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Sample records for early radiation injuries

  1. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

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    B.H. Bakkal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg. Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  2. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

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    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  3. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

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    Inoue Takehiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Methods BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1 or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. Results The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Conclusions Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  4. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

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    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Teshima, Teruki; Kihara, Ayaka; Suzumoto, Yuko; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-04-07

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  5. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

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    Ye Tian [Suzhou Medical Coll., Jiangsu (China). 2nd Affiliated Hospital; Shiyao Bao; Weibo Yin; Chunfeng Liu; Zhilin Zhang

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in the early stage, a series of experiments were performed as below. The SD rats halfbrain were irradiated by the single dose of 10, 20, and 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron, all those experiments were performed in 1 day to 3 months after radiation. The neurological symptoms, the weight and the skin response inside the field of all the rats were evaluated sequentially. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis, the calculation of the brain water content percentage with wet-dry weight formula. The DNA contents and the quantities of bcl-2 protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The brain histological sections were scanned to assess the present or absence of white matter necrosis in the region of hippocampus, and then the hippocampus region was observed for the morphological changes of the blood vessel, neuroglial, and the neurons. Some of the data were analyzed by the Student t test. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all rats which received 30 Gy and some rats which received 20 Gy, the abnormal neurological signs were not found in all the rats, but the tend of weight increase was less pronounced in 1-3 months in the irradiated rats than those unirradiated. By comparison the unirradiated hemisphere, the rCBF of the contralateral brain decreased in most of the rats. In 20 Gy and 30 Gy groups, rCBF decreased areas expand gradually along with the prolong of observation time, from the nucleus caudate putamen, to the frontal cortex and then the hippocampus, the rCBF of whole the irradiated hemibrain was reduced significantly at 3 month after radiation. The water content of the irradiated halfbrain increased progressively, it means the brain edema exists in the meantime. By comparison the unirradiation halfbrain, the apoptosis of the hippocampus cells in the irradiated brain increased, and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at the meantime, and those

  6. Acute local radiation injuries

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    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1983-01-01

    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  7. The effect of pentoxifylline on early and late radiation injury following fractionated irradiation in C3H mice

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    Dion, M.W.; Hussey, D.H.; Osborne, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    An experiment was performed to test the effectiveness of pentoxifylline in reducing late radiation injury. One hundred and four C3H mice were randomized into eight groups of 13 mice each, and the right hind limbs were irradiated with 4000, 5000, 6000, or 7000 cGy in ten fractions. Each group was treated with once daily injections of either pentoxifylline or saline for 30+ weeks. An additional ten mice received daily injections of pentoxifylline or saline, but no irradiation. The pentoxifylline animals demonstrated significantly less late injury than the saline treated animals. The most obvious differences were observed in the 5000 and 6000 cGy groups. There were seven radiation related deaths in the saline treated control groups, but only one radiation related death in the pentoxifylline treated groups. Whereas 42% (20/48) of the saline treated animals had a late injury score of 3.0 or greater, only 8% (4/51) of the pentoxifylline treated animals had a late skin score as high as 3.0. Pentoxifylline had no effect on the acute radiation injury scores. The drug was well tolerated with no toxic effects noted. Pentoxifylline is a methyl xanthine derivative that is used to treat vascular occlusive disease in humans. It improves perfusion through small capillaries by improving the deformability of red blood cells, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and stimulating the release of prostacyclin. This study shows that the prophylactic administration of pentoxifylline can modify late radiation induced injury in the mouse extremity. It may have value in the prevention or treatment of late radiation induced injury in humans, and it could be a useful tool to help define the mechanisms of late radiation injury in specific organs.

  8. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  10. Extent and computed tomography appearance of early radiation induced lung injury for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Christiansen, Rasmus Lübeck; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2017-01-01

    scans acquired up to six months after radiotherapy were evaluated for radiologic injuries in 220 NSCLC patients. Radiologic injuries were divided into three categories: (1) interstitial changes, (2) ground-glass opacity, or (3) consolidation. The relationship between the fraction of injured lung of each...

  11. Quantification of regional early stage gas exchange changes using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe MRI in a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury

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    Doganay, Ozkan, E-mail: ozkan.doganay@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Stirrat, Elaine [Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); McKenzie, Charles [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Schulte, Rolf F. [General Electric Global Research, Munich 85748 (Germany); Santyr, Giles E. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G1L7 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of hyperpolarized (HP) {sup 129}Xe MRI for detection of early stage radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in a rat model involving unilateral irradiation by assessing differences in gas exchange dynamics between irradiated and unirradiated lungs. Methods: The dynamics of gas exchange between alveolar air space and pulmonary tissue (PT), PT and red blood cells (RBCs) was measured using single-shot spiral iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation images of the right and left lungs of two age-matched cohorts of Sprague Dawley rats. The first cohort (n = 5) received 18 Gy irradiation to the right lung using a {sup 60}Co source and the second cohort (n = 5) was not irradiated and served as the healthy control. Both groups were imaged two weeks following irradiation when radiation pneumonitis (RP) was expected to be present. The gas exchange data were fit to a theoretical gas exchange model to extract measurements of pulmonary tissue thickness (L{sub PT}) and relative blood volume (V{sub RBC}) from each of the right and left lungs of both cohorts. Following imaging, lung specimens were retrieved and percent tissue area (PTA) was assessed histologically to confirm RP and correlate with MRI measurements. Results: Statistically significant differences in L{sub PT} and V{sub RBC} were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts. In particular, L{sub PT} of the right and left lungs was increased approximately 8.2% and 5.0% respectively in the irradiated cohort. Additionally, V{sub RBC} of the right and left lungs was decreased approximately 36.1% and 11.7% respectively for the irradiated cohort compared to the non-irradiated cohort. PTA measurements in both right and left lungs were increased in the irradiated group compared to the non-irradiated cohort for both the left (P < 0.05) and right lungs (P < 0.01) confirming the presence of RP. PTA measurements also correlated with the

  12. Ninety-nine years of radiation injuries in dental radiography

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    Maeda, Kadzuo (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A German dentist, F.O. Walkhoff, has started dental radiography as early as two weeks after Roentgen's discovery on November 8, 1895. The purpose of this paper is to revisit radiation injuries by dividing the era into the era of Kells (before World War II) and the era of low exposure doses (after World War II). Edmund Kells (1856-1928), a pioneer of dental radiologist in the United States, has later become a victim of radiation injuries. During the era of Kells, skin radiation injuries were frequent among the group of dental and medical personnels. In the era of low exposure doses, cancers, leukemia, and genetic effects have begun to receive attention. Radiation injuries occurring in a dental practice are discussed in the context of the two eras. (N.K.) 43 refs.

  13. Mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury / Review

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    Nataša Šuštar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury are not yet fully understood. Early failure occurs because of the effect of ionizing radiation on dividing endothelialcells and oligodendrocytes. Hypothetically, late radiation-induced brain injury is causedby chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. In the case of irradiation of thehippocampus, the failure of neurogenesis and cognitive decline could be consequencesof such pathological mechanisms. Due to lack of diagnostic tools, that could not more precisely define the brain injury after radiation, therapy, that may prevent such consequences in patients who require radiotherapy, is not currently known. This articlesummarizes research hypotheses regarding processes of the brain damage after radiation, prospects in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches.

  14. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury.

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    Irwin Jack Kurland

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice.Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI. Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate, fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid and DNA damage markers (uridine.We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney.

  15. Role of dual source CT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of early radiation-induced lung injury%双源 CT灌注成像诊断早期放射性肺损伤的应用价值

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    潘利福; 邝平定

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of dual source CT perfusion imaging for early diagnosis of radiation -induced lung injury and to obtain scientific knowledge for early diagnosis of radiation induced lung injury .Method The level of dual source CT perfusion imaging perfusion values of the radiation-induced lung injury patients ( the experimental group , n=45 ) and that of the patients with no radiation-induced lung injury (the control group, n=45) was monitored.Meanwhile, the patients with radiation-induced lung injury were subjected to conventional CT examination .The sensitivity and accuracy of the two detection methods were then compared .Findings The values of lung tissue blood flow ( rrBF ) , relative blood volume ( rrBV) , relative blood capillary permeability ( chip) of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P0.05).41 of the 45 patients of the experimental group were diagnosed as cases of radioactive lung injury.The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 97.78% respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the conventional CT technology (P<0.01).Conclusion Dual source CT perfusion imaging can display the changes after radiotherapy of lung hemodynamics and display early perfusion abnormalities in patients with radiation -induced lung injury.It can serve as an effective tool for early detection of radiation-induced lung injury .%目的:探讨双源CT灌注成像早期诊断放射性肺损伤的应用效果,为放射性肺损伤早期诊断提供依据。方法观察放射性肺损伤患者45例(观察组)和未发生放射性肺损伤患者45例(对照组)的双源CT灌注成像灌注值的水平,同时对放射性肺损伤患者采用常规的CT检查,比较两种检测方法的灵敏度和准确度。结果观察组肺组织相对血流量(rrBF)、相对血容量(rrBV)、相对毛细血管通透性(rrPS)均显著高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组45

  16. Surgical treatment of intestinal radiation injury

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    Maekelae, J.Ne.; Nevasaari, K.; Kairaluoma, M.I.

    1987-10-01

    A review of 43 consecutive patients requiring operation for serious intestinal radiation injury was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of surgical treatment. The most common site of radiation injury was the rectum (19 cases), followed by the small bowel (13 cases), the colon (7 cases), and the combination of these (4 cases). The overall operative mortality was 14%; morbidity, 47%; and the postoperative symptom-free period, 18 +/- 30 months. Colostomy (N = 20) carried the lowest risk of mortality, 0%, as compared with resection (N = 17) and bypass procedure (N = 6), which were accompanied by the mortalities of 24% and 33%, respectively. During the follow-up (3-13 years) 12 patients (28%) died of recurrent cancer and 9 patients (21%) of persistent radiation injury, which yielded an overall mortality of 65% after resection and 50% and 65% after bypass and colostomy procedures, respectively. Continuing radiation damage led to 15 late reoperations. Ten of these were performed after colostomy, four after resection, and one after bypass. We conclude that colostomy cannot be regarded as a preferred operative method, because it does not prevent the progression of radiation injury and because it is, for this reason, associated with a higher late-complication rate. A more radical surgery is recommended but with the limitation that the operative method must be adapted to the operative finding.

  17. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  18. Behavioral endpoints for radiation injury

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    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Hunt, W. A.; Dalton, T. B.; Kandasamy, S. B.; Harris, A. H.; Ludewig, B.

    1994-10-01

    The relative behavioral effectiveness of heavy particles was evaluated. Using the taste aversion paradigm in rats, the behavioral toxicity of most types of radiation (including 20Ne and 40Ar) was similar to that of 60Co photons. Only 56Fe and 93Nb particles and fission neutrons were significantly more effective. Using emesis in ferrets as the behavioral endpoint, 56Fe particles and neutrons were again the most effective; however, 60Co photons were significantly more effective than 18 MeV electrons. These results suggest that LET does not completely predict behavioral effectiveness. Additionally, exposing rats to 10 cGy of 56Fe particles attenuated amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning. This behavior is one of a broad class of behaviors which depends on the integrity of the dopaminergic system and suggests the possibility of alterations in these behaviors following exposure to heavy particles in a space radiation environment.

  19. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

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    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  20. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  1. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  2. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

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    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  3. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

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    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  4. Radiation Combined Injury: DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the course of their disease (5) represents another significant source of exposure as normal tissues are subjected to radiation injury. Those charged...received thermal burns concurrent with radiation injury, (26, 35). At the Chernobyl reactor meltdown, 10% of 237 victims exposed to radiation received...injections, orally administered drugs, and perhaps subcutaneous injections (39) may be the most complex treatments available to mass casualty victims

  5. Radiation resistance and injury of Yersinia enterocolitica

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    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Rowley, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The D values of Yersinia enterocolitica strains IP134, IP107, and WA, irradiated at 25/sup 0/C in Trypticase soy broth, ranged from 9.7 to 11.8 krad. When irradiated in ground beef at 25 and -30/sup 0/C, the D value of strain IP107 and 19.5 and 38.8 krad, respectively. Cells suspended in Trypticase soy broth were more sensitive to storage at -20/sup 0/C than those mixed in ground beef. The percentages of inactivation and of injury (inability to form colonies in the presence of 3.0% NaCl) of cells stored in ground beef for 10 days at -20/sup 0/C were 70 and 23%, respectively. Prior irradiation did not alter the cell's sensitivity to storage at -20/sup 0/C, nor did storage at -20/sup 0/C alter the cell's resistance to irradiation at 25/sup 0/C. Added NaCl concentrations of up to 4.0% in Trypticase soy agar (TSA) (which contains 0.5% NaCl) had little effect on colony formation at 36/sup 0/C of unirradiated Y. enterocolitica. With added 4.0% NaCl, 79% of the cells formed colonies at 36/sup 0/C; with 5.0% NaCl added, no colonies were formed. Although 2.5% NaCl added to ground beef did not sensitize Y. enterocolitica cells to irradiation, when added to TSA it reduced the number of apparent radiation survivors. Cells uninjured by irradiation formed colonies on TSA when incubated at either 36 or 5/sup 0/C. More survivors of an exposure to 60 krad were capable of recovery and forming colonies on TSA when incubated at 36/sup 0/C for 1 day than at 5/sup 0/C for 14 days. This difference in count was considered a manifestation of injury to certain survivors of irradiation.

  6. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [College of Medicine, Keimhyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-{alpha} and TGF {beta} and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-{alpha} and TGF-{beta}] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation

  7. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  8. Advances in the management of localized radiation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Meineke, Viktor

    2010-06-01

    Localized radiation injuries account for the vast majority of accidental radiation exposures and mainly occur due to direct handling of highly intense radioactive sources. Their clinical course and severity mainly depend on the type of radiation, radiation source, dose and dose rate, duration of exposure, dose distribution, and location and size of the area exposed. Local injuries appear as skin injuries; however, they may involve radiation damage to other organs and tissues. Local injuries evolve slowly over time and clinical signs and symptoms usually take days to weeks to manifest. Although in most cases not life threatening, their delayed effects may result in serious impairments. Standardized therapeutic protocols and evidence-based approaches for the management of local injuries do not exist yet. Local injuries should therefore be treated symptomatically. The two main approaches comprise conservative and surgical treatment. Conservative methods focus on pain control, reduction of inflammation, prevention of infection and of further vasculature insult, improvement of circulation, healing acceleration, wound cleaning, and minimizing fibrosis. Surgical treatment and plastic remodeling of anatomic structures may be required. During recent years, significant progress has been made in the management of local injuries. There is increasing evidence that injections of human mesenchymal stem cells may be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of cutaneous radiation reactions. A consistent follow-up of radiation patients keeping in mind the possible onset of late radiation effects will contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of the radiation reaction which is crucial to establish evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Effect of combined radiation injury on cell death and inflammation in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin S; Meeks, Christopher J; Mordwinkin, Nicholas M; Espinoza, Theresa B; Louie, Stan G; diZerega, Gere S; Rodgers, Kathleen E

    2015-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear disaster, the individuals proximal to the source of radiation will be exposed to combined radiation injury. As irradiation delays cutaneous repair, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI) on apoptosis and inflammation at the site of skin injury. Male C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to no injury, thermal injury only, radiation only (1 and 6 Gy) and CRBI (1 and 6 Gy) and euthanized at various times after for skin collection. TUNEL staining revealed that the CRBI 6 Gy group had a delayed and increased apoptotic response. This correlated with decreased recovery of live cells as compared to the other injuries. Similar response was observed when cleaved-caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining was compared between CRBI 6 Gy and thermal injury. TNFR1, caspase 8, Bax and IL-6 mRNA expression revealed that the higher CRBI group had delayed increase in mRNA expression as compared to thermal injury alone. RIPK1 mRNA expression and necrotic cell counts were delayed in the CRBI 6 Gy group to day 5. TNF-α and NFκB expression peaked in the CRBI 6 Gy group at day 1 and was much higher than the other injuries. Also, inflammatory cell counts in the CRBI 6 Gy group were lower at early time points as compared to thermal injury by itself. These data suggest that CRBI delays and exacerbates apoptosis and inflammation in skin as well as increases necrosis thus resulting in delayed wound healing.

  10. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

  11. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Antioxidant mechanisms in radiation injury and radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.F.; Kumar, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen is a very important factor in determining radiosensitivity because it enhances the damage to cellular components caused by ionizing radiation, although mechanisms involved in UV irradiation damage may overlap ionizing radiation effects. This paper emphasizes chemical protection against damage by ionizing radiation and predominantly against the effects of photons (and gamma radiation). It is possible that free radicals and their products induced by ionizing radiation can interact with reactive oxygen species formed during normal processes, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide produced by phagocytic cells or during enzymatic processes (xanthine oxidase activity; enzymes involved in eicosanoid metabolism). Metals such as iron can promote free radical damage, whereas some bound metals have radioprotectant potential, e.g., metallothionein and ceruloplasmin. There is increasing evidence that maintenance of the proper oxidation-reduction state of cells by the interconversion of the peptide sulfhydryl glutathione (GSH), and its disulfide form (GSSG) is a factor in the modulation of cellular radiosensitivity. Other protein and nonprotein sulfhydryls may also play a role both as targets of radiation damage and as protectors. Other physiological antioxidants (vitamin E) and antioxidant enzymes are interrelated in their function of controlling oxidative processes. This review concentrates on the role of oxygen, glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes in radiosensitivity and how exogenous chemicals interact with these endogenous factors.

  14. Current treatment strategies for severe acute radiation injury: early intervention by hematopoietic growth factors%重症急性辐射损伤治疗新策略——造血因子早期干预治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆良; 邢爽; 余祖胤; 从玉文

    2011-01-01

    无论是军事或恐怖行动的核爆炸还是民用核设施的事故性爆炸,均可致大规模人群受到不同程度的电离辐射照射,产生大量的重症急性辐射损伤(SARI)患者.过去二十多年,对SARI患者的救治大多采用造血干细胞移植,然而数十例辐射事故患者接受移植后的结果表明其治疗效果并不理想,至今无一长期活存.实验研究结果显示,7.0或10.0 Gy(60)Coγ射线照射猴在照射后24 h内给予大剂量重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子(rhG-CSF)或重组人血小板生成素(rhTPO)治疗可明显促进受照射动物造血恢复、缩短抗感染和抗出血治疗时间、增加照射动物活存率.对于受5.0~10.OGy照射所致的SARI患者的临床治疗,尽早使用rhG-CSF或(和)rhTPO是目前首选的治疗策略.%Nuclear detonation through either military, terrorst action and accidental explosion of civil nuclear facility would most likely lead to a mass-casualty scenario involving victims with varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation and induce a largt, number of patients with severe acute radiation injury (SARI). In more than twenty years, many of SARI patients were treated with hematopoietie stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the effect was not ideal. Dozens of the palients underwent HSCT did not have a long-term survival. Our experimental treatment study showed that hematopeietie growth factors ( HCFs )should be administered as early as possible after irradiation High-dose recomhinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhC-CSF) or recombinant human thromhopoietin (rhTPO) was administrated within 24 hours after irradiation, showed dearly therapeutie effects for the rhesus monkeys irradiated by 7.0 or 10.0 Gy 60Co y-rays. The monkeys irradiated hy 7.0 Gy and treated with rhTPO did not need blood transfusion, anti-infection and anti-hemorrhagie treatrnent time shortened, and survival rate increased significantly. For the patients sufferd from SARI

  15. Combined Injury Modeling: Radiation and Burn Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    when radiation exposure is combined with burn. For instance, in the Chernobyl accident, hepatic encephalopathy was a major cause of death in patients...for radiation injury that block apoptosis and have demonstrated increased survival in animal models (Whitnall and Pellmar 2007). Cell loss also... Animal studies are needed to resolve this information gap. However, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval for these types

  16. Pulmonary effects of combined blast injury and radiation poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A McD

    2004-09-01

    In situations with relatively small numbers of patients with pulmonary blast injury aggressive modern intensive care treatment may allow a return to normal function. The additional effects of radiation poisoning are more difficult to factor in, but new treatments such as colony stimulating factors may improve the outlook for a group with moderate to severe radiation exposure who would previously have died of infection or haemorrhage.

  17. The impact of solar UV radiation on the early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    2007-08-01

    sensing mechanisms; (ii) application of external shielding, such as covering by mud, sand or rock material; (iii) development of intrinsic UV screening pigments, such as tanning, inductive flavonoid production of plants, intracellular mycosporin production in cyanobacteria, (iv) accumulation of antioxidants and quenching substances. However, if UV damage has been induced - in spite of all avoidance efforts, organisms may restore their functionality by numerous repair processes. Repair pathways of a rich diversity and functional universality include (i) direct repair with the reversal of photochemical abnormalities, e.g. in the DNA; (ii) recombination repair removing the UV-induced abnormality by homologous recombination; and (iii) excision repair, where the section of the DNA strand containing the abnormality is removed and a repair patch is synthesized using the intact strand as a template. In addition to efficient repair systems for radiation-induced DNA injury, life has developed a variety of defense mechanisms, such as the increase in the production of stress proteins and the activation of the immune defence system. Some of these capacities have certainly already been evolved in the early biosphere, when it was exposed to the extended UV-spectrum of the sun. Only since the early Proterozoic, due to a rapid rise in the atmospheric oxygen concentration and consequently a photochemical built up of the stratospheric ozone layer, a more moderate UV radiation climate prevailed with wavelengths shorter than 295 nm being effectively cut off.

  18. The Pathogenesis and Therapy of Combined Radiation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    11, and TPO, for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia . Hemopoietic growth factors and cytokines, administered...Response Modifiers on the Bone Marrow Recovery A fter C om bined Injury...mediators which are responsible for the post-burn mortality associated with bacterial endotoxemia and sepsis. Bone marrow , alveolar, splenic or

  19. Radiation injury to the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, R.A.; Finn, D.G.; Buchalter, I.H.; Brookler, K.H.; Kimmelman, C.P. (New York Eye and Ear Infirmary/New York Medical College (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. Hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit.

