­‐criteria sustainability certification in early design phases aiming a.o. at meeting the obligations defined by smart cities challenges. Civil and Environmental Engineering has special challenges concerning design processes. These design projects...... and behavior. This is more true than ever when considering the challenge of climate change. The requirements and behavior of the human users also vary in time. To meet these challenges, Civil and Environmental Engineering projects must be designed to be flexible so they can adjust for temporary changes...

  4. Early undergraduate research experience at Makerere University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To remain relevant the Faculty of Medicine Makerere University needs to identify research enhancing opportunities like undergraduate research experiences. Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving 424 graduate and undergraduate students of Makerere University Medical School on the traditional curriculum.

  5. Variations in Unrealistic Optimism Between Acceptors and Decliners of Early Phase Cancer Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Degnin, Catherine; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    Research has found that patient-subjects in early phase cancer trials exhibit unrealistic optimism regarding the risks and possible benefits of trial participation. Unrealistic optimism is associated with therapeutic misconception and failures to appreciate research-related information. This is the first study to assess whether those who decline to participate in these trials also exhibit unrealistic optimism. It is also the first study to assess whether there are significant differences in appreciation of research-related risks/benefits and therapeutic misconception between these two groups. We approached 261 patients at two academic medical centers who were offered enrollment in a Phase I, II, or I/II cancer trial (between 2012 and 2016). Two hundred thirty-three patients agreed to enroll in an early phase cancer trial, 171 of whom agreed to be interviewed for the study. Twenty-eight patients declined the offer to enroll, 15 of whom agreed to be interviewed for the study. Subjects participated in a structured face-to-face interview with a research associate trained to administer the study questionnaires. Acceptors demonstrated a significantly higher level of unrealistic optimism than decliners ( p optimism is consequential for the decision to participate in these trials. The different levels of unrealistic optimism exhibited by these groups suggest that it may be a factor that affects the decision to participate.

  6. Research for the energy turnaround. Phase transitions actively shape. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Conference 2014 of the Renewable Energy Research Association was held in Berlin on 6 and 7 November 2014. This book documents the contributions of the conference on research for the energy turnaround, phase transitions actively shape. After an introduction and two contributions to the political framework, the contributions to the economic phases of the energy transition, the phase of the current turn, the phases of social energy revolution, the stages of heat turnaround (Waermewende), and the stages of the mobility turn deal with the stages of development of the energy system. Finally, the Research Association Renewable Energy is briefly presented. [de

  7. RESEARCH OF EARLY STAGES OF MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In represented article the questions of estimate of accuracy of an average integral characteristics of random process in the course of imitation modeling is considered. For the purposes of analytical treatment of initial stage of modeling a conditionally nonstationary Gaussian process is analyzed as stationary Gaussian process with boundary prehistory. A model of approximant autocorrelation function is recommended. Analytical expression for variance and mathematical expectation of average integral estimation are obtained. Statistical estimation efficiency criterion, the probability of belonging to correct parameter interval is introduced. Dependences of closeness in estimation statistics clearing interval at transient behavior are researched for various types of processes.

  8. Praxis in Early Childhood Research with Infants and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Andi

    2017-01-01

    As emerging literature reflects, "praxis" is an important and useful concept for thinking about the many aspects of early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood research. In this article, I seek to contribute to discussions about praxis in ECE as a valuable concept for meeting the ethical challenges that arise in participatory…

  9. Department of Energy - Office of Science Early Career Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/

  10. The State of Teacher Research in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to show the extent to which early childhood teacher educators are informed about, engage in, teach about, value, and collaborate with others in teacher research. Teacher research was defined as research (systematic data collection and analysis) teacher educators do on their own, primarily to better…

  11. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  12. Research Matters in Governance, Equity and Health - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Championed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and others, Research Matters has helped shape how health research is demanded, created, supplied and ultimately used. This phase will see Research Matters broker research in health systems at the local, national and global policy levels, using a suite of tested ...

  13. Patient Perspectives on Deep Brain Stimulation Clinical Research in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, Lauren; Hacker, Mallory; Turchan, Maxim; Bollig, Madelyn; Tamargo, Christina; Fisher, William; McLaughlin, Lauren; Martig, Adria; Charles, David

    2017-01-01

    The FDA has approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences among potentially eligible patients for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD compared to standard medical treatment. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Early PD patients are therefore likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients.

  14. Boost-phase discrimination research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David M.; Deiwert, George S.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical research in two areas was performed. The aerothermodynamics research focused on the hard-body and rocket plume flows. Analytical real gas models to describe finite rate chemistry were developed and incorporated into the three-dimensional flow codes. New numerical algorithms capable of treating multi-species reacting gas equations and treating flows with large gradients were also developed. The computational chemistry research focused on the determination of spectral radiative intensity factors, transport properties and reaction rates. Ab initio solutions to the Schrodinger equation provided potential energy curves transition moments (radiative probabilities and strengths) and potential energy surfaces. These surfaces were then coupled with classical particle reactive trajectories to compute reaction cross-sections and rates.

  15. Modification of early postoperative X-ray research after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapounov, S.

    1982-10-01

    A modification of the early postoperative X-ray research after gastrectomy is described. The application of gastrografin happens through a nasogastric tube. By changing the position of its tip during the screening control, and excellent and precise represention of the anastomotic region will be achieved. We present a research of 35 patients.

  16. At Sea: What Direction for Critical Early Childhood Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on the dilemma critical early childhood research finds itself in today. In order to distinguish and distance ourselves from the certainties and seemingly unquestionable truths of post-political, mainstream, "normalised" research and its entanglement with neoliberal agendas and corporate interests, have we rendered…

  17. Arts-Based Educational Research in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will explore arts-based educational research (ABER) as an effective and appropriate research method in the early years. It has been noted that the arts play an increasingly important role in the development of the child (Boone, 2008; Twigg, 2011a, 2011b; Twigg & Garvis, 2010; Wright, 2012). In fact McArdle and Wright (2014) call the…

  18. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  19. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research Foundation. This funding will help strengthen the Economic and Social Research Foundation's (ESRF) role as a credible public policy institution in Tanzania by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the ...

  20. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sound research, policy influence. TTI is a multi-funder program dedicated to strengthening independent policy research institutions, or think tanks, in developing countries. The program aims to enhance their ability to provide sound research that informs and influences policy. This second TTI phase (2014?2019) will fund 43 ...

  1. African Transitional Justice Research Network - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Transitional Justice Research Network (ATJRN) aims to strengthen the capacity of African researchers and civil society institutions to conduct effective human rights advocacy through the production of high-quality, locally based and targeted empirical research. Phase I of the project (102862) focused on creating ...

  2. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; Poptimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (Poptimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early-phase oncology research. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Research on Children's Play: Analysis of Developmental and Early Education Journals from 2005 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Fang; Johnson, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Our review examined four early childhood journals ("Early Child Development and Care," "Early Childhood Education Journal," "Journal of Research in Childhood Education," and "Early Childhood Research Quarterly") and four developmental science journals ("Child Development," "Developmental Psychology," "Journal of Applied Developmental…

  4. Structural-Acoustic Simulations in Early Airframe Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The structural design during the early development of an aircraft focuses on strength, fatigue, corrosion, maintenance, inspection, and manufacturing. Usually the...

  5. Perceptions of control and unrealistic optimism in early-phase cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Degnin, Catherine; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has found unrealistic optimism (UO) among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. Our aim was to investigate the cognitive and motivational factors that evoke this bias in this context. We expected perceptions of control to be a strong correlate of unrealistic optimism. A study of patient-subjects enrolled in early-phase oncology trials was conducted at two sites in the USA. Respondents completed questionnaires designed to assess unrealistic optimism and several risk attribute variables that have been found to evoke the bias in other contexts. One hundred and seventy-one patient-subjects agreed to be interviewed for our study. Significant levels of perceived controllability were found with respect to all nine research-related questions. Perceptions of control were found to predict unrealistic optimism. Two other risk attribute variables, awareness of indicators (p=0.024) and mental image (p=0.022), were correlated with unrealistic optimism. However, in multivariate regression analysis, awareness and mental image dropped out of the model and perceived controllability was the only factor independently associated with unrealistic optimism (poptimism about benefiting personally from trial participation. Effective interventions to counteract unrealistic optimism may need to address the psychological factors that give rise to distorted risk/benefit processing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Salo, A.

    1998-12-01

    beneficial. The incorporation of uncertainties also proved to be difficult. The participants felt uneasy about probabilities and they focused rather on the worst possible consequences of the accident. All in all the results from this study are promising. Further meetings, however, have to be organised in order to deepen insight into the features of the decision-making process in the early phases of an accident and to familiarise decision-makers with decision analysis techniques. More research is needed on how to implement decision conferencing in nuclear emergency management. (author)

  7. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A

    1998-12-01

    beneficial. The incorporation of uncertainties also proved to be difficult. The participants felt uneasy about probabilities and they focused rather on the worst possible consequences of the accident. All in all the results from this study are promising. Further meetings, however, have to be organised in order to deepen insight into the features of the decision-making process in the early phases of an accident and to familiarise decision-makers with decision analysis techniques. More research is needed on how to implement decision conferencing in nuclear emergency management. (author) 25 refs.

  8. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ...

  9. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II ... grant will allow the Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) to design and implement a training course for young scholars in social science research methodology and techniques; ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  10. Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants Phase II (or CAREG II) will support more than 20 short-term faculty research exchanges between Canadian and ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  11. Establishing a research agenda for Foundation Phase i initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper profiles empirical research relating to initial teacher education over two decades of South African democracy, derived from a systematic review of journal articles, with the aim of proposing an agenda for research into foundation phase initial teacher education. It concludes that in the period between the birth of ...

  12. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II ... Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) to design and implement a training course for young scholars in social science research methodology and techniques; to conduct field ... Renforcement de la participation sociale et économique des femmes au Moyen-Orient.

  13. Spectro-polarimetric study of the early evolutionary phases of the most massive galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernet, Joel

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the early phases of evolution of the most massive galaxies (giant elliptic), a fundamental process which is a matter of study for various reasons exposed by the author in his introduction. While presented results are based on spectro-polarimetric observations, the author first presents specific instruments and methods used by spectropolarimetry which provides access to variations of all vectorial properties of light, without loss of information. Then, he reports the study of a near powerful radio-galaxy, Cygnus A, the study of nine radio-galaxies with a high redshift, and the study of a far ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (SMM J02399-0136). Results are then discussed and perspectives of research are proposed. Appendices present the theoretical study of the contribution of massive stars to the diffuse extragalactic ionizing background, and observations made on a near radio-galaxy (NGC 6251)

  14. Interior Acoustic Analysis for Early Use in Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of an aircraft is a highly iterative process. During the conceptual design phase there is no time for developing detailed simulation models and decisions...

  15. Implementation of “PLST” Assessment Model to Detect Development of Language Skill in Early Childhood (Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelva Rolina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research will be done for 3 years (3 phases. The first year had been done on 2013 ago. 2014 is the second year of research (phase II. Research phase of this study (second year, namely development phase: the prototype of model is developed to be a model. The activities carried out in phase II include: expert validation test, readability test, revision, kindergarten teacher training, limited trial, and the trial was extended to find models that fit between the theoretical concepts with empirical data in the field. And finally (second year, from all kindergarten which be the sample study, it was found that all kindergarten were using the general assessment without special assessment for development of children’s language, so it is necessary to create assessment “PLST” to detect the development of language skill for early childhood (kindergarten student. It has to continue in second to third year. The final research, which is at the end of the third year (phase III is expected to match model assessment “PLST” as well as the guidance in learning in kindergarten, which can be used by teachers to detect and monitor the development of language skills, identifying the amount of vocabulary and sentences are mastered children, and the stages of language development next. To achieve these objectives, the researcher adopted a model of research, development, and diffusion by Hopkins & Clark (Havelock, 1976

  16. Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III. Depuis la création du réseau RIA! en 2003, ses responsables ont mené avec succès des études portant tant sur l'offre que sur la demande afin de permettre de mieux comprendre l'accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en Afrique. Au cours des deux premières phases du projet (nos 101584 ...

  17. Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III. Depuis la création du réseau RIA! en 2003, ses responsables ont mené avec succès des études portant tant sur l'offre que sur la demande afin de permettre de mieux comprendre l'accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en Afrique. Au cours des deux premières phases du projet (nos 101584 ...

  18. Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III. Depuis la création du réseau RIA! en 2003, ses responsables ont mené avec succès des études portant tant sur l'offre que sur la demande afin de permettre de mieux comprendre l'accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en Afrique. Au cours des deux premières phases du projet (nos 101584 ...

  19. Seven Research-Based Ways That Families Promote Early Literacy. Research-to-Practice Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena

    2017-01-01

    Positive early-literacy experiences--whether at home, in early-childhood programs, schools, or libraries--set children on a trajectory to become confident readers by the time they reach third grade, which is an important milestone on the pathway toward high school graduation. This review outlines seven practices that research shows families use to…

  20. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  1. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase 0). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The study comprises Phase 0 of a project for Experimental Geothermal Research Facilities. The study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary engineering design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology, and planning for implementation of experimental facilities. The objectives included development of liaison with the industrial sector, to ensure responsiveness to their views in facility requirements and planning, and incorporation of environmental and socioeconomic factors. This Phase 0 report covers problem definition and systems requirements. Facilities will incorporate capability for research in component, system, and materials technology and a nominal 10 MWe experimental, binary cycle, power generating plant.

  2. Quantum chromodynamics phase transition in the early Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    number distribution of the QNs will be calculated in §2. Section 3 will be devoted to the discussion on the evolution of these nuggets to form dark matter and§4 will contain a brief conclusion. 2. The baryon number distribution of quark nuggets. The evolution of the universe during the QCD phase transition is governed by ...

  3. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel-fired unit's fuel consumption and fuel heat content for calendar year 1980, and each generator's... restrictions in paragraph (e)(6) of this section. (6) The number of credits for eligible Phase II units will be... paragraph (f) if the weighted average emission rate (based on heat input) for the prior year for all of the...

  4. Design and conduct of early phase drug studies in children: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Hawcutt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    It has historically been very difficult to conduct early phase drug studies in children for a number of reasons related to ethics, acceptability, rarity, standardization, end points, safety, dosing and feasibility. Over the past decade there have been a number of developments including novel clinical trial design, in silico pharmacology and microdosing that have significantly enhanced the ability of investigators to conduct early phase drug studies in children. While the evolution of drug the...

  5. Control of Early Age Concrete. Phase 3: Creep in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the "Road Directorate Concrete" at early ages are studied. Creep in tension at 24 and 72 maturity hours are measured on dogbone shaped specimens. The development of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength are measured with a method developed here. The results...... are compared to compression values and splitting strengths. It is found that the properties of creep in tension are similar to the properties in compression. Further the influence form temperature on creep is found to be significant....

  6. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  7. Research ICT Africa - Phase III | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Launched in 2003, Research ICT Africa (RIA) has successfully conducted demand- and supply-side studies with a view to better understanding information and communication technology (ICT) access and usage in Africa. The network expanded over the first two phases of support (101584 and 103114) to include members ...

  8. Small business innovation research. Abstracts of 1988 phase 1 awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Non-proprietary proposal abstracts of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA are presented. Projects in the fields of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robots, computer sciences, information systems, data processing, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.

  9. Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.

  10. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  11. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  12. "..., But I Cannot Do Research": Action-Research and Early Childhood Teachers. A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Although action-research is a well-known research methodology in the field of education, in the case of Greece there are few actions-researches carried out by early childhood teachers. The absence of action-research in early childhood education settings is related to the way many early childhood teachers shape their professional role as well as…

  13. Identifying future research directions for biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability : perspectives from early-career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Pogue, S.J.; Trenchard, L.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.; Washbourne, C-L.; Muiruri, E.W.; Tomczyk, A.M.; García-Llorente, M.; Hale, R.; Hevia, V.; Adams, T.; Tavallali, L.; De, Bell S.; Pye, M.; Resende, F.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify priority research questions in the field of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability (BESS), based on a workshop held during the NRG BESS Conference for Early Career Researchers on BESS, and to compare these to existing horizon scanning exercises. This work highlights

  14. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  15. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  16. Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure

  17. 1st International Early Research Career Enhancement School

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Valentin; Rybina, Galina

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research focused on current challenges towards the realization of Biologically Inspired intelligent agents, or Cognitive Architectures (BICA). The chapters are written by both world-recognized experts (including Antonio Chella, Olivier Georgeon, Oliver Kutz, Antonio Lieto, David Vernon, Paul Verschure, and others) and young researchers. Together, they constitute a good mixture of new findings with tutorial-based reviews and position papers, all presented at the First International Early Research Career Enhancement School on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (FIERCES on BICA 2016), held April 21-24 in Moscow, Russia. Most works included here cross boundaries between disciplines: from neuroscience to social science, from cognitive science to robotics, and from bioengineering to artificial intelligence. A special emphasis is given to novel solutions to urgent problems that have been resisting traditional approaches for decades. Intended for providing readers with an up...

  18. Research project management 101: insiders' tips from Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, Luisa; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Stichel, Torben

    2016-04-01

    From the very beginning of their career, it is important for Early Career Scientists (ECS) to develop project management skills to be able to organise their research efficiently. ECS are often in charge of specific tasks within their projects or for their teams. However, without specific training or tools, the successful completion of these assignments will depend entirely on the organisational skills of individual researchers. ECS are thus facing "sink-or-swim" situations, which can be either instructive or disastrous for their projects. Here we provide experience-based tips from fellow ECS that can help manage various project activities, including: 1. Communication with supervisors and peers 2. Lab management 3. Field trips (e.g., oceanographic campaigns) 4. Internships and collaborations with other institutions 5. Literature/background research 6. Conference convening These are potential "life buoys" for ECS, which will help them to carry out these tasks efficiently and successfully.

  19. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  20. Ikaros is degraded by proteasome-dependent mechanism in the early phase of apoptosis induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-Cai; Xu, Han-Zhang [Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Gu, Zhi-Min [Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences-SJTU-SM, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Chuan-Xu [Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang [Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences-SJTU-SM, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Yue-Fei; Wen, Dong-Hua [Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Ying-Li, E-mail: wuyingli@shsmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Chemotherapeutic drugs or UV treatment reduces Ikaros prior to caspase-3 activation. {yields} Etoposide treatment does not alter the mRNA but shortens the half-life of Ikaros. {yields} MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpeptin inhibits etoposide-induced Ikaros degradation. {yields} Overexpression of Ikaros accelerates etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells. -- Abstract: Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In this work, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs or ultraviolet radiation (UV) treatment could reduce the expression of full-length Ikaros (IK1) protein in less than 3 h in leukemic NB4, Kasumi-1 and Jurkat cells, prior to the activation of caspase-3. Etoposide treatment could not alter the mRNA level of IK1 but it could shorten the half-life of IK1. Co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpain inhibitor calpeptin inhibited etoposide-induced Ikaros downregulation. Overexpression of IK1 could accelerate etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increase of Annexin V positive cells and the more early activation of caspase 3. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that upon chemotherapy drugs or UV treatment, IK1 could be degraded via the proteasome system in the early phase of apoptosis induction. These data might shed new insight on the role of IK1 in apoptosis and the post-translational regulation of IK1.

  1. Photobiomodulation accelerates orthodontic alignment in the early phase of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Chung How; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Shaughnessy, Tim; Vachiramon, Amornpong; Santiwong, Peerapong; de la Fuente, Alvaro; Skrenes, Darya; Ma, Dennis; Brawn, Peter

    2013-09-19

    Numerous strategies have been proposed to decrease the treatment time a patient requires in orthodontic treatment. Recently, a number of device-accelerated therapies have emerged in orthodontics. Photobiomodulation is an emerging area of science that has clinical applications in a number of human biological processes. The aim of this study was to determine if photobiomodulation reduces the treatment time in the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment. This multicenter clinical trial was performed on 90 subjects (73 test subjects and 17 controls), and Little's Index of Irregularity (LII) was used as a measure of the rate of change of tooth movement. Subjects requiring orthodontic treatment were recruited into the study, and the LII was measured at regular time intervals. Test subjects used a device which produced near-infrared light with a continuous 850-nm wavelength. The surface of the cheek was irradiated with a power density of 60 mW/cm2 for 20 or 30 min/day or 60 min/week to achieve total energy densities of 72, 108, or 216 J/cm2, respectively. All subjects were fitted with traditional orthodontic brackets and wires. The wire sequences for each site were standardized to an initial round alignment wire (014 NiTi or 016 NiTi) and then advanced through a progression of stiffer arch wires unit alignment occurred (LIIorthodontic treatment.

  2. Cognitive intervention for early stage dementia: Research and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBoer, John W

    2017-09-07

    Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.

  3. Robust phase-retrieval-based X-ray tomography for morphological assessment of early hepatic echinococcosis infection in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Liu

    Full Text Available Propagation-based phase-contrast computed micro-tomography (PPCT dominates the non-destructive, three-dimensional inner-structure measurement in synchrotron-based biomedical research due to its simple experimental setup. To quantitatively visualize tiny density variations in soft tissues and organs closely related to early pathological morphology, an experimental study of synchrotron-based X-ray PPCT combined with generalized phase and attenuation duality (PAD phase retrieval was implemented with the hepatic echinococcosis (HE infection rat model at different stages. We quantitatively analyzed and evaluated the different pathological characterizations of hepatic echinococcosis during the development of this disease via our PAD-based PPCT and especially provided evidence that hepatic alveolar echinococcosis invades the liver tissue and spreads through blood flow systems with abundant blood supply in the early stage. Additionally, the infiltration of tiny vesicles in HE lesions can be clearly observed by our PAD-PPCT technique due to the striking contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and mass density resolution, which cannot be found by the medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT, and ultrasound, in hospitals. The results demonstrated that our PAD-PPCT technique has a great potential for indicating the subtle structural information of pathological changes in soft biomedical specimens, especially helpful for the research of early micro-morphology of diseases.

  4. Insights into Facebook Pages: an early adolescent health research study page targeted at parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-02-01

    Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines.

  5. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  6. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'geoscientific research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kunio; Abe, Hironobu; Kunimaru, Takanori

    2011-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. The present report summarises the results of the Phase I geoscientific research carried out from March 2001 to March 2005. Integration of the results from different disciplines ensures that the Phase I goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to be addressed in Phases II and III. More importantly, efforts are made to summarise as many lessons learnt from the Phase I investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a 'knowledge base' that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations. Based on experiences of selecting the URL area and site in Horonobe Town, important factors that should be taken into consideration in such selection processes and their rationale are demonstrated. In the course of stepwise surface-based investigations, a number of achievements have been made, which can eventually provide examples of integrated methodologies for characterising the sedimentary formations. The relevant surface-based investigation techniques have thus been further developed. The Horonobe URL has been designed based on geoscientific information accumulated during the surface-based investigations and the plans for safe construction and operation of the URL have been defined in a feasible manner. In addition, a variety of environmental measures taken during Phase I have proved to be

  7. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  8. The DREME Network: Research and Interventions in Early Childhood Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting Factors and Barriers to Participation in Early Phase Clinical Trials: Patients Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalela, Patricia; Suarez, Lucina; Muñoz, Edgar; Gallion, Kipling J; Pollock, Brad H; Weitman, Steven D; Karnad, Anand; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2014-04-24

    Inclusion of minorities in clinical research is an essential step to develop novel cancer treatments, improve health care overall, understand potential differences in pharmacogenomics and address minorities' disproportionate cancer burden. However, Latinos and other minority groups continue to be critically underrepresented, particularly in early-phase clinical trials (EPCTs). The objective of the present study was to explore barriers and promoting factors influencing patients' decisions to enroll or not in early phase clinical trials (EPCTs) and identify areas for intervention to increase minority enrollment into clinical research. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 100 cancer patients in the predominantly Latino region of South Texas. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify underlying dimensions, and multiple logistic regression assessed significant factors that promote or deter patients enrollment to EPCTs. In addition, a separate subgroup mean analysis assessed differences by enrollment status and race/ethnicity. For one standard deviation increase in the importance given to the possibility of symptoms improvement, the predicted odds of refusing enrollment were 3.20 times greater (OR=3.20, 95% CI=1.06-9.71, p 0.040). Regarding barriers, among patients who considered fear/uncertainty of the new treatment a deterrent to enrollment, one standard deviation increase in agreement with these barriers was associated with a 3.60 increase (OR=3.60, 95% CI=1.30-9.97h, p 0.014) in the odds of not being enrolled in an EPCT. In contrast, non-enrolled patients were less likely (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.05-0.44, p 0.001) to consider fatalistic beliefs as an important barrier. This study, one of the first to identify South Texas patients' barriers to enroll in EPCTs, highlights potential focal areas to increase participation of both minority and non-minority patients in clinical research. Culturally tailored interventions promoting patient

  10. Design and conduct of early phase drug studies in children: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Hawcutt, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    It has historically been very difficult to conduct early phase drug studies in children for a number of reasons related to ethics, acceptability, rarity, standardization, end points, safety, dosing and feasibility. Over the past decade there have been a number of developments including novel clinical trial design, in silico pharmacology and microdosing that have significantly enhanced the ability of investigators to conduct early phase drug studies in children. While the evolution of drug therapy is creating a series of new challenges, there has never been a better time for conducting drug studies in children. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  12. Small business innovation research: Abstracts of 1984. Phase 1 awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    On September 27, 1984, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced the selection of Phase I projects for the Small Business Innovation Research Program. These awards resulted from the evaluation of proposals submitted in response to the 1984 Program Solicitation, SBIR 84-1. In order to make available information on the technical content of the Phase I projects supported by the NASA SBIR Program, the abstracts of those proposals which resulted in awards of contracts are given. In addition, the name and address of the firm performing the work are given for those who may desired additional information about the project. Propulsion, aerodynamics, computer techniques, exobiology and composite materials are among the areas covered.

  13. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  14. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  15. Life as an early career researcher: interview with Catherine Martel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Catherine Martel speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor: Catherine Martel obtained her PhD from the Université de Montréal and pursued a postdoctoral fellowship first at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York (NY, USA), then at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA), and obtained the Junior Investigator Award for Women from the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology council of the American Heart Association. Her postdoctoral work is certainly groundbreaking and brings forward new considerations in the field: she discovered that the lymphatic vessel route, the network that runs in parallel with the blood vessels, is critical for removing cholesterol from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. In 2013, she joined the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Early Career Committee, eager to bring a Canadian perspective to the group and get involved in council activities. Since 2014, she is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Medicine at the Université de Montréal, and a research scientist at the Montreal Heart Institute. Her research program now focuses on characterizing the physiopathologic role of the lymphatics in the initiation, progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Basic and translational research will allow her team to identify the causes of lymphatic dysfunction, and eventually target potential therapeutic strategies aiming at improving lymphatic function at the different levels of the atherothrombotic disease. You can follow her laboratory at @LaboMartel_ICM.

  16. Getting Started: An Empirically Derived Logic Model for Age-Friendly Community Initiatives in the Early Planning Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A

    2018-02-16

    Age-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs) foster efforts across stakeholders to make localities more supportive and inclusive of older adults, and potentially better for residents of all ages. This study drew on in-depth interviews with leaders of nine newly forming AFCIs in northern New Jersey to develop an empirically based logic model for the initiatives in the early planning phase. The results obtained from a conventional content analysis indicated three main activities in the early planning phase: assessing the community; meeting; and communicating with stakeholders; and facilitating communitywide communications. These activities worked toward two outputs: increased understanding of aging in the community and more engaged stakeholders in aging. Participants described leveraging the contributions of lead staff, consultants, elected officials, organizational partners, volunteers, interns, funders, and other AFCIs to engage in their focal activities. Based on these findings, a logic model for AFCIs in the early planning phase is presented. AFCI leaders can draw on this model to evaluate AFCI processes and outcomes in their formative stages, as well as to strategically plan for the start of an AFCI within a given locality. Findings also suggest important directions for future research on the development of AFCIs and the community changes that they seek to influence.

  17. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  18. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  19. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  20. Prospective 2-Year Study of Emergency Department Patients With Early-Phase Primary Psychosis or Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Robert E.; Caton, Carol L.M.; Xie, Haiyi; Hsu, Eustace; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Samet, Sharon; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined treatment utilization and outcomes over 2 years among patients admitted to emergency departments with early-phase primary or substance-induced psychosis. The main hypothesis was that patients with substance-induced psychosis would have a more benign course of illness than those with primary psychosis. Method Using a prospective naturalistic cohort study design, the authors compared 217 patients with early-phase primary psychosis plus substance use and 134 patients with early-phase substance-induced psychosis who presented to psychiatric emergency departments at hospitals in Upper Manhattan. Assessments at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months included psychiatric diagnoses, service use, and institutional outcomes using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders; psychiatric symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; social, vocational, and family functioning using the World Health Organization Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule; and life satisfaction using the Quality of Life Interview. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations. Results Participants with primary psychosis were more likely to receive antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing medications, undergo hospitalizations, and have out-patient psychiatric visits; those with substance-induced psychosis were more likely to receive addiction treatments. Only a minority of each group received minimally adequate treatments. Both groups improved significantly over time on substance dependence, psychotic symptoms, homelessness, and psychosocial outcomes, and few group-by-time interactions emerged. Conclusions Patients presenting to Upper Manhattan emergency departments with either early-phase primary psychosis or substance-induced psychosis improved steadily over 2 years despite minimal use of mental health and substance abuse services. PMID:21454918

  1. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  2. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  3. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Whole-House Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  4. Lenses and Lessons: Using three different research perspectives in early childhood education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Irvine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Western research, collaboration is held in high esteem. This developing practice is challenging particularly for researchers who follow varying theoretical approaches. However although a challenging endeavour, when viewing the one data set with different lenses, there are various lessons that can be shared. A key aspect of this paper is involved researchers' different analytical perspectives in one data set to learn more about each other's research insights, rather than become instant expert in other's approaches. The interview data reported in this paper originates from a larger study researching parents' experience of using early childhood education and care (ECEC in Australia. Here we analyse and report on two shared interview excerpts and use three different research lenses for analysis; phenomenographic study, conversational analysis and cultural-historical theory. The finding of this paper demonstrates that applying different lenses provide different interpretations, including strengths, limitations and opportunities. In this paper we argue that collaborative research practices enhance our understanding of varying research approaches and the scope, quality, translation of research and the researchers' capacity are enhanced

  5. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  6. An early career researcher's perspective on presenting flood risk research to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise

    2017-04-01

    My research lies at the intersection of three disciplines: hydrology, climatology, and geomorphology, and focusses on understanding the drivers of changing flood hazards to improve flood projections. Because flooding has major impacts on people's lives, and flood losses are projected to continue to increase in future decades, attribution studies are readily picked up by the press. As an Early Career Researcher, I will share my own experiences in communicating flood-related research results (through university press releases, Twitter, blog posts, and interviews), and what I have learnt about the types of strategies that can be followed to increase research dissemination/outreach, and the "Attention Score" of individual papers. In terms of interacting with the media, I will also share some suggestions regarding the types of questions that often arise, as well as awareness strategies to avoid potential pitfalls, misunderstandings or misinterpretations.

  7. Early phase in e-money development: from Edvard Bellamy to Frank Macknamary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Vysochan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phases of e-money development from the first mentioning of «a credit card» in literary sources to the appearance of Diners Club which preceded modern credit cards. The author has used the historical and geographic method for the decomposition of the early phase in the e-money development concerning the basic motives that induced emitters to develop and implement particular credit-payment systems. The article singles out three stages within the early phase of the e-money development, namely, the beginning of the ХХ-th century (supplying with short-term credits to obtain consumer’s goods, from 1920 to 1940 (guarantee of consumer’s loyalty to a brand, increasing the safety of clearing transactions by payer’s authorization, and 1950-ies (the use of the same credit for payment to various enterprises. It establishes the main features of the early phase in the e-money development; they are such as the absence of the necessary technical supply; emission, sale, guaranty on credits, on the cards issued take place outside the banking system; the lack of corporation credit card segment; the limitation of the application area; the low level of safety of the transactions accomplished.

  8. Three Phase Primary Science. Phase Three Evaluation. Interim Report. Research Report No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    This evaluation report is concerned with Phase 3 of the Three Phase Primary Science (TPPS) course piloted in Papua, New Guinea, primary schools in 1969 and which was to be taught in all primary schools in 1973. Phase 1 is a series of activities; Phase 2, a series of simple experiments for the pupils. Phase 3 is a series of more formal experiments…

  9. CRP at early follicular phase of menstrual cycle can cause misinterpretation for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kiseli, Mine; Pabuccu, Emre; Candar, Tuba; Demirtas, Selda

    2015-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values. CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3-7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1-8.3], p menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively). CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate.

  10. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  11. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...

  12. Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Nandal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development.

  13. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    -UD addresses a broad sustainable focus and can be used as a tool for setting sustainability goals from the very first design steps. The system tends to promote multifunctional compromise solutions that meet several criteria at the same time. Using the DGNB-UD certification system in the early design phases......The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical...... University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these two independent design processes, compares them and discusses their general features. We found that DGNB...

  14. Line Evolution of the Nova V5587 Sgr from Early to Nebula Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kajikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectral evolution of the nova V5587 Sgr has been monitored at Koyama Astronomical Observatory and Higashi-Hiroshima Observatory, Japan, from the early to nebula phase. The nova rebrightened several times. The spectra during the early phase showed emission lines of H α, H β, O I, He I, He II, N II, Fe II. Nova V5587 Sgr is classified into the Fe II type. The helium abundance of the nova is estimated as N(He/N(H = 0.134 ± 0.09. The light curve, the spectral evolution, and the helium abundance in V5587 Sgr are similar to those of the nova PW Vul.

  15. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Chuang, T.Y.; Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Mensing, R.W.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. (author)

  16. Handwriting in Early Childhood Education: Current Research and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…

  17. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  18. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Viboud, C��cile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A better characterization of the early growth dynamics of an epidemic is needed to dissect the important drivers of disease transmission, refine existing transmission models, and improve disease forecasts. Materials and methods: We introduce a 2-parameter generalized-growth model to characterize the ascending phase of an outbreak and capture epidemic profiles ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth. We test the model against empirical outbreak data representing a var...

  19. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  20. Developing Research-Ready Skills: Preparing Early Academic Students for Participation in Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.

  1. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  2. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  3. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137 Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG)

  4. Brain Network Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease Identified by Early-Phase PIB-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liping; Liu, Linwen; Zhang, Jinming; Xu, Baixuan; Fan, Yong; Tian, Jiahe

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain networks from early-phase 11 C-PIB (perfusion PIB, pPIB) data and to compare the brain networks of patients with differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) with cognitively normal subjects (CN) and of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) with CN. Forty participants (14 CN, 12 MCI, and 14 AD) underwent 11 C-PIB and 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans. Parallel independent component analysis (pICA) was used to identify correlated brain networks from the 11 C-pPIB and 18 F-FDG data, and a two-sample t -test was used to evaluate group differences in the corrected brain networks between AD and CN, and between MCI and CN. Our study identified a brain network of perfusion (early-phase 11 C-PIB) that highly correlated with a glucose metabolism ( 18 F-FDG) brain network and colocalized with the default mode network (DMN) in an AD-specific neurodegenerative cohort. Particularly, decreased 18 F-FDG uptake correlated with a decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions of the DMN. The group comparisons revealed similar spatial patterns of the brain networks derived from the 11 C-pPIB and 18 F-FDG data. Our findings indicate that 11 C-pPIB derived from the early-phase 11 C-PIB could provide complementary information for 18 F-FDG examination in AD.

  5. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  6. Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water

  7. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  8. Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiromichi

    1988-10-01

    In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)

  9. European research activities within the project: High Performance Light Water Reactor phase 2 (HPLWR phase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe (Germany); Marsault, P. [CEA Cadarache (DER/SESI), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Bittermann, D. [AREVA NP, NEPR-G, Erlangen (Germany); Maraczy, C. [AEKI-KFKI, Budapest (Hungary); Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. IKE (Germany); Lycklama, J.A. [NRG Petten, NL (Netherlands); Anglart, H. [KTH Energy Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Aksan, N. [Paul Scherrer Institut CH, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ruzickova, M. [UJV Rez plc, Husinec-Rez c.p. (Czech Republic); Heikinheimo, L. [VTT, FIN (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a Light Water Reactor (LWR) operating at supercritical pressure (25 MPa). It belongs to the six reactors currently being investigated under the framework of the Generation IV International Forum. The most visible advantage of the HPLWR shall be the low construction costs in the order of 1000 Euro/kWe, because of size reduction of components and buildings compared to current Light Water Reactors, and the low electricity production costs which are targeted at 3-4 cents/kWh. In Europe, investigations on the HPLWR have been integrated into a joint research project, called High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2 (HPLWR Phase 2), which is co-funded by the European Commission. Within 42 months, ten partners from eight European countries working on critical scientific issues shall show the feasibility of the HPLWR concept. This paper reports on 5 points relevant for HPLWR: 1) design and integration, 2) core design, 3) safety, 4) materials, and 5) heat transfer. The final goal is to assess the future potential of this reactor in the electricity market.

  10. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. 34 CFR 97.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 97.123 Section 97.123 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation of...

  12. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  13. Early Head Start: Research Findings. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early Head Start is a federally funded community-based program for low-income families with infants and toddlers and for low-income pregnant women. Created in 1995, Early Head Start strives to promote healthy prenatal outcomes for pregnant women, to enhance the development of children ages birth to three, and to promote healthy family functioning.…

  14. Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education. NCSER 2013-3001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…

  15. Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol O. Larson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

  16. Entering the Field: Decisions of an Early Career Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeel Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory methodology is a much-debated topic in research, especially when novice researchers are selecting classic grounded theory for their research or theses. There is a constant need to justify and defend certain processes of grounded theory, which often challenge other research methods. As a novice researcher, I have often found myself juggling between the need to follow specific procedures and regulations of the university while opting to support the views of Glaser and the application of classic grounded theory for my research. To tackle such difficulties, specific decisions were used to support and justify key choices that favoured classic grounded theory and the requirements of the research institute and my research process. This article provides a reflection on the decisions taken at different stages of the research process to help readers make informed decisions before entering the field.

  17. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts (ERA) Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 17 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and issue (journal citation information for the resource within the…

  18. Analysis of Crosscutting in Early Software Development Phases Based on Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, José María; Hernández, Juan; Rashid, Awais; Aksit, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Crosscutting is usually described in terms of scattering and tangling. However, the distinction between these three concepts is vague. Precise definitions are mandatory for certain research areas such as the identification of crosscutting concerns at phases of the software life cycle. We propose a

  19. Challenges and opportunities for ELSI early career researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jessica; Ancillotti, Mirko; Coathup, Victoria; Coy, Sarah; Rigter, Tessel; Tatum, Travis; Grewal, Jasjote; Akcesme, Faruk Berat; Brki?, Jovana; Causevic-Ramosevac, Anida; Milovanovic, Goran; Nobile, Marianna; Pavlidis, Cristiana; Finlay, Teresa; Kaye, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past 25 years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of studying the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of genetic and genomic research. A large investment into ELSI research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genomic Project budget in 1990 stimulated the growth of this emerging field; ELSI research has continued to develop and is starting to emerge as a field in its own right. The evolving subject matter of ELSI research contin...

  20. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  2. Patellar Subluxation With Early-Phase Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon M

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, monoarticular disease process that affects the synovial membrane of the joint, the synovial sheath, or the bursa around the joint. The etiology is unknown, but it has been associated with trauma in some cases. Although it is a benign lesion, if left untreated, it may lead to early secondary osteoarthritis of the joint. The knee joint is affected in 50% to 65% of cases, followed by the elbow and the hip. This article reports a 30-year-old active woman who presented to the author's clinic with a large infrapatellar mass that caused lateral subluxation of the patella, swelling, and episodic pain with crepitations 14 months after direct trauma to the knee. Clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy revealed a large infrapatellar mass causing lateral subluxation of the patella with no loose bodies. Hoffa's disease, para-articular osteochondroma, and early-phase synovial chondromatosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. The histopathologic and clinical features were consistent with early synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent local excision of the mass through a medial parapatellar arthrotomy. At 5 years of follow-up, she had no recurrence of the lesion or progression of the disease. Early diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis with local excision offers a reliable cure. However, long-term follow-up is advised because of the high recurrence rates as well as the risk of metaplastic transformation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... in the functionality requirements are captured using “future scenarios”, which are task sets that model functionality likely to be added in the future. In this context, we derive a mapping of tasks in the application, such that the resulted implementation is both robust and flexible. Robust means that the application...

  4. The European Research Agenda for career guidance and counseling - and beyond. ECADOC - Early stage researchers symposium 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Weber, Peter C.

    Research in CGC is an expanding field of research still it is important to attract doctoral candidates to commit themselves to participation in scholarly exchange at central conferences. IAEVG is a central conference to the research field of Career Guidance and Counseling. With this symposium we...... propose a new mode of knowledge exchange at the IAEVG conferences. The Early stage researchers symposium invite participants to share research in progress as well as their experiences of becoming a member of an international research community i CGC and the building of the identity as a career guidance......) quality in career guidance, 4) an ESR experience of entering the CGC research community. The symposium will support and encourage Early stage researchers participation in the international career guidance research community and allow for symposium participants to hear about the newest research ideas...

  5. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Early flight phase (approximately 40 m) of the athletes participating in the final round of the individual large hill ski jumping competition in Salt Lake City Olympics was filmed with two high-speed pan & tilt video cameras. The results showed that jumpers' steady flight position was almost completed within 0.5s. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the angle between the skis and body (r=.714, p.001 at 1.1s after the take-off). This particular phase seemed to be important because the ski angle of attack was also related to the jumping distance at the same phase. Although the more upright ski position relative to flight path resulted in longer jumping distance, the winner of the competition had significantly lower ski position as compared to the other good jumpers. This may be due to the high altitude (>2000 m) of the ski jumping stadium in this competition. Because of the low air density, the aerodynamic forces were also low and this probably caused less skillful jumpers to lean too much forward at this phase. Maintenance of speed seemed to be emphasized in this particular competition.

  6. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.; Harmon, B.; Peterson, J.; Thom, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Hendrix, B.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology and the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy

  7. Research on coordinate transformation of the three-phase circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Ming Xing; yan hong; Yuan Dong Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The different three-phase circuit coordinate transformation matrixes are given in relevant literatures , which may cause some difficulties to understand and apply the coordinate transformation. The paper presents a general expression of the coordinate transformation matrixes in three-phase circuit and points out that the coordinate transformation matrixes having different specific expressions are due to existing the parameters which can be selected in the general expression. On this basis, th...

  8. Early Avian Research at the Savannah River Site: Historical Highlights and Possibilities for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.

    2000-10-01

    Avian biology was a major component of early research and baseline surveys. The focus of research shifted and the SRS evolved from open fields to forest cover. In the early years avian species richness and abundance increased with successional age of the vegetation from old-field to forest. During the early years resident game birds increased. More recent studies will help to understand the role of habitat in local and regional extinctions. A variety of survey techniques is needed.

  9. The Learning Environments of Early Childhood in Asia: Research Perspectives and Changing Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    Highlights of a workshop (held in Bangkok, December 1986) on research perspectives and prospects concerning the learning environment of early childhood are discussed. Researchers and early childhood educators from seven Asian and Pacific nations and resource persons from four continents attended. Participants were asked to explore the home and…

  10. [Research advancement and prospects of nanotechnology in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-Hong; Gong, Ping; Ma, Yi-Fan; Cai, Lin-Tao

    2009-09-01

    Nanotechnology has been extensively merging into biomedical research to develop a new research field-Nanobiomedicine. It provides a unique approach and comprehensive technology against cancer by early diagnosis, prediction, prevention, personalized therapy and medicine. This review focused on the progress of nanotechnology in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  11. Critical methodologies: early childhood research studies in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette; Bjelkerud, Agnes Westgaard; Giæver, Katrine; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Holten, Ingeborg Caroline Sæbøe; Lafton, Tove; Moxnes, Anna Rigmor; Pope, Liv Alice

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and originally published in Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology (RERM). You can access the article on publisher's website by following this link: https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/rerm This chapter exemplifies seven projects and their related research methodologies. It does so to consider how to construct critical research studies without replicating someone else’s researc...

  12. Advanced Strategies for Net-Zero Energy Building: Focused on the Early Phase and Usage Phase of a Building’s Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyoon Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To cope with ‘Post-2020’, each country set its national greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction target (e.g., South Korea: 37% below its business-as-usual level by 2030. Toward this end, it is necessary to implement the net-zero energy building (nZEB in the building sector, which accounts for more than 25% of the national GHG emissions and has a great potential to reduce GHG emissions. In this context, this study conducted a state-of-the-art review of nZEB implementation strategies in terms of passive strategies (i.e., passive sustainable design and energy-saving technique and active strategies (i.e., renewable energy (RE and back-up system for RE. Additionally, this study proposed the following advanced strategies for nZEB implementation according to a building’s life cycle: (i integration and optimization of the passive and active strategies in the early phase of a building’s life cycle; (ii real-time monitoring of the energy performance during the usage phase of a building’s life cycle. It is expected that this study can help researchers, practitioners, and policymakers understand the overall implementation strategies for realizing nZEB.

  13. Early-career researchers' views on ethical dimensions of patient engagement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélisle-Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Rouleau, Geneviève; Birko, Stanislav

    2018-03-07

    Increasing attention and efforts are being put towards engaging patients in health research, and some have even argued that patient engagement in research (PER) is an ethical imperative. Yet there is relatively little empirical data on ethical issues associated with PER. A three-round Delphi survey was conducted with a panel of early-career researchers (ECRs) involved in PER. One of the objectives was to examine the ethical dimensions of PER as well as ECRs' self-perceived level of preparedness to conduct PER ethically. The study was conducted among awardees of the Québec SPOR-SUPPORT Unit in Canada, who represent the next generation of researchers involved in PER. Many themes were addressed throughout the study, such as definition, values, patients' roles, expected characteristics of patients, and anticipated challenges (including ethical issues). Open-ended questions were used, and all quantitative data were collected through statements using 7-point Likert scales. Between April and November 2016, 25 ECRs were invited to participate; 18 completed both the first and second rounds, and 16 completed the third round. Panelists consisted of nine women and seven men with various backgrounds (general practitioners and postgraduate students). The majority were between 25 and 44 years old. Panelists' responses showed PER raises important ethical issues: 1) professionalization of patients involved in research (with risks of patients becoming less representative); 2) adequate remuneration of patients; 3) fair recognition of patients' experiential knowledge; and 4) tokenism (engaging patients only for symbolic appeal). While the panelists felt moderately prepared to confront these ethical issues, they reported being uncomfortable applying for an ethics certificate for a PER project. If PER is an ethical imperative, it is vital to establish clear ethical standards and to train and support the PER community to identify and resolve ethical issues. Despite their overall

  14. Early luteal phase endocrine profile is affected by the mode of triggering final oocyte maturation and the luteal phase support used in recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone-gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vitro fertilization cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatemi, Human M; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; van Vaerenbergh, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS).......To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS)....

  15. Start Early to Build a Healthy Future: The Research Linking Early Learning and Health. Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brooke; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Every child deserves a fair chance. A chance to learn, grow, explore possibilities, persevere and achieve his or her potential. The Ounce of Prevention Fund believes that no child's potential should be limited by poor health. Good health in early childhood is an essential component of school readiness. The benefits of health and learning are…

  16. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  17. Statistical analysis of the early phase of SBO accident for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Yaroslav, E-mail: y.kozmenkov@hzdr.de; Jobst, Matthias, E-mail: m.jobst@hzdr.de; Kliem, Soeren, E-mail: s.kliem@hzdr.de; Schaefer, Frank, E-mail: f.schaefer@hzdr.de; Wilhelm, Polina, E-mail: p.wilhelm@hzdr.de

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate model of generic German PWR is used in ATHLET-CD simulations. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the early phase of SBO accident is presented. • Prediction intervals for occurrence of main events are evaluated. - Abstract: A statistical approach is used to analyse the early phase of station blackout accident for generic German PWR with the best estimate system code ATHLET-CD as a computation tool. The analysis is mainly focused on the timescale uncertainties of the accident events which can be detected at the plant. The developed input deck allows variations of all input uncertainty parameters relevant to the case. The list of identified and quantified input uncertainties includes 30 parameters related to the simulated physical phenomena/processes. Time uncertainties of main events as well as the major contributors to these uncertainties are defined. The uncertainty in decay heat has the highest contribution to the uncertainties of the analysed events. A linear regression analysis is used for predicting times of future events from detected times of occurred/past events. An accuracy of event predictions is estimated and verified. The presented statistical approach could be helpful for assessing and improving existing or elaborating additional emergency operating procedures aimed to prevent severe damage of reactor core.

  18. A Simplified Method for Evaluating Building Sustainability in the Early Design Phase for Architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Markelj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With society turning increasingly to sustainable development, sharper demands are being made concerning energy efficiency and other properties that mean reductions in the negative effects of the building on the environment and people. This means that architects must have a suitably adapted solution already in the early design phase, as this has the greatest influence on the final result. Current tools and methods used for this are either focused only on individual topics or are too complex and not adapted for independent use by architects. The paper presents a simplified method for evaluating building sustainability (SMEBS which addresses these needs. It is intended as a tool to aid architects in the early project planning phases as it allows a quick evaluation of the extent to which the demands of sustainable building are fulfilled. The method was developed on the basis of a study of international building sustainability assessment methods (BSAM and standards in this field. Experts in sustainable construction were invited to determine weights for assessment parameters using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Their judgments reflect the specific characteristics of the local environment.

  19. Research on three-phase unbalanced distribution network reconfiguration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuang; Li, Ke-Jun; Xu, Yanshun; Liu, Zhijie; Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhuodi

    2017-01-01

    With the development of social economy, the loads installed in the distribution network become more and more complex which may cause the three-phase unbalance problems. This paper proposes an optimal reconfiguration approach based on mixed integer quadric programming (MIQP) method to address the three-phase unbalance problem. It aims to minimize the total network losses of the system. By using several square constraints to substitute the circular constraint, the original optimization problem is linearized and converted into a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model. Then this MILP problem is solved in general algebraic model system (GAMS) software using CPLEX solver. The additional losses caused by three-phase unbalanced are also considered. An IEEE 34 nodes test system is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the losses and the voltage violation mitigation in the network can be reduced significantly.

  20. Cupola modeling research: Phase 2 (Year one), Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-20

    Objective was to develop a mathematical model of the cupola furnace (cast iron production) in on-line and off-line process control and optimization. In Phase I, the general structure of the heat transfer, fluid flow, and chemical models were laid out, providing reasonable descriptions of cupola behavior with a one-dimensional representation. Work was also initiated on a two-dimensional model. Phase II was focused on perfecting the one-dimensional model. The contributions include these from MIT, Michigan University, and GM.

  1. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  2. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  3. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa. View moreMaternal and child health research featured in Canadian Geographic ...

  4. Synthesized research report in the second mid-term research phase. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project, Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project and geo-stability project (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Katsuhiro; Sasao, Eiji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Onoe, Hironori; Sato, Toshinori; Yasue, Kenichi; Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Osawa, Hideaki; Nagae, Isako; Natsuyama, Ryoko; Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nakayama, Masashi; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ito, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Takuya; Senba, Takeshi; Amano, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We have synthesized the research results from the Mizunami/Horonobe Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) and geo-stability projects in the second mid-term research phase. This report can be used as a technical basis for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan/Regulator at each decision point from siting to beginning of disposal (Principal Investigation to Detailed Investigation Phase). High-quality construction techniques and field investigation methods have been developed and implemented, which will be directly applicable to the National Disposal Program (together with general assessments of hazardous natural events and processes). Acquisition of technical knowledge on decisions of partial backfilling and final closure from actual field experiments in the Mizunami/Horonobe URLs will be crucial as the main theme for the next phases. (author)

  5. Research ICT Africa - Phase III | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During this phase, RIA will construct an African index of ICT policy and regulations; establish a network structure suitable for growth and the integration of North Africa; refine its policy influence and dissemination strategy; integrate its supply- and demand-side data and triangulate it with the telecommunication regulatory ...

  6. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India

  7. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India

  8. Phase-field simulations of nuclei and early stage solidification microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, B; Selzer, M; Danilov, D

    2009-11-18

    To investigate the local properties of heterogeneous nuclei on substrates, a phase-field model is extended to incorporate volume constraints and a third order line tension in the gradient free energy density formulation. The new model is applied to sessile drop simulations of Cu nuclei on Ni substrates to precisely analyse 3D equilibrium shapes and diffusion processes across the phase boundaries. In particular, the formalism with higher order potentials is used to investigate the length-scale dependent effect of the line tension on Young's force balance at triple lines in 3D. The employment of parallel and adaptive simulation techniques is essential for three-dimensional numerical computations. Early stage solidification microstructures of cubic Ni crystals are simulated by scale-bridging molecular dynamics (MD) and phase-field (PF) simulations. The domain of the PF computations is initialized by transferring MD data of the atomic positions and of the shape of the nuclei. The combined approach can be used to study the responses of microstructures upon nucleation.

  9. Starting them Early: Incorporating Communication Training into Undergraduate Research Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, B. A.; Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to truly broaden the impact of our scientific community, effective communication should be taught alongside research skills to developing scientists. In the summer of 2014, we incorporated an informal communications course into the 10th year of UNAVCO's Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), a year-long internship program centered around an 11-week intensive summer research experience. The goals of the newly designed course included giving students the tools they need to make a broader impact with their science, starting now; improving the students' confidence in public speaking and using social media for outreach; and giving students the tools they need to apply for jobs or graduate school. Specifically, the course included teaching of professional communication skills, such as e-mail and phone etiquette, resume and CV tailoring, and interview techniques, and public communications skills, such as crafting and simplifying messages, visual communication for the public, and public speaking. Student interns were encouraged to step back from the details of their research projects to put their work into a big-picture context relevant to the public and to policy makers. The course benefited from input and/or participation from UNAVCO Education and Community Engagement staff, engineering and managerial staff, and graduate student interns outside the RESESS program, and University of Colorado research and communications mentors already involved in RESESS. As the summer program is already packed with research and skill development, one major challenge was fitting in teaching these communications skills amongst many other obligations: a GRE course, a peer-focused scientific communications course, a computing course, and, of course, research. Can we do it all? This presentation will provide an overview of the course planning, articulation of course goals, and execution challenges and successes. We will present our lessons learned from

  10. Early History of Heavy Isotope Research at Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn T. Seaborg

    1976-06-01

    I have had the idea for some time that it would be interesting and worthwhile to put together an account of the early work on heavy isotopes at Berkeley. Of a special interest is the discovery of plutonium (atomic number 94) and the isotope U{sup 233}, and the demonstration of their fission with slow neutrons. This work served as a prelude to the subsequent Plutonium Project (Metallurgical Project) centered at the University of Chicago, in connection with which I have also had the idea of putting together a history of the work of my chemistry group. I have decided that it would be an interesting challenge to write this account on a day-to-day basis in a style that would be consistent with the entries having been written at the end of each day. The aim would be to make this history as accurate as possible by going back to the original records and using them with meticulous care.

  11. Early Japanese contributions to space weather research (1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Major contributions by Japanese scientists in the period of 1945 to 1960 are reviewed. This was the period when the foundation of the space weather research was laid by ground-based observations and theoretical research. Important contributions were made on such subjects as equatorial ionosphere in quiet times, tidal wind system in the ionosphere, formation of the F2 layer, VLF propagation above the ionosphere, and precursory phenomena (type IV radio outburst and polar cap absorption to storms. At the IGY (1957, 1958, research efforts were intensified and new programs in space and Antarctica were initiated. Japanese scientists in this discipline held a tight network for communication and collaboration that has been kept to this day.

  12. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations

  13. A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research program that...

  14. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  15. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Karim; Hong, Young T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Fryer, Tim D; Menon, David K; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1-6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD.

  16. Involving Parents in Early Childhood Research as Reliable Assessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Susan; Curtis, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings in relation to one aspect of the "I Go to School" research project carried out in South Australia which tracked children attending integrated pre-school/childcare centres as they made their transition to school. Eight centres participated in the study involving 347 children. In order to measure some of the…

  17. Developing the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping out using a collaborative action research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Olja 0000-0001-8860-6717

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents findings of collaborative action research aimed at exploring and describing the process of the development of the early warning system for identification of students at risk of dropping (EWS. The study has been conducted in collaboration between practitioners from five vocational agriculture and food science schools and research team with expertise in the field of educational psychology. Study employed one cycle of collaborative action research including planning, acting, observing, reflecting and revising phase. During the planning and action phase, Instrument for identification of students at risk of dropping out has been developed and implemented on the sample of 485 first grade students. The collected data has been used to highlight the students who are beginning to exhibit warning signs that could become obstacles to graduation, as well as to craft meaningful prevention and intervention measures. Observations regarding the implementation of proposed methodology and reflections on collected data and ongoing processes have been systematically recorded through regular monthly meetings between researchers and practitioners. Analysis of 73 documents, collected during observation and reflection phase, resulted in 18 categories, grouped into two broad themes: pitfalls and strengths of EWS. Based on the findings, the methodology for identification of students at risk was revised to fit the needs and strengths of the specific school. The study offers valuable lessons regarding development of EWS through researchers-practitioners collaboration.