  20. Rabbit model of radiation-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Zong Du; Hua Ren; Jian-Fei Song; Li-Fei Zhang; Feng Lin; Hai-Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of establishing an animal model of chronic radiation-induced lung injury.Methods:Twenty-eightNewZealand white rabbits were randomly divided into3 groups(the right lung irradiation group, the whole lung irradiation group and the control group).Animal model of radiation-induced lung injury was established by high-does radiotherapy in the irradiation groups, then all rabbits underwentCT and pathological examinations at1,2,4,8,12,16 weeks, respectively after radiation.Results:Within4 weeks of irradiation, some rabbits in the right lung irradiation group and whole lung irradiation group died. CT and pathological examinations all showed acute radiation pneumonitis.At8-12 weeks after irradiation,CT scanning showed ground glass samples signs, patchy shadows and fibrotic stripes. Pathological examination showed the fibrosis pulmonary alveolar wall thickened obviously. Conclusions:The clinical animal model of chronic radiation-induced lung injury which corresponds to practical conditions in clinic can be successfully established.

  1. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of radiation injuries of the urinary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, I Kh; Kiseleva, M V; Kurpesheva, A K; Poltorakov, A M

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of ultrasound investigation of the kidneys and bladder in 78 patients with radiation injuries of pelvic tissues and organs. Comparison of the results of USI, isotope renography and excretory urography has shown that with an increase in the gravity of injury of the urinary system, the frequency of ultrasound findings rises from 60.8% in renal dysfunction of a mean gravity up to 91.2% in severe disorders. Echography data on the presence of hydronephrosis, pyelocaliectasis, a granular kidney, pyelonephritis, and nephroptosis usually coincided with the results of excretory urography in these patients. A combined use of echography and renography permits obtaining in most cases necessary data on structural and functional disorders of the urinary tracts. Echographic semiotics of radiation cystitis was studied in detail versus cystoscopy data. The informative value of ultrasound scanning of the bladder was observed in patients with radiation cystitis.

  2. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D; Andersen, L P H; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    -hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... radiation damage. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed and included experimental or clinical studies written in English that investigated the protective effects of melatonin against gamma or X-ray irradiation in vivo. Studies were excluded if patients were treated with chemotherapy...... concomitantly. Results: 37 studies were included in the review. All were of experimental case-control design and employed animals. The studies demonstrated that exogenous melatonin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in all investigated tissues. Furthermore, melatonin increased 30-day survival...

  3. Significance of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed radiation enteropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junru Wang; Marjan Boerma; Qiang Fu; Martin Hauer-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed intestinal radiation toxicity and discusses various endothelial-oriented interventions aimed at reducing the risk of radiation enteropathy. Studies published in the biomedical literature during the past four decades and cited in PubMed, as well as clinical and laboratory data from our own research program are reviewed. The risk of injury to normal tissues limits the cancer cure rates that can be achieved with radiation therapy. During treatment of abdominal and pelvic tumors, the intestine is frequently a major dose-limiting factor. Microvascular injury is a prominent feature of both early (inflammatory), as well as delayed (fibroproliferative) radiation injuries in the intestine and in many other normal tissues. Evidence from our and other laboratories suggests that endothelial dysfunction, notably a deficiency of endothelial thrombomodulin, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of these radiation responses. Deficient levels of thrombomodulin cause loss of vascular thromboresistance, excessive activation of cellular thrombin receptors by thrombin, and insufficient activation of protein C, a plasma protein with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. These changes are presumed to be critically involved in many aspects of early intestinal radiation toxicity and may sustain the fibroproliferative processes that lead to delayed intestinal dysfunction, fibrosis, and clinical complications. In conclusion, injury of vascular endothelium is important in the pathogenesis of the intestinal radiation response. Endothelial-oriented interventions are appealing strategies to prevent or treat normal tissue toxicity associated with radiation treatment of cancer.

  4. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  5. Combined injury syndrome in space-related radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, R. F.; Fohlmeister, U.

    The risk of combined injury (CI) to space travelers is a function of exposure to anomalously large surges of a broad spectrum of particulate and photon radiations, conventional trauma (T), and effects of weightlessness including decreased intravascular fluid volume, and myocardial deconditioning. CI may occur even at relatively low doses of radiation which can synergistically enhance morbidity and mortality from T. Without effective countermeasures, prolonged residence in space is expected to predispose most individuals to bone fractures as a result of calcium loss in the microgravity environment. Immune dysfunction may occur from residence in space independent of radiation exposure. Thus, wound healing would be compromised if infection were to occur. Survival of the space traveler with CI would be significantly compromised if there were delays in wound closure or in the application of simple supportive medical or surgical therapies. Particulate radiation has the potential for causing greater gastrointestinal injury than photon radiation, but bone healing should not be compromised at the expected doses of either type of radiation in space.

  6. Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies: Medical Management of Radiation Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ravi Shankar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear radiation which could be in the form of alpha, beta, gamma rays, etc, could cause radioactive contamination, radiation burns, acute radiation syndrome or a combination of any of these above-mentioned disasters. Effects of radiation and the subsequent treatment depend on the severity of exposure and the organs directly involved. Radiation levels up to 200 rads lead to nausea and vomiting whilst radiation levels between 200 rads and 400 rads lead to diarrhea, vomiting and pneumonitis. Whilst 450 rads is lethal in 50 per cent population, doses above this cause increased fatality and organ involvement with the Central Nervous System being affected with 2000 rads radiation. Nuclear disaster management lies most importantly in identifying that patient who would recover if treated immediately. Whereas decontamination of skin and wounds is done first, immediate first aid may take priority in a seriously injured patient. In the event of internal contamination, effective decorporation maybe required. This is followed by prevention and treatment of infections in sterile conditions. Radiation burn injuries will require effective long-term management. Finally, what would be most important is the necessity to have suitable hospital care where bone marrow, stem cell transfusion and restitution of the immune system would take place.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.113-117, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.830

  7. Injuries in Norwegian Early Childhood and Care (ECEC Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Johan Sando

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children’s play and exploration involves risk and a possibility for being injured. Early childhood and care institutions (ECECs should provide children with physical challenges in a safe environment. Over the past years, the attention towards playground safety and injuries in ECECs has increased. Norwegian practitioners have a liberal approach to children’s risk taking in play, raising questions on injury prevalence in Norwegian ECECs. The aim for this study was to gain knowledge about the injury prevalence and characteristics of the injuries in Norwegian ECECs. Managers from 2105 institutions completed an electronic questionnaire retrospectively asking the managers to report injuries and accidents the past year. The results indicate that injuries are rare in Norwegian ECECs, and that most of the injuries are minor and do not require a follow-up from professional medical personnel. The moderate and severe injuries are very rare, and often mishaps. There are some indications that boys experience injuries more often than girls do. The main cause of moderate injuries is falling, both outdoors and indoors.

  8. Early elective colostomy following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Michelle

    Elective colostomy is an accepted method of bowel management for patients who have had a spinal cord injury (SCI). Approximately 2.4% of patients with SCI have a colostomy, and traditionally it is performed as a last resort several years after injury, and only if bowel complications persist when all other methods have failed. This is despite evidence that patients find a colostomy easier to manage and frequently report wishing it had been performed earlier. It was noticed in the author's spinal unit that increasing numbers of patients were requesting colostomy formation during inpatient rehabilitation following SCI. No supporting literature was found for this; it appears to be an emerging and untested practice. This article explores colostomy formation as a method of bowel management in patients with SCI, considers the optimal time for colostomy formation after injury and examines issues for health professionals.

  9. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Meirelles,Rafael Panisi de Campos; Hochman, Bernardo; Helene Junior,Americo; Lellis,Rute; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. METHODS: On this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. RESULTS: Af...

  10. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  11. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Tamir, Zemenu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M), beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M), and retinol binding protein (RBP) associated with early DN. PMID:27293888

  12. Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bo Qiao; Yan-Hui Zhao; Yan-Bin Zhao; Rui-Zhi Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for radiation-induced acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria.RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ≥60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, nograde 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P= 0.0001<0.01).CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ≥60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT.

  13. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos; Hochman, Bernardo; Helene Junior, Americo; Lellis, Rute; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-11-01

    To describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. On this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5 kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. After 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000 cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. The proposed experimental model is reproductable. This study suggests that the dosage 4500 cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits.

  14. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  15. RADIATION DOSE–VOLUME EFFECTS IN RADIATION-INDUCED RECTAL INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram; Jackson, Andrew; Tucker, Susan L.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2010-01-01

    The available dose/volume/outcome data for rectal injury were reviewed. The volume of rectum receiving ≥60Gy is consistently associated with the risk of Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity or rectal bleeding. Parameters for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model from four clinical series are remarkably consistent, suggesting that high doses are predominant in determining the risk of toxicity. The best overall estimates (95% confidence interval) of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters are n = 0.09 (0.04–0.14); m = 0.13 (0.10–0.17); and TD50 = 76.9 (73.7–80.1) Gy. Most of the models of late radiation toxicity come from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy dose-escalation studies of early-stage prostate cancer. It is possible that intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton beam dose distributions require modification of these models because of the inherent differences in low and intermediate dose distributions. PMID:20171506

  16. Radiation-induced bowel injury: the impact of radiotherapy on survivorship after treatment for gynaecological cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuku, S; Fragkos, C; McCormack, M; Forbes, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The number of women surviving cancer who live with symptoms of bowel toxicity affecting their quality of life continues to rise. In this retrospective study, we sought to describe and analyse the presenting clinical features in our cohort, and evaluate possible predictors of severity and chronicity in women with radiation-induced bowel injury after treatment for cervical and endometrial cancers. Methods: Review of records of 541 women treated within the North London Gynaecological Cancer Network between 2003 and 2010 with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer identified 152 women who reported significant new bowel symptoms after pelvic radiation. Results: Factor analysis showed that the 14 most common and important presenting symptoms could be ‘clustered' into 3 groups with predictive significance for chronicity and severity of disease. Median follow-up for all patients was 60 months. Univariate analysis showed increasing age, smoking, extended field radiation, cervical cancer treatment and the need for surgical intervention to be significant predictors for severity of ongoing disease at last follow-up. On multivariate analysis, only age, cancer type (cervix) and symptom combinations/‘cluster' of (bloating, flatulence, urgency, rectal bleeding and per-rectal mucus) were found to be significant predictors of disease severity. Fifteen (19%) women in the cervical cancer group had radiation-induced bowel injury requiring surgical intervention compared with five (6.7%) in the endometrial cancer group. Conclusion: Women with cervical cancer are younger and appear to suffer more severe symptoms of late bowel toxicity, whereas women treated for endometrial cancer suffer milder more chronic disease. The impact of radiation-induced bowel injury and the effect on cancer survivorship warrants further research into investigation of predictors of severe late toxicity. There is a need for prospective trials to aid early

  17. Early Acute Kidney Injury in Military Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AKI.11 From a pathophysiologic standpoint, it seems logical that massive trans- fusion could be both causative or collinear with the develop- ment of...morbidity and mortality associated with AKI in trauma, further investigation is needed to fully elucidate risk factors for AKI and their pathophysiology ... obesity , and blood product transfusion are risk factors for acute kidney injury in critically ill trauma patients. J Crit Care. 2012;27:496Y504. 15. Podoll

  18. Protective effects of alpha lipoic acid on radiation-induced salivary gland injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mi; Jung, Myeong Hee; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiation therapy is a treatment for patients with head and neck (HN) cancer. However, radiation exposure to the HN often induces salivary gland (SG) dysfunction. We investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced SG injury in rats. Results ALA preserved acinoductal integrity and acinar cell secretary function following irradiation. These results are related to the mechanisms by which ALA inhibits oxidative stress by inhibiting gp91 mRNA and 8-OHdG expression and apoptosis of acinar cells and ductal cells by inactivating MAPKs in the early period and expression of inflammation-related factors including NF-κB, IκB-α, and TGF-β1 and fibrosis in late irradiated SG. ALA effects began in the acute phase and persisted for at least 56 days after irradiation. Materials and Methods Rats were assigned to followings: control, ALA only (100 mg/kg, i.p.), irradiated, and ALA administered 24 h and 30 min prior to irradiation. The neck area including the SG was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy per minute (total dose, 18 Gy) using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. Rats were killed at 4, 7, 28, and 56 days after radiation. Conclusions Our results show that ALA could be used to ameliorate radiation-induced SG injury in patients with HN cancer. PMID:27072584

  19. The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mang

    2016-08-01

    Massive radiation-induced inflammatory factors released from injured cells may cause innate and acquired immune reactions that can further result in stress response signal activity-induced local and systemic damage. IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 play key roles in inflammatory and immune responses and have been recognized to have significant influences on the pathogenesis of diseases. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 share similarities of cytokine biology, but differences exist in signaling pathways. A key component of the inflammatory reaction is the inflammasome, which is a caspase-1-containing multiprotein oligomer. Pathological stimuli such as radiation can induce inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and subsequently cause maturation (activation) of pro-forms of IL-1 and IL-18 upon caspase-1 cleavage. This caspase-1 dependent and IL-1 and IL-18 associated cell damage is defined as pyroptosis. Activated IL-1 and IL-18 as proinflammatory cytokines drive pathology at different immune and inflammatory disorders through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. While the mechanisms of IL-1β-induced pathophysiology of diseases have been well studied, IL-18 has received less attention. The author recently reported that gamma radiation highly increased IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 expression in mouse thymus, spleen and/or bone marrow cells; also circulating IL-18 can be used as a radiation biomarker to track radiation injury in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates. This mini-review focuses on the role of IL-18 in response to gamma radiation-induced injury.

  20. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui [Pudong New Area People' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  1. The origin and early radiation of dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Irmis, Randall B.; Butler, Richard J.; Benton, Michael J.; Norell, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Dinosaurs were remarkably successful during the Mesozoic and one subgroup, birds, remain an important component of modern ecosystems. Although the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous has been the subject of intense debate, comparatively little attention has been given to the origin and early evolution of dinosaurs during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, one of the most important evolutionary radiations in earth history. Our understanding of this keystone event has dramatically changed over the past 25 years, thanks to an influx of new fossil discoveries, reinterpretations of long-ignored specimens, and quantitative macroevolutionary analyses that synthesize anatomical and geological data. Here we provide an overview of the first 50 million years of dinosaur history, with a focus on the large-scale patterns that characterize the ascent of dinosaurs from a small, almost marginal group of reptiles in the Late Triassic to the preeminent terrestrial vertebrates of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. We provide both a biological and geological background for early dinosaur history. Dinosaurs are deeply nested among the archosaurian reptiles, diagnosed by only a small number of characters, and are subdivided into a number of major lineages. The first unequivocal dinosaurs are known from the late Carnian of South America, but the presence of their sister group in the Middle Triassic implies that dinosaurs possibly originated much earlier. The three major dinosaur lineages, theropods, sauropodomorphs, and ornithischians, are all known from the Triassic, when continents were joined into the supercontinent Pangaea and global climates were hot and arid. Although many researchers have long suggested that dinosaurs outcompeted other reptile groups during the Triassic, we argue that the ascent of dinosaurs was more of a matter of contingency and opportunism. Dinosaurs were overshadowed in most Late Triassic ecosystems by crocodile-line archosaurs and

  2. The investigation of radiation enteritis, especially ileum injuries treated surgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masanari; Watanabe, Satoshi; Honda, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshimasa; Hatano, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been widely used as one of several therapies for malignant disease of the lower abdomen. However, radiation enteritis was a severe side effect, and it was very difficult to treat and care. We report the cases of radiation enteritis that we encountered, especially ileum injuries. There were 27 regions in 23 patients: 10 obstipation, 8 fistula 6 perforation, 2 obstipation and perforation, 1 obstipation and fistula to urinary tract, and 1 perforation and bleeding of sigmoid colon. We treated these by combined bypass, resection of the bowels, external fistula, and others. Radiation enteritis is considered a progressive and irreversible disease, and many patients would experience recurrences over their lifetime, and in some cases would need multiple operations. The leakage and the short bowel after resection were severe problems, and in addition, we found that the abdominal wall was one of the difficult problems to treat and care, such as many external fistula and hardening of abdominal wall after polysurgery and radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  4. Expertise of radiation injuries in the GDR and examples of gynecological contact therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, D. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)); Lenz, U. (Betriebspoliklinik des Kombinats Elektro-Apparate-Werke Berlin-Treptow (German Democratic Republic)); Matschke, S. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung); Schmidt, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung); Thormann, T. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    Expertise in cases of radiation injuries is given in the GDR by different institutions depending on etiological factors. Occupational diseases due to ionizing radiation are judged by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR while radiation injuries in medicine are dealt with by institutions for Medical Expertise. Details of organization and procedure of expertise are described as well as cooperation between the institutions mentioned. Two cases of iatrogenic radiation injuries in gynecological intracavitary contact therapy are dealt with and conclusions are drawn for future measures in guaranteeing full radiation protection.

  5. Protective effect of vitamin A on acute radiation injury in the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Balkan, Mujdat; Demiriz, Murat; Dirican, Bahar; Oner, Koksal; Pak, Yucel [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Tibet, Hasan

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin A on the development of early radiation-induced reactions in the rat small intestine. The early effects of intraoperative gamma-radiation on the small bowel utilizing the terminal ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats and the protective effect of supplemental vitamin A on acute radiation injury were investigated. Three groups were included in the study: group I (10 rats) was the surgical control group; group II (13 rats) underwent only intraoperative irradiation; and group III (10 rats) was the vitamin A plus irradiation group. Exteriorized terminal ileal segments of groups II and III were exposed to a single fraction of 20 Gy of intraoperative gamma-irradiation. On the seventh postoperative day, terminal ileal segments of all rats were resected and histopathologically evaluated for ulceration, enteritis cystica profunda, atypical epithelial regeneration, fibrosis, vascular sclerosis, and inflammatory process. Although none of the above findings were present in the surgical control group, group III rats experienced less severe effects than group II rats. The results suggest the early side effects of radiation may be prevented by vitamin A supplementation. (author)

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  7. Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injuries: Effects on Development and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the variety of possible effects of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) on early childhood development in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Suggests interventions which can assist young survivors and their families. Suggests that more long-term, intensive studies be conducted on the short- and long-term…

  8. Coming to terms with early sports specialization and athletic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John

    2014-06-01

    The body grows stronger and performs best when appropriate loads and activities are followed by appropriate physical and mental rest and recovery. With this understanding, one has to question the true value of developing a particular sport skill set during childhood and adolescence at the expense of early injury, burnout, and lack of coping-skill development.

  9. Application of Multivariate Modeling for Radiation Injury Assessment: A Proof of Concept (Radiation Injury Algorithms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    amylase , C - reactive protein (CRP), and hematological blood-cell counts measured at 1 - 4 d post-radiation exposure. A recent study by Moroni [19... food , etc.). The total body 6.5-Gy radiation dose was considered the equivalent of a METREPOL BM-ARS RC3 condition as outlined in the Medical Management...known to manifest in the prodromal and/or late ARS phases (Flt3 ligand, Citrulline, C-reactive protein, serum amylase IL-6) may contribute to our

  10. 放射性肺损伤初期Ⅲ、Ⅳ型胶原的变化及氨溴索的影响%The change of Ⅲ, Ⅳ collagen fibers in early stage of radiation-induced lung injury in rats and effect of ambroxol to its

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶江枫; 袁名辉; 蒙育林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore change of Ⅲ, Ⅳ collagen fibers in early stage of radiation-induced lung injury in rats and the efficacy of ambroxol to its.Methods 46 SD female rats were randomly divided into control( C group), radiational injury group( R group)and treatment group after radiational injury (M group).Ambroxol was given to rats in treatment groups at a dose of 20 mg/kg-per day by injection into belly from seven days before radiation until the end of the experiment, The rats in other groups were injection into belly with the same amount of saline.Rats in R group and M group were exposed to thoracic radiation at a dose of 20 Gy by linear accelerator.Collagen Ⅲ ,collagen Ⅳ in rat blood serum and in alveolar lavage were measured by radioimmunoassay in the day of 1,2,3,4 after radiation.The data were analyzed by student's t teat.Results The amount of collagen Ⅲ fibers in blood serum from rots of R group increased significantly compared to C group on day 2,3,4( P <0.01 ).The change was obviously in M group compared to R group ( P <0.01 ).Collagen Ⅲ and Ⅳ fibers in alveolar lavage was no difference among three groups.Conclusions Collagen Ⅲ fibers in blood serum increased in the early stage after the lung was radiated.Ambroxol can influence the change of collagen Ⅲ fibers in blood serum.%目的 探讨放射性肺损伤初期Ⅲ、Ⅳ型胶原的变化及氨溴索对放射性肺损伤的治疗作用.方法 雌性SD大鼠46只随机分为正常对照组C,照射组R和治疗组M.照射组和治疗组给予直线加速器照射,照射剂量单次20 Gy/min,照射组于照射后当天给予生理盐水腹腔内注射,治疗组于照射后当天给予氨溴索20 mg/kg/d,直至实验结束.于照射后1、2、3、4 d取大鼠血清及肺灌洗液放免法测定Ⅲ、Ⅳ型胶原,数据用组间t检验.结果 照射后R组2、3、4 d血清Ⅲ型胶原较C组显著升高(P<0.01).M组较同期R组变化显著(P<0.01).肺灌洗液中Ⅲ/Ⅳ型胶原三组

  11. Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bonnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development.

  12. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...

  13. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin, F K C

    2007-01-01

    .... This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death...

  14. A case of early-onset radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoko; Den, Seika; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We encountered a 27-year-old male early caused by radiation retinopathy five months after radiotherapy (51 Gy) for astrocytoma. The retinopathy was the proliferative retinopathy, with several dot and blot hemorrhages, hard and soft exudate, increased capillary permeability, macula edema and avasucular areas. So it was treated with panretial photocoagulation like diabetic retinopathy. Now hemorrhage, exudate, edema and avascular areas were improved. Photocoagulation treatment is effective to stop the progression of radiation retinopathy. Radiation retinopathy is sometimes early caused, therefore long-term follow up is recommended on starting radiotherapy. (author)

  15. [Cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury: can peripheral markers be detected?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, A K; Nikitin, K V; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury is a relevant fundamental objective of radiobiology and neuroradiology. Damage to the healthy brain tissue is the key factor limiting the application of radiation therapy in patients with nervous systems neoplasms. Furthermore, postradiation brain injury can be clinically indiscernible from continued tumor growth and requires differential diagnosis. Thus, there exists high demand for biomarkers of radiation effects on the brain in neurosurgery and radiobiology. These markers could be used for better understanding and quantifying the effects of ionizing radiation on brain tissues, as well as for elaborating personalized therapy. Despite the high demand, biomarkers of radiation-induced brain injury have not been identified thus far. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of the effect of ionizing radiation on the brain were analyzed in this review in order to identify potential biomarkers of radiation-induced injury to nervous tissue.