  18. Qualitative analysis of clinical research coordinators' role in phase I cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko Fujiwara; Ryota Ochiai; Yuki Shirai; Yuko Saito; Fumitaka Nagamura; Satoru Iwase; Keiko Kazuma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinical research coordinators play a pivotal role in phase I cancer clinical trials. Purpose: We clarified the care coordination and practice for patients provided by clinical research coordinators in phase I cancer clinical trials in Japan and elucidated clinical research coordinators' perspective on patients' expectations and understanding of these trials. Method: Fifteen clinical research coordinators participated in semi-structured interviews regarding clinical practice...

  19. Research reactor decommissioning planning - It is never too early to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, R.S.; Buttram, C.; Ervin, P.; Lundberg, L.; Hertel, N.; Marske, S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Whether an organization is in the process of designing, constructing or operating nuclear research reactors, past experiences prove it is never too early to start planning for the eventual decontamination, dismantlement and decommissioning (DD and D) of the reactor. If one waits until writing the Decommissioning Plan to seriously think about the DD and D activities, they have lost a key opportunity to be able to efficiently and effectively carry out the DD and D activities and will end up spending large sums of unnecessary funds during the DD and D. This paper will review all phases of research reactor decommissioning from characterization through planning, to eventual DD and D and license termination and highlight areas where early planning can significantly reduce the financial, safety and schedule risks associated with the DD and D activities. CH2M HILL served as the Executive Engineer for the Georgia Institute of Technology and the State of Georgia to oversee the successful DD and D of their tank type research reactor. CH2M HILL is currently serving as the DD and D contractor for the University of Virginia pool type UVAR and the low power CAVALIER research reactors and as the characterization and Decommissioning Planning contractor for the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor. Through these activities, an array of lessons learned have been compiled that will prove invaluable to the research reactor owner when they eventually face the DD and D challenge. As an example, in almost every case CH2M HILL has been involved in reactor DD and D, less than adequate up-front characterization has significantly impacted the ultimate DD and D process cost and schedule. Due to regulatory reasons, intrusive characterization may not always be possible prior to DD and D. However, a thorough understanding of the materials of construction and the quantities of additives or impurities present in those materials; e.g., cobalt in stainless steel, rare earth elements or

  20. Final report on the surface-based investigation phase (phase 1) at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment within crystalline rock being conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan and its role is defined in 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of 20 years. The overall project goals of the MIU Project from Phase I through to Phase III are: 1) to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and 2) to develop a range of engineering for deep underground application. During Phase I, the overall project goals were supported by Phase I goals. For the overall project goals 1), the Phase I goals were set to construct models of the geological environment from all surface-based investigation results that describe the geological environment prior to excavation and predict excavation response. For the overall project goals 2), the Phase I goals were set to formulate detailed design concepts and a construction plan for the underground facilities. This report summarizes the Phase I investigation which was completed in March 2005. The authors believe this report will make an important milestone, since this report clarifies how the Phase I goals are achieved and evaluate the future issues thereby direct the research which will be conducted during Phase II. With regard to the overall project goals 1), 'To establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment,' a step-wise investigation was conducted by iterating investigation, interpretation, and assessment, thereby understanding of geologic environment was progressively and effectively improved with progress of investigation. An optimal

  1. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -recruit and retain a stable team of qualified non-research staff to support researchers with financial, technology, and communications services -enhance its systems to identify challenges and opportunities to increase the organization's impact -increase its annual revenue streams -become more visible at the community and ...

  2. Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG) : Pilot Phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project was prompted by the perception that partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Africa - in contrast to partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Latin America and the Caribbean - have remained relatively limited and probably fall short ...

  3. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Ethiopian Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -promote debate, encourage cooperation, and improve the communication of ideas -attract and retain staff -improve organizational, financial management, and audit systems -expand its outreach opportunities to effectively communicate and report research findings -become Ethiopia's leading research institute in the field of ...

  4. Think Tank Initiative Phase 2: Strengthening Research Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... access to capacity development support to enable think tanks to improve organizational performance, research quality, and policy engagement -facilitate and share learning about strategies for defining, building, and managing successful, sustainable think tanks with other policy research organizations and stakeholders ...

  5. A Bibliometric Analysis of Current Research Situation of Early Intervention for Exceptional Children in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide reference for further studies, this study attempts to summarize and present current research situation of early intervention in China based on the bibliometric analysis of academic articles about early intervention from 2003 to 2014 in mainland China. The findings are as follows: (1 there is significant increase in the number of articles and more attention has been paid to this area; (2 relevant research results have a wide distribution and the quality of research still needs to be improved; (3 the research subjects of early intervention are various and a stable and mature research team is still unformed; (4 there is a increasing diversity of research methods and constant expanding of research content.

  6. Inhibition of early and late phase allergic reactions by Euphorbia hirta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Kaiser, P; Youssouf, M S; Singh, S; Khajuria, A; Koul, A; Bani, S; Kapahi, B K; Satti, N K; Suri, K A; Johri, R K

    2006-04-01

    A 95% ethanol extract from whole aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta (EH A001) showed antihistaminic, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in various animal models. EH A001 inhibited rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation triggered by compound 48/80. It significantly inhibited dextran-induced rat paw edema. EH A001 prevented eosinophil accumulation and eosinophil peroxidase activity and reduced the protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in a 'mild' model of asthma. Moreover, the CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood was suppressed. EH A001 attenuated the release of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and augmented interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse splenocytes. The results were compared with the effects of known compounds, ketotifen, cetirizine and cyclophosphamide. These findings demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta possessed significant activity to prevent early and late phase allergic reactions. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... have a high impact on the subsequent implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (WCETs), in the functionality requirements, or in the hardware component costs. In this context, we...... select the hardware components for the architecture and derive a mapping of tasks in the application, such that the resulted implementation is both robust and flexible. The architecture also has a high chance to have its unit cost within the cost budget. Robust means that the application has a high...

  8. Early career researchers: an interview with Caroline Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Caroline Williams is an Assistant Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, where she studies evolution of metabolic physiology in ectotherms. She grew up in New Zealand, where she received Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Zoology from the University of Otago in Dunedin. After travelling and working in Asia, she moved to Western University, Canada, for her PhD in the laboratory of Brent Sinclair, before joining Dan Hahn at the University of Florida as a postdoctoral research fellow. In 2010 she received the Scholander Award from the American Physiological Society. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Early years of nuclear energy research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    The first experimental attempts in Canada to obtain energy from uranium fission were carried out by the author in the Ottawa laboratories of the National Research Council from 1940 to 42. This program grew into a joint British-Canadian laboratory in Montreal. Work done at this laboratory, which moved to Chalk River in 1946, led to the construction of ZEEP (the first nuclear reactor to operate outside of the United States) NRX, and ultimately to the development of the CANDU power reactors. People involved in the work and events along the way are covered in detail. (LL)

  10. Early career researchers: an interview with Jeremy Goldbogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Jeremy Goldbogen is an Assistant Professor at the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, USA, where he studies the integrative biology of vertebrate filter feeders from forage fish to baleen whales. He received his Bachelor's degree in Zoology from the University of Texas, Austin, USA, before moving to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and then the University of British Columbia for his PhD, which he completed in 2010 in the laboratory of Bob Shadwick. After a short postdoc at Scripps, Goldbogen moved to continue his postdoc training at the Cascadia Research Collective in Olympia, Washington. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. How Do They Manage?: A Review of the Research on Leadership in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Aubrey, Carol; Harris, Alma; Briggs, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a review of literature on leadership in early childhood (EC). It identifies a paucity of research, despite a high potential for leadership activity in the early childhood field. It concludes that there is a clear need to identify what effective leadership practice is in terms of processes and outcomes within…

  12. Research on Early Childhood Teacher Education: Evidence from Three Domains and Recommendations for Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Diane M.; Hyson, Marilou; Winton, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    It is essential that a solid research base be established to provide a foundation that will enable the field of early childhood teacher education to examine whether, for whom, and in what ways teacher education matters. The purpose of this article is to review several important domains in early childhood teacher education to illustrate the…

  13. Examining Different Forms of Implementation and in Early Childhood Curriculum Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Samuel L.; Fleming, Kandace; Diamond, Karen; Lieber, Joan; Hanson, Marci; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Marquis, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine different approaches to assessing implementation in an early childhood curriculum research study. Early childhood teachers in 51 preschool classes located at nationally dispersed sites implemented the Children's School Success curriculum for a school year. Structural (proportion of curriculum delivered) and…

  14. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  15. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  16. No increased risk of early revision during the implementation phase of new cup designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Mathias; Nemes, Szilard; Rolfson, Ola; Jolbäck, Per; Kärrholm, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — In Sweden, less than 5% of patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have revision. Younger patients have an increased risk of revision. New prosthetic designs are being introduced in order to improve outcomes further. We investigated whether the introductory phase of new cup designs would increase the revision rate. Patients and methods — All THAs and first-time cup revisions performed from 1993 through 2011 were identified in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. The 15 types of cups used in more than 500 operations and inserted in more than 50 cases in each hospital (n = 52,903) were selected. All cups were given an order number, based on the order in which the cup had been inserted at each hospital. The influence of order number on the risk of revision was analyzed in a regression model, which was adjusted for potentially confounding demographic and surgical data. Revision within 2 years for all reasons (n = 940) was used as primary endpoint. Changes in the risk of revision based on the order number were analyzed using a spline. Results — The order number of the cup had no influence on the risk of early revision (p ≥ 0.7). Categorizing the order number using cutoff values obtained from the splines did not result in any statistically significant changes in risk of revision (p ≥ 0.2). Interpretation — We did not find any increased risk of early revision during the implementation phase of new cup designs. This finding is unexpected, and partly conflicts with data from other registries. The structured and stepwise introduction of new prosthesis designs, facilitated by the annual feedback from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register, may partly explain this discrepancy. PMID:27168095

  17. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  18. Electrical Microgravity Research in Colloidal Development Platform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a platform upon which to perform high voltage Electrical microGravity Research In colloidal Development (E-GRID). This platform will...

  19. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Ethiopian Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For EDRI, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Performance and policy engagement. Through ... -strengthen the links between academics, policy communities, and institutions throughout Ethiopia and Eastern Africa -promote debate, encourage cooperation, ...

  20. Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Area-I team has developed and flight tested the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or...

  1. Compact Transcranial Doppler (TCD) for Bioastronautics Research, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Returning men to the Moon and manned Mars missions will require advanced bioastronanutics research. One possible risk is Decompression Sickness (DCS) resulting from...

  2. A Chernobyl lesson for aerial monitoring: integration of passive measurements with active sampling in the emergency early phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelluccio, D.; Cisbani, E.; Fratoni, R.; Frullani, S.; Giuliani, F.; Mostarda, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Veneroni, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technologies and Health Dept., Rome (Italy); Chiavarini, S. [Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, ENEA, Rome (Italy); Delprato, U. [IES Solutions srl, Rome (Italy); Fragasso, G.; Siciliano, G. [Galileo Avionica S.p.A., Campidi Bisenzio FI (Italy); Gaddini, M.; Pianese, E. [Central Direction for Emergency and Technical Rescue, Ministry of Interior, Rome (Italy); Marchiori, C.; Paoloni, G. [Roma Univ. La Sapienza, Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Facolta di Ingegneria (Italy); Sbuelz, A. [Iniziative Industriali Italiane S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In our experience, the first quantitative measurement of a contamination parameter has been only possible after many days from the beginning of the accident. Indeed with aerial monitoring systems in use, the quantification of the source activity, or the ground contamination, through the analysis of the gamma ray spectra measured, is only possible with the assumption of a source pattern (localized for a point-like source, diffused for ground surface contamination). In case of a more complex situation, there is not a suitable knowledge to model the radiation source; therefore the measurements can only supply qualitative information. This is the case, both in near and far field, when the radioactive plume released by an accident is passing over the country. The lack of quantitative measurements and the derived uncertainty in forecasting the propagation of the radioactive contamination, does not help the emergency management in the most critical phase, i.e. when countermeasures have to be decided in a preventive way and some risk of negative effects is inevitably linked to their enforcement. A different tool for the emergency management should be provided. An aerial platform instrumented for in-plume measurements, aiming to characterize the extension, composition and concentration of the radioactive mixture in the plume, as well as to measure in situ meteorological parameters could be of invaluable help in the emergency early phase. During last years research and manufacturing activities have been developed to reach these goals. (authors)

  3. Intermediality in early cinema studies: An interrogation of a widely used concept for research practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellmann, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328204846; Ruppin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328235075; de Zwaan, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323394620

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of intermediality for research in early cinema. After a general introduction to intermediality as research problem in media studies, the question is raised whether the concept of intermediality can be used in diachronic research designs and for media studies that deal

  4. Brief Communication : Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högström, E.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C A; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interests in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This

  5. Sources of Research Confidence for Early Career Academics: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Brian

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating how early career academics (ECAs) form attitudes towards aspects of their work and gain skills in research, teaching and service. This is especially the case with respect to research. A review of the pertinent literature revealed the prominence of a notion of research self-efficacy (or confidence) and…

  6. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Modern, holistic indoor climate research started with the formation of an interdisciplinary 'Indoor Climate Research Group' in 1962 at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Aarhus, Denmark. After some years, other groups started similar research in Denmark and Sweden, and later - after the Firs....... PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The review may be of interest to indoor climate researchers who want to know more about the early development of research on this multidisciplinary subject, as it emerged in a small country that undertook pioneering studies....

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Algattas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways.

  8. Parabens inhibit the early phase of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Jin; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Eui-Man; Yang, Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-09-01

    Parabens are widely used as anti-microbial agents in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, parabens have been shown to act as xenoestrogens, a class of endocrine disruptors. In the present study, 55 female pups were given daily subcutaneous injections of methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben or 17beta-estradiol (E2) during neonatal Day 1-7. The ovaries were excised on postnatal Day 8, then fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The follicles were counted and classified as being in the primordial, early primary, or primary stages. The number of primordial follicles increased while early primary follicles decreased at the high doses of propyl- and butyl-paraben. The levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and Foxl2 mRNA increased by propyl- and butyl-parabens whereas kit ligand/stem cell factor (KITL) expression was up regulated only by butyl-paraben. The mRNA levels of StAR and Cyp11a1 were significantly decreased after treatment with methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-parabens. Consistent with its use as a positive control, E2 regulated the expression of KITL, StAR, and Cyp11a1 genes, but surprisingly did not affect AMH and Foxl2 levels. Thus, E2 and parabens had different effects on the regulation of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, demonstrating the estrogenic and nonestrogenic properties of parabens in the ovary. Taken together, our data show that parabens stimulated AMH mRNA expression and consequently inhibited the early phase of folliculogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal female rat. The levels of steroidogenic enzymes, indicators of follicle differentiation, appeared to be regulated by parabens through inhibition of their transcriptional repressor, Foxl2. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hayman

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017). Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1), 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs) when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – R...

  10. Implementing an innovative intervention to increase research capacity for enhancing early psychosis care in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, L; Irmansyah; Keliat, B A; Lovell, K; Yung, A

    2017-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE TOPIC?: In low- and middle-income settings (LMICs) such as Indonesia, the burden from psychotic illness is significant due to large gaps in treatment provision Mental health workers and community nurses are a growing workforce requiring new evidence to support practice and enhanced roles and advanced competencies among UK mental health nurses also requires greater research capacity Research capacity building projects can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Delivering innovative, cross-cultural workshops to enhance research capacity to multidisciplinary, early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK are rated highly by attendees Supporting people in this way helps them to gain competitive grant funding to complete their own research which can improve the health of the population To our knowledge, there are no other studies reporting the attainment of grant income as a successful outcome of international research partnerships for mental health nursing so our finding is novel. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This method could be implemented to improve networking and collaboration between UK academics and early career researchers in other lower- and middle-income settings This strategy can also strengthen existing partnerships among early career researchers in the UK to meet the demands for greater research mentorship and leadership among mental health nurses and enhance nurses capabilities to contribute to evidence for practice. Aim To strengthen research capacity for nurses and early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK to develop a local evidence base in Indonesia to inform policy and improve the nation's health. These strategies can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. Methods Four

  11. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  12. Ultra-Structural Changes of the Early Childhood Caries Starting Phases of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent 20 years, besides dramatic reduction of caries in many countries where complex programme of prevention is carried out, prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC has expressed continual growth trend. The aim of our research was to determine precisely ultra-structural changes in the enamel substance at the initial lesion of the ECC (white spot lesion, as initial change of great importance for its preventive aspect. Therefore, we directed our experiment to evaluate ultra-structural changes of the teeth enamel in primary teeth with circular caries in its opening stages of development: initial caries lesion and superficial form.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  14. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase II awards, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The SBIR program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed below, this publication describes the technical efforts and commercialization possibilities for SBIR Phase II awards in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. It is intended for the educated layman, and maybe of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities.

  15. Portable Computer Technology (PCT) Research and Development Program Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Michael; McGuire, Kenyon; Sorgi, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this project report, focused on: (1) Design and development of two Advanced Portable Workstation 2 (APW 2) units. These units incorporate advanced technology features such as a low power Pentium processor, a high resolution color display, National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) video handling capabilities, a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) interface, and Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) and ethernet interfaces. (2) Use these units to integrate and demonstrate advanced wireless network and portable video capabilities. (3) Qualification of the APW 2 systems for use in specific experiments aboard the Mir Space Station. A major objective of the PCT Phase 2 program was to help guide future choices in computing platforms and techniques for meeting National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission objectives. The focus being on the development of optimal configurations of computing hardware, software applications, and network technologies for use on NASA missions.

  16. Perspectives on source terms based on early research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressesky, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the key documentation of the research and development programs relevant to the source term issue which were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Commission between 1950 and 1970. The source term is taken to be the amount, composition (physical and chemical), and timing of the projected release of radioactivity to the environment in the hypothetical event of a severe reactor accident in a light water reactor of the type currently being licensed, built and operated. The objective is to illuminate and provide perspectives on (a) the maturity of the technical data base and the analytical methodology, (b) the extent to which remaining conservatisms can be applied to compensate for uncertainties, (c) the purpose for which the technology and methodology will be used, and (d) the need to keep problems and uncertainties in proper perspective. Comments that can provide some context for the difficult programmatic choices to be made are included, and technical considerations that may be inadequately applied or neglected in some current source term calculations were studied. This review has not uncovered any significant technical considerations that have been omitted or are being inadequately treated in current source term analyses, except perhaps the contribution made to in-containment aerosols by coolant comminution upon escape at pressure from the reactor coolant system. 11 refs

  17. Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program: Final Subcontract Report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report is a compilation of studies done to develop an integrated set of strategies for the production of energy from renewable resources in Hawaii. Because of the close coordination between this program and other ongoing DOE research, the work will have broad-based applicability to the entire United States.

  18. Mercosur : Economic Research and Integration - Phase IV | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will endeavour to bridge the gap between researchers and policymakers, as well as other interested constituencies such as businesses, trade unions and parliamentarians. It will also aim to consolidate its ... The much anticipated GrowInclusive Platform now under construction. IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is ...

  19. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... productive, and environmentally sustainable agri-food systems that increase food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food security in developing countries by funding applied agricultural development and nutrition research; -apply Canadian science and technology expertise in collaboration ...

  20. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR model

  1. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  3. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  4. Evaluation of measles-rubella vaccination for mothers in early puerperal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Michi; Kato, Tatsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2016-02-24

    The postpartum period is an ideal opportunity to vaccinate mothers with inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases including measles and rubella. A prospective study of measles-rubella (MR) vaccination in the early puerperal phase was conducted in 171 mothers, who had insufficient antibody titers when screened for immunity to measles (≤ 1:4 on the neutralization test [NT]) or rubella (≤ 1:16 on the hemagglutination inhibition [HI] test) during pregnancy. To evaluate the efficacy of MR vaccination in the postpartum period, we determined their post-vaccination antibody titers and immune responses to vaccination, and investigated the association between these and their prolactin (PRL) levels and Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. We also examined the passage of viral RNA and antigen into breast milk. Of the 169 participants who completed the study schedule, 117 and 101 had low antibody titers against measles and rubella, respectively. In the measles-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 87% on the NT assay, and the NT geometric mean antibody titer was 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-13.0). In the rubella-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 88% on the HI test assay, and the HI geometric mean antibody titer was 64.0 (95% CI, 53.9-76.0). There was no association between the post-vaccination antibody titers and the PRL levels or Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. In the rubella-seronegative group, subjects with higher Th1/Th2 ratios showed higher rates of responsiveness than those with lower ratios (P=0.045). Although measles virus RNA was isolated from the breast milk of two vaccinated mothers, breastfeeding was not associated with clinical disease in any infants. MR vaccination in the early puerperal phase is considered an effective way to prevent the diseases, regardless of the mother's immunological status and hormonal milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitric Oxide Chemical Donor Affects the Early Phases of In Vitro Wound Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Cristina; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; Miconi, Gianfranca; Palumbo, Paola; Evtoski, Zoran; Placidi, Giuseppe; Fanini, Donatella; Cimini, Anna Maria; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Giuliani, Maurizio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    An artificial wound in a confluent monolayer of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells or mouse embryo fibroblast Swiss NIH 3T3 cells was used to analyze the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) chemical donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). SNAP exposure promoted an enhanced rate of wound closure and accelerated motility of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to control cells. The wounded monolayer cultures of HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, treated with or without SNAP, were monitored under a phase contrast microscope. Structural and ultrastructural modifications were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images were captured by a digital camera at different time points (0-28 h) and the wound area was analyzed through software included in Matlab®. As early as 15 min, SNAP induced significant cytoskeletal remodeling, as shown by immunostaining (phalloidin-labelling), which in turn was associated with increased filopodium number and length rise. NO donor treatment also induced overexpression of Ki-67 protein, a typical marker of cell proliferation, as shown by immunostaining. Both SNAP-induced migration and proliferation were antagonized by the NO-sensitive GC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[-4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which suggests activation of the NO/cGMP signalling cascade in the observed SNAP-induced effects in the early stages of the healing process. Moreover, we provide evidence that PPAR-β antagonist (GSK0660) may interfere with NO-mediated wound healing process. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2185-2195, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide mediates the cardioprotection induced by ischemic postconditioning in the early reperfusion phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-E; Tang, Zhi-Han; Xie, Wei; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Mi-Hua; Peng, Xiang-Ping; Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Nie, DE-Bo; Liu, Lu-Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), produced by cystanthionine-γ-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, has been suggested to be the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The present study aimed to investigate the role of H(2)S in ischemic postconditioning (IPO) during the early period of reperfusion. IPO with 6 episodes of 10 sec reperfusion followed by 6 episodes of 10 sec ischemia (IPO 2') was administered when reperfusion was initiated. Cardiodynamics and the concentration of H(2)S were measured at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of reperfusion. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and infarct size were determined at the end of the reperfusion. The concentration of H(2)S was stable during the whole experiment in the control group, whereas it reached a peak at the first minute of reperfusion in the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group. The concentration of H(2)S at the first minute of reperfusion in the IPO 2' group was higher compared to that of the IR group, which correlated with cardioprotection including improved heart contractile function and reduced infarct size and LDH levels. However, the above effects of IPO 2' were attenuated by pre-treatment with blockade of endogenous H(2)S production with DL-propargylglycine for 20 min prior to global ischemia. Furthermore, we found that other forms of IPO, IPO commencing at 1 min after reperfusion (delayed IPO) or lasting only for 1 min (IPO 1'), failed to increase the concentration of H(2)S and protect the myocardium. We conclude that the peak of endogenous H(2)S in the early reperfusion phase is the key to cardioprotection induced by IPO.

  7. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  8. Physio-biochemical and proteome analysis of chickpea in early phases of cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarvand, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza

    2013-03-15

    Intensive and short-term strategies can aid in more rapid screening with informative and reliable results for long-term investigations under cold stress (CS). The integration of cellular analysis of chickpea during 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h CS supplied us with novel possible responsive components and the possible interactions embedded inside, still remaining a Maze. Seedlings showed a biphasic pattern of responses over time. The transitory phase happened after 8h, when cells are presumably experiencing a new stage of responses and setting the stage for long-term adjustments. Physio-biochemical analysis confirmed the direct effect of fatty acids composition, lipoxygenase activity and antioxidant systems in cell responses under CS. Also, proteome results using MALDI-TOF-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS were able to differentiate changes in early phases of CS. Two-dimensional gel analysis results showed the possible targets of CS as mitochondria, chloroplast, organelle-nucleus communications, storage resources, stress and defense, protein degradation and signal transduction that confirmed the cell intended to re-establish a new homeostasis, in energy and primary metabolites to adapt to long-term CS. Here we propose a time course dynamic assessing multi-dimensional approaches for CS studies as one of the first studies in short-term treatment to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events and touch the cell architecture for a better comprehension of the nature of plant stress response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. State of research and research possibilities of early medieval pottery from the Prague production zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-34 ISSN 0066-5924 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF13P01OVV014 Keywords : early Middle Ages * archaeology * pottery * Prague * chronology * Ceramic Reference Collection Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  10. Contextualizing Distributed Leadership within Early Childhood Education: Current Understandings, Research Evidence and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Waniganayake, Manjula; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to establish a new research agenda on distributed leadership by linking early childhood and school leadership research. It begins with a discussion of how distributed leadership is conceptualized, including a discussion of the main features and meanings of distributed leadership as defined by key scholars who have maintained a…

  11. Action Research: Professional Development to Help Support and Retain Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes how participation in teacher-led, semester-long, action research projects influences early career teacher (fewer than three years of teaching experience) perceptions of support and learning. All teachers at an urban, newly developed, small high school participated in action research projects as a result of the…

  12. 22 CFR 225.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 225.123 Section 225.123 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... the protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects (whether or not the research was subject to...

  13. Scaled Model Technology for Flight Research of General Aviation Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed future Phase II activities are aimed at developing a scientifically based "tool box" for flight research using scaled models. These tools will be of...

  14. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  15. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications

  16. Research advances in indicators for early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Lifang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver is closely associated with the kidney, and liver injury in various stages can cause various kidney diseases to varying degrees, which further lead to renal impairment. Such renal impairment in the early stage is often functional and can be reversed by drugs, otherwise it can progress to hepatorenal syndrome, cause acute renal failure, and even threaten human life. The indicators such as serum creatinine and urea nitrogen have a limited effect in the early diagnosis of renal impairment and cannot be used for early monitoring and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment. Therefore, early monitoring of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment has always been a hot topic in this field. This article summarizes the research advances in the indicators for early diagnosis of renal impairment.

  17. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO is eq...

  18. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... (referred to collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical... Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Submit written requests for single copies of the draft... 20852-1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your request. The...

  19. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical trials of CGT...-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your requests. The draft guidance may also be...-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER...

  20. Soleus stretch reflex inhibition in the early swing phase of gait using deep peroneal nerve stimulation in spastic stroke participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, Marco M.; Ladouceur, Michel; Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of inhibiting the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle by a conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve in spastic stroke participants during the early swing phase of gait. - Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effect of an

  1. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  2. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Leena B; Palac, Hannah L; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M; Mestan, Karen K

    2017-01-01

    Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (pacute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  4. Genomic analysis distinguishes phases of early development of the mouse atrio-ventricular canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrljicak, Pavle; Chang, Alex C. Y.; Morozova, Olena; Wederell, Elizabeth D.; Niessen, Kyle; Marra, Marco A.; Karsan, Aly

    2010-01-01

    Valve formation during embryonic heart development involves a complex interplay of regional specification, cell transformations, and remodeling events. While many studies have addressed the role of specific genes during this process, a global understanding of the genetic basis for the regional specification and development of the heart valves is incomplete. We have undertaken genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the developing heart valves in the mouse. Four Serial Analysis of Gene Expression libraries were generated and analyzed from the mouse atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) at embryonic days 9.5–12.5, covering the stages from initiation of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through to the beginning of endocardial cushion remodeling. We identified 14 distinct temporal patterns of gene expression during AVC development. These were associated with specific functions and signaling pathway members. We defined the temporal distribution of mesenchyme genes during the EMT process and of specific Notch and transforming growth factor-β targets. This work provides the first comprehensive temporal dataset during the formation of heart valves. These results identify molecular signatures that distinguish different phases of early heart valve formation allowing gene expression and function to be further investigated. PMID:19952280

  5. The Role of Galaxy Mergers and Molecular Gas in the Early Phase of Galaxy Cluster Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling

    2017-08-01

    High-redshift protoclusters are ideal places to study the formation of the largest structures in the Universe and the early environmental influences on galaxy evolution. Recent discoveries of z>2 protoclusters with extremely rich populations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs; SFR>100 Msun/yr) represent the most active assembly phases of massive galaxy clusters. Understanding the triggering mechanisms of these unusual concentrations of extreme star-forming galaxies can provide critical insights into the formation of most massive galaxies in these clusters and the assembly of massive clusters themselves. For example, an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply may trigger an excess of DSFGs. Using the extensive ancillary data in the COSMOS field, we study the role of galaxy mergers through measuring the frequency of galaxy pairs in two such DSFG-rich protoclusters at z=2.10 and 2.47, respectively. We also investigate the mean molecular gas content of protocluster galaxies by stacking SCUBA-2 850 micron images. These independent investigations provide complementary views into the physical nature of these DSFG-rich protoclusters.

  6. Inhibitory function of NKT cells during early induction phase of nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hironori; Satoh, Masashi; Takeuchi, Emiko; Eshima, Koji; Terashima, Masazumi; Komotori, Jun; Habu, Sonoko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    Until now, metal allergies have been regarded as a Th1-type immune response. However, because the contribution of a Th2-type immune response has been suggested by clinical findings, we previously examined the Th2-type immune response during the development of metal allergies using a GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mouse model. As a result, a Th2-type immunization reaction was suggested to be involved in the early phase of metal allergies. Recently, the involvement of NKT cells in metal allergies has been suggested. We examined this possibility using the activation of NKT cells and an NKT cell-deficient mouse model to determine the contribution of NKT cells to nickel allergy in the present study. In NKT cell-deficient mice, ear swelling was remarkably increased, compared with that in control mice. Also, in mice that had been treated with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to activate NKT cells, the ear swelling response was remarkably inhibited, compared with that in untreated mice. These facts show that NKT cells are involved in the inhibition of nickel allergy-induced ear swelling responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  8. Mapping and appraisal of Scandinavian research in early childhood institutions in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    In Scandinavia almost all children from age 3 to 5 and a significant majority of children from 1 to 3 are spending the main part of their every day life in Kindergartens and the quality of these institutions has been positively evaluated by international assessment (OECD, 2006). However...... a systematically, research based body of knowledge about this field is still missing, even if such an overview is internationally requested. On behalf of the Danish Evaluation Institute the Danish Clearinghouse for Educational Research has conducted a mapping of Scandinavian research in early childhood education...... institutions (Kampman, et al. 2008). The overall aim of the mapping is, on one hand, to give an overview of existing research within Scandinavian early childhood education research, on the other hand lacks of research should be identified. The method applied was the analytical tool provided by The Evidence...

  9. Early diagnosis and research of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People with high myopia are high risk populations to have primary open angle glaucoma. Clinically, we found that patients with primary open angle glaucoma and high myopia is closely related. So to understand the clinical features of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma and the importance of early diagnosis, to avoiding missed diagnosis or lower misdiagnosed rate, can help to improve the vigilance and level of early diagnosis of the clinicians. In this paper, high myopia with clinical features of primary open angle glaucoma, and the research progress on the main points of early diagnosis were reviewed.

  10. The next phase in professional services research: From implementation to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Gonzalez, Carmen; Garcia-Cardenas, Victoria; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    The provision of professional pharmacy services has been heralded as the professional and the economic future of pharmacy. There are different phases involved in a service creation including service design, impact evaluation, implementation and sustainability. The two first phases have been subject to extensive research. In the last years the principles of Implementation science have been applied in pharmacy to study the initial uptake and integration of evidence-based services into routine practice. However, little attention has been paid to the sustainability of those services, during which there is a continued use of the service previously implemented to achieve and sustain long-term outcomes. The objective of this commentary is to describe the differences and common characteristics between the implementation and the sustainability phase and to propose a definition for pharmacy. A literature search was performed. Four critical elements were identified: 1. The aim of the implementation phase is to incorporate new services into practice, the sustainability phase's aim is to make the services routine to achieve and sustain long-term benefits 2. At the implementation phase planned activities are used as a process to integrate the new service, at the sustainability phase there is a continuous improvement of the service 3. The implementation phase occurs during the period of time between the adoption of a service and its integration. Some authors suggest the sustainability phase is a concomitant phase with the implementation phase and others suggest it is independent 4. There is a lack of consensus regarding the duration of each phase. The following definition of sustainability for pharmacy services is proposed: "Sustainability is a phase in the process of a professional pharmacy service, in which the service previously integrated into practice during the implementation phase is routinized and institutionalized over time to achieve and sustain the expected service

  11. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  12. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  13. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A better characterization of the early growth dynamics of an epidemic is needed to dissect the important drivers of disease transmission, refine existing transmission models, and improve disease forecasts. We introduce a 2-parameter generalized-growth model to characterize the ascending phase of an outbreak and capture epidemic profiles ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth. We test the model against empirical outbreak data representing a variety of viral pathogens in historic and contemporary populations, and provide simulations highlighting the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes. We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p=0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014)) to near exponential (p>0.9 for the smallpox outbreak in Khulna (1972), and the 1918 pandemic influenza in San Francisco). The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in Uruguay displayed a profile of slower growth while the growth pattern of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Japan was approximately linear. The West African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p=0.59, range: 0.14-0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near-exponential growth, while the districts of Bomi in Liberia and Kenema in Sierra Leone displayed near constant incidences. Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies

  14. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turalba AV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Turalba,1,2 Louis R Pasquale1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation. Design: Retrospective comparative case series. Participants: Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery.Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results: Five out of 19 (26% TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52% non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027. Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78, and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65 were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group, early tube erosion (n=1 and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1 were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group.Conclusions: Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the

  15. Research progress in carbon dioxide capture using phase-change absorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang BIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 gas by human industrial activity is the main factor that contributes to global warming, while the CO2 capture, storage and utilization (CCUS are the most effective technical direction to achieve carbon reduction and fight against global warming. In commonly used CO2 capture technologies, the main technical difficulty in the use of aqueous solutions of organic amine absorbent for CO2 capture is that the renewable energy consumption is high. How to reduce the energy consumption has the direct bearing on the CCUS technology's future development. Phase-change absorbents have excellent absorption characteristics in absorbing CO2, and can be separated into liquid-liquid or liquid-solid two-phase. One of the two-phase is enriched by CO2, which presents a significant advantage in reducing energy consumption. Through analysis of the structure of energy consumption of CO2 removal process using the traditional organic amine solutions, the research status of CO2 phase change absorption system on carbon capture is reviewed. The phase transformation research trends and development prospects of the absorbents are provided, which is to explore the phase transformation mechanism of phase change absorbents, and to solve the problems of the composition and process stability; to research catalytic regenerative technologies of new type absorbents, heat resistant enzyme and solid acid such as microcapsules and polar oscillations.

  16. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  17. Dose assessment for emergency workers in early phase of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Nahid; Ahangari, Rohollah; Kasesaz, Yaser; Noori-kalkhoran, O.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP) accident, the radioactive material was released from reactor units 1-3 and transported to short and long distances due to the atmospheric pathways-motions. Power sources for monitoring posts were lost due to earthquake and tsunami. Based on air dose rates and other data measured by monitoring cars, the amount of radioactive material released to the atmosphere from the power station was obtained. The atmospheric dispersion and the transport model used in the RASCAL code, estimate the radionuclide concentrations downwind, both in the air and on the ground due to deposition. The calculated concentrations are then used to estimate the projected doses for workers in vicinity of the accident area in the first minutes of accident time. For dose modeling, we assumed that each worker was 15 min in vicinity of FNP in accident situation, once without and once with protective clothes or respirator. According to Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) report six workers had received doses over 250 mSv (309 to 678 mSv) apparently due to inhaling Iodine-131 fume. In this paper the calculated dose results using RASCAL code shows that, if emergency workers who work in early phase of accident had not used protective equipment, for 15 min, inhalation doses from iodine in their thyroid gland up to 12 March afternoon would have been 520 mSv. A comparison between calculation results and TEPCO report shows that dose calculated virtually is nearly equal to TEPCO measurement results.

  18. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  19. Dose assessment for emergency workers in early phase of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Nahid; Ahangari, Rohollah; Kasesaz, Yaser; Noori-kalkhoran, O. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School

    2017-11-15

    In the case of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP) accident, the radioactive material was released from reactor units 1-3 and transported to short and long distances due to the atmospheric pathways-motions. Power sources for monitoring posts were lost due to earthquake and tsunami. Based on air dose rates and other data measured by monitoring cars, the amount of radioactive material released to the atmosphere from the power station was obtained. The atmospheric dispersion and the transport model used in the RASCAL code, estimate the radionuclide concentrations downwind, both in the air and on the ground due to deposition. The calculated concentrations are then used to estimate the projected doses for workers in vicinity of the accident area in the first minutes of accident time. For dose modeling, we assumed that each worker was 15 min in vicinity of FNP in accident situation, once without and once with protective clothes or respirator. According to Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) report six workers had received doses over 250 mSv (309 to 678 mSv) apparently due to inhaling Iodine-131 fume. In this paper the calculated dose results using RASCAL code shows that, if emergency workers who work in early phase of accident had not used protective equipment, for 15 min, inhalation doses from iodine in their thyroid gland up to 12 March afternoon would have been 520 mSv. A comparison between calculation results and TEPCO report shows that dose calculated virtually is nearly equal to TEPCO measurement results.

  20. Major role for cysteine proteases during the early phase of Acanthamoeba castellanii encystment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Köhsler, Martina; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Deutsch, Andrea; Allmaier, Günter; Duchêne, Michael; Walochnik, Julia

    2010-04-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a facultative pathogen that has a two-stage life cycle comprising the vegetatively growing trophozoite stage and the dormant cyst stage. Cysts are formed when the cell encounters unfavorable conditions, such as environmental stress or food deprivation. Due to their rigid double-layered wall, Acanthamoeba cysts are highly resistant to antiamoebic drugs. This is problematic as cysts can survive initially successful chemotherapeutic treatment and cause relapse of the disease. We studied the Acanthamoeba encystment process by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and found that most changes in the protein content occur early in the process. Truncated actin isoforms were found to abound in the encysting cell, and the levels of translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) were sharply decreased, indicating that the rate of protein synthesis must be low at this stage. In the advanced stage of encystment, however, EF2 levels and the trophozoite proteome were partly restored. The protease inhibitors PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) and E64d [(2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester] inhibited the onset of encystment, whereas the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide was ineffective. Changes in the protein profile, similar to those of encysting cells, could be observed with trophozoite homogenates incubated at room temperature for several hours. Interestingly, these changes could be inhibited significantly by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by inhibitors against other proteases. Taken together, we conclude that the encystment process in A. castellanii is of a bipartite nature consisting of an initial phase of autolysis and protein degradation and an advanced stage of restoration accompanied by the expression of encystment-specific genes.

  1. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist modulates the early phase of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Sgroi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokine administration is a potential therapy for acute liver failure by reducing inflammatory responses and favour hepatocyte regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra during liver regeneration and to study the effect of a recombinant human IL-1ra on liver regeneration. METHODS: We performed 70%-hepatectomy in wild type (WT mice, IL-1ra knock-out (KO mice and in WT mice treated by anakinra. We analyzed liver regeneration at regular intervals by measuring the blood levels of cytokines, the hepatocyte proliferation by bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU incorporation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and Cyclin D1 expression. The effect of anakinra on hepatocyte proliferation was also tested in vitro using human hepatocytes. RESULTS: At 24h and at 48 h after hepatectomy, IL-1ra KO mice had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and MCP-1 and a reduced and delayed hepatocyte proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation, PCNA and Cyclin D1 protein levels, when compared to WT mice. IGFBP-1 and C/EBPβ expression was significantly decreased in IL-1ra KO compared to WT mice. WT mice treated with anakinra showed significantly decreased levels of IL-6 and significantly higher hepatocyte proliferation at 24h compared to untreated WT mice. In vitro, primary human hepatocytes treated with anakinra showed significantly higher proliferation at 24h compared to hepatocytes without treatment. CONCLUSION: IL1ra modulates the early phase of liver regeneration by decreasing the inflammatory stress and accelerating the entry of hepatocytes in proliferation. IL1ra might be a therapeutic target to improve hepatocyte proliferation.

  2. Program of experiments for the operating phase of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Davison, C.C.; Gray, M.N.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Martin, C.D.; Peters, D.A.; Lang, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is one of the major research and development facilities that AECL Research has constructed in support of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The URL is a unique geotechnical research facility constructed in previously undisturbed plutonic rock, which was well characterized before construction. The site evaluation and construction phases of the URL project have been completed and the operating phase is beginning. A program of operating phase experiments that address AECL's objectives for in situ testing has been selected. These experiments were subjected to an external peer review and a subsequent review by the URL Experiment Committee in 1989. The comments from the external peer review were incorporated into the experiment plans, and the revised experiments were accepted by the URL Experiment Committee. Summaries of both reviews are presented. The schedule for implementing the experiments and the quality assurance to be applied during implementation are also summarized. (Author) (9 refs., 11 figs.)

  3. The Budapest research reactor as an advanced research facility for the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Budapest Research Reactor, Hungary's first nuclear facility was originally put into operation in 1959. The reactor serves for: basic and applied research, technological and commercial applications, education and training. The main goal of the reactor is to serve neutron research. This unique research possibility is used by a broad user community of Europe. Eight instruments for neutron scattering, radiography and activation analyses are already used, others (e.g. time of flight spectrometer, neutron reflectometer) are being installed. The majority of these instruments will get a much improved utilization when the cold neutron source is put into operation. In 1999 the Budapest Research Reactor was operated for 3129 full power hours in 14 periods. The normal operation period took 234 hours (starting Monday noon and finishing Thursday morning). The entire production for the year 1999 was 1302 MW days. This is a slightly reduced value, due to the installation of the cold neutron source. For the year 2000 a somewhat longer operation is foreseen (near to 4000 hours), as the cold neutron source will be operational. The operation of the reactor is foreseen at least up to the end of the first decade of the 21 st century. (author)

  4. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  5. Early-time solution of the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the build-up phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    goes away. Nonetheless, no analogue of the kinematic wave or the Boussinesq separable solution exists in this case. The late time state of the build-up phase under constant recharge rate is very simply the steady state solution. Our aim is to construct the early time asymptotic solution of this problem. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turn out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by re-summation techniques which are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  6. Characteristics of adverse drug reactions in a vemurafenib early post-marketing phase vigilance study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhara, H; Kiyohara, Y; Tsuda, A; Takata, M; Yamazaki, N

    2018-02-01

    Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown. ADR data were collected for patients treated with vemurafenib (960 mg bid) between 26 February and 25 August 2015. Among 95 patients, 46 patients had 118 ADRs (24 serious ADRs in 13 patients). The most common serious ADRs were hypersensitivity (n = 1; 3 events), arthralgia (n = 2; 2 events), pyrexia (n = 2; 2 events) and drug eruption (n = 2; 2 events). Seven patients had serious skin disorders or hypersensitivity, six of whom had prior anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies 5-35 days before starting vemurafenib. ADR reports of serious skin disorders appeared to be collected more rapidly than previously reported. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma developed in only one patient. EPPV in Japanese vemurafenib-treated patients identified no new safety signals. The most serious skin and hypersensitivity ADRs occurred in patients with prior anti-PD-1 exposure. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be rare in Japanese patients. Further research is needed to clarify whether prior treatment with anti-PD-1 agents or racial differences affect the characteristic profile of cutaneous ADRs in Japanese patients.

  7. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  8. Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

  9. Kondratiev cycles and so-called long waves. The early research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThis paper recalls some early work of the Dutch pioneers of long-wave research which anticipated many of the contemporary debates. Various explanations which have been advanced for the existence of long waves are reviewed, and the applicability of long-wave theories in a number of

  10. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  11. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  12. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  13. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  14. A Pragmatic Approach to Getting Published: 35 Tips for Early Career Researchers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glover, N. M.; Antoniadi, I.; George, G. M.; Götzenberger, Lars; Gutzat, R.; Koorem, K.; Liancourt, Pierre; Rutkowicz, K.; Saharan, K.; You, W.; Mayer, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, 09 May (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 610. ISSN 1664-462X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 267243 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : publishing * early career researcher * collaboration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  15. An Early Childhood Research Laboratory Framework: Necessity the Mother of Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a subjective personal introspection of the attempt to develop and maintain an Early Childhood Research Laboratory (ECRL) at the University of Cyprus and a description of the first activities undertaken by the ECRL. I specifically illustrate the process of legitimising the need for an ECRL at the University of Cyprus and…

  16. When We Inquire into Our Own Practice: An Early Childhood Teacher Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra; Bryant, Holly; Ingram, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Every day, early childhood teachers confront issues, problems, and concerns in their classrooms. Sometimes they do nothing. Sometimes they use trial and error. Sometimes they go to a workshop or read an article. We have found a way to intentionally and systematically research and answer our own questions and to enrich our own professional…

  17. Praxis, Ethics and Power: Developing Praxeology as a Participatory Paradigm for Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…

  18. An Evaluation of the Research Evidence on the Early Start Denver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Erika M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.

    2017-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) has been gaining popularity as a comprehensive treatment model for children ages 12 to 60 months with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This article evaluates the research on the ESDM through an analysis of study design and purpose; child participants; setting, intervention agents, and context; density and…

  19. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in. Orange Farm Township. Vangile Bingma. Department of Sociology, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Vangile.Bingma@up.ac.za. I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving ...

  20. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  1. Research and Practice Partnerships for Professional Development in Early Childhood: Lessons from ExCELL-e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Snell, Emily K.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Lewis, Kandia N.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Iannone-Campbell, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a research-practice partnership has informed the iterative development of a web-mediated early childhood language and literacy professional development (PD) intervention. Funded through the Investing in Innovation (i3) program, this new PD model is based on an effective in-situ intervention. As we translated the…

  2. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  3. Initiating a New Research Phase in the Field of International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coviello, Nicole; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing...... be of relevance for new technology firms aiming at an international or global engagement from their very inception....

  4. Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research ICT Africa (RIA!) - phase III. Depuis la création du réseau RIA! en 2003, ses responsables ont mené avec succès des études portant tant sur l'offre que sur la demande afin de permettre de mieux comprendre l'accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en Afrique. Au cours des deux premières phases du projet (nos 101584 ...

  5. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s: an eyewitness report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-06-01

    Modern, holistic indoor climate research started with the formation of an interdisciplinary 'Indoor Climate Research Group' in 1962 at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Aarhus, Denmark. After some years, other groups started similar research in Denmark and Sweden, and later - after the First International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air journal in 1991. The aim of this paper is to summarize what was learned in those earlier years and to call to the attention of researchers in this area the need of multidisciplinary research, mingling epidemiological fact-finding field studies with climate chamber studies and laboratory investigations. The review may be of interest to indoor climate researchers who want to know more about the early development of research on this multidisciplinary subject, as it emerged in a small country that undertook pioneering studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent...

  7. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated...

  8. Increased lignocellulosic inhibitor tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell populations in early stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Schelin, Jenny; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; van Niel, Ed Wj; Carlquist, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Production of second-generation bioethanol and other bulk chemicals by yeast fermentation requires cells that tolerate inhibitory lignocellulosic compounds at low pH. Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays high plasticity with regard to inhibitor tolerance, and adaptation of cell populations to process conditions is essential for reaching efficient and robust fermentations. In this study, we assessed responses of isogenic yeast cell populations in different physiological states to combinations of acetic acid, vanillin and furfural at low pH. We found that cells in early stationary phase (ESP) exhibited significantly increased tolerance compared to cells in logarithmic phase, and had a similar ability to initiate growth in the presence of inhibitors as pre-adapted cells. The ESP cultures consisted of subpopulations with different buoyant cell densities which were isolated with flotation and analysed separately. These so-called quiescent (Q) and non-quiescent (NQ) cells were found to possess similar abilities to initiate growth in the presence of lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 3.7, and had similar viabilities under static conditions. Therefore, differentiation into Q-cells was not the cause for increased tolerance of ESP cultures. Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, intracellular pH and reactive oxygen species levels revealed that tolerant cell populations had a characteristic response upon inhibitor perturbations. Growth in the presence of a combination of inhibitors at low pH correlated with pre-cultures having a high frequency of cells with low pH i and low ROS levels. Furthermore, only a subpopulation of ESP cultures was able to tolerate lignocellulosic inhibitors at low pH, while pre-adapted cell populations displayed an almost uniform high tolerance to the adverse condition. This was in stark contrast to cell populations growing exponentially in non-inhibitory medium that were uniformly sensitive to the inhibitors at low pH. ESP cultures of S. cerevisiae

  9. Early coordinated rehabilitation in acute phase after hip fracture - a model for increased patient participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, Gillian; Carlsson, Gunnel; Zidén, Lena; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2017-10-17

    Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p < 0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p < 0.05) and dressing (p < 0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to

  10. The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth P

    2010-05-01

    phosphate self-setting cement powder after 6 weeks. In the early phase of bone-healing, the sole application of CPG appears to be inferior to the autologous cancellous grafts in an in vivo critical size defect on load-bearing long bones of mini-pigs.

  11. Overview of the 3rd phase crossover research on migration of radionuclides in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Amano, Hikaru; Chiba, Masaru; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, we started a series of projects in Nuclear Energy Generic Crossover Research, which is known as ''Crossover Research (CR)''. This 1st phase was successfully finished with the active cooperation of five organizations: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently we carried out the 2nd phase of CR (1996-1998). A new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) participated from this phase. In the 3rd phase CR, a project on ''Development of a dynamic transfer model of radionuclides in the soil ecosphere'', is currently being promoted (1999-2003). The following five researches are carried out in this project. (1) Research into the forms of existence of nuclide and their change in the soil (NIRS and JAERI), (2) Research into the transition behavior of radionuclides in plants (IES, RIKEN and NIRS), (3) Research into the relation to the microorganism and on environmental remediation (RIKEN, JAERI and NIRS), (4) Research on the migration of radionuclides from atmosphere to soil and plant (MRI and JAERI), and (5) Database construction on transfer parameters (JAERI, NIRS and MRI). Then, JAERI, MRI and NIRS are working on the development of a dynamic transfer model for radionuclides on the basis of a gained knowledge about the environmental behavior with the cooperation of universities, etc. The dynamic transfer model developed in this project is effective not only for Japan, but also for the Southeast Asian countries. Besides, this model is capable of predicting the behavior of materials that are harmful to the environment, i.e. hazardous heavy metals discharged in the soil ecosphere. (author)

  12. PhaPl: software to plot and research phase portraits automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cherepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to document PhaPl that’s a teaching software to plot and research phase portraits of autonomous systems of 2 differential equations on a plane. Interactive computer teaching materials allow to demonstrate tasks describing large number of states of investigated systems clearly and involving students into solving. Plotting and research of phase portraits of autonomous system of 2 differential equations is an important task in “Differential equations” course and other courses that use dynamic systems. The software allows to visualize phase portraits and to perform analysis easily. Plotting of phase portraits needs a lot of routine computations. The software allows teacher to focus on analytical research of autonomous systems of 2 differential equations. The software supports linear and nonlinear autonomous systems of 2 differential equations. The software differs is very different compared with previously known programs: it has very easy graphical user interface and it gives clarity because it demonstrates all steps of solution. To get the full solution, it is enough to just enter a system to research. Initial conditions to plot phase trajectories are chosen automatically. Graphical representation of the phase plane is interactive and allows user to draw additional trajectories with specified initial conditions by mouse hovering over the phase plane. The software is based on popular Free Software (Maxima, Qt4, LaTeX and it is Free Software itself, thus it is accessible to wider audience, including online students. The software is portable and works on Windows and Linux operating systems. The article describes advantages, disadvantages and peculiar properties of the software, and some aspects of teaching experience. The software is deployed in Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics, and Informatics (MESI, Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU since 2013, and in Plekhanov Russian University of Economics since 2016

  13. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  14. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II for Hilar type early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an increase in lung cancer incidence has been recognized internationally, and more early stage cases of lung cancer are being detected as a result of improvements in survey and diagnostic techniques, including flexible bronchofiberscope. However, some early stage cases that are inoperable due to age, poor pulmonary function, etc. are generally treated with conventional modalities, such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Modality to curatively treat such inoperable early stage lung cancers has still not been established. PhotoDynamic Therapy is a newly developed local therapeutic modality which has been shown to be able to obtain complete response and cure in those early stage lung cancers with carcinoma in situ. The objective of this study is, first, to evaluate the activity and toxicity of PDT with Photofrin II in hilar type of early lung cancer, and second, to determine the complete response rate as primary end-point. (author). 5 tabs

  15. The research of parallel-coupled linear-phase superconducting filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Zhou, Liguo; Yang, Kai, E-mail: kyang@uestc.edu.cn; Luo, Chao; Jiang, Mingyan; Dang, Wei; Ren, Xiangyang

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Parallel-connected linear phase filter can be achieved when the group delays of sub-networks compensate each other. • We give the coupling and routing diagrams of four linear phase filters with self-synthesized coupling matrixes, and verified the correctness of theory data and the feasibility of the circuit design. • There are a variety of topological coupling and routing diagrams for a same order filter. • We give a reasonable arrangement of design steps for high-order parallel-coupled linear phase filter. - Abstract: This paper presents a research on the mechanism of a linear phase filter constructed with parallel-connected sub-networks, considering that linear phase characteristic of a filter can be achieved when the group delays of sub-networks compensate each other. This paper also gives several coupling and routing diagrams of linear phase filters with different parallel-connected networks, and then the coupling matrixes of three 8-order filters and one 10-order filter are synthesized. One of the coupling matrixes is utilized to design a 8-order parallel-connected network high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear phase filter with two pairs of transmission zeros, so as to verify the correctness of theory data and the feasibility of the circuit design for the proposed 8-order and higher order parallel-connected network linear phase filter. The HTS linear phase filter is designed on YBCO/LaAlO{sub 3}/YBCO superconducting substrate, at 77 K, the measured center frequency is 2000 MHz with a bandwidth of 30 MHz, the insertion loss is less than 0.3 dB and the reflection is better than −12.5 dB in passband. The group delay is less than ±5 ns over the 60% passband, which shows that the filter has a good linear phase characteristic.

  16. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on the Risk Early Warning Method of Material Supplier Performance in Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The early warning of supplier performance risk is still in the initial stage interiorly, and research on the early warning mechanism to identify, analyze and prevent the performance risk is few. In this paper, a new method aiming at marerial supplier performance risk in power industry is proposed, firstly, establishing a set of risk early warning indexes, Then use the ECM method to classify the indexes to form different risk grades. Then, improving Crock Ford risk quantization model by considering three indicators, including the stability of power system, economic losses and successful bid ratio to form the predictive risk grade, and ultimately using short board effect principle to form the ultimate risk grade to truly reflect the supplier performance risk. Finally, making empirical analysis on supplier performance and putting forward the counter measures and prevention strategies for different risks.

  18. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    to identify preschool children at risk for caries. Fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride varnish currently are the most effective chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent ECC. Motivational interviewing, a form of patient-centered counseling, is effective for motivating oral health behaviors and shows promise......The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify...... opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective...

  19. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers. 76.8 Section 76.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Phase II boilers. (a) General provisions. (1) The owner or operator of a Phase II coal-fired utility unit with a Group 1 boiler may elect to have the unit become subject to the applicable emissions...

  20. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John MS; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 60 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. Findings All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85–1·08; p=0·44). 75·6% (95% CI 73·7–77·5) of patients in the experimental group and 74·3% (72·3–76·2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0·0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events

  1. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944

  3. 2007 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its fourth annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from April through September 2007. During this time, 21 PNNL scientists hosted 23 participants from 20 different universities. Of the 23 participants, 20 were graduate students, 1 was a postdoctoral fellow, and 2 were university faculty members. This report covers the essense of the program and the research the participants performed.

  4. Evaluation of Phase II of the SDC/IDRC/GEH Research Matters ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helen

    2009-05-11

    May 11, 2009 ... SDC/IDRC/GEH Research Matters Project. Final Report authors: Andrew Barnett. Christina Wille. Anna Khakee. Gareth Williams project no: 104024 ..... The Phase II RM Project appears to have been guided by the plan only in a general way. 12 ...... RM technical and financial reports over the active period.

  5. Small business innovation research. Abstracts of completed 1987 phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Non-proprietary summaries of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA in the 1987 program year are given. Work in the areas of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robotics, computer sciences, information systems, spacecraft systems, spacecraft power supplies, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.