  16. Evaluation of the preventive effect of dexpanthenol in radiation injury by lung perfusion scintigraphy: a preclinical experimental model of radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zehra P; İn, Erdal; Karslioğlu, İhsan; Üçer, Özlem; Canpolat, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to show the preventative effects of dexpanthenol in radiation injuries caused by radiotherapy (RT) through the use of lung perfusion scintigraphy in the pre-RT and post-RT periods. Six male New Zealand rabbits (5-6 months of age and ∼2.5-3 kg in weight) were the used in this study. The animals were subjected to Tc-macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scintigraphy in the pre-RT and post-RT (i.e. 2 weeks after treatment) periods. The scintigraphies were performed with the same dose by the same staff and the methodology used the same acquisition parameters. The rabbits were divided into two groups: group I (administered RT only) and group II (also administered intramuscular 500 mg dexpanthenol injections for 14 consecutive days after RT). Quantification was performed to compare the groups and the quantification variables were compared using a paired samples t-test, with P value less than 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Histopathological analysis was also carried out. The post-RT scintigraphies indicated a decrease in the counts in both lungs, suggesting early post-RT injury. The difference between the counts obtained from both lungs in groups I and II was significantly different and favoured group II. Histopathological results confirmed the scintigraphy results. It is possible to estimate post-RT changes in the early period (in contrast to previous data) by lung perfusion scintigraphy. Dexpanthenol may also reduce the effects of RT to a degree. Although this is the first study to report the preventive effects of dexpanthenol on RT injuries, further studies are warranted in this area.

  17. Evaluation tests of early renal injury in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Coelho Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of kidney injury is an important measure that aims to prevent the installation of irreversible changes, such as chronic kidney disease, seen most frequently in dogs and cats. Serum urea and creatinine parameters are routinely assessed, when searching renal failure. However, these values are only changed when 66 to 75% of glomerular filtration rate has been lost. In many situations, an attack of this magnitude may be enough to cause the animal’s death. Evaluations that identify the aggression, even before the functions themselves are altered, have been studied and shown to be important early evaluators, signaling prior to possible irreversible damage. The quantification of urinary enzymes, urinary protein, fractional excretion of electrolytes, glomerular filtration rate and urinary sediment, have shown great value as sensitive tests of renal injury. There is the need of the use of tests that assists in early diagnosis and also determines the progression of disease and efficacy of the treatment. The present review aims to describe the laboratory tests that may be performed to evaluate early kidney injury in dogs and cats.

  18. Early protective effects of Iloprost after experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, A; Tuna, H; Sargon, M F; Yüceer, N; Türker, R K; Egemen, N

    1998-06-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the early protective effects of Iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, after spinal cord injury in rabbit. Sixteen adult male rabbits (New Zealand Albino) were injured by application of epidural aneurysm clip. Eight rabbits received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 30 micrograms kg-1 Iloprost, and eight rabbits received an infusion of saline (SF). Treatment with Iloprost started immediately after spinal cord injury and continued for one hour. Evoked potentials were recorded for each rabbit at one, 15, and 60 minutes after the spinal cord injury. Twenty-four hours later, all the rabbits were deeply anesthetized and spinal cords were removed for histopathological examinations. There was no meaningful statistical difference between cortical somatosensorial evoked potentials (CSEP) of the saline and Iloprost group. However, light and electron microscopic studies showed that the Iloprost treated group had moderate protection of myelin and axons; and limited edema. These results suggest that intravenous Iloprost treatment after spinal cord injury has a highly protective effect without any side effects.

  19. Cosmic Radiation Fields: Sources in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Martin; Kneiske, Tanja; Horns, Dieter; Elsaesser, Dominik; Hauschildt, Peter

    The workshop "Cosmic Radiation Fields - Sources in the Early Universe" (CRF 2010) focuses on the connection between the extragalactic infrared background and sources in the early universe, in particular stars powered by dark matter burning (Dark Stars; DS). The workshop covers the following topics: the cosmic infrared background, formation of early stars, dark stars, effect of dark matter in the early universe, dark matter halos, primordial star formation rate, and reionization. Further information can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.desy.de/crf2010/. Organizing committee: Tanja Kneiske, Martin Raue, Dominik Elsaesser, Alexander Gewering-Peine, Peter Hausschildt, Dieter Horns, and Andreas Maurer.

  20. 放烧复合伤的治疗研究%Studies on the treatment of combined radiation-burn injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程天民; 冉新泽

    2008-01-01

    Combined radiation-bum injuries mainly occur under the circumstances of nuclear explosion, nuclear accident, nuclear terrorism, depleted uranium attack, as well as secondary injuries following attack on nuclear installation. Combination of burn and radiation injuries bring along more serious whole body damage, more complicated pathological mechanism and much more difficult management. Research progress on the pathological mechanism and medical management of several key links of combined injury were discussed in this paper.①En-hancement of early first aid and prevention of early death of wounded. ②Damage and restoration of hemopoetic function.③Disturbance of immune function and prevention and treatment of infection (mainly on the intestinla mucosa immunity and enter-ological infection).④Management of burn wound.⑤The uole of several important measures in the comprehensive treatment.

  1. Readiness for work injury management and prevention: important attributes for early graduate occupational therapists and physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kerry; Strong, Jenny; Chipchase, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Early graduate occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) are routinely employed in work injury management and prevention in Australia. However, our understanding is limited about employer requirements for early graduates entering the field, and how commencing practitioners manage transition to practice. In addition, employers have expressed concerns anecdotally about the preparedness of early graduates for work injury management and prevention. However, evidence is limited about early gradutate preparedness for the field. The study aimed to develop a detailed qualitative account of the perceptions of employers and early graduates on the attributes required of early graduates in work injury management and prevention, and processes for effective transition to practice in this field. A purposive sample of 12 employers and 12 early graduates in work injury management and prevention participated in semi-structured interviews. Questions to employers focused on recruitment, supervision and readiness for practice. Questions to early graduates focused on challenges in transition and effective learning methods. Transcripts were analysed by Leximancer™ and supported by manual coding and synthesis. Four themes with findings were, 1) 'Job and workplace requirements'; skills required by employers and support needed for early graduates, 2) 'Learning for work injury management and prevention'; options for early graduate development and learning methods early graduates found effective, 3) 'Employer expectations of early graduates in transition to work injury management and prevention', responses to transition; and 4) 'Early graduate perceptions on transition to work injury management and prevention'; early graduates responses to transition. Findings for employers and early graduates were similar to those expected in other areas of practice for OTs and PTs. Work injury management and prevention skills were not expected of early graduates by employers. Employers and

  2. Plasma rennin activity: Early indicator of renal injury in bilateral pelviureteric junction obstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In bilateral PUJO where DRF and SFU grading of hydronephrosis did not correctly reflect renal injury, PRA showed a significant relationship with renal histopathologic grade and could be an early indicator of renal injury in bilateral PUJO.

  3. Experimental studies on radiation injury of the salivary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kazuko

    1987-06-01

    Parotid glands of male Wistar rats were irradiated. In the first group, the animals were irradiated by 4 fractions of 4 different daily doses ; 4.7 Gy, 5.7 Gy, 6.6 Gy and 7.4 Gy. Each dose corresponds to 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy and 60 Gy by ordinary 2 Gy-a-day irradiation respectively in the estimation of TDF value. Degree of radiation injury and recovery of the parotid glands was examined histologically, and the area ratio (acini/total gland) was calculated at 1, 3 and 6 months after the completion of irradiation. In the second group, the animals were irradiated by the following schedule ; 10 fractions of 3.6 Gy daily (I-group) and 20 fractions of 1.8 Gy (II a-group), 2.2 Gy (II b-group) and 2.9 Gy (II c-group) twice-a-day, for 2 weeks, 5 days per week. Histological changes of parotid glands the irradiation, such as collapse of acini, degeneration of acinar cells, dilatation of ducts, fibrosis and fatty replacement were found. These changes increased corresponding to the absorbed dose. In 60 Gy-group the area ratio (acini/total gland) decreased with time, 1, 3 and 6 months after the irradiation (40 %, 20 % and 10 % of the control group, respectively), while, there was no remarkable change in 50 Gy-group (60 %) and 40 Gy-group (70 - 80 %). Whereas the area ratio in 30 Gy-group decreased at 1 and 3 months (80 - 85 %), it increased up to the nearly equal level of the control group at 6 months after the irradiation. It was suggested that the borderline dose which allowed the salivary gland to recover from radiation injury existed between 30 Gy and 40 Gy. The area ratio of II b-group at 1 and 3 months after the irradiation (50 %, 48 %) was nearly equal to that of I-group (53 %, 57 %). While the area ratio of II a-group (71 %, 73 %) was larger than that of I-group with a statistical significance. (J.P.N.).

  4. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduces the number of surviving Dclk1+ reserve crypt epithelial stem cells following radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dongfeng; May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence; Houchen, Courtney W

    2014-03-01

    We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1(+) cells were observed 24 h post-TBI associated with a corresponding loss of intestinal crypts observed at 84 h post-TBI. Although the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating proliferation and lineage commitment within the intestine, its role in ISC function in response to severe genotoxic injury is not yet fully understood. We employed the microcolony assay to functionally assess the effects of Notch inhibition with difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) on intestinal crypt stem cell survival following severe (>8 Gy) radiation injury. Following treatment with DAPT, we observed a nearly 50% reduction in the number of surviving Dclk1(+) crypt epithelial cells at 24 h after TBI and similar reduction in the number of surviving small intestinal crypts at 84 h. These data indicate that inhibition of Notch signaling decreases ISC survival following radiation injury, suggesting that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in ISC-mediated crypt regeneration. These results also suggest that crypt epithelial cell Dclk1 expression can be used as one potential marker to evaluate the early survival of ISCs following severe radiation injury.

  5. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Algattas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways.

  7. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  8. EARLY MEDICAL REHABILITATION OF THE PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Demšar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early medical rehabilitation (EMR of the patients with spinal cord injury is discussed in this article.For successful rehabilitation adequate surgical treatment, which enables early verticalisation, is compulsory.Predictable respiratory, vascular, intestinal and urologic complications, contractures and bed sores are described and algorhytms of EMR in the period of spinal shock and after, until transferring the patient to the IRSR, are presented.Respiratory therapy, thromboprophylaxis, kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation as well as the methods of early bladder and bowel control, contractures and bed sores prevention, as procedures of EMR are fully presented.With special importance early verticalisation from the 5th post operative day with help of the tilt table is presented as the key point of EMR.Conclusions. With aggressive EMR the paraplegic patient is able to gain erect posture from the 5th post operative day, sits in a wheel chair from 10th to 14th day and stands in the paralel bar from 15th day on.

  9. Capabilities for Clinical Management of Radiation Injuries of the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (EMERCOM of Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanin, S

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the capabilities for clinical management of radiation injuries available at the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (NRCERM) of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). NRCERM is a federal state budgetary institution and the Russian Federation's head organization for providing medical assistance for persons overexposed to ionizing radiation, responders to radiation emergencies and people evacuated from radiation contaminated areas. As the WHO Collaborating Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Accident Recovery Workers of Nuclear and Other Disasters and a member of the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN), NRCERM is prepared to provide assistance and technical support in case of a radiation accident. For this purpose, NRCERM hospitals are equipped with technologically advanced facilities and possess well-trained specialist staff.

  10. [Experimental model of severe local radiation injuries of the skin after X-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Moroz, B B; Nasonova, T A; Dobrynina, O A; LIpengolz, A A; Gimadova, T I; Deshevoy, Yu B; Lebedev, V G; Lyrschikova, A V; Eremin, I I

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of severe local radiation injuries skin under the influence of a relatively soft X-rays on a modified device RAP 100-10 produced by "Diagnostica-M" (Russia) was proposed. The model can be used as pre-clinical studies in small experimental animals in order to improve the treatment of local radiation injuries, especially in the conditions of application of cellular therapy.

  11. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Naismith, Laura M.; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = −.43 to −.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  12. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  13. Ambient Melamine Exposure and Urinary Biomarkers of Early Renal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Fang; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yi; Pan, Chih-Hong; Cheng, Ching-Mei; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-11-01

    Information about environmental exposure to melamine and renal injury in adults is lacking. We investigated this relationship in 44 workers at two melamine tableware manufacturing factories in Taiwan (16 manufacturers, eight grinders, ten packers, and ten administrators) and 105 nonexposed workers (controls) at one shipbuilding company who were enrolled in August-December of 2012. For melamine workers, personal and area air samples were obtained at the worksite over 1 workweek (Monday-Friday). In the same week, pre- and post-shift one-spot urine samples were collected each workday and one first-spot urine sample was collected on each weekend morning and the following Monday morning. For each control, a one-spot urine sample was collected on Friday morning. A blood sample was also obtained from each participant at this time. Melamine levels were measured in air, urine, and serum, and early renal injury biomarkers were measured in urine. Urinary melamine concentrations in manufacturers increased sharply between pre- and post-shift measurements on Monday, remained significantly elevated throughout the workweek, and decreased over the weekend; changes in urinary melamine concentrations were substantially lower for other melamine workers. Manufacturers were exposed to the highest concentrations of ambient melamine and had significantly higher urinary and serum melamine concentrations than did the controls (Pmelamine levels were positively associated with urinary N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels but not microalbumin levels, and the detectable β2-microglobulin rate increased in the manufacturers group. In conclusion, ambient melamine exposure may increase the levels of urinary biomarkers of renal tubular injury in this occupational setting.

  14. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP)...

  15. Radiation injury after a nuclear detonation: medical consequences and the need for scarce resources allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Andrea L; Maher, Carmen; Hick, John L; Hanfling, Dan; Dainiak, Nicholas; Chao, Nelson; Bader, Judith L; Coleman, C Norman; Weinstock, David M

    2011-03-01

    A 10-kiloton (kT) nuclear detonation within a US city could expose hundreds of thousands of people to radiation. The Scarce Resources for a Nuclear Detonation Project was undertaken to guide community planning and response in the aftermath of a nuclear detonation, when demand will greatly exceed available resources. This article reviews the pertinent literature on radiation injuries from human exposures and animal models to provide a foundation for the triage and management approaches outlined in this special issue. Whole-body doses >2 Gy can produce clinically significant acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which classically involves the hematologic, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and cardiovascular/central nervous systems. The severity and presentation of ARS are affected by several factors, including radiation dose and dose rate, interindividual variability in radiation response, type of radiation (eg, gamma alone, gamma plus neutrons), partial-body shielding, and possibly age, sex, and certain preexisting medical conditions. The combination of radiation with trauma, burns, or both (ie, combined injury) confers a worse prognosis than the same dose of radiation alone. Supportive care measures, including fluid support, antibiotics, and possibly myeloid cytokines (eg, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), can improve the prognosis for some irradiated casualties. Finally, expert guidance and surge capacity for casualties with ARS are available from the Radiation Emergency Medical Management Web site and the Radiation Injury Treatment Network.

  16. TGF-beta, radiation-induced pulmonary Injury and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Groen, HJM

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether changes in TGF-beta plasma levels during radiation therapy may be useful in predicting radiation-induced pulmonary injury and tumour response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Plasma TGF-beta was investigated in 27 patients with stag

  17. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D T [comp.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ingersoll, J K [comp.; Tec-Com, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  18. Conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, B L; Orel, S G; Jardines, L

    1993-07-01

    In selected patients with early-stage breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation represent an alternative equal to mastectomy in terms of local recurrence, distant metastasis, survival, and long-term complications. Patients with early-stage breast cancer who are candidates for conservative surgery and radiation include those whose primary tumor is less than 4 to 5 cm in size without evidence of gross multicentricity or diffuse microcalcifications. Patients with an extensive intraductal component may be appropriate candidates provided that margins of resection are negative. Young age is not a contraindication to the conservative treatment. A preexisting history of collagen vascular disease or prior mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a contraindication to conservative surgery and radiation because of the potential for severe complications. An additional contraindication is the pregnant woman in whom delivery cannot be accomplished before the initiation of radiation. Mammography is essential in the pretreatment evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of the conservatively treated patient. The goal of the pretreatment mammogram is to assess the extent of disease in the ipsilateral breast as well as to evaluate the contralateral breast. In patients who present with microcalcifications, a postbiopsy mammogram before radiation is essential to document complete removal of all malignant-appearing microcalcifications. Mammography is an essential part of the follow-up program in order to detect a recurrence in the treated breast as well as a cancer in the contralateral breast cancer. The optimal interval for follow-up mammography has not been determined, although programs employing mammography on a yearly basis after treatment have been associated with the detection of early recurrences and excellent survival after salvage mastectomy for these recurrences.

  19. The optimal time for early excision in major burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangman, Pornprom; Sullivan, Stephen R; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Lorenz H; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S

    2006-01-01

    Early excision and grafting (E&G) drastically changed burn care in America by reducing morbidity, mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). The present study was intended to determine whether an optimal time window exists between resuscitation and wound sepsis for the first E&G in a patient with a large burn. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted between January 1994 and December 2000 with > or = 40% TBSA burns and at least 1 E&G procedure. Patients were grouped according to the day of their first operation. Patients allowed to heal indeterminate burns prior to excision and grafting of deep partial or full thickness burns were grouped as > or = d7 and were excluded from the present study. The authors correlated the time of first excision with infection, mortality and LOS. Seventy-five patients were identified and 12 patients allowed to heal indeterminate burn prior to excision and grafting of deep partial or full thickness burns were excluded. Sixty-three remaining patients included 51 males and 12 females. Mean burn size was 49% of total body surface area (TBSA) (44% deep partial or full thickness) and the mean age was 36 years. There were 61 flame (2 combined with electrical injuries), 1 scald and 1 chemical burn. Twelve died (19%) and 52 patients developed 121 infections. Whereas there was no statistical difference in mortality for patients operated on different days (p > 0.2), 60% of patients operated within the first 48 hours after injury died; this was not significant due to a small patient number The present data suggest that patients who undergo early excision and grafting within seven days following a major burn > or = 40% TBSA have equivalent infection or mortality rates regardless of when the first operation occurs between post burn day(PBD) 2 and PBD 7 (p > 0.2).

  20. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  1. Observations from Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation during Juno's Early Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Jorgensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Connerney, John E. P.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Levin, Steven M.; Alexander, James W.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Lee, Clifford; Benn, Mathias; Denver, Troelz; Sushkova, Julia; Cicchetti, Andrea; Noschese, Raffaella; Thorne, Richard M.

    2017-04-01

    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation profiles Jupiter's >10-MeV electron environment throughout unexplored regions of the Jovian magnetosphere. RM's measurement approach involves active retrieval of the characteristic noise signatures from penetrating radiation in images obtained by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Collaborative observation campaigns of "radiation image" collection and penetrating particle counts are conducted at targeted opportunities within the magnetosphere during each of Juno's perijove passes using the spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit, the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass Imagers, and the JIRAM infrared imager. Simultaneous observations gathered from these very different instruments provide comparative spectral information due to substantial differences in instrument shielding. Juno's orbit provides a unique sampling of energetic particles within Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions. We present a survey of observations of the high energy radiation environment made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager during Juno's early perijove passes on August 27 and December 11, 2016; and February 2 and March 27, 2017. The JPL author's copyright for this publication is held by the California Institute of Technology. Government Sponsorship acknowledged.

  2. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  3. Liver Injury Induced by Anticancer Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Maor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy prolongs survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. This is, however, a double-edged sword with many adverse effects. Since the liver has a rich blood supply and plays an active role in the metabolism of medications, it is not surprising that there can be hepatic injury related to chemotherapy. In addition, radioembolization may affect the parenchyma of normal and cirrhotic livers. We review chemotherapy-associated liver injury in patients with colorectal liver metastases, including downsizing chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We discuss the mechanism of the hepatic injury, secondary to reactive oxygen species, and the spectrum of hepatic injury including, steatosis, steatohepatitis, hepatic sinusoidal injury and highlight the pharmacogenomics of such liver insults. Methods for reducing and treating the hepatotoxicity are discussed for specific agents including tamxifen and the newly introduced targeted antibodies.

  4. The role of cytogenetics in early triage of radiation casualties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.C. E-mail: david.lloyd@nrpb.org.uk; Edwards, A.A.; Moquet, J.E.; Guerrero-Carbajal, Y.C

    2000-05-15

    Preliminary dose estimates by chromosomal analysis can be made rapidly in order to supplement early triage of radiation casualties based on clinical signs. An in vitro simulation of an accident with many casualties receiving whole or partial body exposure in the range 0-8 Gy is described. Faced with an urgent need for rapid results, confirmation of clinical triage can generally be obtained from scoring 20 metaphases per subject. Scoring should be increased to 50 cells where there is disagreement with the initial assessments or evidence of significantly inhomogeneous exposure.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p muscular (abdominal) aorta (p muscular abdominal aorta.

  6. Early-response biomarkers for assessment of radiation exposure in a mouse total-body irradiation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Condliffe, Donald P; Ney, Patrick H; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P; Rahman, Arifur; Sandgren, David J

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. Early biomarkers of radiation injury will be critical for triage, treatment, and follow-up of such individuals. The authors evaluated the utility of multiple blood biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure using a murine (CD2F1, males) total-body irradiation (TBI) model exposed to ⁶⁰Co γ rays (0.6 Gy min⁻¹) over a broad dose range (0-14 Gy) and timepoints (4 h-5 d). Results demonstrate: 1) dose-dependent changes in hematopoietic cytokines: Flt-3 ligand (Flt3L), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), thrombopoietin (TPO), erythropoietin (EPO), and acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA); 2) dose-dependent changes in blood cell counts: lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, and ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes; 3) protein results coupled with peripheral blood cell counts established very successful separation of groups irradiated to different doses; and 4) enhanced separation of dose was observed as the number of biomarkers increased. Results show that the dynamic changes in the levels of SAA, IL-6, G-CSF, and Flt3L reflect the time course and severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that plasma proteins show promise as a complimentary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and, coupled with peripheral blood cell counts, provide early diagnostic information to manage radiation casualty incidents effectively, closing a gap in capabilities to rapidly and effectively assess radiation exposure early, especially needed in case of a mass-casualty radiological incident.

  7. Pulmonary effects of combined blast injury and radiation poisoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, A McD

    2004-01-01

    .... The additional effects of radiation poisoning are more difficult to factor in, but new treatments such as colony stimulating factors may improve the outlook for a group with moderate to severe...

  8. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of an angiotensin analogue in treating thermal and combined radiation injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin Suresh

    Background: In recent years there has been a growing concern regarding the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. Such incidents in the past have shown that radiation exposure is often accompanied by other forms of trauma such as burns, wounds or infection; leading to increased mortality rates among the affected individuals. This increased risk with combined radiation injury has been attributed to the delayed wound healing observed in this injury. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) has emerged as a critical regulator of wound healing. Angiotensin II (A-II) and Angiotensin (1-7) [A(1-7)] have been shown to accelerate the rate of wound healing in different animal models of cutaneous injury. Nor-Leu3-Angiotensin (1-7) [Nor-Leu3-A (1-7)], an analogue of A(1-7), is more efficient than both A-II and A(1-7) in its ability to improve wound healing and is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Aims: The three main goals of this study were to; 1) Develop a combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI) model and a radiation-induced cutaneous injury model to study the pathophysiological effects of these injuries on dermal wound healing; 2) To treat thermal and CRBI injuries using Nor-Leu 3-A (1-7) and decipher the mechanism of action of this peptide and 3) Develop an in-vitro model of CRBI using dermal cells in order to study the effect of CRBI on individual cell types involved in wound healing. Results: CRBI results in delayed and exacerbated apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation in injured skin as compared to thermal injury by itself. Radiation-induced cutaneous injury shows a radiation-dose dependent increase in inflammation as well as a chronic inflammatory response in the higher radiation exposure groups. Nor-Leu3-A (1-7) can mitigate thermal and CRBI injuries by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage while increasing the rate of proliferation of dermal stem cells and re-epithelialization of injured skin. The in

  10. Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms, prostate cancer, radiation therapy, adverse effects, urinary morbidity, rectal injury, sexual dysfunction 16. SECURITY ...TANC1 paper and the ATM paper]. Literature Cited 1. Viswanathan AN, Yorke ED, Marks LB et al.Radiation dose-volume effects of the urinary bladder... machines , for the other split of the data. The base predictors will be combined into heterogeneous ensemble predictors in a supervised manner so as to

  11. Radiation Injury After a Nuclear Detonation: Medical Consequences and the Need for Scarce Resources Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    DiCarlo, Andrea L.; Maher, Carmen; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Dainiak, Nicholas; Chao, Nelson; Bader, Judith L.; Coleman, C. Norman; Weinstock, David M.

    2011-01-01

    A 10-kiloton (kT) nuclear detonation within a US city could expose hundreds of thousands of people to radiation. The Scarce Resources for a Nuclear Detonation Project was undertaken to guide community planning and response in the aftermath of a nuclear detonation, when demand will greatly exceed available resources. This article reviews the pertinent literature on radiation injuries from human exposures and animal models to provide a foundation for the triage and management approaches outline...

  12. Rebamipide ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sehwan; Jang, Hyo-Sun; Myung, Hyun-Wook; Myung, Jae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2017-08-15

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased. The intestinal damage reached a maximum level on day 6 post-IR and intestinal regeneration occurred thereafter. We found that rebamipide significantly ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal injury. In mice treated with rebamipide after IR, intestinal barrier function recovered and expression of the tight junction components of the intestinal barrier were upregulated. Rebamipide administration reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were significantly reduced upon rebamipide administration. Intestinal cell proliferation and β-catenin expression also increased upon rebamipide administration. These data demonstrate that rebamipide reverses impairment of the intestinal barrier by increasing intestinal cell proliferation and attenuating the inflammatory response by inhibiting MMP9 and proinflammatory cytokine expression in a murine model of radiation-induced enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  14. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  15. Imaging in Minor Head Injury: Early complications and late consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Smits (Marion)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHead injury is traditionally divided into minor, moderate or severe head injury, depending on the patient’s presenting level of consciousness as expressed in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Th e vast majority of patients (>90%) present with a normal or nearnormal level of consciousne

  16. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu; Mehmet Alptekin; Sirma Geyik; Abidin Murat Geyik; Inan Gezgin; Abdulvahap Gk

    2015-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potas-sium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug in-jection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efifcacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by cyclosporine-A administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours). The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour) and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant im-provement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05); at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  17. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  18. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  19. Metabotyping Patients’ Journeys Reveals Early Predisposition to Lung Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Raluca; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Pedersen, Shona

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity...... early, during or just after the end of surgery, may have potential impact in hospitals for the early diagnosis of postoperative lung injury, and for the monitoring of therapeutics targeting disease progression....

  20. Radiological and functional assessment of radiation-induced lung injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; van t'Veld, AA; Mooyaart, EL; Meertens, H; Piers, DA; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model to measure localized radiation-induced lung injury using multiple end-points including breathing frequency, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide perfusion. The rats were anaesthetized and the right lung irradiated wi

  1. Radiological and functional assessment of radiation-induced lung injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; van t'Veld, AA; Mooyaart, EL; Meertens, H; Piers, DA; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model to measure localized radiation-induced lung injury using multiple end-points including breathing frequency, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide perfusion. The rats were anaesthetized and the right lung irradiated

  2. [The future of hyperbaric oxygen therapy: added value in the treatment of late radiation injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, A.N. van; Poortmans, P.; Koppert, L.B.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in late radiation tissue injury (LRTI) affecting the head, neck and lower bowel, but there is little evidence for or against the benefit in other tissues (e.g. the breast) affected by LRTI. There is a need for large prospective tria

  3. Basic research of the relationship between irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Qing-song; WANG Ping; WANG Jing; WANG Wei; WANG Jun; YUAN Zhi-yong

    2009-01-01

    Background Irradiation dose and volume are the major physical factors of radiation-induced lung injury.The study investigated the relationships between the irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced lung injury by setting up a model of graded volume irradiation of the rat lung.Methods Animals were randomly assigned to three groups.The ELEKTA precise 2.03 treatment plan system was applied to calculate the irradiation dose and volume.The treatment plan for the three groups was:group 1 received a "high dose to a small volume" (25% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 1.748 cm3 (25% lung volume);the total dose and mean lung dose (MLD) were 4610 cGy and 2006 cGy,respectively (bilateral AP-PA fields,source to axis distance (SAD)=100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 2 received a "low dose to a large volume" (100% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 6.99 cm3 (100% lung volume);the total dose was 1153 cGy.MLD was 2006 cGy,which was the same as that of group 1 (bilateral AP-PA fields,SAD = 100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 3 was a control group.With the exception of receiving no irradiation,group 3 had rest steps that were the same as those of the experimental groups.After irradiation,functional,histopathological,and CT changes were compared every two weeks till the 16th week.Results Functionally,after irradiation breath rate (BR) increases were observed in both group 1 and group 2,especially during the period of 6th-8th weeks.The changes of BR in the 100% volume group were earlier and faster.For the 25% volume group,although pathology was more severe,hardly any obvious increase in BR was observed.Radiographic changes were observed during the early period (the 4th week) and the most obvious changes manifested during the mediated period (the 8th week).The extensiveness of high density and the decreased lung permeability were presented in the 100% volume group,and ground glass opacity and patchy consolidation were presented in the 25

  4. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Department of Plastic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy & Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewah Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  5. Thermodynamics of viscous Matter and Radiation in Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the background geometry is filled with free gas consisting of matter and radiation and no phase transitions being occurred in the early Universe, we discuss the thermodynamics of this {\\it closed} system using classical approaches. We find that essential cosmological quantities, such as Hubble parameter $H$, scale factor $a$ and curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model, which on one hand fulfills and entirely obeys the laws of thermodynamics. On the other hand, the results are compatible with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model and the Einstein field equations. The inclusion of finite bulk viscosity coefficient derives to important changes in all these cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about the evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of a radical revision. We find that $k$ strongly depends on the thermodynamics of background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on ...

  6. DIETARY FLAXSEED PREVENTS RADIATION-INDUCED OXIDATIVE LUNG DAMAGE, INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS IN A MOUSE MODEL OF THORACIC RADIATION INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James C.; Krochak, Ryan; Blouin, Aaron; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Arguiri, Evguenia; Vachani, Anil; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (FS) has high contents of omega-3 fatty acids and lignans with antioxidant properties. Its use in preventing thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT)-induced pneumonopathy has never been evaluated. We evaluated FS supplementation given to mice given before and post-XRT. FS-derived lignans, known for their direct antioxidant properties, were evaluated in abrogating ROS generation in cultured endothelial cells following gamma radiation exposure. Mice were fed 10% FS or isocaloric control diet for three weeks and given 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT. Lungs were evaluated at 24 hours for markers of radiation-induced injury, three weeks for acute lung damage (lipid peroxidation, lung edema and inflammation), and at four months for late lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis). FS-Lignans blunted ROS generation in vitro, resulting from radiation in a dose-dependent manner. FS-fed mice had reduced expression of lung injury biomarkers (Bax, p21, and TGF-beta1) at 24 hours following XRT and reduced oxidative lung damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at 3 weeks following XRT. In addition, FS-fed mice had decreased lung fibrosis as determined by hydroxyproline content and decreased inflammatory cell influx into lungs at 4 months post XRT. Importantly, when Lewis Lung carcinoma cells were injected systemically in mice, FS dietary supplementation did not appear to protect lung tumors from responding to thoracic XRT. Dietary FS is protective against pulmonary fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative lung damage in a murine model. Moreover, in this model, tumor radioprotection was not observed. FS lignans exhibited potent radiation-induced ROS scavenging action. Taken together, these data suggest that dietary flaxseed may be clinically useful as an agent to increase the therapeutic index of thoracic XRT by increasing the radiation tolerance of lung tissues. PMID:18981722

  7. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  8. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism and on the gender

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide regulates development of intestinal radiation injury in a mast cell dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junru; Zheng, Junying; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Wang, Wen; Garg, Sarita; Prather, Paul L.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells and neuroimmune interactions regulate the severity of intestinal radiation mucositis, a dose-limiting toxicity during radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies. Aims Because endocannabinoids regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the effect of the cannabimimetic, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in a mast competent (+/+) and mast cell deficient (Ws/Ws) rat model. Methods Rats underwent localized, fractionated intestinal irradiation and received daily injections with vehicle or PEA from 1 day before until 2 weeks after radiation. Intestinal injury was assessed non-invasively by luminol bioluminescence, and, at 2 weeks, by histology, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis, gene expression analysis, and pathway analysis. Results Compared to +/+ rats, Ws/Ws rats sustained more intestinal structural injury (p=0.01), mucosal damage (p=0.02), neutrophil infiltration (p=0.0003), and collagen deposition (p=0.004). PEA reduced structural radiation injury (p=0.02), intestinal wall thickness (p=0.03), collagen deposition (p=0.03), and intestinal inflammation (p=0.02) in Ws/Ws rats, but not in +/+ rats. PEA inhibited mast cell-derived cellular immune response and anti-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-10 signaling, and activated the prothrombin pathway in +/+ rats. In contrast, while PEA suppressed non-mast cell derived immune responses, it increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-6 signaling and decreased activation of the prothrombin pathway in Ws/Ws rats. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the absence of mast cells exacerbate radiation enteropathy by mechanisms that likely involve the coagulation system, anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling, and the innate immune system; and that these mechanisms are regulated by PEA in a mast cell-dependent manner. The endocannabinoid system should be explored as target for mitigating intestinal radiation injury. PMID:24848354

  10. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  11. Multicenter trial of early hypothermia in severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Guy L; Drever, Pamala; Valadka, Alex; Zygun, David; Okonkwo, David

    2009-03-01

    The North American Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia IIR (NABIS:H IIR) is a randomized clinical trial designed to enroll 240 patients with severe brain injury between the ages of 16 and 45 years. The primary outcome measure is the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months after injury. The study has the power to detect a 17.5% absolute difference in the percentage of patients with a good outcome with a power of 80%. All patients are randomized by waiver of consent unless family is immediately available. Enrollment is within 2.5 h of injury. Patients may be enrolled in the field by emergency medical services personnel affiliated with the study or by study personnel when the patient arrives at the emergency department. Patients who do not follow commands and have no exclusion criteria and who are enrolled in the hypothermia arm of the study are cooled to 35 degrees C as rapidly as possible by intravenous administration of up to 2 liters of chilled crystalloid. Those patients who meet the criteria for the second phase of the protocol (primarily a post-resuscitation GCS 3-8 without hypotension and without severe associated injuries) are cooled to 33 degrees C. Patients enrolled in the normothermia arm receive standard management at normothermia. As of December 2007, 74 patients had been randomized into phase II of the protocol. Patients in the hypothermia arm reached 35 degrees C in 2.7 +/- 1.1 (SD) h after injury and reached 33 degrees C at 4.4 +/- 1.5 h after injury.

  12. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Kumar, S.; Whitnall, M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Casualty Management] [and others

    2002-12-01

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1{beta}, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  13. Comparative characteristics of pharmacological properties of novocaine and trimecaine in different periods after thermal, mechanical, radiation and combined injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' yuchenok, T.Yu.; Britun, A.I.; Spadurskij, K.S.; Rasulev, B.K.; Matveeva, I.A. (Volgogradskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-05-01

    The study of effectiveness of trimecaine hydrochloride as compared with novocaine after mechanical injury, thermal injury, radiation effect and the combination of these factors included the determination of sensitivity of animals to preparations investigated according to toxicity tests and anesthetic activity (anesthesia duration and depth) in dfferent periods after injury. Breedless male mice and rabbits are used for experiments. Sensitivity of mice to novocaine and trimecaine in the toxicity test turned out to be close to xilocaine (lidocaine) 1.4 times higher; this regularity is preserved against the back-ground of thermal injury, radiation injury and the combination of these two factors. The anesthetic effect of novacaine and trimecaine in the case of infiltration anesthesia in depth and duration is retained through all periods of investigation (after 1, 3, 7, and 30 days) after mechanic injury and combined radiation-mechanic injury. Trimecaine produced more pronounced anesthetic effect in duration and depth in intact animals and animals with combined radiation injury (2). Trimecaine along with novocaine is recommended as an optional preparation for local anesthesia in cases of combined radiation injury.

  14. Ultrasonic analysis of acute thermal and radiation injury - A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goans, R.E. [MJW Corporation, Amherst, NY 14228 (United States); Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.goans@comcast.net; Goans, R.H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Goans, R.E. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Christensen, D.M. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Medical injury from a terrorist event (IND, RDD) is likely to involve both radiation damage and thermal trauma (combined injury). A high-frequency ultrasound technique has previously been developed to function as a clinical tool to distinguish partial-thickness from full-thickness thermal burns in a porcine model and the method was later extended for use in clinical burn units. In a traditional clinical setting, the technique has shown sufficient sensitivity to quantitate extension of a partial-thickness burn to a full-thickness burn through cutaneous infection. The ultrasound method has been extended in a pilot study to analyze radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Analysis of radiation-induced skin injury is more difficult than for thermal injury. However, further development of the method has shown a time-dependent response curve for the scattered ultrasound signal after irradiation of Wistar rat tails to 40 Gy with a 120 KeV X-ray spectrum. Statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in the magnitude of the reflected ultrasound spectrum have been noted less than 6 h-post-irradiation. The scattered intensity response curve peaks near the appearance of the first clinical sign (erythema) at 12 days post-irradiation. The mechanism of ultrasound sensitivity appears to involve changes in the tissue acoustic impedance post-irradiation possibly due to hyperemia, vascular damage and leakage. Because of the penetrating power and resolution of recent ultrasound equipment, this technique is expected to be extendable to analysis of irradiated deep organs, of large- and medium-size blood vessels, and to possible analysis of combined injury.

  15. Late radiation injury of the colon and rectum. Surgical management and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimose, H.H.; Fischer, L.; Spjeldnaes, N.; Wara, P. (Aarhus Municipal Hospital (Denmark))

    1989-08-01

    After a median latency of 2 years, the initial late colorectal radiation injuries in 182 patients were: stricture (37 percent), minor lesions (36 percent), rectovaginal fistula (22 percent), and gangrene or other fistulas (5 percent). Due to progression, new colorectal injuries, primarily stricture (55 percent) and fistula (42 percent), occurred in 68 patients (37 percent). Resection provided the best results. However, the resectability rate was low (46 percent) and resection was primarily performed in patients with a circumscript well-defined stricture of the proximal rectum or sigmoid colon with an anastomotic leakage rate of 5 percent. The prevailing management of 78 patients with fistula or stricture with synchronous fistula was defunctioning colostomy, primarily end-sigmoidostomy, providing fair results in half of the patients. Stomal complications occurred in 15 percent. The radiation-induced colorectal mortality was 8 percent. Colorectal fistula and associated radiation injuries of the urinary tract, and especially of the small bowel, were the major determinants of fatal outcome, yielding an overall radiation-induced mortality of 25 percent. After a median observation time of 13 years, half of the patients were alive at follow-up; 56 percent of these had a fair outcome whereas the remaining patients continued to have mild symptoms responding to conservative measures (34 percent) or disabling symptoms (10 percent).

  16. Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-10-01

    Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries.

  17. Early neurosurgical procedures enhance survival in blunt head injury: propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Jerris R; Newgard, Craig D; Veum-Stone, Judith; Selden, Nathan R; Adams, Annette L; Diggs, Brian S; Arthur, Melanie; Mullins, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Studies of trauma systems have identified traumatic brain injury as a frequent cause of death or disability. Due to the heterogeneity of patient presentations, practice variations, and potential for secondary brain injury, the importance of early neurosurgical procedures upon survival remains controversial. Traditional observational outcome studies have been biased because injury severity and clinical prognosis are associated with use of such interventions. We used propensity analysis to investigate the clinical efficacy of early neurosurgical procedures in patients with traumatic brain injury. We analyzed a retrospectively identified cohort of 518 consecutive patients (ages 18-65 years) with blunt, traumatic brain injury (head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of >or= 3) presenting to the emergency department of a Level-1 trauma center. The propensity for a neurosurgical procedure (i.e., craniotomy or ventriculostomy) in the first 24 h was determined (based upon demographic, clinical presentation, head computed tomography scan findings, intracranial pressure monitor use, and injury severity). Multivariate logistic regression models for survival were developed using both the propensity for a neurosurgical procedure and actual performance of the procedure. The odds of in-hospital death were substantially less in those patients who received an early neurosurgical procedure (odds ratio [OR] 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.41). The mortality benefit of early neurosurgical intervention persisted after exclusion of patients who died within the first 24 h (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.48). Analysis of observational data after adjustment using the propensity score for a neurosurgical procedure in the first 24 h supports the association of early neurosurgical intervention and patient survival in the setting of significant blunt, traumatic brain injury. Transfer of at-risk head-injured patients to facilities with high-level neurosurgical capabilities seems warranted.

  18. Surgical treatment of radiation injuries of the colon and rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1986-02-01

    Between 1950 and 1983, radiation-induced proctitis was diagnosed proctoscopically in 720 patients at the Mayo Clinic. Sixty-two patients with severe colorectal symptoms were treated surgically. The interval from cessation of radiotherapy to onset of symptoms ranged from 3 weeks to 24 months (mean 33 months). The 62 patients underwent a total of 143 operations with 8 operative deaths (13 percent), and 40 patients (65 percent) had 61 complications. The morbidity rate was lower after colostomy alone (44 percent in 27 patients) than after more aggressive operations (80 percent in 35 patients). Transverse loop colostomy and descending colostomy were safer than sigmoid colostomy. The dissection adhesions, opening of tissue planes, and careless manipulation of intestine may result in necrosis and perforation of the intestine, bladder, or vaginal wall; these were the main causes of fecal and other internal fistulas in our study.

  19. Central Nervous System Injury - A Newly Observed Bystander Effect of Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiock, Caitlin; Yagi, Masashi; Maidman, Adam; Rendahl, Aaron; Hui, Susanta; Seelig, Davis

    The unintended side effects of cancer treatment are increasing recognized. Among these is a syndrome of long-term neurocognitive dysfunction called cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment. To date, all studies examining the cognitive impact of cancer treatment have emphasized chemotherapy. Radiation-induced bystander effects have been described in cell culture and, to a limited extent, in rodent model systems. The purpose of this study was to examine, for the first time, the impact of non-brain directed radiation therapy on the brain in order to elucidate its potential relationship with cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment. To address this objective, female BALB/c mice received either a single 16 gray fraction of ionizing radiation to the right hind limb or three doses of methotrexate, once per week for three consecutive weeks. Mice were sacrificed either 3 or 30 days post-treatment and brain injury was determined via quantification of activated astrocytes and microglia. To characterize the effects of non-brain directed radiation on brain glucose metabolism, mice were evaluated by fluorodeoxygluocose positron emission tomography. A single fraction of 16 gray radiation resulted in global decreases in brain glucose metabolism, a significant increase in the number of activated astrocytes and microglia, and increased TNF-α expression, all of which lasted up to 30 days post-treatment. This inflammatory response following radiation therapy was statistically indistinguishable from the neuroinflammation observed following methotrexate administration. In conclusion, non-brain directed radiation was sufficient to cause significant brain bystander injury as reflected by multifocal hypometabolism and persistent neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that radiation induces significant brain bystander effects distant from the irradiated cells and tissues. These effects may contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction in treated human cancer

  20. Management of cutaneous radiation injuries: diagnostic and therapeutic principles of the cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ralf Uwe; Gottlöber, Petra

    2002-02-01

    The cutaneous symptoms that appear after radiation exposure are caused by a combination of inflammatory processes and alteration of cellular proliferation as a result of a specific pattern of transcriptionally activated proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. The symptoms follow a time course consisting of prodromal erythema, manifestation, chronic stage, and late stage; these symptoms are referred to as cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS). The time course depends on several factors such as the applied radiation dose, radiation quality, individual radiation sensitivity, extent of contamination and absorption, and volume of skin exposed. For diagnosis of CRS, the following procedures are used: 7.5 to 20 MHz B-scan sonography, thermography, capillary microscopy, profilometry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy, and histology. Based on the results of previous experimental and clinical research, pharmacotherapy of CRS can include topical or systemic application of corticosteroids, gamma interferon, pentoxifylline and vitamin E, and superoxide dismutase. The treatment varies according to the stage of CRS. Due to the complexity of the clinical manifestations of radiation disease in most patients, interdisciplinary treatment at specialized centers is necessary. In most cases, dermatologists are asked to provide lifelong therapy and follow-up of the patients.