  6. 2005 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2005-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its second annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2005. During this period, sixteen PNNL scientists hosted fourteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the fourteen participants, twelve were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and one was a university faculty member.

  7. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  8. Mother's menopausal age is associated with her daughter's early follicular phase urinary follicle-stimulating hormone level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z; Baird, Donna D; Kesner, James S

    2008-01-01

    Early follicular phase follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a marker of ovarian reserve, has been used to predict time to menopause. A mother's age at menopause is related to her daughter's age at menopause, possibly because of genetic factors. In this study we sought to determine the relationship between maternal age at menopause and early follicular phase FSH of premenopausal daughters. The Uterine Fibroid Study enrolled women randomly selected from a prepaid health plan, collected questionnaire data, and obtained early follicular phase urine samples for a subset of participants. For this secondary analysis, premenopausal women between the ages of 35 and 46 years, who provided a urine sample on cycle day 2, 3, 4, or 5 and their mother's age at natural menopause (n = 182) were selected from the original cohort. Initially bivariate analysis and subsequently regression modeling were performed to assess the independent relationship between maternal age at menopause and urinary creatinine-corrected FSH. Unadjusted analyses and those adjusting for age (mean +/- SD, 40.5 +/- 3.2 y), smoking status (16% current smokers), and body mass index (26.8 +/- 6.9 kg/m) showed a significant association between maternal age at menopause and daughter's urinary FSH level (P menopause had higher urinary FSH levels. The significantly increased FSH values among women whose mothers experienced early menopause is consistent with previously reported associations between mother's and daughter's age of menopause. FSH, a marker of ovarian reserve, is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Future epidemiologic studies on FSH should include collection of information on maternal age at menopause.

  9. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook; Seo, Joon-Beom

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI

  10. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively

  11. How to effectively manage crisis situation in the early phase of a radiological accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Potempski, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the early phase of accident reasonable decisions should be undertaken in a short time, where often there is still an uncertainty in assessment of radiological situation. The following key factors are of important meaning in a process of working out an optimized decision: (a) accurate information on accident, (b) proper assessment of current status and prognosis of development of radiological situation, (c) proper information on availability of means needed for emergency action like rescue teams, technical and medical equipment, means of transport etc., (d) reliable and fast communication system between decision makers, persons responsible for management of crisis situation, rescue teams and people in affected areas. All these elements can be supported by more or less computerized systems. The first two (a) and (b), depend, in general, on radiological monitoring and decision support systems, using pre-defined scenarios and sometimes sophisticated methods for assessment of radiological situation. The element (c) is very often supported by GIS-like systems available at crisis centres. The last issue however is, to much extent, a question of proper organization of decision making process and management during emergency action. lt seems also that often there are some kind of gaps between items (a)e) and (c)/(d) or maybe particularly between (d) and other factors mentioned above. Hence, there is still a need for more integrated approach. lt should be also mentioned that the last element (d) is usually the weakest point in the whole system. This is often caused by not clear organization and division of responsibilities between persons engaged in the decision making process and management. The problem of communication has also some technical aspects. This can be solved by using more advanced techniques like satellite technologies and centralized computer communication systems of new generation, which allows for fast and reliable sending and receiving messages

  12. Research on the Comparison Analyses of Three-Phase Discrete and Integrated LC Filters in Three-Phase PV Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ying; Li, Jianguo; Pan, Sanbo; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Peng; Zhang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    In three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system, three-phase filter inductors are important part for the output electrical power quality. The comparison analyses of three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter are proposed. Firstly, the three-phase PV inverter operation with discrete filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of discrete filter inductors is given; then operation of the three-phase PV inverter with three-ph...

  13. Phase II Validation of a New Panel of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    While all cancer patients could potentially benefit from earlier detection and prevention, the development of new screening technologies and chemoprevention for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in this regard. EOC is characterized by few early symptoms, presentation at an advanced stage, and poor survival. Presently there is no commercially available test that is diagnostic for either early or advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. The most commonly used marker, CA125, identifies a group of cell surface glycoproteins, which have uncertain biological behavior and very limited clinical utility for the detection of early stage disease. In recent years, several approaches have been used in order to develop a test for early detection, including the analysis of serum samples by SELDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF to find proteins or protein fragments of unknown identity that detect the presence/absence of cancer. Unfortunately, at the present time, none of these techniques have been shown to be adequate. Therefore, the development of a test that can detect early stages of the disease could dramatically improve treatment success and long-term survival. We have developed a new blood test based on a different approach: 1) we used known proteins related to cancer biology, 2) we characterized these proteins with several different screening steps using samples obtained from both healthy and cancer patient populations, and 3) validated the results with different techniques. Using split point analysis with four markers, 96 out of 100 EOC patients (96%) were correctly diagnosed with ovarian cancer (including 23 of 24 patients with Stage I/II EOC). In the healthy group, 6 out of 106 individuals were diagnosed incorrectly (5.6%). Working in collaboration with the Early Detection Network (EDRN/NCI/NIH), we performed Phase I discovery study confirming the potential application of this test for early detection of ovarian cancer (Preliminary results). The main objective of this pr

  14. Two-Phase Flow Research on the ISS for Thermal Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    With the era of full utilization of the ISS now upon us, this presentation will discuss some of the highest-priority areas for two-phase flow systems with thermal control applications. These priorities are guided by recommendations of a 2011 NRC Decadal Survey report, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration, Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era as well as an internal NASA exercise in response to the NRC report conducted in early 2012. Many of these proposals are already in various stages of development, while others are still conceptual.

  15. Statistical controversies in clinical research: requiem for the 3 + 3 design for phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, X; Ezzalfani, M; Le Tourneau, C

    2015-09-01

    More than 95% of published phase I trials have used the 3 + 3 design to identify the dose to be recommended for phase II trials. However, the statistical community agrees on the limitations of the 3 + 3 design compared with model-based approaches. Moreover, the mechanisms of action of targeted agents strongly challenge the hypothesis that the maximum tolerated dose constitutes the optimal dose, and more outcomes including clinical and biological activity increasingly need to be taken into account to identify the optimal dose. We review key elements from clinical publications and from the statistical literature to show that the 3 + 3 design lacks the necessary flexibility to address the challenges of targeted agents. The design issues raised by expansion cohorts, new definitions of dose-limiting toxicity and trials of combinations are not easily addressed by the 3 + 3 design or its extensions. Alternative statistical proposals have been developed to make a better use of the complex data generated by phase I trials. Their applications require a close collaboration between all actors of early phase clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  17. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and

  18. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    Full Text Available Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005 introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well. As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx

  19. Materials research for passive solar systems: solid-state phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Webb, J.D.; Burrows, R.W.; McFadden, J.D.O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 4/), pentaglycerinve (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 3/), and neopentyl glycol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 2/). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature betweeen 25/sup 0/C and 188/sup 0/C, and have latent heats of transformation between 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier. Nevertheless, a higher cost of the phase-change materials (approx. =$0.70 per pound) is likely to limit their applicability in passive solar systems unless their performance can be significantly improved through further research.

  20. Radiation stimulation during the early stationary growth phase in Synechococcus lividus and its correlation with photooxidative stress occurring before the stationary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.; Dupouy, D.; Vincent, C.; Planel, H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of chronic gamma radiation at dose rates ranging from 0.058 mGy d-1 on growth rate calculated during the early stationary phase were studied. A stimulatory effect occurred for all doses and for all phases of the cells selected for use in the inoculation of the medium. During the same period, the rate of nucleic acid synthesis was increased in irradiated cultures compared to control cultures. The stimulating effect always occurred in cultures irradiated from the inoculation to the eighteenth day only. This result led us to conclude that the stimulation mechanism depended upon the events occurring at the end of the exponential phase in the deceleration period. Studies on cell metabolism showed that cells presented features of photooxidative stress in this period. Increases in superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were observed in irradiated cultures. It was assumed that irradiation at very low doses could help cells to better defend against photooxidative stress by increasing oxidants that activate the glucose metabolism and C5-sugars production and nucleic acid synthesis

  1. Publish or perish: strategies to help rural early career researchers increase publication output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J; Wilson, S; Rix, E; Pit, S W

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are challenged to publish or perish. A range of barriers to writing can result in sub-optimal productivity, particularly for early career researchers. Researchers in rural areas may face additional challenges of distance and limited access to colleagues. Implementing strategies to address some of these obstacles was identified as a priority for a group of early career, rural researchers. In late 2010, the Wiljo-Piri Writing Group was established, embarking on fortnightly lunch-time meetings for support, networking and the public setting of writing goals; and arranging pairing of 'writing buddies' committed to writing daily, with contact before and/or after each writing session to provide motivation and accountability. Key measures for improvement were publication output (publications per person per year (PPY)) and perceptions of effectiveness of strategies. Publication output varied between individuals and over time; overall PPY rates improved from 0.5 to 1.25. 'Buddy writing' helped facilitate adherence to routine writing sessions and was associated with perceptions of increased creativity, efficiency, confidence and ability to focus. Structured peer support can be a powerful tool to create and maintain regular writing practices and increase publication output. 'Buddy writing' is applicable to any research or academic setting, and helps maintain commitment to daily writing sessions. Furthermore, such interventions can provide peer support for those working in rural settings, helping to address issues such as geographical and professional isolation. Suggested key steps in establishing structured peer support are provided.

  2. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  3. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  4. 77 FR 23229 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase I-Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... concerns to submit a Phase I application for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (CFDA 84... records. Title of Collection: Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase I--Grant...

  5. 77 FR 23228 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research... business concerns to submit a Phase II application for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... records. Title of Collection: Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase II--Grant...

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of early phase parameters by (123)I-MIBG dynamic imaging for distinguishing Lewy body-related diseases from Parkinson's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiiba, Takuro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Kihara, Yasushi; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Maeda, Masaji; Morishita, Junji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of early phase washout rate (early WR) and area under the time-activity curve (AUTAC) by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) dynamic chest imaging for distinguishing Lewy body-related diseases (LBRD) from Parkinson's syndrome (PS) and reducing examination time. Sixty-two patients with suspected LBRD who underwent (123)I-MIBG dynamic imaging in early phase were retrospectively selected. The early WR and AUTAC were calculated from (123)I-MIBG dynamic data of the heart. We evaluated the relationships between proposed and conventional parameters by using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Differences in parameters between LBRD and PS groups were tested for statistical significance using the Mann-Whitney U test. The diagnostic performance of all parameters for distinguishing LBRD from PS was assessed in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Additionally, combination diagnostic performance and concordance rate between early phase parameters and late H/M ratio by kappa statistics were also assessed. The early WR and AUTAC showed a positive and negative correlation with conventional parameters. Both the early WR and AUTAC of LBRD group were significantly distinguishable from those of the PS group (p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve of the early WR (0.98) was greater than that of AUTAC (0.91). The diagnostic performance of combination of the early phase parameters was 93 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. Moreover, the early phase parameters showed excellent agreement with late H/M ratio (k = 0.93). The early WR and AUTAC showed high performance for distinguishing LBRD from PS, and the combination diagnosis with early H/M ratio and early WR contribute to improve the diagnostic performance. Thus, these parameters would be useful for reducing the examination time of myocardial (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy to diagnose LBRD.

  7. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  8. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  9. Initiation of a phase-I trial of neutron capture therapy at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.; Yam, Chun-Shan

    1995-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the New England Medical Center (NEMC), and Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) initiated a phase-1 trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on September 6, 1994, at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT research reactor (MITR). A novel form of experimental cancer therapy, BNCT is being developed for certain types of highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and melanoma. The results of the phase-1 trials on patients with tumors in the legs or feet are described

  10. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early invasive versus early conservative strategy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: An outcome research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, Marco; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Ricci, Roberto; Ciavolella, Massimo; Di Clemente, Domenico; Bisconti, Carmela; Ferraiuolo, Giuseppe; Del Pinto, Maurizio; Mennuni, Mauro; Monti, Francesco; Vinci, Eugenio; Semeraro, Raffaella; Greco, Cesare; Berti, Sergio; Romano, Carlo; Aiello, Alessandro; Lo Bianco, Francesco; Pellecchia, Raffaele; Azzolini, Paolo; Ciuffetta, Domenico; Zappulo, Renato; Gigantino, Alberto; Arima, Serena; Colivicchi, Furio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    An early invasive strategy (EIS) has been shown to yield a better clinical outcome than an early conservative strategy (ECS) in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACSs), particularly in those at higher risk according to the GRACE risk score. However, findings of the clinical trials have not been confirmed in registries. To investigate the outcome of patients with NSTEACS treated according to an EIS or a ECS in a real-world all-comers outcome research study. The primary hypothesis of the study was the non-inferiority of an ECS in comparison with an EIS as to a combined primary end-point of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and hospital readmission for acute coronary syndromes at one year. Participating centres were divided into two groups: those with a pre-specified routine EIS and those with a pre-specified routine ECS. Two statistical analyses were performed: a) an 'intention to treat' analysis: all patients were considered to be treated according to the pre-specified routine strategy of that centre; b) a 'per protocol' analysis: patients were analysed according to the actual treatment applied. Cox model including propensity score correction was applied for all analyses. The intention to treat analysis showed an equivalence between EIS and ECS (11.4% vs. 11.1%) with regard to the primary end-point incidence at one year. In the three subgroups of patients according to the GRACE risk score (⩽ 108, 109-140, > 140), EIS and ECS confirmed their equivalence (5.3% vs. 3.9%, 8.4% vs. 7.6%, and 20.3% vs. 20.9%, respectively). When the per protocol analysis was applied, a reduction of the primary end-point at one year with EIS vs. ECS was demonstrated (6.2% vs. 15.3%, p=0.021); analysis of the subgroups according to the GRACE risk score numerically confirmed these data (3.1% vs. 6.5%, 5.1% vs. 10.0%, and 10.8% vs. 24.5%, respectively). In a real-life registry of all-comers NSTEACS patients, ECS was non-inferior to EIS; however, when EIS was

  12. The integration of Mathematics, Science and Technology in early childhood education and the foundation phase: The role of the formation of the professional identities of beginner teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Botha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the professional identity formation of six beginner teachers (three in early childhood education and three in the foundation phase, involved in the teaching of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST. Attention is in particular being paid to the role of professional identity in how they applied innovative teaching methods such as enquiry-based teaching. The study is based on the personal narratives of the six teachers, regarding their own learning experiences in MST, the impact of their professional training at an institution of higher education, as well as their first experiences as MST teachers in the workplace. A qualitative research design was applied and data was obtained through visual (photo collages and written stories, observation and interviews. Whilst all the teachers held negative attitudes towards Mathematics, this situation was turned around during their university training. The three teachers in early childhood education experienced their entrance to the profession as positive, due mainly to the support of colleagues in their application of innovative teaching methods. Two teachers in the foundation phase, however, experienced the opposite. The findings emphasise the complex processes in the moulding of a professional teacher identity and how teaching practices are influenced by these processes.

  13. 2008 Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Avery, Nachael B.

    2008-11-01

    For the fifth year, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, invited graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, university faculty, and students entering graduate students from around the world to participate in the Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics. The institute offers participants the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-notch research laboratories while working along internationally respected mentors. Of the 38 applicants, 20 were accepted for the 8- to 10-week program. The participants came from universities as close as Seattle and Portland and as far away as Germany and Singapore. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the 20 participants were mentored by 13 scientists. These mentors help tailor the participant’s experience to the needs of that person. Further, the mentors provide guidance on experimental and theoretical techniques, research design and completion, and other aspects of scientific careers in interfacial and condensed phase chemical physics. The research conducted at the institute can result in tangible benefits for the participants. For example, many have co-authored papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, including top-rated journals such as Science. Also, they have presented their research at conferences, such as the Gordon Research Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces and the AVS national meeting. Beyond that, many of the participants have started building professional connections with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, connections that will serve them well during their careers.

  14. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Fleming, Ian N.; Beer, Ambros J.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Visvikis, Dimitris; Gee, Antony D.; Groves, Ashley M.; Cook, Gary J.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Clarke, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [ 15 O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  15. Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1888-1939, School of American Research Press, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Nash

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1 888-1939, is an "intentionally selective" account of eight major archaeological expeditions to the Southwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It succeeds in achieving the goals set forth in the prologue. The reader is taken on an "armchair tour"  of early Southwestern excavations in the hope that the resulting "basic understanding of what the early archae­ologists did" will stimulate a desire to "learn more about the intriguing prehistory of the Southwest" (pp. xiii. As a student of the history of North American archaeology, I would be amiss to speak for Elion's "layperson" audience, but my suspicion is that her presentation will indeed stimulate those readers. As an archaeologist, I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and it may well be that Elliott's journalistic approach makes this book more enjoyable because she is able to remain above the level of detail that often burden archaeolo­gists' accounts of these expeditions. I must temper this statement by noting that Elliott's journalistic hyper­ bole and tendency to oversimplify complex research and analysis are at times discomforting.

  16. Does Attendance in Early Education Predict Attendance in Elementary School? An Analysis of DCPS's Early Education Program. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Lisa; Holla, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. The Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has identified…

  17. An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  19. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF in the febrile phase (1.5 in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism-serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8. Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%, suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF.

  20. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  1. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Novovic, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 188 women and 171 men with a mean age of 56.1 years. Respiratory complications including pleural effusion, pneumonia and atelectasis were registered in 80 patients (22%), 100 (29%) needed oxygen therapy, 27 (8%) continuous positive airway pressure, and six (2%) mechanical ventilation. Thirty-two patients (9%) were treated with bronchodilators and 12 (3%) with steroids. Thirty-one patients (9%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for respiratory failure. Five of these patients (16%) did not have effusion, atelectasis or pneumonia. Predictors of respiratory failure in multivariable analysis were age (OR 1.04; CI 95% (1.03-1.07)) and smoking (OR 2.67; CI 95% (1.21-5.86)). Thirteen patients died in hospital. The Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests showed that patients with respiratory failure had increased in-hospital mortality as did patients with cardiovascular and renal failure (P Respiratory complications are frequent in the early phase of AP. Respiratory, cardiovascular and renal failure is associated with a poor outcome. The fact that patients without effusion, atelectasis, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The prototyping/early construction phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.D.; Avrorin, A.V.; Aynutdinov, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bannasch, R. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M., E-mail: djilkib@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gafarov, A.R. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N.; Golubkov, K.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Gress, T.I. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Honz, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-04-01

    The prototyping phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project has been started in April 2011 with the deployment of a three string engineering array which comprises all basic elements and systems of the Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD) in Lake Baikal. In April 2012 the version of engineering array which comprises the first full-scale string of the GVD demonstration cluster had been deployed and operated during 2012. The first stage of the GVD-cluster which consists of three strings was deployed in April 2013. We review the prototyping phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project and describe the configuration and design of the 2013 engineering array.

  3. Findings of Visual Arts Research in Early Childhood and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Županić Benić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts research was introduced in the field of education during the 1990s by Barone and Eisner, but their methodology is rarely used because it is not considered to be consistent with traditional paradigms of the scientific method. This review identified only seven visual arts research studies in early childhood education and primary education. Four studies were conducted in early childhood education settings, and two of those studies used quantitative methods to investigate the effects of art on early childhood development. The three studies that were conducted in primary education used a case study approach to examine art projects in the community or the classroom. Participation in visual arts was associated with enhanced learning outcomes in other areas and the development of individual and social competences, but it was not found to facilitate the development of age-dependent abilities, such as visual or grapho-motor abilities. Visual arts also proved to be an effective method of communication for children in preschool and primary education institutions because it is easier for them to express their opinions and beliefs to adults with visual media than with words.

  4. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet; Douglass, Joanna; Gomez, Francisco Ramos; Hieftje, Kimberly; Horowitz, Alice; Li, Yihong; Ng, Man Wai; Twetman, Svante; Tinanoff, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective means to prevent and manage ECC. Analyses of studies indicate that some approaches, such as chlorhexidine, iodine, and remineralizing agents, have not shown consistent findings in preventing ECC. However, evidence exists to yield recommendations in some areas. There are useful risk assessment indicators to identify preschool children at risk for caries. Fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride varnish currently are the most effective chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent ECC. Motivational interviewing, a form of patient-centered counseling, is effective for motivating oral health behaviors and shows promise for reducing caries. Additionally, evidence is emerging that shows the value of chronic disease management approaches and integrating ECC oral health care within medical care settings. Recommendations for future directions in ECC research and policy were also key outcomes of the conference.

  5. Differential transcript accumulation in chickpea during early phases of compatible interaction with a necrotrophic fungus Ascochyta rabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Purnima; Cheruku, Jyothi Reddy; Kumar, Kamal; Yadav, Saurabh; Singh, Archana; Kumari, Pragati; Dube, Sunil Chandra; Upadhyaya, Kailash C; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2012-04-01

    The initial phases of the disease establishment are very crucial for the compatible interactions. Pathogens must overcome the responses generated by the host for the onset of disease invasion. The compatible interaction is inadequately represented in plant-pathogen interaction studies. To gain broader insight into the early responses elicited by chickpea blight fungus Ascochyta rabiei during compatible interaction; we isolated early responsive genes of chickpea using PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. We obtained ~250 unique genes after homology search and redundancy elimination. Based on their potential cellular functions, these genes were broadly classified into eleven different categories viz. stress, signaling, gene regulation, cellular metabolism and genes of unknown functions. Present study revealed few unexpected genes which have a possible role in induced immunity and disease progression. We employed macroarray, northern blot, real-time PCR and cluster analysis to develop transcript profiles. Most of the genes analyzed were early induced and were transcriptionally upregulated upon 24 h post inoculation. Our approach has rendered the isolation of early responsive genes involved in signaling and regulation of metabolic changes upon fungal infection. The information obtained will help to dissect the molecular mechanisms during compatible chickpea-Ascochyta interactions.

  6. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dumnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1 we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2 we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients.

  7. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    , but there were no differences in fermentation pattern after 24 hours of fermentation. The increased early fermentability must markedly increase the nutritional value for high-yielding dairy cows, which at feed intakes of 25 kg dry matter or more, have retention times in the rumen for water soluble compounds...

  8. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p sulfur mustard exposure.

  9. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Competitive Preference Priority 2 of its FY 2011 RTT-ELC application; and (3) from two or more of the three... increase the number and percentage of low-income and disadvantaged children, in each age group of infants... activities proposed under Competitive Preference Priority 2, including all early learning and development...

  10. True translational research: bridging the three phases of translation through data and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L

    2011-03-01

    Translational medicine has yet to deliver on its vast potential. Obstacles, or "blocks," to translation at three phases of research have impeded the application of research findings to clinical needs and, subsequently, the implementation of newly developed interventions in patient care. Recent federal support for comparative effectiveness research focuses attention on the clinical relevance of already-developed diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and on translating interventions found to be effective into new population-level strategies for improving health-thereby overcoming blocks at one end of the translational continuum. At the other end, while there is a preponderance of federal funding underwriting basic science research, further improvement is warranted in translating results of basic research into clinical applications and in integrating the basic sciences into the translational continuum. With its focus on the human and interactional aspects of health, medical practice, and healthcare delivery systems, behavioral medicine, itself a component of translational medicine, can inform this process.

  11. A Bayesian three-parameter logistic model for early- and late-onset DLTs in oncology Phase I studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Yuefeng; Miao, Harry; Liu, Hengchang

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a three-parameter logistic model to analyze the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) as a time-to-event endpoint in oncology Phase I trials. In the proposed model, patients are allowed to stay on trial without the constraint of a maximum follow-up time. Our model accommodates late-onset DLT as well as early-onset DLT, by both of which the dose recommendation is informed. A Bayesian approach is used to incorporate prior knowledge of the test treatment into dose recommendation. Simulation examples show that our proposed model has good operating characteristics in assessing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).

  12. Color Doppler indexes in early phase after kidney transplantation and their association with kidney function on six month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Doppler ultrasonography (DU and measurement of its indexes, resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI, is used to investigate transplanted kidney hemodynamic status and function. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between Doppler indexes in the early phase after transplantation with long-term transplanted kidney function. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional study on 38 newly kidney transplant patients, we performed DU with assessment of its indexes within 48 hours, 1 week, and 6 months after kidney transplantation. Serum creatinine after stability and 6 months after kidney transplantation were assessed. Cyclosporine level was measured 1 week after kidney transplantation and compared with DU indexes. Results: About 71% of kidney transplanted patients reached their normal initial creatinine level(cr<1.5 mg/ dl and 28% of all patients were involved in kidney dysfunction after 6 months (increase in basic creatinine level more than 25%.There was no significant difference between mean RI and PI in patients with normal and disturbed kidney function based on creatinine level in early posttransplantation period but there was linear correlation between mean RI and PI within 48 hours and 1 week with kidney function after 6 months. Also no association between cyclosporine level and RI and PI was shown. There was a direct association between age and the levels of RI and PI 6 months after transplantation. Conclusion: This study suggests assessment of RI and PI in early period after transplantation and can be used as predictive parameters for long-term function of transplanted kidney and RI more than 0.80 in early phase after transplantation has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity to predict long-term kidney dysfunction.

  13. Early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium: a prospective cohort study in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonghe, Jos F M; Kalisvaart, Kees J; Dijkstra, Marty; van Dis, Huib; Vreeswijk, Ralph; Kat, Martin G; Eikelenboom, Piet; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Gool, Willem A

    2007-02-01

    The authors investigated prodromal delirium symptoms in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. This was a prospective cohort study in the setting of a large medical school-affiliated general hospital in Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Participants were patients undergoing hip surgery aged 70 and older at risk for delirium. Before surgery, patients were randomized to low-dose prophylactic haloperidol treatment or placebo. Daily assessments were based on patient interviews with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Span test. The Delirium Rating Scale-Revised (DRS-R-98) was used to measure early symptoms during the prodromal phase before the onset of delirium. Data of 66 patients with delirium were compared with those of 35 at-risk patients who did not develop delirium: 14 of 66 patients (21%) had delirium on the day of surgery or early the day after, 32 of 66 (48%) on the second day, 14 of 66 on the third, and six of 66 (9%) on the fourth. The average DRS-R-98 total scores on day -4 to day -1 before delirium were 1.9 for the comparison group patients and 5.0, 4.3, 5.8, and 10.7 for patients with postoperative delirium. Multivariate analysis showed that the early symptoms memory impairments, incoherence, disorientation, and underlying somatic illness predict delirium. Most elderly patients undergoing hip surgery with postoperative delirium already have early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium. These findings are potentially useful for screening purposes and for optimizing prevention strategies targeted at reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium.

  14. A Pragmatic Approach to Getting Published: 35 Tips for Early Career Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha M. Glover

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is trite to say publish or perish, yet many early career researchers are often at a loss on how to best get one’s work published. With strong competition and many manuscripts submitted, it is difficult to convince editors and reviewers to opt for acceptance. A pragmatic approach to publishing may increase one’s odds of success. Here, we-- a group of postdocs in the field of plant science-- present specific recommendations for early career scientists on advanced levels. We cannot provide a recipe-like set of instructions with success guaranteed, but we come from a broad background in plant science, with experience publishing in a large number of different journals of varying topics and impact factors. We provide tips, tricks, and tools for collaboration, journal selection, and achieving acceptance.

  15. 76 FR 9583 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarketing Evaluation in Early Phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...) relationship of drugs. PGx studies can enhance the understanding of interindividual differences in the efficacy..., later (phase 3) studies (the adequate and well-controlled studies needed to support marketing approval... overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and to provide an adequate basis for physician labeling...

  16. Centro TORTUGA's Integrated Research and Professional Development Training for Early Stage Hispanic Students in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, F. C.; Allen, M. R.; Barberena-Arias, M.; Clark, J.; Harris, L.; Maldonado, P. M.; Olivo-Delgado, C.; Pierson, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years our multidisciplinary team explored different undergraduate research and professional development (PD) strategies to improve early stage Hispanic student retention in marine science with the objective of interesting them in pursuing degrees that may ultimately lead to geoscience careers. This research led to the 2016 launch of our current project, Centro TORTUGA (Tropical Oceanography Research Training for Undergraduate Academics). Our overarching goal is to increase the number of underrepresented students from minority serving institutions in geoscience-relevant disciplines and careers. Critical to success is building a program rich in both research and PD. Based on qualitative and quantitative evaluations we found students benefited from PD efforts to increase skills in areas such as: 1) speaking and writing English; 2) science communication; 3) teamwork; 4) project management; and 5) completing internship/graduate school applications. To build student self-confidence, networking, and science skills Centro Tortuga involves students' families, bridges cultural gaps across research and non-research institutions inside and outside of Puerto Rico, and provides a gathering place (Centro TORTUGA) for students. With our partners, Universidad del Turabo (UT), Universidad Metropolitana (UMET), and University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, we are now testing a 12-month integrated research and PD curriculum. Initial results suggest areas for improved student training include: 1) science communication (reports and graphs); 2) science ethics; and 3) poster and oral presentations. Students also identified specific preparation they would like included in the Centro TORTUGA curriculum.

  17. Research on Unification Methods of InSAR Phase Unwrapped Results in Isolated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Siting; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great Tohoku Earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 occurred in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of northeastern Japan. Some scientists researches on land displacement caused by this earthquake using D-InSAR technology. However, spaceborne SAR images are long track images which may divide continental shore into isolated regions. And a prerequisite of correct phase unwrapping is the continuity of interferogram because it totally relies on phase offsets between pixels.Thus isolated land regions can lead to incorrect phase unwrapping results. Phase unwrapping is a key step, it directly affects the precision of displacement derived by D-InSAR. Although many phase unwrapping algorithms have been proposed in past decades, none of them can solve the problem caused by isolated regions. Fig. 1(a) is an example that unwrapped using SNAPHU which is incorrect obviously as fig. 1(b). In order to unify the unwrapped results of isolated regions we propose three methods. Main procedure of these methods is (1) finding accurate displacement and (2)adding differential displacement back to isolated regions.

  18. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Accelerating Digital Mental Health Research From Early Design and Creation to Successful Implementation and Sustainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Lyon, Aaron R; Lattie, Emily G; Reddy, Madhu; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-05-10

    Mental health problems are common and pose a tremendous societal burden in terms of cost, morbidity, quality of life, and mortality. The great majority of people experience barriers that prevent access to treatment, aggravated by a lack of mental health specialists. Digital mental health is potentially useful in meeting the treatment needs of large numbers of people. A growing number of efficacy trials have shown strong outcomes for digital mental health treatments. Yet despite their positive findings, there are very few examples of successful implementations and many failures. Although the research-to-practice gap is not unique to digital mental health, the inclusion of technology poses unique challenges. We outline some of the reasons for this gap and propose a collection of methods that can result in sustainable digital mental health interventions. These methods draw from human-computer interaction and implementation science and are integrated into an Accelerated Creation-to-Sustainment (ACTS) model. The ACTS model uses an iterative process that includes 2 basic functions (design and evaluate) across 3 general phases (Create, Trial, and Sustain). The ultimate goal in using the ACTS model is to produce a functioning technology-enabled service (TES) that is sustainable in a real-world treatment setting. We emphasize the importance of the service component because evidence from both research and practice has suggested that human touch is a critical ingredient in the most efficacious and used digital mental health treatments. The Create phase results in at least a minimally viable TES and an implementation blueprint. The Trial phase requires evaluation of both effectiveness and implementation while allowing optimization and continuous quality improvement of the TES and implementation plan. Finally, the Sustainment phase involves the withdrawal of research or donor support, while leaving a functioning, continuously improving TES in place. The ACTS model is a step

  20. Research at Clark in the early '60s and at LLNL in the late '80s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrousis, C.

    1993-01-01

    Tom Sugihara's scientific leadership over a period of almost four decades covered many areas. His early research at Clark dealt with fission yields measurements and radiochemical separations of fallout species in the marine environment. Tom pioneered many of the methods for detecting soft beta emitters and low levels of radioactivity. Studies of the behavior of radioactivity in the marine ecosystem were important adjuncts to Tom's nuclear science research at Clark University which emphasized investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms. Among Tom's most important contributions while at Clark was his work with Matsuo and Dudey on the interpretation of isomeric yield ratios and fission studies with Noshkin and Baba. Tom's scientific career oscillated between research and administration. During the latter part of his career his great breadth of interests and his scientific open-quotes tasteclose quotes had a profound influence at LLNL in areas that were new to him, materials science and solid state physics

  1. [Function-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer based on Japanese researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiang

    2018-02-25

    In the past, people only focused on surgical resection of gastric cancer to obtain satisfactory therapeutic effect, while the concept of function-preserving in gastric cancer surgery has not been emphasized. Gastric function-preserving surgery was originally performed by Japanese doctor Maki for surgical treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer. With the definition of early gastric cancer being accepted, the pylorus-preserving gastrectomy can be used continuously in the treatment of gastric cancer. Because of high incidence of early gastric cancer in Japan, a variety of application and research about function-preserving gastrectomy in other areas for treatment of early gastric cancer, such as proximal gastrectomy and jejunal interposition, segmental gastrectomy, gastric local resection and laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) at the same time, and regional or sentinel lymph node dissection were performed for the purpose of radical cure. Function-preserving gastrectomy for the treatment of early gastric cancer should include four important factors: (1) decrease of the scope of gastrectomy; (2)retaining pylorus; (3)retaining vagus nerve; (4)regional or sentinel lymph node dissection. The technique of sentinel lymph node can reduce the extent of gastric resection, avoid distal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy, and make gastric resection more suitable for laparoscopic partial gastrectomy, segmental resection, pylorus-preserving gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy. Function-preserving gastrectomy has the advantage of improving the quality of life and has great potential in the treatment of early gastric cancer. However, the various treatment methods including LECS need strict technical standardization for confirmation of oncology safety. We need careful design, prospective multicenter randomized controlled trials to provide theoretical and technical support.

  2. Late- versus early-onset geriatric depression in a memory research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Dillon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon1, Ricardo F Allegri2, Cecilia M Serrano1, Mónica Iturry1, Pablo Salgado1, Frank B Glaser1, Fernando E Taragano21Memory Research Center, Department of Neurology, Hospital General Abel Zubizarreta, GCBA Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Neuropsychology (SIREN, CEMIC University, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaObjective: To contrast early-onset (<60 years and late-onset (>60 years depression in geriatric patients by evaluating differences in cognition, vascular comorbidity and sociological risk factors. Both patient groups were compared with normal subjects.Materials and methods: We recruited 76 patients with depressive symptoms (37 late onset and 39 early onset and 17 normal controls matched by age and educational level. All subjects were assessed using a semistructured neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Vascular and sociological risk factors were also evaluated.Results: We found a significant variation in performance between depressive patients and normal controls in most cognitive functions, especially memory (P < 0.0001, semantic fluency (P < 0.0001, verbal fluency, and digit-symbol (P < 0.0001. Late-onset depression patients scored lower and exhibited more severe impairment in memory domains than early-onset depression patients (P < 0.05. Cholesterol levels and marital status were significantly (P < 0.05 different between the depressive groups. Both depressed groups (early- and lateonset were more inactive than controls (P < 0.05; odds ratio: 6.02.Conclusion: Geriatric depression may be a manifestation of brain degeneration, and the initial symptom of a dementia. It is important to consider this in the treatment of patients that exhibit late-onset depressive symptoms.Keywords: early- and late-onset depression, geriatrics, cognition

  3. New developments in two-phase flow heat transfer with emphasis on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The literature on two-phase flow - with and without heat transfer - shows an explosive-like growth of published papers within the last ten years. Many of these papers were published as a result of nuclear safety research. It is impossible to deal with all new developments reported in this extensive literature. So one has to ask: Are there trends of special interest, where this report could be concentrated on? Looking over the situation, there seem to be three very promising fields of research having high actuality, especially for nuclear safety, namely: fluiddynamic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium in steady state, transient conditions, and scaling. The discussion on new developments in two-phase flow heat transfer, therefore, is limited on these subjects

  4. 2006 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Nikki B.; Barlow, Stephan E.

    2006-11-10

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its third annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2006. During this period, twenty PNNL scientists hosted twenty-seven scientists from twenty-five different universities. Of the twenty-seven participants, one was a graduating senior; twenty-one were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and four were university faculty members.

  5. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    site. M. L. ENERGIA , INC. Topic#: 91-057 ID#: 91CEL-103 P.O. BOX 1468 Office: AFCESA PRINCETON, NJ 08542 Contract #: F08635-92-C-0085 Phone: (609...Phase I feasibility study ENERGIA has pioneered a unique technology to the disposal problem. CFCs and Halons are treated by an innovative process...make the reactor useful fe: a wide variety of research and dcvelopment and prototype work in electronics (e.g. MIMIC) and optoelectronics (lasers. solar

  6. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 2. Navy Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    data that is impossible or impractical to get, esp ,,wially during the acquisition phase and particularly pertinent to O&S costs. This effort provides...training syllabus , (2) select appropriate training techniques based on Task 1 results, (3) identify a candidate training medium, and (4) prove medium...92-007 ARMY Topic#: 92-084 CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP. DESE RESEARCH, INC. AF Topic#: 92-058 DNA Topic#: 92-012 ARMY Topic#: 92-147 DEVELOSOFT CORP. NAVY

  7. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fleming, Ian N. [University of Aberdeen, NCRI PET Research Network, Aberdeen Bioimaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cunningham, Vincent J. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul K. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM National Institute of Health and Clinical Sciences LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Gee, Antony D. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, KCL Division of Imaging, Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, 222 Old Fisheries Center (FIS), Box 357987, Seattle, WA (United States); Clarke, Larry [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [{sup 15}O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  8. Systemic oxidative DNA and RNA damage are not increased during early phases of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    included 41 UHR patients, 35 FES patients, and 29 healthy controls. There was no difference in the level of DNA/RNA oxidative damage between UHR patients and FES patients compared with healthy controls. We found no association between levels of DNA/RNA oxidative damage and perceived stress/life events....... Based on the results, we suggest that DNA and RNA oxidative markers are not increased during the early stages of illness, but further longitudinal studies in first-episode psychosis should be carried out to examine whether DNA and RNA oxidative damage are potential markers of severe illness.......It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia develop higher levels of oxidative stress, which may contribute to deteriorating mental illness. In order to examine oxidative stress in the early stages of severe mental illness, we examined the levels of systemic Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA...

  9. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts.

  10. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  11. Good practices for the operational safety management in the early recovery phase of a seismic event using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the early recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing

  12. Adverse effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs: Validation from clinical and basic researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kimino; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takao

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy requires the long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and thus, we must consider the effects of prenatal AED exposure on fetus when treating female patients of child bearing age. Large prospective clinical researches in humans have demonstrated the following: (1) prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine, and phenobarbital increases the risk of congenital malformations in a dose-dependent manner and (2) prenatal exposure to VPA increases the risk of higher brain function impairments including intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders in the offspring. Furthermore, basic researches in animals have shown that prenatal exposure to specific AEDs causes microscopic structural abnormalities in the fetal brain. Specifically, prenatal exposure to VPA has been reported to inhibit the differentiation of neural progenitor cells during the early to middle phases of neuronogenesis, leading to increased number of projection neurons in the superficial layers of postnatal neocortices in mice. It is indispensable to prescribe AEDs that are associated with lower risk of congenital malformations and impairment of higher brain functions as well as to administer them at requisite minimum doses. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the influence of project management on quality during the early phases of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevo Žanesa

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the quality of a process affects the quality of the end product, there is currently an insignif­icant amount of knowledge about the quality of project management (PM processes that directly affect the quality of the delivered product (constructed building. This study presents a proposal for modeling the impact of the quality of the PM process on the quality of the con­structed building. The quality of the PM process is rep­resented by the main quality factors and product quality indicators. It presents the results of the interviews that were conducted and study cases that were analyzed in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a variety of project partici­pants (with different managerial perspectives in terms of the indicators of quality of the delivered product. All par­ticipants, regardless of managerial perspective, believe that the most important indicator of the quality of prod­ucts for each phase of the project is “customer satisfaction in the end phase”, the measurement of which is different for each project phase that is presented. The results of the factor analysis of the definition and the planning phases show that 11 variables, namely, the quality factors of the PM process, can be grouped into three new factors, which is described as 66.61% (77.046% of the basic set of vari­ables.

  14. Design and conduct of early-phase radiotherapy trials with targeted therapeutics: lessons from the PRAVO experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Anne Hansen; Hollywood, Donal

    2013-07-01

    New strategies to facilitate the improvement of physical and integrated biological optimization of high-precision treatment protocols are an important priority for modern radiation oncology. From a clinical perspective, as knowledge accumulates from molecular radiobiology, there is a complex and exciting opportunity to investigate novel approaches to rational patient treatment stratification based on actionable tumor targets, together with the appropriate design of next-generation early-phase radiotherapy trials utilizing targeted therapeutics, to formally evaluate relevant clinical and biomarker endpoints. A unique aspect in the development pathway of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity will also be the need for special attention on patient eligibility and the rigorous definition of radiation dose-volume relationships and potential dose-limiting toxicities. Based on recent experience from systematically investigating histone deacetylase inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents, from initial studies in preclinical tumor models through the conduct of a phase I clinical study to evaluate tumor activity of the targeted agent as well as patient safety and tumor response to the combined treatment modality, this communication will summarize principles relating to early clinical evaluation of combining radiotherapy and targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of hyperglycemia on liver inflammatory conditions in the early phase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Miyagi, Kei; Obata, Tokio; Morimoto, Yasuko; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kim, Ke Ih; Kim, Soo Ki; Kim, Soo Ryang; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2017-06-01

    A non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has high prevalence and now important issue of public health. In general, there exists strong interaction between NAFLD and diabetes, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of hyperglycemia on progression in the early phase of NAFLD in mice. Male ddY mice were fed a choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) consisting of 60% of kcal from fat and 0.1% methionine by weight. Hyperglycemic condition was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. The assessment of liver function used serum AST and ALT levels, and histological analysis. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA levels was estimated by qRT-PCR. During the 3-42 days that the mice were fed CDAHFD, the livers gradually caused accumulation of fat, and infiltration of inflammation cells gradually increased. Serum AST and ALT levels and significantly increased after being fed CDAHFD for 3 days and were exacerbated by the STZ-induced hyperglycemic condition. In addition, hepatic TNF-α mRNA also significantly increased. These phenomena reversed by insulin administration. The results showed that progression in the early phase of NAFLD may be exacerbated by hyperglycemia-induced exacerbation of inflammation. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  17. Phase Transitions: In the Brain, Socio-­Dramatic Play and Meaningful Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2017-01-01

    There are similar, non-linear complex dynamical systems that underlie the epigenetic development of young children. This paper discusses the confluence of research on brain functions; a body or research that informs the characteristics of young children's play and imagination; and the ways in which young children acquire fresh perceptions and…

  18. Implant Stability Changes during Early Phase of Healing:A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesgarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the stability changes as a reflection of early healing around roughened-surface implants in human by resonance frequency analysis (RFA.Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty one ITI SLA implants were placed in either maxilla or mandible of 68 patients. Bone type was classified into 4 groups according to Lekholm and Zarb index. RFA was used for direct implant stability measurement on theday of implant placement, and at 14, 30 and 60 days after placement. Student t-test and ANOVA served for statistical analysis.Results: No early failure occurred. The highest and lowest primary stability was measured in type 1 and type 4 bone, respectively. Implant stability increased over time in types 3 and 4 bone but continuously decreased in type 1 bone during the first 60 days of healing.In type 2 a small decrease in stability was observed until 30 days, and after that the stability increased. The difference between implant stability in type 2 and type 4 bone at eachtime point was highly significant (P0.05. The effect of implant length and diameter on stability at different times was tested with mixed model ANOVA, and no significant difference among groups was observed (P>0.05Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the pattern of stability changes was different among various bone types. With regard to primary stability and pattern of stability changes in types 2 and 3 bone, immediate and early loading protocols can be recommended in these two bone types, respectively.

  19. Control of Early Age Cracking in Concrete. Phase 4 and 5: Material Modelling, Continuum Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with numerical modelling of early age concrete. The hydration process giving the strength and stiffness development after casting is discussed. Several factors influence the progress of hydration such as the temperature level and the moisture activity. The factors are coupled...... and a material model is proposed which includes some of the couplings. It is shown how more factors may be incorporated. The model is illustrated through analysis of measured creep response both at a varying load history and at a varying temperature history....

  20. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  1. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  2. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Advanced Fiber-Optic Instrumentation for Early Flight Fission Research, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By properly characterizing the thermo-mechanical activity within non-nuclear test articles, nuclear operation can be more accurately controlled and confidence in...

  4. Scientific writing seminar for early-stage investigators in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.

  5. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  6. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  7. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marking, Gregory Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf10Ta3S3 was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the known gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported "stuffed" gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo Kα X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co2Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.

  8. Targeting Early Dementia: Using Lipid Cubic Phase Nanocarriers to Cross the Blood–Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. D’Arrigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a frequent co-morbidity of cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer’s disease has been observed. Numerous published studies indicate that the preservation of a healthy cerebrovascular endothelium can be an important therapeutic target. By incorporating the appropriate drug(s into biomimetic (lipid cubic phase nanocarriers, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic, which targets certain cell surface scavenger receptors, mainly class B type I (i.e., SR-BI, and crosses the blood–brain barrier. This targeting allows for various cell types related to Alzheimer’s to be simultaneously searched out for localized drug treatment in vivo.

  9. A multi-centre phase IIa clinical study of predictive testing for pre-eclampsia. IMproved PRegnancy Outcomes Via Early Detection (IMPROVED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Louise

    2013-04-01

    1 in 20 first time pregnancies is complicated by pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in Europe. No clinically useful early pregnancy screening test exists, consequentially clinicians are unable to offer targeted surveillance or preventative strategies. IMPROVED Consortium members have pioneered a personalised medicine approach in identifying blood-borne biomarkers through recent technological advancements, involving mapping of the blood metabolome and proteome. The Consortium recently received funding under the auspices of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union under the call: HEALTH- 2012-INNOVATION-1.2-1 (Grant Agreement no. Health-F5-2012-305169). The objective is to develop a sensitive, specific, high-throughput and economically viable early pregnancy screening test for pre-eclampsia. We report the design of a multicentre, phase IIa clinical study to assess and refine innovative prototype tests based on emerging metabolomic and proteomic technologies. Participation involves serial maternal phlebotomy, collection of clinical data, and pregnancy outcome data. Participants will attend essential visits at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation, with optional 11 and 34 weeks' gestation. Blood samples will undergo a combination of proteomic and metabolomic tests, and diagnostic performance will be assessed in accord with a pre-approved statistical analysis plan which will report Receiver Operating Curves, and Positive Predictive Values. The study is expected to refine proteomic and metabolomic panels, combined with clinical parameters, and evaluate clinical applicability as an early pregnancy predictive test for pre-eclampsia. If 'at risk' patients can be identified, this will allow stratified care with personalised fetal and maternal surveillance, early diagnosis, timely intervention, and significant health economic savings. The IMPROVED biobank will be accessible to the European scientific community for high quality research into the cause and

  10. Solid Waste Processing: An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergic, technocentric approach estimate that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems. Hence, any early missions will require the presence of a closed life support system where all wastes, both solids and liquids, will need to be recycled or where all consumables will need to be supplied. The economics of both are often a matter of speculation and conjecture, but some attempt is made here to evaluate the choice. If a choice is made to completely resupply and eject the waste mass, a number of unknown issues are at hand. On the other hand, processing of the wastes, will enable predictability and reliability of the ecosystem. Solid wastes though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes contains more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Further, if left unprocessed they present a serious risk to human health. This paper presents the use of well established technology in processing solid wastes, ensuring that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.

  11. Aural exostoses (surfer's ear) provide vital fossil evidence of an aquatic phase in Man's early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys Evans, P H; Cameron, M

    2017-11-01

    For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution. In 1992 the senior author suggested that aural exostoses were evolved in early hominid Man for protection of the delicate tympanic membrane during swimming and diving by narrowing the ear canal in a similar fashion to other semiaquatic species. We now provide evidence for this theory and propose an aetiological explanation for the formation of exostoses.

  12. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grasso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20% was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively. Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day. CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding.

  13. Early Career Mentoring for Translational Researchers: Mentee Perspectives on Challenges and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E.; Collier, Peter J.; Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Logan, Kay; McCracken, Karen; Morris, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background and purposes The education and training of early career biomedical translational researchers often involves formal mentoring by more experienced colleagues. This study investigated the nature of these mentoring relationships from the perspective of mentees. The objective was to understand the challenges and issues encountered by mentees in forming and maintaining productive mentoring relationships. Method Three focus groups (n=14) were conducted with early career researchers who had mentored career development awards. Thematic analysis identified, categorized, and illustrated the challenges and issues reported by mentees. Results The range of mentee challenges was reflected in five major categories: 1) network—finding appropriate mentors to meet various needs; 2) access—structuring schedules and opportunities to receive mentoring; 3) expectations—negotiating the mechanics of the mentoring relationship and its purpose; 4) alignment—managing mentor-mentee mismatches regarding interests, priorities, and goals; and 5) skills and supports—developing the institutional supports to be successful. Conclusions Mentoring relationships created for academic training and career development contend with tasks common to many other relationships, namely recognizing compatibility, finding time, establishing patterns, agreeing to goals, and achieving aims. Identifying challenges faced by mentees can facilitate the development of appropriate trainings and supports to foster mentoring relationships in academic and career settings. PMID:25010230

  14. PEDAGOGICAL EXCELLENCE IN AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION TEACHER – RESEARCH SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA SZKOLAK-STĘPIEŃ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the given article I deal with the problem strictly connected to depicting a master in an occupation of an early stage teacher. The fundamental assumption here is that gaining and developing certain professional teaching competences is equal to the prospective occupational development of a teacher, who, on the other hand, is depicted by his career. And this is the way to their pedagogical mastery. The matter I deal with became the starting point to the empirical researches run in both rural and urban environments. 529 teachers, whose professionalism was evaluated on the basis of their self-esteem, and assessed by 101 school directors and also the assessment run by methodological advisors with the reports on evaluation, took part in this research. The results of this empirical documentation constitute the basis for the quantity and quality analysis of the index determining the level of the given pedagogical competences and their factors. On the basis of which it was possible to formulate the picture of an early stage teacher- the master in their occupation.

  15. George Peabody College for Teachers Demonstration and Research Center for Early Childhood: Final Report to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Peabody Coll. for Teachers, Nashville, TN. Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education.

    This final report is a general description of the activities of the Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education (DARCEE), an Appalachian preschool program for disadvantaged children. Included in the document are: a general overview of the program, histories of the three Early Training Centers, and objectives and publications of the…

  16. Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage: Early Childhood Interventions and Progression to Higher Education in Europe. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The early years of childhood are crucial for the development of the cognitive and social-behavioural skills of an adult. Thus, they represent a unique challenge and opportunity to invest in children. Extensive research has shown that Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is effective in tackling the inequality which can tend to spring from…

  17. A multi-centre phase IIa clinical study of predictive testing for preeclampsia: improved pregnancy outcomes via early detection (IMPROvED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, Kate; Alfirevic, Zarko; Baker, Philip N; Gluud, Christian; Grüttner, Berthold; Kublickiene, Karolina; Zeeman, Gerda; Kenny, Louise C

    2013-12-07

    5% of first time pregnancies are complicated by pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in Europe. No clinically useful screening test exists; consequentially clinicians are unable to offer targeted surveillance or preventative strategies. IMPROvED Consortium members have pioneered a personalised medicine approach to identifying blood-borne biomarkers through recent technological advancements, involving mapping of the blood metabolome and proteome. The key objective is to develop a sensitive, specific, high-throughput and economically viable early pregnancy screening test for pre-eclampsia. We report the design of a multicentre, phase IIa clinical study aiming to recruit 5000 low risk primiparous women to assess and refine innovative prototype tests based on emerging metabolomic and proteomic technologies. Participation involves maternal phlebotomy at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation, with optional testing and biobanking at 11 and 34 weeks. Blood samples will be analysed using two innovative, proprietary prototype platforms; one metabolomic based and one proteomic based, both of which outperform current biomarker based screening tests at comparable gestations. Analytical and clinical data will be collated and analysed via the Copenhagen Trials Unit. The IMPROvED study is expected to refine proteomic and metabolomic panels, combined with clinical parameters, and evaluate clinical applicability as an early pregnancy predictive test for pre-eclampsia. If 'at risk' patients can be identified, this will allow stratified care with personalised fetal and maternal surveillance, early diagnosis, timely intervention, and significant health economic savings. The IMPROvED biobank will be accessible to the European scientific community for high quality research into the cause and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcome. Trial registration number NCT01891240The IMPROvED project is funded by the seventh framework programme for Research and Technological development of the EU

  18. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M.; Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Grop, A.

    2001-01-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores ≤ 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  19. Research on radionuclide migration under subsurface geochemical conditions. JAERI/AECL Phase II Collaborative Program Year 1 (joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment program for fractured rocks was performed under the JAERI/AECL Phase-II Collaborative Program on research and development in radioactive waste management. The program started in the fiscal year 1993, as a five-year program consists of Quarried block radionuclide migration program, Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, Isotopic hydrogeology and Groundwater flow model development. During the first year of the program (Program Year 1: March 18, 1994 - September 30, 1994), a plan was developed to take out granite blocks containing part of natural water-bearing fracture from the wall of the experimental gallery at the depth of 240 m, and literature reviews were done in the area of the speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, isotopic hydrogeology and the groundwater flow model development to proceed further work for the Program Year 2. (author)

  20. SMAP Impact Analysis of Early Adopter Research-Two Case studies on the scientific and societal benefits of SMAP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.; Wu, H. T.; Moran, S.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    To document and evaluate the use of SMAP science products in applications, the SMAP Phase E Applications Plan proposes to "conduct case studies to address a basic question: How are SMAP science products used in decision support systems and how does the new data stream affect the system performance?" The objective is to determine the value of SMAP data to the six categories of applications based on Early Adopters' experiences, where value is defined as the scientific and/or societal benefit. Since SMAP is the first mission with a pre-launch Early Adopter Program, the post-launch case study is also unprecedented. In this talk, we will show some results of the SMAP Early Adopters, with focus on the two case studies in the applications of agriculture and weather forecasting, respectively. For agriculture, we will show the work of USDA/NASS (National Agriculture Statistics Service) scientists (Zhengwei Yang and Rick Mueller). Using SMAP soil moisture products, they have been working on the establishment of a visualization, analytics, and dissemination tool to support and improve US national crop condition monitoring. Scientifically, this study will improve our understanding on the impact of crop canopy on the SMAP SM retrieval and on the mapping relation between SMAP SM and NASS soil moisture survey results. Socio-economically, the use of SMAP data and web-based tool will improve the consistency, reliability, objectivity, and efficiency of cropland soil moisture monitoring and assessment, which will benefit the current end users of the NASS weekly report including farmers, insurance companies, and financial institutes. For weather, we will show the work of NOAA scientists (Xiwu Zhan, Weizhong Zheng, and Mike Ek) on the transition of NASA SMAP research products to NOAA operational numerical weather and seasonal climate predictions and research hydrological forecasts. Results of initial analyses and validation of the assimilation of SMAP soil moisture in NOAA's Global

  1. Metabolic alterations in adipose tissue during the early phase of experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoener, P; Vietheer, A; Sayk, F; Schaaf, B; Lehnert, H; Dodt, C

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy homeostasis; however, there is only little knowledge about its metabolic activity during critical illness or sepsis. We assessed adipose tissue metabolic activity and local blood flow during experimental endotoxemia in otherwise healthy humans. In a prospective, placebo controlled and randomized experiment we measured changes in lactate, glycerol, and pyruvate concentrations in microdialysate samples of femoral adipose tissue after an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 ng/kg). Intravenous endotoxin caused an early and constant increase in interstitial pyruvate, while formation of lactate in adipose tissue was not affected. In contrast, lactate levels in serum were elevated significantly after 90 min (pendotoxemia. While adipose tissue is a major source of serum glycerol and lactate in humans during physiological conditions, it contributes only little to increased serum lactate and glycerol levels during endotoxemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of TORC1 Inhibition during the Early and Established Phases of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Michelle H T; Schwensen, Kristina G; Foster, Sheryl; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Ozimek-Kulik, Justyna E; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Peduto, Anthony; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-01-01

    The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20). In early-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 63%), slowed the rate of increase in total kidney volume (TKV) in serial MRI by 78.2% (LPK+V: 132.3±59.7 vs. LPK+S: 28.8±12.0% per week) but only partly reduced the percentage renal cyst area (by 19%) and did not affect the decline in endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) in LPK rats. In late-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 22%) and the rate of increase in TKV by 71.8% (LPK+V: 13.1±6.6 vs. LPK+S: 3.7±3.7% per week) but the percentage renal cyst area was unaltered, and the CrCl only marginally better. Sirolimus reduced renal TORC1 activation but not TORC2, NF-κB DNA binding activity, CCL2 or TNFα expression, and abnormalities in cilia ultrastructure, hypertension and cardiac disease were also not improved. Thus, the relative treatment efficacy of TORC1 inhibition on kidney enlargement was consistent at all disease stages, but the absolute effect was determined by the timing of drug initiation. Furthermore, cystic microarchitecture, renal function and cardiac disease remain abnormal with TORC1 inhibition, indicating that additional approaches to normalise cellular dedifferentiation, inflammation and hypertension are required to completely arrest the progression of PKDs.