  1. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 2: nontherapeutic radiologic/nuclear incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Parillo, Steven J; Glassman, Erik S; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-05-01

    In the second of 5 articles on the management of injuries and illnesses caused by ionizing radiation, the authors discuss nontherapeutic radiologic/nuclear incidents: use of a radiologic exposure device, use of a radiologic dispersal device, nuclear power plant safety failure, and detonation of an improvised nuclear device. The present article focuses on how such incidents--whether involving deliberate or accidental methods of radiation exposure--produce casualties and how physicians need to understand the pathologic process of injuries caused by these incidents. To identify the diagnoses associated with nontherapeutic exposure in time to improve morbidity and mortality, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion when faced with a specific constellation of symptoms. In some scenarios, the sheer number of uninjured, unaffected persons who might present to health care institutions or professionals may be overwhelming. Public health and safety issues may seriously disrupt the ability to respond to and recover from a radiologic and nuclear incident, especially a nuclear detonation.

  2. Thermodynamics of viscous matter and radiation in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A.; Magdy, H.

    2012-05-01

    Assuming that the background geometry is filled with free gas consisting of matter and radiation and no phase transitions being occurred in the early Universe, we discuss the thermodynamics of this {\\it closed} system using classical approaches. We find that essential cosmological quantities, such as Hubble parameter $H$, scale factor $a$ and curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model, which on one hand fulfills and entirely obeys the laws of thermodynamics. On the other hand, the results are compatible with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model and the Einstein field equations. The inclusion of finite bulk viscosity coefficient derives to important changes in all these cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about the evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of a radical revision. We find that $k$ strongly depends on the thermodynamics of background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on the relation between the matter content and the total energy. Using quantum and statistical approaches, we assume that the size of the Universe is given by the volume occupied one particle and one photon. Different types of their interactions are taken into account. Expressions for $H$ and $a$ are introduced. Therefore, the expansion of the Universe turns to be accessible.

  3. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Shavit; Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods We performed li...

  4. Nd: YAG laser therapy of rectosigmoid bleeding due to radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuchter, R.S.; Petrilli, E.S.; Dwyer, R.M.; Hacker, N.F.; Castaldo, T.W.; Lagasse, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Nd:YAG laser was used to treat a patient bleeding from the rectosigmoid as a result of radiation injury related to therapy for cervical carcinoma. Successful laser therapy was performed after a diverting colostomy failed to control persistent bleeding. Further surgical procedures were not required. Characteristics of Nd:YAG laser as compared with those of the carbon dioxide and argon lasers are considered.

  5. Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2016-0001 Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures James E. Parker General...them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW Public Affairs Office and is available to the general public, including foreign ...This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  6. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty eight NPC patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN were recruited in the study. Duplex ultrasonography was used to scan bilateral carotid arterials to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT and occurrence of plaque formation. Flow velocities of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, internal carotid arteries (ICAs and basal artery (BA were estimated through Transcranial Color Doppler (TCD. The results were compared with data from 33 patients who were free from radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis after radiotherapy and 29 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Significant differences in IMT, occurrence of plaques of ICAs and flow velocities of both MCAs and ICAs were found between patients after radiotherapy and healthy individuals (p<0.05. IMT had positive correlation with post radiation interval (p = 0.049. Compared with results from patients without radiation-induced TLN, the mean IMT was significantly thicker in patients with TLN (p<0.001. Plaques were more common in patients with TLN than patients without TLN (p = 0.038. In addition, flow velocities of MCAs and ICAs in patients with TLN were much faster (p<0.001, p<0.001. Among patients with unilateral TLN, flow velocity of MCAs was significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the lesion (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Thickening of IMT, occurrence of plaque formation and hemodynamic abnormality are more common in patients after radiotherapy, especially in those with TLN, compared with healthy individuals.

  7. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  8. Application of Multivariate Modeling for Radiation Injury Assessment: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate radiation injury estimation algorithms were formulated for estimating severe hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS injury (i.e., response category three or RC3 in a rhesus monkey total-body irradiation (TBI model. Classical CBC and serum chemistry blood parameters were examined prior to irradiation (d 0 and on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 25 after irradiation involving 24 nonhuman primates (NHP (Macaca mulatta given 6.5-Gy 60Co Υ-rays (0.4 Gy min−1 TBI. A correlation matrix was formulated with the RC3 severity level designated as the “dependent variable” and independent variables down selected based on their radioresponsiveness and relatively low multicollinearity using stepwise-linear regression analyses. Final candidate independent variables included CBC counts (absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets in formulating the “CBC” RC3 estimation algorithm. Additionally, the formulation of a diagnostic CBC and serum chemistry “CBC-SCHEM” RC3 algorithm expanded upon the CBC algorithm model with the addition of hematocrit and the serum enzyme levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Both algorithms estimated RC3 with over 90% predictive power. Only the CBC-SCHEM RC3 algorithm, however, met the critical three assumptions of linear least squares demonstrating slightly greater precision for radiation injury estimation, but with significantly decreased prediction error indicating increased statistical robustness.

  9. A case of radiation pulmonary injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia following postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Masaru; Yoshida, Norio; Katagiri, Akira; Takeda, Naoya [Kariya General Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    A 57-year-old female underwent conservative surgery for a left sided breast cancer, and received 48 Gy postoperative radiation therapy. One year later, a chest CT scan disclosed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities. She had no subjective symptom. These abnormal opacities disappeared spontaneously without any treatment. We considered this was a radiation lung injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. We emphasize that the symptomless and spontaneous resolution of this type of lung injury should be kept is mind. (author)

  10. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  11. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, F K C

    2007-10-01

    In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations.

  12. [Specialised early rehabilitation of brain injury performed in an intensive care setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann

    2013-12-09

    In Denmark, early rehabilitation of acquired head injuries is centralised in two centres, each covering half the country as uptake area. The Regional Hospital Hammel Neurocenter (HN), which covers the western half of Denmark, traditionally receives patients for rehabilitation after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). In collaboration with the Regional Hospital in Silkeborg HN now offers early rehabilitation in Silkeborg's ICU setting to patients with acquired brain injury. This preliminary study discusses whether the collaboration facilitates rehabilitation at an earlier state than previously.

  13. Twist2 Is Upregulated in Early Stages of Repair Following Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A.; Nichols, LaNita A.; Wang, Xinhui; Parrish, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    The aging kidney is a marked by a number of structural and functional changes, including an increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that aging male Fischer 344 rats (24 month) are more susceptible to apoptosis-mediated injury than young counterparts. In the current studies, we examined the initial injury and early recovery phases of mercuric chloride-induced AKI. Interestingly, the aging kidney had decreased serum creatinine compared to young controls 1 day following mercuric chloride injury, but by day 4, serum creatinine was significantly elevated, suggesting that the aging kidney did not recover from injury. This conclusion is supported by the findings that serum creatinine and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) gene expression remain elevated compared to young controls at 10 days post-injury. To begin to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying dysrepair in the aging kidney, we examined the expression of Twist2, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that may mediate renal fibrosis. Interestingly, Twist2 gene expression was elevated following injury in both young and aged rats, and Twist2 protein expression is elevated by mercuric chloride in vitro. PMID:28208580

  14. Mitigation of Radiation Induced Pulmonary Vascular Injury by Delayed Treatment with Captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLTHEN, Robert C.; WU, Qingping; FISH, Brian L.; MOULDER, John E.; JACOBS, Elizabeth R.; MEDHORA, Meetha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective A single dose of 10 Gy radiation to the thorax of rats results in decreased total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, pulmonary artery distensibility and distal vascular density while increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at 2-months post-exposure. In this study we evaluate the potential of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulator, the ACE inhibitor captopril, to mitigate this pulmonary vascular damage. Methods Rats exposed to 10 Gy thorax only irradiation and age-matched controls were studied 2-months after exposure, during the development of radiation pneumonitis. Rats were treated, either immediately or 2-weeks after radiation exposure, with 2 doses of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, dissolved in their drinking water. To determine pulmonary vascular responses, we measured pulmonary hemodynamics, lung ACE activity, pulmonary arterial distensibility, and peripheral vessel density. Results Captopril, given at a vasoactive but not a lower dose, mitigated radiation-induced pulmonary vascular injury. More importantly these beneficial effects were observed even if drug therapy was delayed for up to two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Captopril resulted in a reduction in pulmonary vascular injury that supports its use as a radiomitigator after an unexpected radiological event such as a nuclear accident. PMID:22882664

  15. Development of A Novel Murine Model of Combined Radiation and Peripheral Tissue Trauma Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonic, Vlado; Jackson, Isabel L; Ganga, Gurung; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2017-02-01

    Detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear bomb in an urban setting would result in >1 million casualties, the majority of which would present with combined injuries. Combined injuries, such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure, trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) and death, with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary involvement playing crucial roles. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined injuries, peripheral tissue trauma (TBX animal model) combined with total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (TBI/BM5) to investigate if peripheral tissue trauma contributes to reduced survival. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to TBX10%, irradiation (TBI/BM5), or combined injuries (TBX10% + TBI/BM5). Experiments were conducted to evaluate mortality at day 7 after TBI/BM5. Serial euthanasia was performed at day 1, 3 and 6 or 7 after TBI/BM5 to evaluate the time course of pathophysiologic processes in combined injuries. Functional tests were performed to assess pulmonary function and GI motility. Postmortem samples of lungs and jejunum were collected to assess tissue damage. Results indicated higher lethality and shorter survival in the TBX10% +T BI/BM5 group than in the TBX10% or TBI/BM5 groups (day 1 vs. day 7 and 6, respectively). TBI/BM5 alone had no effects on the lungs but significantly impaired GI function at day 6. As expected, in the animals that received severe trauma (TBX10%), we observed impairment in lung function and delay in GI transit in the first 3 days, effects that decreased at later time points. Trauma combined with radiation (TBX10% + TBI/BM5) significantly augmented impairment of the lung and GI function in comparison to TBX10% and TBI/BM5 groups at 24 h. Histologic evaluation indicated that combined injuries caused greater tissue damage in the intestines in TBX10% + TBI/BM5 group when compared to other groups. We describe here the first combined tissue trauma/radiation

  16. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus [Central Inst. of Radiology, Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Herkstroeter, Markus [Radiotherapeutic Practice at the Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  17. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Liang Hao; Fei Dong; Jian-Shan Mao; Jian-Zhong Sun; Ying Chen; Min Lin; Zhi-Kang Wang; Wen-Hong Ding

    2009-01-01

    0.43±0.14,P=0.013;pathological control group vs pathological severe group,0.74±0.18 vs 0.43±0.14,P=0.005) according to LDS grading and pathological grading,respectively.(c) PDE;there were no significant differences among groups according to LDS grading,and no significant differences between the control group and experimental groups according to pathological grading.(2) The ratio of relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites:significant differences (P<0.05) (LDSmoderate group and LDS-severe group vs LDS-control group and LDS-mild group,1.94±0.50 and 1.96±0.72 vs 1.43±0.31 and 1.40±0.38) were only found in PDE/ATP between the moderate injured group,the severe injured group and the control group,the mild injured group.No significant difference was found in other ratios of relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites.CONCLUSION:31P MRS is a useful method to evaluate early acute hepatic radiation injury.The relative quantification of hepatic ATP levels,which can reflect the pathological severity of acute hepatic radiation injury,is correlated with LDS.

  18. Abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools.

  19. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  20. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  1. Face and location processing in children with early unilateral brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brianna; Appelbaum, Mark; Carapetian, Stephanie; Hesselink, John; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris; Stiles, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Human visuospatial functions are commonly divided into those dependent on the ventral visual stream (ventral occipitotemporal regions), which allows for processing the 'what' of an object, and the dorsal visual stream (dorsal occipitoparietal regions), which allows for processing 'where' an object is in space. Information about the development of each of the two streams has been accumulating, but very little is known about the effects of injury, particularly very early injury, on this developmental process. Using a set of computerized dorsal and ventral stream tasks matched for stimuli, required response, and difficulty (for typically-developing individuals), we sought to compare the differential effects of injury to the two systems by examining performance in individuals with perinatal brain injury (PBI), who present with selective deficits in visuospatial processing from a young age. Thirty participants (mean=15.1 years) with early unilateral brain injury (15 right hemisphere PBI, 15 left hemisphere PBI) and 16 matched controls participated. On our tasks children with PBI performed more poorly than controls (lower accuracy and longer response times), and this was particularly prominent for the ventral stream task. Lateralization of PBI was also a factor, as the dorsal stream task did not seem to be associated with lateralized deficits, with both PBI groups showing only subtle decrements in performance, while the ventral stream task elicited deficits from RPBI children that do not appear to improve with age. Our findings suggest that early injury results in lesion-specific visuospatial deficits that persist into adolescence. Further, as the stimuli used in our ventral stream task were faces, our findings are consistent with what is known about the neural systems for face processing, namely, that they are established relatively early, follow a comparatively rapid developmental trajectory (conferring a vulnerability to early insult), and are biased toward the right

  2. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury.

  3. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical. (ACR)

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  5. Early pulmonary immune hyporesponsiveness is associated with mortality after burn and smoke inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher S; Albright, Joslyn M; Carter, Stewart R; Ramirez, Luis; Kim, Hajwa; Gamelli, Richard L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aims to address mortality in the context of the early pulmonary immune response to burn and inhalation injury. The authors collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 60 burn patients within 14 hours of their injury when smoke inhalation was suspected. Clinical and laboratory parameters and immune mediator profiles were compared with patient outcomes. Patients who succumbed to their injuries were older (P = .005), had a larger % TBSA burn (P burn on mortality, nonsurvivors also had reduced levels of IL-2, IL-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (P response to burn and smoke inhalation may be attenuated in patients who succumb to their injuries.

  6. Emotion labeling and socio-emotional outcomes 18 months after early childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Sarah J; Chiu, C-Y Peter; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of literature has documented evidence for emotion labeling (EL) deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, long-term effects of TBI on EL abilities, particularly among young children, are unclear. We investigated EL abilities and socio-emotional outcomes in 32 children with moderate-severe TBI, 23 with complicated-mild TBI, and 82 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), shortly after injury and at 18 months post-injury. All children were between 3:0 and 6:11 years of age at the time of injury. Repeated measures analyses indicated that all groups showed improved EL performance between acute and 18-month assessments, but that the moderate-severe TBI group improved at a slower rate than the OI group, so that the two groups showed significantly different performance at 18 months. Emotion labeling ability did not significantly contribute to the prediction of socio-emotional outcomes after controlling for pre-injury functioning. These results provide preliminary evidence of emerging EL deficits after early childhood TBI that are related to injury severity but that do not predict social and behavioral outcomes.

  7. Development and Characterization of VEGF165-Chitosan Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiang Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced skin injury, which remains a serious concern in radiation therapy, is currently believed to be the result of vascular endothelial cell injury and apoptosis. Here, we established a model of acute radiation-induced skin injury and compared the effect of different vascular growth factors on skin healing by observing the changes of microcirculation and cell apoptosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was more effective at inhibiting apoptosis and preventing injury progression than other factors. A new strategy for improving the bioavailability of vascular growth factors was developed by loading VEGF with chitosan nanoparticles. The VEGF-chitosan nanoparticles showed a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells, improved the local microcirculation, and delayed the development of radioactive skin damage.

  8. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS a

  9. Early preventive treatment for severe acute pancreatitis combined with lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学民; 刘青光; 潘承恩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),which leads to injury or failure of the internal organs and systems.1 Among them,acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe or fatal complication.In this article,the early preventive treatment for SAP combined with lung injure is studied.

  10. The value of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhi GE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the application of a combination of diFFusion weighted imaging (DWI, perfusion weighted imaging (PWI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the differential diagnosis of glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury. Methods The clinical and imaging data of 32 patients were retrospectively analyzed, including 15 cases of glioma recurrence and 17 cases of radiation brain injury, admitted from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013 in General Hospital of Beijing Command. The DWI, PWI and MRS data of the 32 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The following values were compared between abnormal enhancement area and contralateral normal area: magnetic resonance apparent diFFusion coeFFcient (ADC, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, relative mean transit time (rMTT, choline/creatine (Cho/Cr and choline/N-acetyl aspartate (Cho/ NAA ratio. Results No statistical significance of ADC and rMTT values was found between glioma recurrence group and radiation brain injury group (P>0.05; The maximum and average rCBF and rCBV values were significantly higher in glioma recurrence group than in radiation brain injury group (P0.05. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were higher in glioma recurrence group than in radiation brain injury group (P<0.05. The diagnostic sensitivity of PWI to glioma recurrence was 80.0%, of MRS was 73.3%, and of PWI combined with MRS was 93.3%. The diagnostic sensitivity of PWI to radiation brain injury was 82.4%, of MRS was 70.6%, and of PWI combined with MRS was 88.2%. Conclusion Combined application of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging technology may improve the diagnostic accuracy to glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury, thus provide a good guidance for clinical treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.13

  11. Sulodexide ameliorates early but not late kidney disease in models of radiation nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Michele; Naito, Takashi; Yang, Haichun; Freeman, Michael; Donnert, Ellen; Ma, Li-Jun; Dunn, Stephen R.; Sharma, Kumar; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Sulodexide is a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Although sulodexide reduced albuminuria in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, long-term effects on chronic renal injury are not established. We investigated sulodexide effects and mechanisms in a rat radiation nephropathy model and in the db/db mouse model of diabetic kidney disease.

  12. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C., E-mail: prabhat-goswami@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  13. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  14. Spinal cord injury of cervical vertibrae and early diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈扬; 李振宇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To sum up clinical data and CT and MRI examination in 22 patients with spinal cord injury of cervical vertebrae.Methods:CT and MRI examination of the 22 patients with spinal cord injury of cervical vertebrae revealed that 16 patients had spinal comprssion caused by fracture dislocation and protrusion of intervertebral disc,5 suffered from intramedullary hemorrhage and 1 had complete spinal cord injury.A combined modality therapy of intramedullary and extramedullary decompression for spinal cord,skull traction and avoiding reinjury to spinal cord were used. Results:According to Frankel Classification,before operation 3 cases were classified as A degree,2 as B degree,5as C degree,8 as D degree and 4 as Edegree;after operation 2 were classified as A degree,1 as B degree,6 as C degree,6 as D degree and 7 as E degree.Conclusions:Early diagnosis and timely treatmetn,clear mechanism and degree of injury and early selection of effective treatment are very important in raising the rate of curing spinal cord injury.

  15. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  16. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Shavit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods: We performed literature investigation through MEDLINE (PubMed electronic database and manual search through dental journals to find articles concerning inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement. The search was restricted to English language articles published during the last 10 years, from December 2004 to March 2014. Results: In total, we found 33 articles related to the topic, of which 27 were excluded due to incompatibility with established inclusion criteria. Six articles were eventually chosen to be suitable. The studies presented diagnostic methods of inferior alveolar nerve sensory deficit, and we carried out an assessment of the proportion of patients diagnosed within different time intervals from the time the injury occurred. Conclusions: Various diagnostic methods have been developed throughout the years for dealing with 1 quite frequent complication in the implantology field - inferior alveolar nerve injury. Concurrently, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment was proved repeatedly. According to the results of the data analysis, a relatively high percentage of the practitioners successfully accomplished this target and achieved good treatment outcomes.

  17. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all ppatients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  18. Chemical modification of radiation injury in granuloid cells of mouse bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A. (Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences)

    1983-08-01

    Modifying effects of MPG (2-Mercaptopropionylglycine) have been studied on bone marrow granuloid cells of Swiss albino mice after injecting radiocalcium (/sup 45/Ca) at the dose of 37 kBq/g body weight MPG was injected 30 minutes before radiocalcium injection at dose 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. Present observations indicate that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing radiation injury in bone marrow granuloid cells of Swiss albino mice following radiocalcium (/sup 45/Ca) internal irradiation.

  19. Early mobilization in complete spinal cord injury under conservative treatment in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhadeb Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI management requires extended acute care and life-long chronic care. Aims: The present study was conducted to mobilize complete SCI patients early during conservative treatment and follow them up at the same time weekly for 6 weeks. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a time span of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India. All SCI patients admitted in the hospital for the treatment were assessed clinicoradiologically for the level of lesion. Those complete SCI patients who did not recover within 3 weeks of conservative treatment were mobilized with orthosis and efforts were done to recover the activities of daily living (ADL. The effects of early mobilization were monitored and noted at weekly interval with serial radiographs for increasing vertebral collapse and displacement and neurologically up to 6 weeks in the hospital and monthly for a time span of 1 year. Results: Results clearly indicated that guarded mobilization with braces on does not further aggravate the deformity. Bed sores occurred in 8% of cervical cord injury (CCI and 7% of D-L injury. Respiratory infections occurred in 8% of CCI and 5% of D-L injury. Urinary tract infection affected 12% of CCI and 10% of D-L injury, and the incidences were lower when compared to previous studies, and this may be attributed to early mobilization. Conclusions: Complete SCI patients may be discharged from the hospital within 6 weeks of sustaining an injury with added training for ADL to reduce the social burden in developing countries.

  20. Early extraction: a silver bullet to avoid nerve injury in lower third molar removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q-B; Zhang, Z-Q

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the effects of early extraction of immature lower third molar on preventing complications, particularly nerve injury following lower third molar removal. Patients were grouped according to age and radiographic results: group A (518 patients, ≤23 years, immature teeth with apical foramen not closed); group B (532 patients, >23 years, mature teeth with closed apical foramen). Group A included 230 males and 288 females (average age 17 years). In group A, 808 lower mandibular third molars were extracted bilaterally in 290 and unilaterally in 228 patients; the incidence of complications was 2.48% (20/808) (all were temporary), the incidence of nerve injury was 0%. Group B included 250 males and 282 females (average age 39 years). In group B, 810 lower third molars were extracted bilaterally in 278 and unilaterally in 254 patients; the incidence of complications was 10% (81/810), the incidence of nerve injury was 1.6% (13/810). All complications were temporary, except two removals of permanent inferior alveolar nerve numbness (>6 months). In this study, early removal of the lower third molar was effective in avoiding some postoperative complications, especially nerve injury. Early extraction of lower third molar in youngsters is recommended following a team consultation.