  3. Psychosocial and psychoeducational group program for main caregiver of mentally sick in early phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz Amaro Martín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization processes in recent times have led to a new age in relations between family and mental health professionals. Care professionals were replaced, after the psychiatric reform, for care carried out by the family without the knowledge, information and skills to assume these functions. This is the situation of many families of patients with schizophrenia.Disabling features of schizophrenia usually cause depends on their families, who take care with the consequent impact on their lives. Psychosocial interventions assessing their work and want to build an alliance with them by giving them skills and coping mechanisms to reduce adverse family atmosphere, anticipate and solve problems and reduce the expressions of anger and guilt keeping appropiate expectations. However, these actions must be enforced by providing main caregivers with the skills that enable them to gain control, this is the main target of psychoeducational programs.Today there are many people in favour of such interventions in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, it is no clear how far development of these programs is supported by evidence of effectiveness. So it has proposed a psychosocial and psychoeducational program aimed at main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in early stages. This program will be led by a psychiatric nurse in collaboration with other professionals in the interdisciplinary team; psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and social worker. It has developed clinical trial with a control group who will receive the gide for families, caregivers and people affected, "Cómo afrontar la esquizofrenia," and an experimental group will receive, in addition to the guide, the group intervention sessions.

  4. Adaptive designs for dose-finding in non-cancer phase II trials: influence of early unexpected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    In non-cancer phase II trials, dose-finding trials are usually carried out using fixed designs, in which several doses including a placebo are randomly distributed to patients. However, in certain vulnerable populations, such as neonates or infants, there is an heightened requirement for safety, precluding randomization. To estimate the minimum effective dose of a new drug from a non-cancer phase II trial, we propose the use of adaptive designs like the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM). This approach estimates the dose closest to some target response, and has been shown to be unbiased and efficient in cancer phase I trials. Based on a motivating example, we point out the individual influence of first outliers in this setting. A weighted version of the CRM is proposed as a theoretical benchmark to control for these outliers. Using simulations, we illustrate how this approach provides further insight into the behavior of the CRM. When dealing with low targets like a 10% failure rate, the CRM appears unable to rapidly overcome an early unexpected outcome. This behavior persisted despite changing the inference (Bayesian or likelihood), underlying dose-response model (though slightly improved using the power model), and the number of patients enrolled at each dose level. The choices for initial guesses of failure rates, the vague prior for the model parameter, and the log-log shape of weights can appear somewhat arbitrary. In phase II dose-finding studies in which failure targets are below 20%, the CRM appears quite sensitive to first unexpected outcomes. Using a power model for dose-response improves some behavior if the trial is started at the first dose level and includes at least three to five patients at the starting dose before applying the CRM allocation rule.

  5. Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy: Phase 1 Topical Report Fallon, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Nevada Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Blake, Kelly [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Calvin, Wendy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences and Engineering; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Glen, Jonathan [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hickman, Stephen [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Kaven, Ole [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lazaro, Mike [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Meade, David [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phelps, Geoff [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sabin, Andrew [U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States); Schoenball, Martin [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Silar, Drew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx/Schlumberger, Richmond, CA (United States); Williams, Colin [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) is to be a dedicated site where the subsurface scientific and engineering community can develop, test, and improve technologies and techniques for the creation of cost-effective and sustainable enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in a controlled, ideal environment. The establishment of FORGE will facilitate development of an understanding of the key mechanisms controlling a successful EGS. Execution of FORGE is occurring in three phases with five distinct sub-phases (1, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3). This report focuses on Phase 1 activities. During Phase 1, critical technical and logistical tasks necessary to demonstrate the viability of the Fallon FORGE Project site were completed and the commitment and capability of the Fallon FORGE team to execute FORGE was demonstrated. As part of Phase 1, the Fallon FORGE Team provided an assessment of available relevant data and integrated these geologic and geophysical data to develop a conceptual 3-D geologic model of the proposed test location. Additionally, the team prepared relevant operational plans for full FORGE implementation, provided relevant site data to the science and engineering community, engaged in outreach and communications with interested stakeholders, and performed a review of the environmental and permitting activities needed to allow FORGE to progress through Phase 3. The results of these activities are provided as Appendices to this report. The Fallon FORGE Team is diverse, with deep roots in geothermal science and engineering. The institutions and key personnel that comprise the Fallon FORGE Team provide a breadth of geoscience and geoengineering capabilities, a strong and productive history in geothermal research and applications, and the capability and experience to manage projects with the complexity anticipated for FORGE. Fallon FORGE Team members include the U.S. Navy, Ormat Nevada Inc., Sandia National Laboratories

  6. Light and electron microscopic features of early and late phase radiation-induced proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haboubi, N.Y.; Schofield, P.F.; Rowland, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic features of rectal biopsies from 10 symptomatic patients treated with irradiation for pelvic malignancies are detailed. They are divided into two groups. Group I: biopsies taken during or shortly after the course of irradiation (six patients). Group II: biopsies taken 4 months or more after course completion (four patients). The distinguishing light microscopic features in the first group are epithelial meganucleosis, lack of mitotic activity, and patchy fibroblastic proliferation in the lamina propria. The blood vessels appear normal. In the second group, there are severe vascular changes characterized by narrowing of the arterioles by subintimal fibrosis, telangiectasia of capillaries and post-capillary venules, endothelial degeneration, and platelet thrombi formation. These vascular changes are always associated with severe fibrosis of the lamina propria and crypt distortion. The ultrastructural and light microscopic findings indicate that the cellular epithelial reaction and fibroblastic proliferation antedate the vascular injury, and the latter has no role in the acute phase reaction

  7. Reconstruction of early phase deformations by integrated magnetic and mesotectonic data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, András A.; Márton, Emő; Fodor, László

    2018-02-01

    Markers of brittle faulting are widely used for recovering past deformation phases. Rocks often have oriented magnetic fabrics, which can be interpreted as connected to ductile deformation before cementation of the sediment. This paper reports a novel statistical procedure for simultaneous evaluation of AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) and fault-slip data. The new method analyzes the AMS data, without linearization techniques, so that weak AMS lineation and rotational AMS can be assessed that are beyond the scope of classical methods. This idea is extended to the evaluation of fault-slip data. While the traditional assumptions of stress inversion are not rejected, the method recovers the stress field via statistical hypothesis testing. In addition it provides statistical information needed for the combined evaluation of the AMS and the mesotectonic (0.1 to 10 m) data. In the combined evaluation a statistical test is carried out that helps to decide if the AMS lineation and the mesotectonic markers (in case of repeated deformation of the oldest set of markers) were formed in the same or different deformation phases. If this condition is met, the combined evaluation can improve the precision of the reconstruction. When the two data sets do not have a common solution for the direction of the extension, the deformational origin of the AMS is questionable. In this case the orientation of the stress field responsible for the AMS lineation might be different from that which caused the brittle deformation. Although most of the examples demonstrate the reconstruction of weak deformations in sediments, the new method is readily applicable to investigate the ductile-brittle transition of any rock formation as long as AMS and fault-slip data are available.

  8. New Cloud and Precipitation Research Avenues Enabled by low-cost Phased-array Radar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, P.; Oue, M.; Fridlind, A. M.; Matsui, T.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    For over half a century, radars operating in a wide range of frequencies have been the primary source of observational insights of clouds and precipitation microphysics and dynamics and contributed to numerous significant advancements in the field of cloud and precipitation physics. The development of multi-wavelength and polarization diversity techniques has further strengthened the quality of microphysical and dynamical retrievals from radars and has assisted in overcoming some of the limitations imposed by the physics of scattering. Atmospheric radars have historically employed a mechanically-scanning dish antenna and their ability to point to, survey, and revisit specific points or regions in the atmosphere is limited by mechanical inertia. Electronically scanned, or phased-array, radars capable of high-speed, inertialess beam steering, have been available for several decades, but the cost of this technology has limited its use to military applications. During the last 10 years, lower power and lower-cost versions of electronically scanning radars have been developed, and this presents an attractive and affordable new tool for the atmospheric sciences. The operational and research communities are currently exploring phased array advantages in signal processing (i.e. beam multiplexing, improved clutter rejection, cross beam wind estimation, adaptive sensing) and science applications (i.e. tornadic storm morphology studies). Here, we will present some areas of atmospheric research where inertia-less radars with ability to provide rapid volume imaging offers the potential to advance cloud and precipitation research. We will discuss the added value of single phased-array radars as well as networks of these radars for several problems including: multi-Doppler wind retrieval techniques, cloud lifetime studies and aerosol-convection interactions. The performance of current (dish) and future (e-scan) radar systems for these atmospheric studies will be evaluated using

  9. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017. Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1, 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – Research participants from the United Kingdom, United States of America, China, France, Malaysia, Poland, and Spain. Subjects – A total 116 participants from various disciplines, aged 35 and younger, who were holding or had previously held a research position, but not in a tenured position. All participants held a doctorate or were in the process of earning one. Methods – Using structured interviews of 60-90 minutes, researchers asked 60 questions of each participant via face-to-face, Skype, or telephone interviews. The interview format and questions were formed via focus groups. Main Results – As part of a longitudinal project, results reported are limited to the first year of the study, and focused on three primary questions identified by the authors: where do ECRs find scholarly information, whether they use their smartphones to locate and read scholarly information, and what social media do they use to find scholarly information. Researchers describe how ECRs themselves interpreted the phrase scholarly information to primarily mean journal articles, while the researchers themselves had a much expanded definition to include professional and “scholarly contacts, ideas, and data” (p. 22. This research shows that Google and Google Scholar are widely used by ECRs for locating scholarly information regardless of discipline, language, or geography. Their analysis by country points to currency and the combined breadth-and-depth search experience that Google provides as

  10. Research on effect of China’s energy saving policy of phase-out incandescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin; Liang, Xiuying; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    China’s energy saving policy of phase-out of incandescent lamps have been introduced and a comprehensive evaluation framework has been put forward. The impact of the implementation of the policy on manufacturing enterprises and places of sale, lighting industry and domestic and foreign markets, as well as the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction have been analyzed from micro, meso and macro layers. The research results show that, under the guidance of the policy, the orderly product mix transformation has been seen in incandescent lamp manufacturing enterprises, incandescent lamps gradually exit the Chinese mainstream lighting product market, and the energy conservation and emission reduction effect is remarkable.

  11. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities

  12. Marketing orientation in hospitals: findings from a multi-phased research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It is clear from numerous studies conducted over a wide variety of industries that marketing-oriented organizations perform better than those that do not adopt this business philosophy. Recent studies have confirmed this finding in healthcare organizations as well. What is now coming to light is the way in which a marketing orientation does contribute to better performance in hospitals, and the difficulties marketers face in getting recognition of that fact by non-marketers in their organization. This article reports on a multi-phased research study of the implementation of marketing-oriented behaviors in a hospital setting.

  13. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase 1 investigation 2001-2005, Volume 'geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Ota, Kunio; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Hama, Katsuhiro; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Tanai, Kenji; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the project as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  14. Proteomic analysis of egg white proteins during the early phase of embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia; Jin, Yongguo; Huang, Xi; Huang, Qun; Sun, Shuguo

    2012-03-16

    Avian egg albumen participates in embryonic development by providing essential nutrients as well as antimicrobial protection. Although various biological functions of egg white proteins were suggested during embryogenesis, global changes of these proteins under incubation conditions remained uninvestigated. This study presents a proteomic analysis on the change of egg white proteins during the first week of embryonic development. By using 2-DE, together with MALDI-TOF MS/MS, thirty protein spots representing eight proteins were identified showing significant changes in abundance during incubation. An accelerating degradation of ovalbumin was observed in a wide range of molecular weight. In addition, four protein complexes were predicted according to the detected molecular weight increase. Among these speculated protein complexes, an ovalbumin spot coupled with RNA-binding protein was detected. The absence of these protein complexes before incubation, followed by the constant increase in abundance during incubation indicates conceivable pivotal roles in embryonic development. To better understand the function of the proteins identified in this study, discrepancies of egg white protein changes between fertilized and unfertilized chicken eggs were additionally demonstrated. These findings will provide insight into the embryogenesis process to improve our knowledge of egg white proteins in regulating and supporting early embryonic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of 3-D modeling in the early development phase of pectin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Salbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of a 3-D model in an early development of pectin tablets. The aim of this work was to extract as much information of the compression behavior from as few tablets as possible. Pectins with various degrees of methoxylation (DM were studied (4%-72%. The compressibility was evaluated using classic “in-die” Heckel and Kawakita analyses in addition to the 3-D modeling. For validation purposes well-known reference materials were included. 3-D modeling applied to data of single tablets yielded some information on their compressibility. When several tablets with different maximum relative densities were included, no additional information was obtained through classic evaluation. However, the 3-D model provided additional information through the shape of the 3-D parameter plot. Pectins with a DM >= 25% consolidated predominantly by elastic deformation similarly to the 3-D parameter plot of pregelatinized starch (PGS. The 3-D analysis also suggests some degree of fragmentation and, for some of the low-methoxylated pectins (DM <= 10%, viscoelastic deformation. This study showed that by applying 3-D modeling it is possible to differentiate between elastic and viscoelastic materials for tablets with different relative density values.

  16. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  17. Early postmenopausal phase is associated with reduced prostacyclin-induced vasodilation that is reversed by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2016-01-01

    to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent......The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We...... examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age...

  18. The effect of an attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Hansen, Dorte Gilså

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients and partners both cope individually and as a dyad with challenges related to a breast cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychological attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early...... treatment phase. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial including 198 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients and their partners. Couples were randomised to the Hand in Hand (HiH) intervention in addition to usual care or to usual care only. Self-report assessments were conducted for both patients......H intervention cancer-related distress. The results suggest that most couples can cope with cancer-related distress in the context of usual care. However, the positive effect on dyadic adjustment implies that the HiH intervention benefitted both patients and partners. Future studies should investigate how...

  19. A novel porcine model of early left ventricular dysfunction for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nadim Malik, Kelly A Farrell, Sarah B Withers, Elizabeth J Wright, Cathy M HoltInstitute for Cardiovascular Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United KingdomBackground: The early stages of left ventricular (LV dysfunction account for a much larger proportion of the population with heart disease than that with clinical heart failure. However, LV dysfunction is more difficult to diagnose than established heart failure, and because of this it is not usually treated. Research on LV dysfunction is commonly conducted in small animal models in which the cardiac pathophysiology is dissimilar to that in humans, thereby restricting translation. This study aimed to use a novel pig model of mild to moderate early ischemic LV dysfunction to assess the effects of such dysfunction in the myocardium.Methods: Multiple areas of controlled microinfarcts were created via microembolization using embolization beads, with invasive hemodynamic and transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of LV function. Four weeks after intervention, the hearts were explanted for determination of the infarcted surface area and analysis of calcium regulatory proteins.Results: In vivo hemodynamic measurements confirmed a >25% decrease in LV dP/dt (maximum and minimum with creation of microinfarcts compared with baseline, whilst echocardiography showed mild to moderate LV dysfunction. Perioperative mortality was 10%–15%. In surviving pigs, morphometry at 4 weeks confirmed that up to 20% of the total LV surface area contained microinfarcts. Western blot analysis showed alterations in levels of the calcium regulatory proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and sodium-calcium exchange, in infarcted areas, compared with normal LV tissue from the same animals.Conclusion: These results demonstrate the usefulness of this model for investigation of the precise molecular and cellular changes associated with early mild to moderate LV dysfunction from ischemic injury, and its

  20. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Corre, Y.; Languille, P.; Greuner, H.; Autissier, E.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pocheau, C.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m-2 for the required pulse length.

  1. Experimental investigation of the dissolution of fractures. From early stage instability to phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, Florian; Budek, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Olgierd; Kondratiuk, Pawel; Garstecki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution of natural rocks is a fundamental geological process and a key part of landscape formation and weathering processes. Moreover, in current hot topics like Carbon Capture and Storage or Enhanced Oil Recovery, mastering dissolution of the host rock is fundamental for the efficiency and the security of the operation. The basic principles of dissolution are well-known and the theory of the reactive infiltration instability has been extensively studied. However, the experimental aspect has proved very challenging because of the strong dependence of the outcome with pore network, chemical composition, flow rate... In this study we are trying to tackle this issue by using a very simple and efficient device consisting of a chip of pure gypsum inserted between two polycarbonate plates and subjected to a constant flow rate of pure water. Thanks to this device, we are able to control all parameters such as flow rate, fracture aperture, roughness of the walls... but also to observe in situ the progression of the dissolution thanks to the transparency of the polycarbonate which is impossible with 3D rocks. We have been using this experimental set-up to explore and investigate all aspects of the dissolution in a fracture, such as initial instability and phase diagram of different dissolution patterns, and to compare it with theory and simulations, yielding very good agreement and interesting feedbacks on the coupling between flow and chemistry in geological media

  2. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... perspectives. This might create challenges or bring the process to a standstill ultimately wasting resources. By analysing case studies from three different Scandinavian product development companies: LEGO, LEO Pharma, and Zenit Design, this paper investigates the characteristics of the framing process...

  3. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  5. Insulin modulates cytokine release and selectin expression in the early phase of allergic airway inflammation in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna Elcio O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest that the inflammatory response is impaired in diabetics and can be modulated by insulin. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of insulin on the early phase of allergic airway inflammation. Methods Diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/Kg, i.v., 10 days and controls were sensitized by s.c. injection of ovalbumin (OA in aluminium hydroxide 14 days before OA (1 mg/0.4 mL or saline intratracheal challenge. The following analyses were performed 6 hours thereafter: a quantification of interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, b expression of E- and P- selectins on lung vessels by immunohistochemistry, and c inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways and lung parenchyma. NPH insulin (4 IU, s.c. was given i.v. 2 hours before antigen challenge. Results Diabetic rats exhibited significant reduction in the BALF concentrations of IL-1β (30% and TNF-α (45%, and in the lung expression of P-selectin (30% compared to non-diabetic animals. This was accompanied by reduced number of neutrophils into the airways and around bronchi and blood vessels. There were no differences in the CINC-1 levels in BALF, and E-selectin expression. Treatment of diabetic rats with NPH insulin, 2 hours before antigen challenge, restored the reduced levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and P-selectin, and neutrophil migration. Conclusion Data presented suggest that insulin modulates the production/release of TNF-α and IL-1β, the expression of P- and E-selectin, and the associated neutrophil migration into the lungs during the early phase of the allergic inflammatory reaction.

  6. Effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson's correlation coefficient.Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB, and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = -0.65, p = 0.003. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen.In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface.

  7. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  8. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  9. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  10. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  11. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1983. Small Business Innovation Research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued its first solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program on December 15, 1982, with a due date of March 1, 1983. Out of the 1734 proposals received, 106 were selected for Phase I funding totaling about $5 million. All projects selected are now under contract, with a period of performance typically of six months, starting in almost all cases on September 1, 1983. This publication provides abstracts of the projects selected, including brief comments on the potential applications as described by the proposer. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the respective company directly

  12. The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed

  13. Variability of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) during the early phase of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Cortés, K; Laskus, T; Bukowska-Ośko, I; Pawełczyk, A; Berak, H; Horban, A; Fic, M; Radkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to be an important factor defining viral pathogenesis, persistence and resistance to treatment. The aim of the present study was to characterize HCV genetic heterogeneity within a hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) before and during the early period of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin treatment in correlation with treatment outcome. The study involved 24 patients treated with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin whose sera were collected before (baseline) and at 7, 14, 21 28 and 56 day of treatment. HCV HVR-1 region was amplified by nested RT- PCR and subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis. SSCP changes of HCV HVR-1 over time in each patient were compared to treatment outcome results. In 2/11 (18%) SVR+ and 8/13 (62%) SVR- treated patients, HVR-1 genetic changes manifested by new SSCP bands (new genetic variants) and were significantly more frequent in nonresponders (P HVR-1 variability during the early phase of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin therapy may be predictive of treatment outcome.

  14. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  15. Properties and geoeffectiveness of magnetic clouds in the rising, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic structure and geomagnetic response of 73 magnetic clouds (MC observed by the WIND and ACE satellites in solar cycle 23 are examined. The results have been compared with the surveys from the previous solar cycles. The preselected candidate MC events were investigated using the minimum variance analysis to determine if they have a flux-rope structure and to obtain the estimation for the axial orientation (θC, φC. Depending on the calculated inclination relative to the ecliptic we divided MCs into "bipolar" (θC<45° and "unipolar" (θC>45°. The number of observed MCs was largest in the early rising phase, although the halo CME rate was still low. It is likely that near solar maximum we did not identify all MCs at 1AU, as they were crossed far from the axis or they had interacted strongly with the ambient solar wind or with other CMEs. The occurrence rate of MCs at 1AU is also modified by the migration of the filament sites on the Sun towards the poles near solar maximum and by the deflection of CMEs towards the equator due to the fast solar wind flow from large polar coronal holes near solar minimum. In the rising phase nearly all bipolar MCs were associated with the rotation of the magnetic field from the south at the leading edge to the north at the trailing edge. The results for solar cycles 21-22 showed that the direction of the magnetic field in the leading portion of the MC starts to reverse at solar maximum. At solar maximum and in the declining phase (2000-2003 we observed several MCs with the rotation from the north to the south. We observed unipolar (i.e. highly inclined MCs frequently during the whole investigated period. For solar cycles 21-22 the majority of MCs identified in the rising phase were bipolar while in the declining phase most MCs were unipolar. The geomagnetic response of a given MC depends greatly on its magnetic structure and the orientation of the sheath fields. For each event we distinguished the

  16. Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, H S; Clémence, A; Marion-Veyron, R; Antonietti, J-P; Alameda, L; Golay, P; Conus, P

    2017-03-01

    Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

  17. MMP-2 Plays an Important Role During the Early Acute Developmental Phase of Oligofructose-Induced Equine Laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 Mongolian horses, with oligofructose-induced equine laminitis (10 g/kg b.w.. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships among matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α during acute developmental phase of laminitis, and to determine whether there are any characteristic tendencies. Moreover, plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were measured in order to determine the time of leukocytes’ activation. Eleven of the 12 horses showed clinical signs of laminitis. The contents of MMP-2 and P38 MAPK increased significantly from 8 h to 64 h, and the content of TIMP-2 decreased significantly at the same time. Plasma LPS concentrations increased significantly between 8 h and 20 h and reached a peak of 0.024 ± 0.009 EU/mL (equivalent to 3.04 ± 1.19 pg/mL at 12 h. TNF-α concentration increased between 20 h and 36 h. This data indicates that MMP-2 plays an important role during the early acute developmental phase of oligofructose-induced equine laminitis.

  18. Development of a Multi-Objective Sizing Method for Borehole Heat Exchangers during the Early Design Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-source heat pump (GSHP systems coupled with borehole heat exchangers (BHEs are widely used as a renewable energy source. However, the high initial costs to install the BHEs still acts as an obstacle in the expansion of these renewable energy source systems. Specifically, in South Korea, a typical residential type corresponds to an apartment building with a high building-to-land ratio for land efficiency, and thus the space to install the BHEs is usually insufficient. Furthermore, the high initial cost issue of BHEs makes it difficult to ensure the feasibility of GSHP projects in this type of a situation. This study proposes a novel BHE sizing method to support the process of sizing energy sources in the design development phase of a construction project. Life cycle cost (LCC analysis was combined with a tool to optimize BHE sizing by considering various economic aspects. Entering water temperatures (EWT to heat pumps in conjunction with the LCC were used to define objective functions. Consequently, Pareto optimal solutions were obtained on the EWT–LCC plot. A group of Pareto optimal solutions forms a Pareto-curve, and each point on the curve indicates a possible sizing scenario or alternative. Finally, it is possible for decision makers to compare the solutions that include both technical and economic information. The Pareto optimal solutions are expected to support proper decision making in the early design phase.

  19. Contralateral limb deficit after ACL-reconstruction: an analysis of early and late phase of rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Dragan M; Knezevic, Olivera M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Kadija, Marko; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and explosive strength of both the involved limb and the uninvolved limb. Nineteen male athletes completed a standard isometric testing protocol 4 months post-ACLR, while 16 healthy participants served as a control group (CG). The explosive strength of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed as RFD obtained from the slope of the force-time curves over various time intervals. Both muscle groups of the involved limb had significantly lower MVC compared to the uninvolved. The involved limb also had significantly lower RFD in the late phase of contraction (140-250 ms) for both knee extensors and flexors (P < 0.05). There was no difference in MVC between the uninvolved limb and the CG. However, RFD of the uninvolved limb was lower compared to CG for both knee extensors (0-180 ms; P < 0.01) and flexors (0-150 ms; P < 0.05). ACLR leads to lower MVC and explosive strength of the involved limb. As a consequence of potential crossover (presumably neural-mediated) effects, explosive strength deficits could be bilateral, particularly in the early phase of the contraction (<100 ms).

  20. The serial changes in plasma homocysteine levels and it's relationship with acute phase reactants in early postmyocardial infarction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, M Murat; Karadede, Abdulaziz; Toprak, Gülten; Toprak, Nizamettin Arat

    2005-03-01

    We aimed to study the change in the plasma homocysteine concentration in the early stage of acute myocardial infarction and its relationship with the acute phase reactants. We included into the study 33 patients who were admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction within the first three hours after the onset of symptoms. The plasma samples were obtained on admission (within 3 hours onset of symptom) and at 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 4, 7, 30 and 90th day after admission. The serial homocysteine measurements were as following: 11.87+/-0.71 micromol/L, 11.89+/-0.62 micromol/L, 11.37+/-0.83 micromol/L, 10.96+/-0.93 micromol/L, 11.37+/-0.89 micromol/L, 11.24+/-0.66 micromol/L, 13.09+/-0.64 micromol/L, 12.85+/-0.71 micromol/L, and 12.19+/-0.91 micromol/L, respectively (p=0.05). Statistically significant difference was found only between the hour 24 and the day 7 (p=0.04). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the admission level and none of the other time points. No correlation was identified between acute phase reactants and lipid parameters that were measured serially at the same time periods and homocysteine levels. Although homocysteine plasma values obtained during the sixth and twelfth hours of acute myocardial infarction provide reliable results as a risk markers, timing of blood sampling during the myocardial infarction does not have significant role since plasma values of homocysteine did not affect acute phase reactants.

  1. Developing a Framework of Scientific Enquiry in Early Childhood: An Action Research Project to Support Staff Development and Improve Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Karen; Hall, Nichola

    2017-01-01

    Research in science in early childhood is an area that has not received much attention (Fleer, M., & Robbins, J. (2003). "Hit and run research" with "hit and miss" results in early childhood science education. "Research in Science Education," 33, 405-431.) and it has been reported that early children teachers lack…

  2. The transforming power of early career acute care surgery research scholarships on academic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzaur, Ben L; Valsangkar, Nakul; Feliciano, David F; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2016-07-01

    More than 75% of respondents to an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma survey felt that barriers to research had increased and that acute care surgeon (ACS) academic productivity had decreased. Recent data confirm this impression and show lower academic productivity of junior ACS faculty compared with peers in other general surgical fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if early career acute care surgery research scholarships are associated with improved ACS academic productivity. Faculty data at the Top 55 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded departments of surgery (Top 55) were obtained using SCOPUS, NIH, department, and professional society databases. Academic productivity was measured using total publications, citations, and the Hirsch index. Scholarship recipients from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma were identified. A total of 4,101 surgical faculty (8.3% ACS) who belong to the Top 55 NIH-funded departments of surgery and 85 scholarship recipients were identified. After merging, 34 scholarship recipients (40%) were current faculty at a Top 55 NIH-funded department of surgery, and 24 of those (71%) were ACS faculty. Scholarship recipients had higher median total publications compared with nonrecipients at assistant and associate ranks but not at full professor rank. For all ranks, scholarship recipients were more likely to have NIH funding compared with nonrecipients (33% vs. 11%, p Research scholarships granted by acute care surgery professional organizations remain largely among ACS faculty in Top 55 NIH-funded departments of surgery. Among junior ACS faculty, recipients are associated with increased academic productivity and NIH funding. To fill the academic productivity gap among junior ACSs, professional organizations should consider increasing research funding scholarships for promising investigators.