  1. Early attention impairment and recovery profiles after childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Eren, Senem; Dob, Rian; Le Brocque, Robyne; Iselin, Greg; Davern, Timothy J; McKinlay, Lynne; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    To examine recovery of attention from 3 to 6 months postinjury; to identify effects of injury severity and time since injury on performance; to explore whether complex attention skills (eg, shifting, divided attention, attentional control) are more vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and slower to recover than simple attention skills (eg, attentional capacity, selective attention, sustained attention). Prospective longitudinal investigation. A total of 205 school-aged children with TBI were divided into groups according to injury severity (mild = 63%, moderate = 27%, severe = 10%). Emergency departments of 3 metropolitan children's hospitals across Australia. Standardized clinical measures of both simple and complex attention were administered at 3 months and 6 months postinjury. Attention skills were vulnerable to the impact of TBI. More severe injury affected attention skills most negatively. Significant recovery was observed over time. There were few interaction effects, with severity groups exhibiting similar levels of recovery over the 6 months post-TBI. No differences in recovery trajectories were detected for simple and complex attention. These findings have important clinical and educational implications, suggesting that children with TBI, and particularly those with more serious injuries, are most vulnerable to attention deficits in the acute stages postinjury. It is important that schools and families are aware of these limitations and structure expectations accordingly. For example, gradual return to school should be considered, and in the early stages of recovery, children should be provided with sufficient rest time, with reduced expectations for tasks such as homework.

  2. Radiation injury of boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageji, T. E-mail: kageji@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Nagahiro, S.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Toi, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiation injury in acute or delayed stage after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma. Eighteen patients with malignant glioma underwent mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beam and sodium borocaptate between 1998 and 2004. The radiation dose (i.e. physical dose of boron n-alpha reaction) in the protocol used between 1998 and 2000 (Protocol A, n=8) prescribed a maximum tumor volume dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a new dose-escalated protocol was introduced (Protocol B, n=4); it prescribes a minimum tumor volume dose of 18 Gy or, alternatively, a minimum target volume dose of 15 Gy. Since 2002, the radiation dose was reduced to 80-90% dose of Protocol B because of acute radiation injury. A new Protocol was applied to 6 glioblastoma patients (Protocol C, n=6). The average values of the maximum vascular dose of brain surface in Protocol A, B and C were 11.4{+-}4.2 Gy, 15.7{+-}1.2 and 13.9{+-}3.6 Gy, respectively. Acute radiation injury such as a generalized convulsion within 1 week after BNCT was recognized in three patients of Protocol B. Delayed radiation injury such as a neurological deterioration appeared 3-6 months after BNCT, and it was recognized in 1 patient in Protocol A, 5 patients in Protocol B. According to acute radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 15.8{+-}1.3 Gy in positive and was 12.6{+-}4.3 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. According to the delayed radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 13.8{+-}3.8 Gy in positive and was 13.6{+-}4.9 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. The dose escalation is limited because most patients in Protocol B suffered from acute radiation injury. We conclude that the maximum vascular dose does not exceed over 12 Gy to avoid the delayed radiation injury, especially, it should be limited under 10 Gy in the case that tumor

  3. HGF Gene Modification in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury by Modulating Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Effective therapeutic strategies to address intestinal complications after radiation exposure are currently lacking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which display the ability to repair the injured intestine, have been considered as delivery vehicles for repair genes. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-gene-modified MSCs on radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII.Female 6- to 8-week-old mice were radiated locally at the abdomen with a single 13-Gy dose of radiation and then treated with saline control, Ad-HGF or Ad-Null-modified MSCs therapy. The transient engraftment of human MSCs was detected via real-time PCR and immunostaining. The therapeutic effects of non- and HGF-modified MSCs were evaluated via FACS to determine the lymphocyte immunophenotypes; via ELISA to measure cytokine expression; via immunostaining to determine tight junction protein expression; via PCNA staining to examine intestinal epithelial cell proliferation; and via TUNEL staining to detect intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis.The histopathological recovery of the radiation-injured intestine was significantly enhanced following non- or HGF-modified MSCs treatment. Importantly, the radiation-induced immunophenotypic disorders of the mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were attenuated in both MSCs-treated groups. Treatment with HGF-modified MSCs reduced the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the tight junction protein ZO-1, and promoted the proliferation and reduced the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.Treatment of RIII with HGF-gene-modified MSCs reduces local inflammation and promotes the recovery of small intestinal histopathology in a mouse model. These findings might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for RIII.

  4. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  5. Grape seed pro-anthocyanidins ameliorates radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijuan; Liu, Wen; Liu, Hu; Yang, Yanyong; Cui, Jianguo; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Hainan; He, Feng; Cheng, Ying; Ni, Jin; Cai, Jianming; Li, Bailong; Gao, Fu

    2014-07-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially fatal and dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the protective effects of grape seed pro-anthocyanidins (GSPs), an efficient antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent, on RILI. In our study, it was demonstrated that acute and late RILI was ameliorated after GSPs treatment possibly through suppressing TGF-β1/Smad3/Snail signalling pathway and modulating the levels of cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-4 and IL-13) derived from Th1/Th2 cells. In addition, a sustained high level of PGE2 was also maintained by GSPs treatment to limited fibroblast functions. As shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry, GSPs could scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH) in a dose-dependent manner, which might account for the mitigation of lipid peroxidation and consequent apoptosis of lung cells. In vitro, GSPs radiosensitized lung cancer cell A549 while mitigating radiation injury on normal alveolar epithelial cell RLE-6TN. In conclusion, the results showed that GSPs protects mice from RILI through scavenging free radicals and modulating RILI-associated cytokines, suggesting GSPs as a novel protective agent in RILI. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases limit functional recovery after spinal cord injury by modulation of early vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Linda J; Donovan, Frances; Igarashi, Takuji; Goussev, Staci; Werb, Zena

    2002-09-01

    Inflammation in general and proteinases generated as a result are likely mediators of early secondary pathogenesis after spinal cord injury. We report that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in blood-spinal cord barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and locomotor recovery. MMP-9 was present in the meninges and neurons of the uninjured cord. MMP-9 increased rapidly after a moderate contusion spinal cord injury, reaching a maximum at 24 hr, becoming markedly reduced by 72 hr, and not detectable at 7 d after injury. It was seen in glia, macrophages, neutrophils, and vascular elements in the injured spinal cord at 24 hr after injury. The natural tissue inhibitors of MMPs were unchanged over this time course. MMP-9-null mice exhibited significantly less disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, attenuation of neutrophil infiltration, and significant locomotor recovery compared with wild-type mice. Similar findings were observed in mice treated with a hydroxamic acid MMP inhibitor from 3 hr to 3 d after injury, compared with the vehicle controls. Moreover, the area of residual white matter at the lesion epicenter was significantly greater in the inhibitor-treated group. This study provides evidence that MMP-9 plays a key role in abnormal vascular permeability and inflammation within the first 3 d after spinal cord injury, and that blockade of MMPs during this critical period attenuates these vascular events and leads to improved locomotor recovery. Our findings suggest that early inhibition of MMPs may be an efficacious strategy for the spinal cord-injured patient.

  7. Seizures in the de-institutionalized patients with early brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeToledo, J C

    1998-08-01

    The number of individuals with early brain injury and multiple disabilities discharged from institutions had increased steadily over the past 10 years. The most frequently encountered problems by patients with early brain injury and epilepsy placed in the community were reviewed. Unavailability of specialized services, inadequate reimbursement, high turnover and lack of knowledge by caregivers, lack of understanding/acceptance of the concepts of seizure intractability and pseudoseizures, unrealistic expectations by overseeing agencies and/or family, and side effects of antiepileptic medications were the most common seizure-related problems afflicting these patients. Everything else being equal, good exchange of information between the various caregivers and continued education of caregivers, both time consuming endeavors, are the crucial factors for the successful management of seizures in this population.

  8. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests.

  9. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabin Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg, L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg, L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721 at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05. The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05. L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice.

  10. Protection of early phase hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by cholinergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Robert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokine production is critical in ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury. Acetylcholine binds to macrophages and inhibits cytokine synthesis, through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study examined the role of the cholinergic pathway in cytokine production and hepatic IR- injury. Methods Adult male mice underwent 90-min of partial liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. The AChR agonists (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-L-pioperazinium-iodide [DMPP], and nicotine or saline-vehicle were administered i.p. before ischemia. Plasma cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and Interleukin-6 were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminase (ALT and liver histopathology. Results A reperfusion time-dependent hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased plasma-ALT and histopathology. The injury was associated with marked elevation of plasma cytokines/chemokines. Pre-ischemic treatment of mice with DMPP or nicotine significantly decreased plasma-ALT and cytokines after 3 h of reperfusion. After 6 h of reperfusion, the protective effect of DMPP decreased and reached a negligible level by 24 h of reperfusion, despite significantly low levels of plasma cytokines. Histopathology showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in DMPP- and nicotine-pretreated mice during the early-phase of hepatic-IR, which reached a level comparable to saline-treated mice at late-phase of IR. Conclusion Pharmacological modulation of the cholinergic pathway provides a means to modulate cytokine production and to delay IR-induced heaptocellular injury.

  11. Interdisciplinary facilitation of the minimal participation of patients with severe brain injury in early rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the study was to shed light on the participatory aspect of early rehabilitation, when contact, communication and interaction between the patients and the professionals is minimal, because of the patients’ severe brain injury and complex conditions. Methodology...... by a combination of the clinicians’ professional skills, their ability to create a rehabilitation environment in which patients can perform activities, the right framework for the meeting, and a suitable approach, to facilitate fruitful interaction with the patients....

  12. Detection of radiation induced lung injury in rats using dynamic hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ouriadov, Alexei; Hegarty, Elaine [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Thind, Kundan [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, N6C 2R6 (Canada); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2M9 (Canada); Santyr, Giles E., E-mail: gsantyr@robarts.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Radiation induced lung injury (RILI) is a common side effect for patients undergoing thoracic radiation therapy (RT). RILI can lead to temporary or permanent loss of lung function and in extreme cases, death. Combining functional lung imaging information with conventional radiation treatment plans may lead to more desirable treatment plans that reduce lung toxicity and improve the quality of life for lung cancer survivors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the lung following inhalation of hyperpolarized{sup 129}Xe may provide a useful nonionizing approach for probing changes in lung function and structure associated with RILI before, during, or after RT (early and late time-points). Methods: In this study, dynamic{sup 129}Xe MR spectroscopy was used to measure whole-lung gas transfer time constants for lung tissue and red blood cells (RBC), respectively (T{sub Tr-tissue} and T{sub Tr-RBC}) in groups of rats at two weeks and six weeks following 14 Gy whole-lung exposure to radiation from a {sup 60}Co source. A separate group of six healthy age-matched rats served as a control group. Results: T{sub Tr-tissue} values at two weeks post-irradiation (51.6 ± 6.8 ms) were found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.05) with respect to the healthy control group (37.2 ± 4.8 ms). T{sub Tr-RBC} did not show any significant changes between groups. T{sub Tr-tissue} was strongly correlated with T{sub Tr-RBC} in the control group (r = 0.9601 p < 0.05) and uncorrelated in the irradiated groups. Measurements of arterial partial pressure of oxygen obtained by arterial blood sampling were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the two-week group (54.2 ± 12.3 mm Hg) compared to those from a representative control group (85.0 ± 10.0 mm Hg). Histology of a separate group of similarly irradiated animals confirmed the presence of inflammation due to radiation exposure with alveolar wall thicknesses that were significantly different (p < 0.05). At six weeks post

  13. EARLY ALLOGRAFT DYSFUNCTION AND ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: DEFINITIONS, RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Moysyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses issues related to intensive care in recipients of transplanted liver in the early postoperative period, with an emphasis on contemporary conditions and attitudes that are specific for this group of patients. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD requires immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment in case. The causes of the EAD and therapeutic tactics are discussed. Acute kidney injury (AKI and renal failure are common in patients after transplantation. We consider etiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AKI. The negative impact of EAD and AKI on the grafts survival and recipients is demonstrated. 

  14. Early active sun - Radiation history of distinct components in fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozaz, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Walker, R. M.; Seitz, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclase feldspars were separated from lunar soil samples and their compositions were determined by electron-microprobe analysis followed by etching and track counting in an effort to find effects of early solar activity. The feldspars were assigned on this basis to three major lithologies: mare basalts, anorthositic rocks, and KREEP rock. The results are in sharp contrast to Poupeau et al.'s (1973) observations on track densities in plagioclase crystals in the Luna 16 soil: no evidence is found for an early active sun, although the evidence does not preclude this possibility, either.

  15. The role of alveolar epithelium in radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Celine; Nagarajan, Devipriya; Tian, Jian; Leal, Sofia Walder; Wheeler, Kenneth; Munley, Michael; Blackstock, William; Zhao, Weiling

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonitis and fibrosis are major lung complications of irradiating thoracic malignancies. In the current study, we determined the effect of thoracic irradiation on the lungs of FVB/N mice. Survival data showed a dose-dependent increase in morbidity following thoracic irradiation with single (11-13 Gy) and fractionated doses (24-36 Gy) of (137)Cs γ-rays. Histological examination showed a thickening of vessel walls, accumulation of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, and regional fibrosis in the lungs 14 weeks after a single 12 Gy dose and a fractionated 30 Gy dose; this damage was also seen 5 months after a fractionated 24 Gy dose. After both single and fractionated doses, i] aquaporin-5 was markedly decreased, ii] E-cadherin was reduced and iii] prosurfactant Protein C (pro-SP-c), the number of pro-SP-c(+) cells and vimentin expression were increased in the lungs. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localization of pro-SP-c and α-smooth muscle actin in the alveoli after a single dose of 12 Gy. These data suggest that, i] the FVB/N mouse strain is sensitive to thoracic radiation ii] aquaporin-5, E-cadherin, and pro-SP-c may serve as sensitive indicators of radiation-induced lung injury; and iii] the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

  16. The role of alveolar epithelium in radiation-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Almeida

    Full Text Available Pneumonitis and fibrosis are major lung complications of irradiating thoracic malignancies. In the current study, we determined the effect of thoracic irradiation on the lungs of FVB/N mice. Survival data showed a dose-dependent increase in morbidity following thoracic irradiation with single (11-13 Gy and fractionated doses (24-36 Gy of (137Cs γ-rays. Histological examination showed a thickening of vessel walls, accumulation of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, and regional fibrosis in the lungs 14 weeks after a single 12 Gy dose and a fractionated 30 Gy dose; this damage was also seen 5 months after a fractionated 24 Gy dose. After both single and fractionated doses, i] aquaporin-5 was markedly decreased, ii] E-cadherin was reduced and iii] prosurfactant Protein C (pro-SP-c, the number of pro-SP-c(+ cells and vimentin expression were increased in the lungs. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localization of pro-SP-c and α-smooth muscle actin in the alveoli after a single dose of 12 Gy. These data suggest that, i] the FVB/N mouse strain is sensitive to thoracic radiation ii] aquaporin-5, E-cadherin, and pro-SP-c may serve as sensitive indicators of radiation-induced lung injury; and iii] the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

  17. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  18. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against acute radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, JianJun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jin, Liugen; Chen, Junliang; Du, Bin; Pang, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and it can eliminate the free radicals. The current study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of CAPE against the acute radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered with CAPE (30 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 30 Gy of β-ray irradiation to upper abdomen. We found that pretreatment with CAPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Histological evaluation further confirmed the protection of CAPE against radiation-induced hepatotoxicity. TUNEL assay showed that CAPE pretreatment inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, CAPE inhibited the nuclear transport of NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with CAPE offers protection against radiation-induced hepatic injury.

  19. Succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia in the rat following radiation injury to muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairoli, V.J.; Ivankovich, A.D.; Vucicevic, D.; Patel, K.

    1982-02-01

    During anesthetic preparation of a patient who had received routine radiation therapy for sarcoma of the leg, cardiac collapse occurred following succinylcholine (SCh) administration. Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that radiation injury to muscle might cause increased sensitivity to SCh similar to that reported in patients with muscle trauma, severe burns, and lesions causing muscle denervation. Venous plasma potassium levels and arterial blood gas tensions were measured in rats after they were given SCh (3 mg/kg) at various times following /sup 60/Co irradiation of the hind legs. Nonirradiated rats responded to SCh with a slight but statistically significant increase in plasma K+. Rats subjected to high levels of radiation (10,000 to 20,000 R) and given SCh 4 to 7 days later responded in the same way as the control rats. Plasma K+ levels in rats exposed to a fractionated irradiated dosage (2500 R given twice with a 1-week interval) followed by SCh 1 week later were similar to those in the control group, but when SCh was given 2 weeks later (3 weeks after initial irradiation) there was a marked elevation of plasma K+, from 3.6 to 7.7 meq/L, a statistically significant increase.

  20. Succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia in the rat following radiation injury to muscle. [60Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairoli, V.J.; Ivankovich, A.D.; Vucicevic, D.; Patel, K.

    1982-02-01

    During anesthetic preparation of a patient who had received routine radiation therapy of sarcoma of the leg, cardiac collapse occurred following succinylcholine (SCh) administration. Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that radiation injury to muscle might cause increased sensitivity to SCh similar to that reported in patients with muscle trauma, severe burns, and lesions causing muscle denervation. Venous plasma potassium levels and arterial blood gas tensions were measured in rats after they were given SCh (3 mg/kg) at various times following 60Co irradiation of the hind legs. Nonirradiated rats responded to SCh with a slight but statistically significant increase in plasma K+. Rats subjected to high levels of radiation (10,000 to 20,000 R) and given SCh 4 to 7 days later responded in the same way as the control rats. Plasma K+ levels in rats exposed to a fractionated irradiated dosage (25000 R given twice with a 1-week interval) followed by SCh 1 week later were similar to those in the control group, but when SCh was given 2 weeks later (3 weeks after initial irradiation) there was a marked elevation of plasma K+, from 3.6 to 7.7 meq/L, a statistically significant increase.

  1. Early changes of endothelin, nitric oxide and arginine-vasopressin in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 吕雪英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early changes and clinical significance of plasma endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in patients with acute moderate or severe cerebral injury. Methods: The early (at 24 hours after injury) plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP were measured with radioimmunoassay and Green technique in 48 cases of acute moderate (GCS≤8 in 27cases ) or severe (GCS>8 in 21 cases) cerebral injury (Group A), in 42 cases of non-cerebral injury (Group B) and in 38 normal individuals (Group C), respectively. Results: The early plasma concentrations of ET (109.73 ng/L±12.61 ng/L), NO (92.82 μmol/L±18.21 μmol/L) and AVP (49.78 ng/L±14.29 ng/L) in Group A were higher than those in Group B (67.90 ng/L±11.33 ng/L, 52.66 μmol/L±12.82 μmol/L and 29.93 ng/L±12.11 ng/L, respectively, P<0.01) and Group C (50.65 ng/L±17.12 ng/L, 36.12 μmol/L±12.16 μmol/L and 5.18 ng/L±4.18 ng/L, respectively, P<0.001). The amounts of ET, NO and AVP in patients with severe cerebral injury were 116.18 ng/L±18.12 ng/L, 108.19 μmol/L±13.28 μmol/L and 58.13 ng/L±16.78 ng/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the patients with moderate cerebral injury (92.33 ng/L±16.32 ng/L, 76.38 μmol/L±12.71 μmol/L and 36.18 ng/L±12.13 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The early levels of ET, NO and AVP in Group A were negatively related to the GCS scales. The amounts of ET, NO and AVP were 126.23 ng/L±15.23 ng/L, 118.18 μmol/L±10.12 μmol/L and 63.49 ng/L±14.36 ng/L respectively in patients with subdural hematoma, which were significantly higher than those in patients with epidural hematoma (81.13 ng/L±12.37 ng/L, 68.02 μmol/L±13.18 μmol/L and 45.63 ng/L±12.41 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP in stable duration (at 336 hours after injury) in Group A and Group B were similar to those in Group C.Conclusions: ET, NO and AVP were related to the pathophysiological process that occurs in

  2. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...

  3. Relationship between red cell distribution width and early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Jian, Liguo; Ding, Tongbin; Liu, Shichao

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that red cell distribution width was related to adverse cardiovascular events. However, few studies reported the relationship between red cell distribution width and early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional design, 334 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled according to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. Demographic and clinical examination data were collected. Depended on the urine albumin, study population were divided into case group (n = 118) and control group (n = 216). Compared with control group, the case group tend to be higher red cell distribution width level (13.6 ± 0.9 vs.12.5 ± 0.6, p red cell distribution width was positively associated with albuminuria creatinine ratio (r = 0.567, p red cell distribution width was still associated with early-stage renal injury after adjusting for many other potential cofounders. Compared with the first quartile, the risk ratio of the second, the third and the fourth quartile were 1.38 (95%CI: 1.06-1.80), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.21-2.97), 2.71 (95%CI: 2.08-3.54), respectively. Besides, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen were also significantly associated with renal injury in gestational diabetes mellitus patients. The elevated red cell distribution width level might be a predictor of early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. As an easy and routine examination index, red cell distribution width may provide better clinical guidance when combined with other important indices.

  4. Early Versus Late Tracheostomy for Patients with High and Low Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Akram H.; Menon, Venugopal K.; Suri, Neelam; Chatterjee, Nilay; Attallah, Emil; Saad, Maged Y.; Elshaer, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of early versus late tracheostomies among patients with cervical spinal cord injuries (CSCIs). Methods This retrospective study included 69 adult CSCI patients who underwent bedside percutaneous tracheostomies at the Intensive Care Unit of Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 2011 and October 2015. The tracheostomy was considered early if the procedure took place within one week of the CSCI. The impact of an early tracheostomy on patient outcomes was analysed in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) stay among patients with high (C1–C2 vertebrae) and low (C3–C7 vertebrae) CSCIs. Ventilator dependence, bradycardia episodes and surgical intervention outcomes were also examined. Results Patients with a high CSCI who underwent an early tracheostomy spent significantly fewer days on mechanical ventilation compared to those who underwent a late tracheostomy (9.3 ± 7.2 days versus 13.7 ± 3.2 days; P = 0.041). Low CSCI patients who received an early tracheostomy also experienced significantly fewer days on mechanical ventilation compared to those undergoing a late tracheostomy (12.1 ± 10.4 days versus 25.2 ± 17.7 days; P = 0.035). Moreover, ICU mortality was significantly lower for high CSCI patients who underwent an early tracheostomy (P = 0.015). However, there was no association between length of ICU stay and either type of CSCI or timing of the tracheostomy procedure. Conclusion An early tracheostomy is beneficial in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation among patients with CSCIs, irrespective of the level of injury. PMID:28003892

  5. Early Versus Late Tracheostomy for Patients with High and Low Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram H. Guirgis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of early versus late tracheostomies among patients with cervical spinal cord injuries (CSCIs. Methods: This retrospective study included 69 adult CSCI patients who underwent bedside percutaneous tracheostomies at the Intensive Care Unit of Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 2011 and October 2015. The tracheostomy was considered early if the procedure took place within one week of the CSCI. The impact of an early tracheostomy on patient outcomes was analysed in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU stay among patients with high (C1–C2 vertebrae and low (C3–C7 vertebrae CSCIs. Ventilator dependence, bradycardia episodes and surgical intervention outcomes were also examined. Results: Patients with a high CSCI who underwent an early tracheostomy spent significantly fewer days on mechanical ventilation compared to those who underwent a late tracheostomy (9.3 ± 7.2 days versus 13.7 ± 3.2 days; P = 0.041. Low CSCI patients who received an early tracheostomy also experienced significantly fewer days on mechanical ventilation compared to those undergoing a late tracheostomy (12.1 ± 10.4 days versus 25.2 ± 17.7 days; P = 0.035. Moreover, ICU mortality was significantly lower for high CSCI patients who underwent an early tracheostomy (P = 0.015. However, there was no association between length of ICU stay and either type of CSCI or timing of the tracheostomy procedure. Conclusion: An early tracheostomy is beneficial in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation among patients with CSCIs, irrespective of the level of injury.

  6. Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern on chronic radiation injuries should be treated properly for life-saving improvement of wound management and quality of life. Recently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with the use of noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and tested for Patients who were uneventfully healed with minimal donor-site morbidity, which lasts more than 1.5 years.

  7. Early effects of preoperative radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Shigeo; Igarashi, Tatsuo; Ito, Haruo

    1983-10-01

    22 patients with high grade invasive bladder cancer were treated with preoperative radiation therapy (910 rad by fast neutron or 3000 rad by X ray during 2 weeks) followed by radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. 62.5 % of patients showed reduction in tumor size more than 50% evaluated by cystogram. Stage down was observed in 38% of patients compared between clinical and pathological stage. Histopathological effect of GII or GIII, according to the criteria described by Ohboshi, was noticed in 79 % of the patients. Better effect seemed to be obtained in fast neutron treated group than in X ray group. 19 patients received curative surgery, and 18 patients were alive without recurrence after 10 months (mean observed term). One died from lung metastasis 4.5 months after surgery. 50% of the patients complained of side effects of irradiation although they were tolerable, and 32% of the patients had major complications of surgery.

  8. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  9. Late infusion of cloned marrow fibroblasts stimulates endogenous recovery from radiation-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineo Iwata

    Full Text Available In the current study, we used a canine model of radiation-induced lung injury to test the effect of a single i.v. infusion of 10×10(6/kg of marrow fibroblasts on the progression of damage following 15 Gy exposure to the right lung. The fibroblasts, designated DS1 cells, are a cloned population of immortalized cells isolated from a primary culture of marrow stromal cells. DS1 cells were infused at week 5 post-irradiation when lung damage was evident by imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (CT. At 13 weeks post-irradiation we found that 4 out of 5 dogs receiving DS1 cells had significantly improved pulmonary function compared to 0 out of 5 control dogs (p = 0.047, Fisher's Exact. Pulmonary function was measured as the single breath diffusion capacity-hematocrit (DLCO-Hct, the total inspiratory capacity (IC, and the total lung capacity (TLC, which differed significantly between control and DS1-treated dogs; p = 0.002, p = 0.005, and p = 0.004, respectively. The DS1-treated dogs also had less pneumonitis detected by CT imaging and an increased number of TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1, NKX2-1 positive cells in the bronchioli and alveoli compared to control dogs. Endothelial-like progenitor cells (ELC of host origin, detected by colony assays, were found in peripheral blood after DS1 cell infusion. ELC numbers peaked one day after infusion, and were not detectable by 7 days. These data suggest that infusion of marrow fibroblasts stimulates mobilization of ELC, which is associated with a reduction in otherwise progressive radiation-induced lung injury. We hypothesize that these two observations are related, specifically that circulating ELC contribute to increased angiogenesis, which facilitates endogenous lung repair.

  10. Radioprotective potential of Lagenaria siceraria extract against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara; Goel, Harish Chandra; Chauhan, Sonal

    2016-12-01

    The cucurbits (prebiotics) were investigated as novel agents for radio-modification against gastrointestinal injury. The cell-cycle fractions and DNA damage were monitored in HCT-15 cells. A cucurbit extract was added to culture medium 2 h before irradiation (6 Gy) and was substituted by fresh medium at 4 h post-irradiation. The whole extract of the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa cylindrica, or Cucurbita pepo extract enhanced G2 fractions (42%, 34%, and 37%, respectively) as compared with control (20%) and irradiated control (31%). With cucurbits, the comet tail length remained shorter (L. siceraria, 28 μm; L. cylindrica, 34.2 μm; C. pepo, 36.75 μm) than irradiated control (41.75 μm). For in vivo studies, L. siceraria extract (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to mice at 2 h before and 4 and 24 h after whole-body irradiation (10 Gy). L. siceraria treatment restored the glutathione contents to 48.8 μmol/gm as compared with control (27.6 μmol/gm) and irradiated control (19.6 μmol/gm). Irradiation reduced the villi height from 379 to 350 μm and width from 54 to 27 μm. L. siceraria administration countered the radiation effects (length, 366 μm; width, 30 μm, respectively) and improved the villi morphology and tight junction integrity. This study reveals the therapeutic potential of cucurbits against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury.

  11. Protective effect of prostaglandin E₁ on radiation-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis in keratinocytes and healing of radiation-induced skin injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Megumi; Sumi, Yuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Nambu, Masaki; Doumoto, Takashi; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Azuma, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kishimoto, Satoko; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of prostaglandin E₁ (PGE₁) on radiation-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in keratinocytes and healing of radiation-induced skin injury in a rat model. PGE₁ had a protective effect on radiation-induced growth inhibition in keratinocytes in vitro, but not in fibroblasts. Varying concentrations of PGE₁ were subcutaneously administered into the posterior neck region. X-irradiation at a dose of 20 Gy was administrated to the lower part of the back using a lead sheet with two holes 30 min to 1 h before or after the administration of PGE₁. Although X-irradiation induced epilation, minor erosions, or skin ulcers in almost all rats, PGE₁ administration prior to irradiation reduced these irradiation injuries. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling showed that proportions of apoptotic keratinocytes in the X-irradiated skin of PGE₁-administered rats were significantly lower than for those in the skin of rats which did not receive PGE₁. Cutaneous full-thickness defective wounds were then formed in X-irradiated areas to examine the time course of wound healing. Wound healing was significantly delayed because of X-irradiation, but PGE₁ administration prior to irradiation led to a significantly shorter delay in wound healing compared with controls. Decreasing delay in wound healing was correlated with concentration of PGE₁ administrated. Thus, PGE₁-administration may potentially alleviate the radiation-induced skin injury.

  12. Radiative feedback on early molecular gas and implications for primordial structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    We present results from self-consistent simulations of cosmic structure formation with a multi-frequency radiative transfer scheme and non-equilibrium molecular chemistry of e-, H, H+, H-, He, He+, He++, H_2, H_2+, D, D+, HD, HeH+, performed by using the simulation code GADGET. We describe our implementation and show tests for ionized sphere expansion in a static density field around a central radiative source; cosmological abundance evolution coupled with the cosmic microwave background radiation; cosmological simulations of early structure formation with radiative feedback. Our tests agree well with analytical and numerical expectations. The contributions from the detailed chemical network affect at a ~10% level the determination of the Stroemgren radius of an ionized bubble, and additional processes from the different species considered allows the gas to recombine slightly later, with respect to the H-only approximation. Moreover, we find that radiative effects from the cosmic microwave background are negl...

  13. Early and Persistent Dendritic Hypertrophy in the Basolateral Amygdala following Experimental Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ann N; Paode, Pooja R; May, Hazel G; Ortiz, J Bryce; Kemmou, Salma; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Conrad, Cheryl D; Currier Thomas, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    In the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the amygdala remains understudied, despite involvement in processing emotional and stressful stimuli associated with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because the basolateral amygdala (BLA) integrates inputs from sensory and other limbic structures coordinating emotional learning and memory, injury-induced changes in circuitry may contribute to psychiatric sequelae of TBI. This study quantified temporal changes in dendritic complexity of BLA neurons after experimental diffuse TBI, modeled by midline fluid percussion injury. At post-injury days (PIDs) 1, 7, and 28, brain tissue from sham and brain-injured adult, male rats was processed for Golgi, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or silver stain and analyzed to quantify BLA dendritic branch intersections, activated astrocytes, and regional neuropathology, respectively. Compared to sham, brain-injured rats at all PIDs showed enhanced dendritic branch intersections in both pyramidal and stellate BLA neuronal types, as evidenced by Sholl analysis. GFAP staining in the BLA was significantly increased at PID1 and 7 in comparison to sham. However, the BLA was relatively spared from neuropathology, demonstrated by an absence of argyrophilic accumulation over time, in contrast to other brain regions. These data suggest an early and persistent enhancement of dendritic complexity within the BLA after a single diffuse TBI. Increased dendritic complexity would alter information processing into and through the amygdala, contributing to emotional symptoms post-TBI, including PTSD.

  14. Caffeic acid ameliorates early and delayed brain injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHOU; San-hua FANG; Yi-lu YE; Li-sheng CHU; Wei-ping ZHANG; Meng-ling WANG; Er-qing WEI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of caffeic acid on early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and the possible relation to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Caffeic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) was ip injected for 5 d after ischemia. The brain injuries were observed, and the levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 in the brain tissue were measured. Results: Caffeic acid (50 mg/kg) ameliorated neurological dysfunction and neuron loss, and decreased infarct volume 24 h after ischemia; it attenuated brain atrophy, infarct volume, and particularly astrocyte proliferation 14 d after ischemia. In addition, it reduced the production of leukotrienes (5-lipoxygenase metabolites) in the ischemic hemispheres 3 h and 7 d after ischemia. Conclusion: Caffeic acid has protective effect on both early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats; and this effect may partly relate to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  15. Radiative transfer in CO2-rich atmospheres: 1. Collisional line mixing implies a colder early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozak, N.; Aharonson, O.; Halevy, I.

    2016-06-01

    Fast and accurate radiative transfer methods are essential for modeling CO2-rich atmospheres, relevant to the climate of early Earth and Mars, present-day Venus, and some exoplanets. Although such models already exist, their accuracy may be improved as better theoretical and experimental constraints become available. Here we develop a unidimensional radiative transfer code for CO2-rich atmospheres, using the correlated k approach and with a focus on modeling early Mars. Our model differs from existing models in that it includes the effects of CO2 collisional line mixing in the calculation of the line-by-line absorption coefficients. Inclusion of these effects results in model atmospheres that are more transparent to infrared radiation and, therefore, in colder surface temperatures at radiative-convective equilibrium, compared with results of previous studies. Inclusion of water vapor in the model atmosphere results in negligible warming due to the low atmospheric temperatures under a weaker early Sun, which translate into climatically unimportant concentrations of water vapor. Overall, the results imply that sustained warmth on early Mars would not have been possible with an atmosphere containing only CO2 and water vapor, suggesting that other components of the early Martian climate system are missing from current models or that warm conditions were not long lived.

  16. Radiative feedback from an early X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, S C O; Glover, Simon C.O.; Brand, Peter W.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The first generation of stars (commonly known as population III) are expected to form in low-mass protogalaxies in which molecular hydrogen is the dominant coolant. Radiation from these stars will rapidly build up an extragalactic ultraviolet background capable of photodissociating H2, and it is widely believed that this background will suppress further star formation in low-mass systems. However, star formation will also produce an extragalactic X-ray background. This X-ray background, by increasing the fractional ionization of protogalactic gas, promotes H2 formation and reduces the effectiveness of ultraviolet feedback. In this paper, we examine which of these backgrounds has the dominant effect. Using a simple model for the growth of the UV and X-ray backgrounds, together with a detailed one-dimensional model of protogalactic chemical evolution, we examine the effects of the X-ray backgrounds produced by a number of likely source models. We show that in several cases, the resulting X-ray background is str...

  17. SDF-1 dynamically mediates megakaryocyte niche occupancy and thrombopoiesis at steady state and following radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswander, Lisa M; Fegan, Katherine H; Kingsley, Paul D; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2014-07-10

    Megakaryocyte (MK) development in the bone marrow progresses spatially from the endosteal niche, which promotes MK progenitor proliferation, to the sinusoidal vascular niche, the site of terminal maturation and thrombopoiesis. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), signaling through CXCR4, is implicated in the maturational chemotaxis of MKs toward sinusoidal vessels. Here, we demonstrate that both IV administration of SDF-1 and stabilization of endogenous SDF-1 acutely increase MK-vasculature association and thrombopoiesis with no change in MK number. In the setting of radiation injury, we find dynamic fluctuations in marrow SDF-1 distribution that spatially and temporally correlate with variations in MK niche occupancy. Stabilization of altered SDF-1 gradients directly affects MK location. Importantly, these SDF-1-mediated changes have functional consequences for platelet production, as the movement of MKs away from the vasculature decreases circulating platelets, while MK association with the vasculature increases circulating platelets. Finally, we demonstrate that manipulation of SDF-1 gradients can improve radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in a manner additive with earlier TPO treatment. Taken together, our data support the concept that SDF-1 regulates the spatial distribution of MKs in the marrow and consequently circulating platelet numbers. This knowledge of the microenvironmental regulation of the MK lineage could lead to improved therapeutic strategies for thrombocytopenia.

  18. Breast pseudotumoral radionecrosis as a late radiation-induced injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerullis Holger

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction New therapies and treatment protocols have led to improved survival rates in many cancers. The improved rates are such that patients are now living long enough to experience some negative long-term side effects of the initial therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with a rare case of pseudotumoral radionecrosis, a late radiation-induced injury, after combined surgical and cobalt radiation therapy for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the right breast. The patient underwent resection of this benign, yet progressively growing and painful tumor. A cosmetically satisfying result was achieved by reconstruction of the thoracic wall with a polypropylene mesh and a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Conclusion With improved overall survival, new management strategies for late side effects of therapy are becoming of crucial importance for affected patients. In the future, improving toxicity-free survival will be as important as achieving disease-free survival or local tumor control.

  19. Attempt at a medicolegal assessment of radiation damage as bodily injury. Der Versuch einer gerichtsmedizinischen Beurteilung des Strahlenschadens als Koerperverletzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J.

    1970-02-20

    The dissertation shows on which basis an unsuccessful therapy or the inevitable consequence of therapy, radiation damage, can be prosecuted under penal law as bodily injury. A description is given of the nature and the different types of ionizing radiation, effects on the cell and on the human organism, types of damage, different degrees of sensitivity of the various organs, signs and symptoms in the human body, maximum doses, legal restrictions for different patient groups and organs. The problems involved in objectification and establishing a causal relationship between ionizing radiation and the manifest damage are pointed out clearly. The legal part of the work examines negligence, obligation to inform the patient, obligation to exercise due care, failure to do so and malpractice as possible criteria for culpable infliction of bodily injury. (HSCH).

  20. Polyethylene glycol reduces early and long-term cold ischemia-reperfusion and renal medulla injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jean Pierre; Hauet, Thierry; Han, Zeqiu; Goujon, Jean Michel; Petit, Isabelle; Mauco, Gerard; Eugene, Michel; Carretier, Michel; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2002-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after transplantation is a major cause of delayed graft function, which has a negative impact on early and late graft function and improve acute rejection. We have previously shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and particularly PEG 20M has a protective effect against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in an isolated perfused pig and rat kidney model. We extended those observations to investigate the role of PEG using different doses (30g or 50g/l) added (ICPEG30 or ICPEG50) or not (IC) to a simplified preservation solution to reduce IRI after prolonged cold storage (48-h) of pig kidneys when compared with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions. The study of renal function and medulla injury was performed with biochemical methods and proton NMR spectroscopy. Histological and inflammatory cell studies were performed after reperfusion (30-40 min) and on days 7 and 14 and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a mitochondrial protein involved in cholesterol homeostasis, was also studied. The results demonstrated that ICPEG30 improved renal function and reduced medulla injury. ICPEG30 also improved tubular function and strongly protect mitochondrial integrity. Post-IRI inflammation was strongly reduced in this group, particularly lymphocytes TCD4(+), PBR expression was influenced by IRI in the early period and during the development of chronic dysfunction. This study clearly shows that PEG has a beneficial effect in renal preservation and suggests a role of PBR as a marker IRI and repair processes.

  1. Elucidating the early signal transduction pathways leading to fetal brain injury in preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovitz, Michal A; Mrinalini, Conjeevaram; Sammel, Mary D

    2006-01-01

    Adverse neurologic outcome, including cerebral palsy, is a significant contributor to long-term morbidity in preterm neonates. However, the mechanisms leading to brain injury in the setting of a preterm birth are poorly understood. In the last decade, there has been a growing body of evidence correlating infection or inflammation with preterm birth. The presence of intrauterine inflammation significantly increases the risk for adverse neurologic outcome in the neonate. These studies were performed to elucidate the early signal transduction pathways activated in the fetal brain that may result in long-term neurologic injury. Using our mouse model of localized intrauterine inflammation, the activation of TH1/TH2 pathways in the placenta, fetus corpus, fetal liver, and fetal brain was investigated. Additional studies determined whether activation of TH1/TH2 pathways could promote cell death and alter glial development. Real-time PCR studies demonstrated that a robust TH1/TH2 response occurs rapidly in the fetal brain after exposure to intrauterine inflammation. The cytokine response in the fetus and placenta was not significantly correlated with the response in the fetal brain. Along with an immune response, cell death pathways were activated early in the fetal brain in response to intrauterine LPS. Implicating TH1/TH2 and cell death pathways in permanent brain injury are our findings of an increase in GFAP mRNA and protein as well as a loss of pro-oligodendrocytes. With increased understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation promotes brain injury in the preterm neonate, identification of potential targets to limit adverse neonatal outcomes becomes possible.

  2. Effects of low dose gamma radiation on the early growth of red pepper and the resistance to subsquent high dose of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Baek, M. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. B. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Red pepper (capsicum annuum L. cv. Jokwang and cv. Johong) seeds were irradiated with the dose of 0{approx}50 Gy to investigated the effect of the low dose gamma radiation on the early growth and resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation. The effect of the low dose gamma radiation on the early growth and resistance to subsequenct high dose of radiation were enhanced in Johong cultivar but not in Jokwang cultivar. Germination rate and early growth of Johong cultivar were noticeably increased at 4 Gy-, 8 Gy- and 20 Gy irradiation group. Resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation of Johong cultivar were increased at almost all of the low dose irradiation group. Especially it was highest at 4 Gy irradiation group. The carotenoid contents and enzyme activity on the resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation of Johong cultivar were increased at the 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group.

  3. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz, E-mail: rcmosca@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm{sup 3}) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  4. Management of postoperative radiation injury of the urinary bladder by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peusch-Dreyer, D.; Dreyer, K.H. [Zentrum fuer Tauch- und Ueberdruckmedizin (ZETUeM), Bremen (Germany); Mueller, C.D. [Druckkammerzentrum Magdeburg (Germany); Carl, U. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Aim: In many case reports the success of treatment of late complications of radiotherapy with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown. This synopsis attempts to review HBO in the treatment of chronic radiation injury of the bladder. Patients and methods: Three female patients who had developed urge-incontinence after a Wertheim operation and combined brachy-teletherapy with cobalt-60 and afterloading and did not respond to various drug therapies, were treated with HBO to a maximum of 40 applications. Results: In all patients HBO haltered and inverted the dynamic process underlying chronic bladder changes after irradiation. Rationales for the HBO are the reduction of tissue hypoxia and the induction of neoangiogenesis. Conclusions: There are no prospective trials up to date showing the benefit of HBO to urinary disorders caused by radiation cystitis. The positive results of our retrospective study should encourage clinicians to initiate prospective studies with the use of HBO in the treatment of radiation cystitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Ueber die erfolgreiche Anwendung der hyperbaren Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) zur Behandlung von Strahlenspaetkomplikationen ist in zahlreichen Publikationen berichtet worden. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einsatz der HBO bei der Behandlung von Miktionsbeschwerden bei chronisch radiogenen Harnblasenschaeden zu bewerten. Patienten und Methode: Drei Patientinnen, die nach einer kombinierten Brachyteletherapie mit Kobalt 60 und Afterloading nach Wertheim-Operation unter einer medikamentoes nicht zu beeinflussenden Urge-Inkontinenz litten, wurden der HBO mit maximal 40 Behandlungen zugefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die HBO war bei allen Patientinnen in der Lage, den dynamischen Krankheitsprozess der Strahlenzystitis aufzuhalten und teilweise umzukehren. Grundlage hierfuer ist die Beseitigung der Gewebshypoxie. Dieses wiederum stellt die Voraussetzung fuer eine Neovaskularisation im bestrahlten Gewebe dar. Schlussfolgerung: Prospektive Studien

  5. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an Shaanxi (China); Hannah, X.H. [Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  6. Early phase tendon transfers in radial and ulnar nerve injuries: internal splinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Markal Ertaş

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Internal splinting is defined as early tendon transfer performed during or just after nerve repair followingnerve injury and is a controversial issue. The objectivesof internal splinting are avoiding the use of long term external splinting, avoiding permanent hand deformities until the injured nerve is reinnervated and supporting sensorial recovery. In this paper we present our clinical cases of internal splinting and discuss the results in terms of indications, timing, advantages, and disadvantages of internal splinting.Materials and Methods: We applied internal splinting in 11 patients, 3 patients with radial nerve injury and 8 patients with ulnar nerve injury. Internal splinting was performed contemporarily with the nerve repair in 5 patients,in 2 weeks following nerve repair in 1 patient and in 4 weeks following nerve repair in 5 patients. Pronator teres was transferred to extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor carpi radialis was transferred to extensor digitorum communis in radial nerve injuries. Omer’s superficial Y technique and its modification were used for ulnar nerve injuries.Results: Patients were followed up for at least 1 year with physical examination and electroneuromyelography and recovery of sensorial and motor functions were achieved in all of them.Conclusion: We concluded that internal splinting is usefulfor avoiding external splint usage and preventing the establishment of hand deformity until recovery of the nerve. The contribution of internal splinting to sensorial recovery was noteworthy as stated in the literature but the lack of control group and the small number of our cases was limited to come to a definite conclusion. We did not experience any disadvantage of internal splinting.