  3. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor and Neutron Physics; Liljenzin, J.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Mileikovsky, C. [Pully (Switzerland)

    1998-11-01

    The present report about phase 2 of the SKI project on Planning and Reporting of Russian Transmutation Research Projects within ISTC is an update of the information given in the SKI report no 97:15 (Feb 1997) about phase 1 of the same project. The background information is partly repeated in the present report to avoid that the reader has to go back to the report of Phase 1 for information about the basis for the project. USA, EU, Japan, Republic of Korea and Norway are at present supporting the International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow. The Centre gives funds to research projects of civilian interest to former nuclear weapon laboratories to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation by the emigration of former USSR technical and scientific experts to `border countries` which are aiming towards the development of nuclear weapons. Before Sweden and Finland entered the EU, both countries gave national support to ISTC, in the case of Sweden 4 MUSD. Some of the projects which were funded by the Swedish national support to ISTC are still in progress. Nuclear technical concepts (i.e. Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste, ATW) have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The named Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped of doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been initiated, and further ones have been proposed, to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. A similar centre STCU (The Scientific and Technical Centre of the Ukraine) has been set up in Kiev. Sweden has been active in promoting this Centre, which is supported by USA, Japan, Canada and recently also by EU. The present report describes the

  4. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, H.

    1998-11-01

    The present report about phase 2 of the SKI project on Planning and Reporting of Russian Transmutation Research Projects within ISTC is an update of the information given in the SKI report no 97:15 (Feb 1997) about phase 1 of the same project. The background information is partly repeated in the present report to avoid that the reader has to go back to the report of Phase 1 for information about the basis for the project. USA, EU, Japan, Republic of Korea and Norway are at present supporting the International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow. The Centre gives funds to research projects of civilian interest to former nuclear weapon laboratories to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation by the emigration of former USSR technical and scientific experts to 'border countries' which are aiming towards the development of nuclear weapons. Before Sweden and Finland entered the EU, both countries gave national support to ISTC, in the case of Sweden 4 MUSD. Some of the projects which were funded by the Swedish national support to ISTC are still in progress. Nuclear technical concepts (i.e. Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste, ATW) have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The named Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped of doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been initiated, and further ones have been proposed, to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. A similar centre STCU (The Scientific and Technical Centre of the Ukraine) has been set up in Kiev. Sweden has been active in promoting this Centre, which is supported by USA, Japan, Canada and recently also by EU. The present report describes the

  5. The Use of Poetry in a Spiral-Patterned Methodology for Research about Love in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Research about love in early childhood education and care is rare. Love is difficult topic to research and write about in scholarly contexts. In order to properly explore love in professional contexts, practitioner narratives on the topic were sought through individual, unstructured interviews. A spiral-patterned methodological approach was…

  6. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Topic CBD99-204, Phase I: 3D Chemical/BIO Response Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase I small business innovation research (SBIR) program effort was to demonstrate the scientific, technical and commercial feasibility of a 3D virtual world or virtual reality (VR...

  7. Closing the Gap Between Bench and Bedside Research for Early Arthritis Therapies (EARTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Constance R.; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Garrett, William E.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Rodeo, Scott A.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Stanton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2010 AOSSM/NIH (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine/National Institutes of Health) U13 Post–Joint Injury Osteoarthritis II Conference to include the discussion concerning potential study cohorts, assessment considerations, and research priorities. There was strong consensus and enthusiasm for approaching the development of disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis through study of “pre-osteoarthritic” cohorts, particularly human subjects under 30 years of age following acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clinical study of acute treatment strategies initiated within a few days after injury will need development of recruitment pathways and short-term proof-of-concept outcome measures that are specific to the intervention being studied. For example, measures of joint inflammation can be used in short-term prospective randomized controlled trials to determine whether an anti-inflammatory intervention was effective in decreasing early inflammation. These short-term clinical trials will need to be followed by longer-term evaluation of the clinical cohorts for joint and cartilage degeneration to determine if the acute intervention affected later development of osteoarthritis. Research priorities were identified in several disciplines, particularly regarding development and validation of quantitative imaging, biomechanics, and biomarker measures of joint structure, composition, and function that predict the accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Systematic study of posttraumatic osteoarthritis is anticipated to advance understanding and treatment of all forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:21730208

  8. Project PHaEDRA: Preserving Harvard's Early Data and Research in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Daina; Frey, Katie; Henneken, Edwin; McEachern, Maria; McGrath, Alex; Guarracino, Daniel; Koch, Jennifer; Damon, James; Brownell, Eric; Smith-Zrull, Lindsay; Daina Bouquin

    2018-01-01

    Material originally produced during 19th and early 20th century by researchers at the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) was recently re-discovered in the HCO Astronomical Plate Stacks collection. This material helps represent the history of the HCO and acts as an irreplaceable primary source on the evolution of observation methods and astronomy as a science. The material is also relevant to the history of women in science as the collection contains logbooks and notebooks produced by the Harvard Computers, women who have come back into the spotlight due to the recent release of books like "The Glass Universe," "Rise of the Rocket Girls," and movies like "Hidden Figures". To ensure that this remarkable set of items is as accessible and useful as possible Wolbach Library, in collaboration with the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and others, is working to catalog, digitize, and preserve the entire collection. The material is also being transcribed by volunteers through the Smithsonian Transcription Center in DC. The transcription will allow the collection to be full-text searchable in ADS and for the notebooks to eventually be linked to their original source material: 500,000 glass plate photographs representing the first ever picture of the visible universe. The novel workflow of this distributed repository and the significance of the PHaEDRA collection both stand to support the research of future generations.

  9. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  10. Experimental research of transient processes in firmware digital phase-locked loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondariev A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the experimental research of transient processes that occur in digital phase-locked loops (DPLL after closing the feedback loop. Firmware implementation of DPLL device was made for this purpose. The paper shows the block diagram of the DPLL and describes its mathematical model. In particular, the location of poles and zeros of DPLL transfer function was determined by the transfer function of the 2nd order analog PLL and the formulas for digital filter coefficients were deducted. The article also represents the block diagram of hardware part of the firmware DPLL. Its key part is the STM microcontroller which is connected to the PC. For convenience reasons, the unique interface between the microcontroller and the PC was created in order to present waveforms of several signals simultaneously. Moreover, the paper depicts the algorithm of software part of the firmware DPLL in general as well as the detailed algorithm of voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO operation – it works as direct digital synthesizer (DDS. The experimental research of the frequency acquisition process of harmonic oscillation was performed for three different sets of DPLL parameters. For each case the location of DPLL poles and zeros and plots of DPLL key signals (tracking error, current frequency and phase of output signal were shown. Obtained diagrams demonstrate that a change of the DPLL natural frequency and damping factor influences on the transient process duration. Pictures signal waveforms from oscilloscope confirm these results. Furthermore, the results of the firmware DPLL research correspond to investigation results of existing simulation model of this DPLL with sufficient accuracy.

  11. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian. Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate production on the northern Tethyan shelf. The

  12. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Föllmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland and Capriolo sections (northern Italy. The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian.

    Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate

  13. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  14. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-11-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.

  15. An Evaluation of the Savannah Early College Program: An Action Oriented Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearse, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah Early College Program (SECP) opened its doors in August 2007 to make a difference in the lives of all students who enrolled. Its primary mission was to combine academic rigor and support to help students enter college early and graduate from high school with up to 2 years of college credit. Since SECP joined the Early College High…

  16. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction by gated blood pool scintigraphy on early and late phase from the onset of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Minamiji, Katsumi; Kida, Toru; Okada, Toshio; Yamada, Shigenobu; Goto, Takeshi; Maeda, Kazumi; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the change of left ventricular function after the onset of acute myocardial infarction, gated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 19 patients on early and late phase (6 days and 1 month on the average). There was a difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between patients with anterior and inferior myocardial infarction. Patients with anterior infarction indicated low value of LVEF (31+-7%) on acute phase and its value was increased on chronic phase (37+-8%), whereas patients with inferior infarction had higher value of LVEF not only on acute phase but also on chronic phase (54+-9%→57+-10%), than those with anterior infarction. Left ventricular volume was larger in anterior group than in inferior group and tended to become smaller on chronic phase. In 4 of 10 cases with anterior infarction, a significant improvement of LVEF was found from 28+-6% to 43+-5%, but in 6 cases LVEF was unchanged during the same period. In 3 cases out of improved group, it was demonstrated angiographically that the collateral vessels were developed. It was, thus, suggested that collateral vessels may play an important role in the recovery of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormality in the marginal zone of infarcted area. From these results, we concluded that left ventricular function changed serially in most patients from the early phase to the late phase after the onset of acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  17. Some remarks on the transitional phase between Early Roman and Late Roman Periods in the region north of the Middle Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejral, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 43-101 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early and Late Roman Period * transitional phase * Marcomanic Wars and their aftermath * ethnical and social backround of the B2/C1 phase Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/ export /sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_2_Studie2_Tejral.pdf

  18. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: Phase II program plan (FY 83-FY 84)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Cover, L.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Shieh, L.C.; Shukla, S.N.; Wells, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is an NRC-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its goal is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. The analysis procedure is based upon a state-of-the-art evaluation of the current seismic analysis and design process and explicitly includes the uncertainties inherent in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. As currently planned, the SSMRP will be completed in September, 1984. This document presents the program plan for work to be done during the remainder of the program. In Phase I of the SSMRP, the necessary tools (both computer codes and data bases) for performing a detailed seismic risk analysis were identified and developed. Demonstration calculations were performed on the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. In the remainder of the program (Phase II) work will be concentrated on developing a simplified SSMRP methodology for routine probabilistic risk assessments, quantitative validation of the tools developed and application of the simplified methodology to a Boiling Water Reactor. (The Zion plant is a pressurized water reactor.) In addition, considerable effort will be devoted to making the codes and data bases easily accessible to the public

  19. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Plans of investigations during shaft and drift excavation (Construction of underground facilities: Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned for over 20 years to establish the scientific and technical basis for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The investigations are conducted by JNC in three phases, from the surface (Phase I), during the construction of the underground facilities (Phase II), and using the facilities (Phase III). This report concerns the investigation plans for Phase II. During excavation of shafts and drifts, detailed geological and borehole investigation will be conducted and the geological model constructed in Phase I is evaluated and revised by newly acquired data of geophysical and geological environment. Detailed in-situ experiments, as well as the effects of shaft excavation, are also done to study long-term changes, rock properties, groundwater flow and chemistry to ensure the reliability of repository technology and establish safety assessment methodology. (S. Ohno)

  20. Research on phase-change of disc recording media GaSbBi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Degui; Guo Shuangquan; Yuan Xuexiang; Sun Hongliang

    2009-01-01

    A new phase-change recording materials, Bi-doped eutectic composition GaSb, was researched experimentally. The films were prepared by vacuum evaporation. The crystallization temperature decreases as the Bi concentration increases. The crystallization activation energy, calculated by Kissinger method, is more than 2.0eV and meets the requirement of the films stability. The crystallization rate enhances with the increase of the Bi concentration. The Ga 12 Sb 79.2 Bi 8.8 satisfies the demand of optical property by means of spectrophotometer. The absorption of the Ga 12 Sb 79.2 Bi 8.8 crystalline films is more than that of the Ga 12 Sb 79.2 Bi 8.8 amorphous films, which can reduce the change when reads information. The least reflectivity of Ga 12 Sb 79.2 Bi 8.8 is 28.78%, corresponding with the reflection demand.

  1. Usability of Videogame-Based Dexterity Training in the Early Rehabilitation Phase of Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanbellingen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundApproximately 70–80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function.ObjectiveTo evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT.MethodsDuring 3 months, 64 stroke patients were screened for eligibility, 13 stroke patients were included (4 women and 9 men; age range: 24–91 years; mean time post stroke: 28.2 days.InterventionNine sessions of 30 min VBT, three times per week as an add-on to conventional therapy with stroke inpatients.Outcome measuresPrimary outcome was the usability of the system measured with the System Usability Scale. Secondary outcomes concerning feasibility were the compliance rate calculated from the total time spent on the intervention (TT compared to planned time, the opinion of participants via open-end questions, and the level of active participation measured with the Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Regarding the potential efficacy secondary outcomes were: functional dexterity measured with the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT, subjective dexterity measured with the Dexterity Questionnaire 24, grip strength measured with the Jamar dynamometer, and motor impairment of the upper limb measured with the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FM-UE scale.ResultsPrimarily, the usability of the system was good to excellent. The patient’s perception of usability remained stable over a mean period of 3 weeks of VBT. Secondly, the compliance rate was good, and the level of active participation varied between good and very good. The opinion of the participants revealed that despite individual differences, the overall impression

  2. Neuroprotective effects of riluzole in early phase Parkinson's disease on clinically relevant parameters in the marmoset MPTP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhave, Peternella S; Jongsma, Marjan J; Van Den Berg, Roland M; Vanwersch, Raymond A P; Smit, August B; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M

    2012-03-01

    The present study evaluates neuroprotection in a marmoset MPTP (1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model representing early Parkinson's disease (PD). The anti-glutamatergic compound riluzole is used as a model compound for neuroprotection. The compound is one of the few protective compounds used in the clinic for a neurodegenerative disorder. Marmoset monkeys were randomized into three groups of six: 1) an MPTP group receiving a total MPTP dose of 7 mg/kg (4 injections over two weeks, s.c.) 2) a riluzole group receiving besides MPTP, a twice daily dose of riluzole (10 mg/kg, p.o.), starting one week before MPTP and continuing for one week after the final MPTP injection and 3) a control group receiving saline instead of MPTP and riluzole. The marmosets' Parkinsonian symptoms were scored daily and their activity level, hand-eye coordination, jumping behavior, axial turning and night sleep parameters were tested and recorded weekly. At three weeks following the last MPTP challenge, brains were dissected and dopamine levels in the striatum and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were compared. MPTP affected all behavioral parameters and sleep architecture and induced a relatively mild (50%) decline of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Riluzole relieved the Parkinsonian signs, and improved the hand-eye coordination as well as turning ability. Moreover, riluzole prevented the impact of MPTP on sleep architecture and rapid eye movement behavioral disorder (RBD). Riluzole also increased the number of surviving DA neurons in MPTP-treated marmosets to 75%. However, riluzole did not prevent the MPTP-induced impairments on locomotor activity and jumping activity. In conclusion, reduction of excitotoxicity by riluzole appeared to be effective in reducing progressive neurodegeneration and relieved several clinically relevant PD symptoms in an animal model representing the early phase of PD. Copyright © 2011

  3. Early- and later-phases satellite cell responses and myonuclear content with resistance training in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damas

    Full Text Available Satellite cells (SC are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT. We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage, early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage, and later (10th-wk: no damage stages is not well characterized. Ten young men (27 ± 1 y, 23.6 ± 1.0 kg·m-2 underwent 10-wks of RT and muscle biopsies (vastus-lateralis were taken before (Pre and post (48h the 1st (T1, 5th (T2 and final (T3 RT sessions to evaluate fibre type specific SC content, cross-sectional area (fCSA and myonuclear number by immunohistochemistry. We observed RT-induced hypertrophy after 10-wks of RT (fCSA increased ~16% in type II, P < 0.04; ~8% in type I [ns]. SC content increased 48h post-exercise at T1 (~69% in type I [P = 0.014]; ~42% in type II [ns], and this increase was sustained throughout RT (pre T2: ~65%, ~92%; pre T3: ~30% [ns], ~87%, for the increase in type I and II, respectively, vs. pre T1 [P < 0.05]. Increased SC content was not coupled with changes in myonuclear number. SC have a more pronounced role in muscle repair during the initial phase of RT than muscle hypertrophy resulted from 10-wks RT in young men. Chronic elevated SC pool size with RT is important providing proper environment for future stresses or larger fCSA increases.

  4. Supercritical CO2 displacement CH4 phase behavior and percolation characteristics research in porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Song, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhao, C.

    2017-12-01

    CO2 sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CO2-EGR) is one of the win-win CO2 mitigation strategies. With CO2 injected into gas reservoirs, CO2-natural gas mixed phase would be formed after the dispersion, diffusion, migration and mixing of CO2 and natural gas, and the remaining natural gas would be produced by the displacement of the mixed phase. The gas density variations of CO2-natural gas mixture system have an influence on the dispersion and migration, and hence affect the displacement efficiency and the purity of produced gas. Thus in this work the volumetric characteristics and dispersion characteristics were researched. First, the densities of CO2-CH4 mixtures system were measured with different composition proportions by the magnetic suspension balance. The density changes along with temperature, pressure and composition proportions and the comparison with the prediction of GERG equation of state (EOS) were also studied. The density of CO2-CH4 mixture can be used to obtain the composition during the CO2-CH4 displacement, so the detail of CO2-CH4 dispersion process can be described by the CT image. Besides, a set of core flood experimental platform was established for the dispersion research in the process of displacement. Combined with X-ray CT, the CO2 distributions in the porous media were visually presented in the displacement process. And the dispersion coefficients were measured and estimated on different experimental conditions. According to the experimental data and GERG EOS, the module of the thermodynamic properties in TOUGH2 software was improved for CO2-EGR simulation in this work. And simulations were done in the homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoir conditions to study the effect of dispersion on the CO2-EGR effectiveness of CO2 distribution and gas recovery. The study provides useful experiment data and instructive simulations for the CO2 injection strategy choice and movement of CO2 in the natural gas reservoir.

  5. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  6. Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Hirata

    Full Text Available Caspr3 (Contactin-associated protein-like 3, Cntnap3 is a neural cell adhesion molecule belonging to the Caspr family. We have recently shown that Caspr3 is expressed abundantly between the first and second postnatal weeks in the mouse basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. However, its physiological role remains largely unknown. In this study, we conducted a series of behavioral analyses on Capsr3-knockout (KO mice and equivalent wild-type (WT mice to investigate the role of Caspr3 in brain function. No significant differences were observed in most behavioral traits between Caspr3-KO and WT mice, but we found that Caspr3-KO mice performed poorly during the early phase of the accelerated rotarod task in which latency to falling off a rod rotating with increasing velocity was examined. In the late phase, the performance of the Caspr3-KO mice caught up to the level of WT mice, suggesting that the deletion of Caspr3 caused a delay in motor learning. We then examined changes in neural activity after training on the accelerated rotarod by conducting immunohistochemistry using antibody to c-Fos, an indirect marker for neuronal activity. Experience of the accelerated rotarod task caused increases in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the dorsal striatum, cerebellum, and motor cortex in both Caspr3-KO and WT mice, but the number of c-Fos-positive cells was significantly lower in the dorsal striatum of Caspr3-KO mice than in that of WT mice. The expression of c-Fos in the ventral striatum of Caspr3-KO and WT mice was not altered by the training. Our findings suggest that reduced activation of neural cells in the dorsal striatum in Caspr3-KO mice leads to a decline in motor learning in the accelerated rotarod task.

  7. The basic research on the CDA initiation phase for a metallic fuel FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Go; Hirakawa, Naohiro; Kawada, Ken-ichi; Niwa, Hazime

    1998-03-01

    A metallic fuel with novel design has received great deal of interest recently as an option of advanced fuel to be substituted MOX fuel, however, the behavior at the transient has not been studied in many aspects. Therefore, for the purpose to show the basic tendency of the behavior and released energy at CDA (core disruptive accident) for a metallic fuel FBR and to prepare the basic knowledge for consideration of the adoption of the advanced fuel, Tohoku University and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have made a joint research entitled. (1) Target and Results of analysis: The accident initiator considered is a LOF accident with ATWS. The LOF analysis was performed for a metallic fuel 600 MWe homogeneous two region core at the beginning of cycle, both for an ordinary metallic fuel core and for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins. It was necessary mainly to change the constants of input parameters to apply the code for the analysis of a metallic fueled reactor. These changes were made by assuming appropriate models. Basic LOF cases and all blackout case that assumed using electromagnetic pumps were analyzed. The results show that the basic LOF cases for a metallic fuel core and all the cases for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins could be avoided to become prompt-critical, and mildly transfer to the transient phase. (2) Improvement of CDA initiation phase analysis code: At present, it is difficult for the code to adapt to the large material movement to in the core at the transient. Therefore, the nuclear calculation model in the code was improved by using the adiabatic space dependent kinetics. The results of a sample case, that is a metallic fueled core at the beginning of cycle, show this improvement is appropriate. (3) Conclusion: The behavior at CDA of a metallic fueled core of a fast reactor was analyzed using the CDA initiation phase analysis code and the knowledge of the important characteristics at the CDA initiation phase was obtained

  8. U.S. research verifies RU 486 works well in terminating early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    US research is confirming the finding of earlier European studies that the drug RU 486 is a safe, effective abortifacient when used very early in pregnancy. At the University of California's Women's Hospital, 50 women seeking suction curettage received a single, 600 mg oral dose of RU 486. 45 of these patients experienced successful abortion, for an overall efficacy rate of 90%. However, there was a strong inverse relationship between efficacy and the duration of pregnancy. The drug was 100% effective when used by women within 34 days of their last menstrual period, 93% effective for subjects whose last menstrual period occurred 35-41 days before treatment, and only 83% effective when the last menstrual period was more than 42 days before drug administration. Side effects of nausea, vomiting, and cramping were minimal and could have been a result of pregnancy rather than the drug. The principal drawback of RU 486 remains upredictable, often heavy and prolonged bleeding. Although 9 days was the median length of bleeding, some subjects bled as long as 18 days. RU 486 is less expensive than suction curettage and avoids the need for uterine instrumentation; a further advantage is the privacy provided by this method of treating unwanted pregnancy. The influence of right-to-life organizations threatens to delay or prevent Food and Drug Administration approval of RU 486 in the US, and a substantial black market for the drug is expected.

  9. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  10. Adjuvant Cyclophosphamide and Docetaxel With or Without Epirubicin for Early TOP2A-Normal Breast Cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an Open-Label, Phase III, Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Tuxen, Malgorzata K; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Administration of anthracycline and taxane therapy in the adjuvant setting is considered a standard for breast cancer. We evaluated a non-anthracycline-based regimen in TOP2A-normal patients. Patients and Methods In this multicenter, open-label, phase III trial, 2,012 women with early TOP2A...

  11. The endocrine and follicular growth dynamics throughout the menstrual cycle in women with consistently or variably elevated early follicular phase FSH compared with controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. de Koning; J. McDonnell (Joseph); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); R. Homburg; C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Elevated early follicular phase (EFP) FSH is frequently observed in subfertile patients. In these women, temporary normalization of FSH concentrations is known to occur. We studied the complete endocrine cycle profile of subfertile young women with elevated basal FSH compared

  12. Diminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription and nuclear transport in primary macrophages arrested in early G(1) phase of the cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, N. A.; Zwart, B. M.; Schuitemaker, H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we and others have demonstrated that the process of reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is disturbed in nondividing macrophages and quiescent T lymphocytes. Here we analyzed which phase of the cell cycle in macrophages is crucial for early steps in the

  13. Potential subjects' responses to an ethics questionnaire in a phase I study of deep brain stimulation in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finder, Stuart G; Bliton, Mark J; Gill, Chandler E; Davis, Thomas L; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, P David

    2012-01-01

    Central to ethically justified clinical trial design is the need for an informed consent process responsive to how potential subjects actually comprehend study participation, especially study goals, risks, and potential benefits. This will be particularly challenging when studying deep brain stimulation and whether it impedes symptom progression in Parkinson's disease, since potential subjects will be Parkinson's patients for whom deep brain stimulation will likely have therapeutic value in the future as their disease progresses. As part of an expanded informed consent process for a pilot Phase I study of deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease, an ethics questionnaire composed of 13 open-ended questions was distributed to potential subjects. The questionnaire was designed to guide potential subjects in thinking about their potential participation. While the purpose of the study (safety and tolerability) was extensively presented during the informed consent process, in returned responses 70 percent focused on effectiveness and 91 percent included personal benefit as poten- tial benefit from enrolling. However, 91 percent also indicated helping other Parkinson's patients as motivation when considering whether or not to enroll. This combination of responses highlights two issues to which investigators need to pay close attention in future trial designs: (1) how, and in what ways, informed consent processes reinforce potential subjects' preconceived understandings of benefit, and (2) that potential subjects see themselves as part of a community of Parkinson's sufferers with responsibilities extending beyond self-interest. More importantly, it invites speculation that a different paradigm for informed consent may be needed.

  14. Reduction of Tubular Flow Rate as a Mechanism of Oliguria in the Early Phase of Endotoxemia Revealed by Intravital Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Doi, Kent; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Urine output is widely used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AKI. Although several potential mechanisms of septic AKI have been identified, regulation of urine flow after glomerular filtration has not been evaluated. This study evaluated changes in urine flow in mice with septic AKI. The intratubular urine flow rate was monitored in real time by intravital imaging using two-photon laser microscopy. The tubular flow rate, as measured by freely filtered dye (FITC-inulin or Lucifer yellow), time-dependently declined after LPS injection. At 2 hours, the tubular flow rate was slower in mice injected with LPS than in mice injected with saline, whereas BP and GFR were similar in the two groups. Importantly, fluorophore-conjugated LPS selectively accumulated in the proximal tubules that showed reduced tubular flow at 2 hours and luminal obstruction with cell swelling at 24 hours. Delipidation of LPS or deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 in mice abolished these effects, whereas neutralization of TNF-α had little effect on LPS-induced tubular flow retention. Rapid intravenous fluid resuscitation within 6 hours improved the tubular flow rate only when accompanied by the dilation of obstructed proximal tubules with accumulated LPS. These findings suggest that LPS reduces the intratubular urine flow rate during early phases of endotoxemia through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism, and that the efficacy of fluid resuscitation may depend on the response of tubules with LPS accumulation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Considering baseline factors and early response rates to optimize therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Luke P; Bixby, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Multiple BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP), and several baseline and on-treatment predictive factors have been identified that can be used to help guide TKI selection for individual patients. In particular, early molecular response (EMR; BCR-ABL ≤10% on the International Scale at 3 months) has become an accepted benchmark for evaluating whether patients with CML-CP are responding optimally to frontline TKI therapy. Failure to achieve EMR is considered an inadequate initial response according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and a warning response according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. Here we review data supporting the importance of achieving EMR for improving patients' long-term outcomes and discuss key considerations for selecting a frontline TKI in light of these data. Because a higher proportion of patients achieve EMR with second-generation TKIs such as nilotinib and dasatinib than with imatinib, these TKIs may be preferable for many patients, particularly those with known negative prognostic factors at baseline. We also discuss other considerations for frontline TKI choice, including toxicities, cost-effectiveness, and the emerging goals of deep molecular response and treatment-free remission.

  16. Leaders' and followers' individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers' individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders' and followers' individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT.

  17. "Disqus" Website-Based Commenting as an e-Research Method: Engaging Doctoral and Early-Career Academic Learners in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Daniel; Earley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of established qualitative research methods for online focus groups by using the "Disqus" website-based commenting platform as a medium for discussion among doctoral and early-career academic learners. Facilities allowing Internet users to comment on the content of web pages are increasingly popular on…

  18. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  19. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  20. World History Of Radon Research And Measurement From The Early 1900's To Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A. C.

    2008-08-01

    In 1900, Dorn discovered the emanation in the uranium series that eventually became the well-known gas 222Rn. From 1900 through 1908, it was demonstrated that 222Rn is a radioactive gas found in tap water, highly condensable at low temperatures with a half-life of approximately 3.7 days and can be collected on charcoal by adsorption. Although, radon was discovered in 1900, the effects of prolonged exposure had been suspected and noted 300 years earlier among underground miners who developed lung cancer. During the period from 1924-1932, it was suggested that radon was the cause of high lung cancer incidence. In 1951, researchers at the university of Rochester N.Y. pointed out that the lung cancer health hazard was from the alpha radiation dose delivered by the radon decay products that deposited in the respiratory tract. The findings of the BEIR Committee Report VI, which was based on epidemiological studies in different groups of mines in the 1950's and 1960's and on laboratory studies, showed that from 60,000 miners over 2,600 developed lung cancer where only 750 were expected. Since 1998, the epidemiological study conducted in Iowa US, showed beyond any reasonable doubt that radon decay products cause lung cancer among women who lived at least twenty years in their homes. This paper will cover early radon measurements in soil, building material, ground water and in different air environments such as in the atmosphere, caves spas, underground mines and in residential indoor air environment. Radon measurements were conducted in many areas for diagnostic purposes. Radon was used as natural tracer to study air masses, vertical diffusion, and atmospheric studies, in earthquake prediction, and as a geological indicator for radium and uranium. In the early radon measurements, electroscopes, electrometers and primitive ionization chambers were used for many years. In the 1940's fast pulse ionization chambers replaced total ionization chambers. From the mid 1950's