  7. Multidimensional Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Impairment in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabray, Marc C; Talbott, Jason F; Whetstone, William D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Phillips, David B; Pan, Jonathan Z; Manley, Geoffrey T; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Beattie, Michael S; Haefeli, Jenny; Ferguson, Adam R

    2016-05-15

    Literature examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on cervical SCI. Reproducible systems have been developed for MRI-based grading; however, it is unclear how they apply to thoracic SCI. Our hypothesis is that MRI measures will group as coherent multivariate principal component (PC) ensembles, and that distinct PCs and individual variables will show discriminant validity for predicting early impairment in thoracic SCI. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 25 patients with acute thoracic SCI who underwent MRI on admission and had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) assessment at hospital discharge. Imaging variables of axial grade, sagittal grade, length of injury, thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), maximum canal compromise (MCC), and maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were collected. We performed an analytical workflow to detect multivariate PC patterns followed by explicit hypothesis testing to predict AIS at discharge. All imaging variables loaded positively on PC1 (64.3% of variance), which was highly related to AIS at discharge. MCC, MSCC, and TLICS also loaded positively on PC2 (22.7% of variance), while variables concerning cord signal abnormality loaded negatively on PC2. PC2 was highly related to the patient undergoing surgical decompression. Variables of signal abnormality were all negatively correlated with AIS at discharge with the highest level of correlation for axial grade as assessed with the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score. A multiple variable model identified BASIC as the only statistically significant predictor of AIS at discharge, signifying that BASIC best captured the variance in AIS within our study population. Our study provides evidence of convergent validity, construct validity, and clinical predictive validity for the sampled MRI measures of SCI when applied in acute thoracic and thoracolumbar SCI.

  8. Early biomarkers of doxorubicin-induced heart injury in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kwekel, Joshua C.; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tao [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac troponins, which are used as myocardial injury markers, are released in plasma only after tissue damage has occurred. Therefore, there is a need for identification of biomarkers of earlier events in cardiac injury to limit the extent of damage. To accomplish this, expression profiling of 1179 unique microRNAs (miRNAs) was performed in a chronic cardiotoxicity mouse model developed in our laboratory. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX; an anti-cancer drug), or saline once a week for 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were euthanized a week after the last dose. Cardiac injury was evidenced in mice exposed to 18 mg/kg and higher cumulative DOX dose whereas examination of hearts by light microscopy revealed cardiac lesions at 24 mg/kg DOX. Also, 24 miRNAs were differentially expressed in mouse hearts, with the expression of 1, 1, 2, 8, and 21 miRNAs altered at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg DOX, respectively. A pro-apoptotic miR-34a was the only miRNA that was up-regulated at all cumulative DOX doses and showed a significant dose-related response. Up-regulation of miR-34a at 6 mg/kg DOX may suggest apoptosis as an early molecular change in the hearts of DOX-treated mice. At 12 mg/kg DOX, up-regulation of miR-34a was associated with down-regulation of hypertrophy-related miR-150; changes observed before cardiac injury. These findings may lead to the development of biomarkers of earlier events in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity that occur before the release of cardiac troponins. - Highlights: • Upregulation of miR-34a before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury • Apoptosis might be an early event in mouse heart during doxorubicin treatment. • Expression of miR-150 declined before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury.

  9. β(2)-Adrenoreceptor blockade improves early posttrauma hyperglycemia and pulmonary injury in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N; Clemmer, John S; Husband, Graham W; Hester, Robert L

    2014-08-15

    Early hyperglycemia after trauma increases morbidity and mortality. Insulin is widely used to control posttrauma glucose, but this treatment increases the risk of hypoglycemia. We tested a novel method for early posttrauma hyperglycemia control by suppressing hepatic glycogenolysis via β2-adrenoreceptor blockade [ICI-118551 (ICI)]. We have shown that, after severe trauma, obese Zucker (OZ) rats, similar to obese patients, exhibit increased acute lung injury compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. We hypothesized that OZ rats exhibit a greater increase in early posttrauma glucose compared with LZ rats, with the increased posttrauma hyperglycemia suppressed by ICI treatment. Orthopedic trauma was applied to both hindlimbs in LZ and OZ rats. Fasting plasma glucose was then monitored for 6 h with or without ICI (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) iv.) treatment. One day after trauma, plasma IL-6 levels, lung neutrophil numbers, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratios were measured. Trauma induced rapid hepatic glycogenolysis, as evidenced by decreased liver glycogen levels, and this was inhibited by ICI treatment. Compared with LZ rats, OZ rats exhibited higher posttrauma glucose, IL-6, lung neutrophil infiltration, and MPO activity. Lung wet-to-dry weight ratios were increased in OZ rats but not in LZ rats. ICI treatment reduced the early hyperglycemia, lung neutrophil retention, MPO activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in OZ rats to levels comparable with those seen in LZ rats, with no effect on blood pressure or heart rate. These results demonstrate that β2-adrenoreceptor blockade effectively reduces the early posttrauma hyperglycemia, which is associated with decreased lung injury in OZ rats.

  10. Urinary L-FABP predicts poor outcomes in critically ill patients with early acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Sharidan K; Clark, Amanda J; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi K; Wickersham, Nancy E; Ware, Lorraine B; Ikizler, T Alp; Siew, Edward D

    2015-03-01

    Biomarker studies for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) have been limited by nonselective testing and uncertainties in using small changes in serum creatinine as a reference standard. Here we examine the ability of urine L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) to predict injury progression, dialysis, or death within 7 days in critically ill adults with early AKI. Of 152 patients with known baseline creatinine examined, 36 experienced the composite outcome. Urine L-FABP demonstrated an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.86), which improved to 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.90) when added to the clinical model (AUC-ROC of 0.74). Urine NGAL, IL-18, and KIM-1 had AUC-ROCs of 0.65, 0.64, and 0.62, respectively, but did not significantly improve discrimination of the clinical model. The category-free net reclassification index improved with urine L-FABP (total net reclassification index for nonevents 31.0%) and urine NGAL (total net reclassification index for events 33.3%). However, only urine L-FABP significantly improved the integrated discrimination index. Thus, modest early changes in serum creatinine can help target biomarker measurement for determining prognosis with urine L-FABP, providing independent and additive prognostic information when combined with clinical predictors.

  11. Radiation technique to determine early peopling of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Ayta, Walter E.F.; Callata, Henry J.C.; Farias, Thiago M.B.; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear], e-mail: lacifid@dfn.if.usp.br; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. de Antropologia e Etnologia], e-mail: etchvrn@ufba.br

    2009-07-01

    Peopling American Continent and in particular of Brazil has been subject of research for a long time. With the results of dating of several pertinent materials many theories have been proposed. In Brazil, there is a National Park (Serra da Capivara Park) which is worldwide known due to thousands of wall paintings, most of them in rockshelters. N. Guidon, head of the Serra da Capivara National Park, found charcoal pellets in several archaeological sites and they were dated by radiocarbon technique. Ages ranging from 6 to 48 ka have been found. In one of the shelter a thin white covering was found that was proved to be calcite. This calcite was dated by Thermoluminescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance techniques and ages of 35 to 36 ka were obtained. In 2007, thin calcite covering wall paintings found in Iraquara County, Bahia state, has been dated. Ages of 50 ka have been obtained. The proposal of this work is that the early settlers crossed Atlantic Ocean from westernmost point of African Continent to easternmost point in Brazil more than 50000 years ago. The theory here proposed is possible once the distance between these two points is less than 3000 km distance far shorter than from Siberia to South America as proposed by other researchers.(author)

  12. Early decompressive craniectomy for severe penetrating and closed head injury during wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy S; Mossop, Corey M; Dirks, Michael S; Stephens, Frederick L; Mulligan, Lisa; Ecker, Robert; Neal, Christopher J; Kumar, Anand; Tigno, Teodoro; Armonda, Rocco A

    2010-05-01

    scores (3.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.7 +/- 0.9, 3.5 +/- 1.2 vs 4.0 +/- 1.0, and 3.7 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 0.9, respectively) than those who did not undergo decompressive craniectomies. That said, intragroup analysis indicated consistent improvement for those with craniectomy with time, allowing them, on average, to participate in and improve from rehabilitation (p < 0.05). Overall, 83% of those for whom follow-up data are available achieved a 1-year GOS score of greater than 3. This study of the provision of early decompressive craniectomy in a military population that sustained severe penetrating and closed head injuries represents one of the largest to date in both the civilian and military literature. The findings suggest that patients who undergo decompressive craniectomy had worse injuries than those receiving craniotomy and, while not achieving the same outcomes as those with a lesser injury, did improve with time. The authors recommend hemicraniectomy for damage control to protect patients from the effects of brain swelling during the long overseas transport to their definitive care, and it should be conducted with foresight concerning future complications and reconstructive surgical procedures.

  13. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviation on the oxidative stress and early-phase radiation-induced brain injury in rats%饱和氢盐水减轻大鼠急性放射性脑损伤早期的氧化应激

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红梅; 杨顺; 陈列松; 吕海军; 王爱东; 张力元

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hydrogen on radiation-induced acute injury in rat brain.Methods Forty-five mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:saline therapy group,hydrogen therapy group and healthy control group.The whole brain of SD rat was irradiated with single dose of 20 Gy by 4 MeV electrons.Rats in therapy group were injected with hydrogen-rich saline after irradiation and were sacrificed at 1,3,7,14 d post-irradiation.The changes of malonaldehyde (MDA),superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and 8-hydroxydeoxygunosine (8-OHdG) in brain homogenate and the pathological changes in brain hippocampus were observed.Results The brain water content (t=3.78,3.18,P<0.05) and the contents of 8-OHdG (t=2.33,2.71,2.33,P<0.05) in the therapy group was lower than the control group at 7 d and 14 d post-irradiation.The contents of SOD were significantly higher(t =2.41-2.92,P < 0.05) from 1 to 7 day,while the contents of MDA were significantly lower in therapy group than those in the control group from 1 to 14 day post-irradiation (t =4.01-6.20,P < 0.05).Moreover,the damage degree in the nerve cells of hippocampus was less compared to the control group.Conclusions The hydrogen-rich saline could have protection role in irradiation-induced acute brain injury in rats.%目的 探讨饱和氢盐水对电离辐射诱发的脑组织损伤的保护作用.方法 成年4月龄健康SD大鼠45只,采用随机数字表法分为健康对照组,盐水治疗组和氢水治疗组,再根据照射后时间分为1、3、7和14d4个时间组,每组5只.4 MeV电子线对大鼠进行单次垂直全脑照射,吸收剂量率为200 cGy/min,吸收剂量20 Gy.氢水治疗组大鼠于照射后即刻、照后连续3d给予饱和氢盐水腹腔注射,分别于照射后1、3、7和14 d处死大鼠,取脑组织制作匀浆,分光光度计检测超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、8-羟基脱氧鸟嘌呤(8-OHdG)含量.HE染色观察海马

  14. Research progress of early rehabilitation therapy on severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang YU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI have decreased because of advances in emergency medicine. Despite these positive achievements, the disability due to TBI has not appreciably reduced. TBI results in impairment of neurological and cognitive functions leading to activity restriction of patients. The current focus is to rehabilitate them so that they can regain their premorbid functional status as much as possible. This paper would like to review the treatment mechanism, methods and clinical advantages of early rehabilitation therapy in patients with severe TBI. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.06.017

  15. SU-E-J-247: Time Evolution of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury After Stereotactic Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Sharp, G; Fintelmann, F; Paganetti, H; Willers, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative metrics to assess patient-specific radiation-induced lung injury have the potential to guide individualization of therapy and be early indicators of recurrence. Here we investigate computed tomography (CT) density changes in normal lung after stereotactic Proton Therapy. Methods: Participants in a phase-I clinical trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with protons are analyzed on a rolling basis. The dataset includes 9 patients with 34 CT images to date. Follow-up images are registered to the planning CT using deformable image registration and the change in CT density is correlated to the dose to examine the time-evolution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes after large doses of proton radiation. Results: The lung density observed on the follow-up images increases significantly with dose for all dose levels above 5 Gy(RBE) (p<0.001) for 8/9 patients. The change per unit dose [HU/Gy] varies significantly among the patients, from 0.1 (for the one patient without significant correlation) to 5.7 ΔHU/Gy(RBE). The current population average of ΔHU/Gy(RBE) is 2.1, i.e. a 1 Gy(RBE) increase in dose leads on average to a 2.1 HU increase in CT density. The slope of the dose-response curve is constant for all timepoints investigated (from 3–24+ months). Additionally a pronounced non-linearity in the dose response curve is noted for long follow-up times (>18 months). Conclusion: CT density changes have a robust correlation with proton dose, quantitatively similar to photon dose, and may allow estimation of a patient’s intrinsic radiosensitivity after proton therapy. The stability of the correlation with time however diverges from what is known about CT response after photon irradiation. This could have important implications for clinical decision-making during proton therapy for lung cancer, especially for scheduling of follow-up CT/PET imaging and diagnosis of recurrence.

  16. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  17. Toll-like receptor 4 regulates early endothelial activation during ischemic acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; John, Reji; Richardson, James A.; Shelton, John M.; Zhou, Xin J.; Wang, Yanxia; Wu, Qing Qing; Hartono, John R.; Winterberg, Pamela D.; Lu, Christopher Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers an inflammatory response which exacerbates injury that requires increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. To study this further, we used in situ hybridization, immunohistology, and isolated endothelial cells, and found increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on endothelial cells of the vasa rectae of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of the kidney 4 h after reperfusion. This increase was probably due to reactive oxygen species, known to be generated early during ischemic AKI, because the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased TLR4 expression in MS1 microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Endothelial TLR4 may regulate adhesion molecule (CD54 and CD62E) expression as they were increased on endothelia of wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice in vivo. Further, the addition of high-mobility group protein B1, a TLR4 ligand released by injured cells, increased adhesion molecule expression on endothelia isolated from wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice. TLR4 was localized to proximal tubules in the cortex and outer medulla after 24 h of reperfusion. Thus, at least two different cell types express TLR4, each of which contributes to renal injury by temporally different mechanisms during ischemic AKI. PMID:20927041

  18. Neutrophils as early immunologic effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, E; Carmody, A; Shenkar, R; Arcaroli, J

    2000-12-01

    Acute lung injury is characterized by accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, accompanied by the development of interstitial edema and an intense inflammatory response. To assess the role of neutrophils as early immune effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced lung injury, mice were made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide or anti-neutrophil antibodies. Endotoxemia- or hemorrhage-induced lung edema was significantly reduced in neutropenic animals. Activation of the transcriptional regulatory factor nuclear factor-kappaB after hemorrhage or endotoxemia was diminished in the lungs of neutropenic mice compared with nonneutropenic controls. Hemorrhage or endotoxemia was followed by increases in pulmonary mRNA and protein levels for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Endotoxin-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression were greater than those found after hemorrhage. The amounts of mRNA or protein for IL-1beta, MIP-2, and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after hemorrhage in the lungs of neutropenic versus nonneutropenic mice. Neutropenia was associated with significant reductions in IL-1beta and MIP-2 but not in TNF-alpha expression in the lungs after endotoxemia. These experiments show that neutrophils play a central role in initiating acute inflammatory responses and causing injury in the lungs after hemorrhage or endotoxemia.

  19. Early activation of caspase-1 after retinal ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑广瑛; 张成; 李志刚

    2004-01-01

    Background Caspases are important in the signaling pathway of cellular apoptosis. Caspase-3 protein expression has been shown to increase and parallel to neuronal apoptosis in retinal ischemia injury. This study was to determine whether caspase-1 is involved in neuronal cell death or in retinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods In twenty-one adult mice, ischemia was induced by increasing the intraocular pressure. The animals were sacrificed at 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion. Frozen sections were used for caspase-1 immunostaining and TUNEL labeling. Results In normal retina, no caspase-1 positive cells were seen. One hour after ischemia, numerous positive cells were noted in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner side of inner nuclear layer (INL). At 3 hours, caspase-1 positive cells continued to increase and peaked at 6 hours, then decreased significantly at 1 day. TUNEL positive cells were detected at 3 hours and peaked at 1 day after ischemia. Double labeling of caspase-1 and TUNEL only showed few cells with co-localization after ischemia. Conclusion Caspase-1 immunoreactivity preceds to the TUNEL labeling in the GCL and INL after retinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and its early activation may play an important role in the initiation of neuronal apoptosis.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium prevents radiation-induced liver injury by inhibiting inflammation and protecting sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Sun, Jing; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Huang, Yan-; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Current management of radiation-induced liver injury is limited. Sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) apoptosis and inflammation are considered to be initiating events in hepatic damage. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions during hepatic irradiation, acting via paracrine mechanisms. This study aims to examine whether MSC-derived bioactive components are protective against radiation-induced liver injury in rats. MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) was generated from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs. The effect of MSC-CM on the viability of irradiated SECs was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of the Akt and ERK pathways was analyzed by western blot. MSC-CM was also delivered to Sprague-Dawley rats immediately before receiving liver irradiation, followed by testing for pathological features, changes in serum hyaluronic acid, ALT, and inflammatory cytokine levels, and liver cell apoptosis. MSC-CM enhanced the viability of irradiated SECs in vitro and induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation in these cells. Infusion of MSC-CM immediately before liver irradiation provided a significant anti-apoptotic effect on SECs and improved the histopathological features of injury in the irradiated liver. MSC-CM also reduced the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSC-derived bioactive components could be a novel therapeutic approach for treating radiation-induced liver injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb

  2. Urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 early predict acute kidney injury after major surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gocze

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of the urinary biomarkers IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI in high-risk surgical patients.Postoperative AKI is associated with an increase in short and long-term mortality. Using IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 for early detection of cellular kidney injury, thus allowing the early initiation of renal protection measures, may represent a new concept of evaluating renal function.In this prospective study, urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] was measured in surgical patients at high risk for AKI. A predefined cut-off value of [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] >0.3 was used for assessing diagnostic accuracy. Perioperative characteristics were evaluated, and ROC analyses as well as logistic regression models of risk assessment were calculated with and without a [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test.107 patients were included in the study, of whom 45 (42% developed AKI. The highest median values of biomarker were detected in septic, transplant and patients after hepatic surgery (1.24 vs 0.45 vs 0.47 ng/l²/1000. The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC for the risk of any AKI was 0.85, for early use of RRT 0.83 and for 28-day mortality 0.77. In a multivariable model with established perioperative risk factors, the [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test was the strongest predictor of AKI and significantly improved the risk assessment (p<0.001.Urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test sufficiently detect patients with risk of AKI after major non-cardiac surgery. Due to its rapid responsiveness it extends the time frame for intervention to prevent development of AKI.

  3. Effects of radiation combined injury on hippocampal function are modulated in mice deficient in chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Antiño R; Eilertson, Kirsten; Sharma, Sourabh; Schneider, Danielle; Baure, Jennifer; Allen, Barrett; Rosi, Susanna; Raber, Jacob; Fike, John R

    2013-07-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in normal brain function as well as in pathological conditions such as injury and disease-associated neuroinflammation. Chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), which mediates the recruitment of infiltrating and resident microglia to sites of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, is upregulated by ionizing irradiation and traumatic brain injury. Our objective was to determine if a deficiency in CCR2 and subsequent effects on brain microglia affect neurogenesis and cognitive function after radiation combined injury (RCI). CCR2 knock-out ⁻/⁻ and wild-type (WT) mice received 4 Gy of whole body ¹³⁷Cs irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, unilateral traumatic brain injury was induced using a controlled cortical impact system. Forty-four days postirradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Morris water-maze. After cognitive testing, animals were euthanized and their brains snap frozen for immunohistochemical assessment of neuroinflammation (activated microglia) and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. All animals were able to locate the visible and hidden platform locations in the water maze; however, treatment effects were seen when spatial memory retention was assessed in the probe trials (no platform). In WT animals that received combined injury, a significant impairment in spatial memory retention was observed in the probe trial after the first day of hidden platform training (first probe trial). This impairment was associated with increased neurogenesis in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the dentate gyrus. In contrast, CCR2⁻/⁻ mice, independent of insult showed significant memory retention in the first probe trial and there were no differences in the numbers of newly born neurons in the animals receiving irradiation, trauma or combined injury. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, our data suggests that CCR2 deficiency can exert a protective

  4. Reduction of neutrophil activity decreases early microvascular injury after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Weina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH elicits rapid pathological changes in the structure and function of parenchymal vessels (≤ 100 μm. The role of neutrophils in these changes has not been determined. This study investigates the role of neutrophils in early microvascular changes after SAH Method Rats were either untreated, treated with vinblastine or anti-polymorphonuclear (PMN serum, which depletes neutrophils, or treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, which limits neutrophil activity. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation. Neutrophil infiltration and the integrity of vascular endothelium and basement membrane were assessed immunohistochemically. Vascular collagenase activity was assessed by in situ zymography. Results Vinblastine and anti-PMN serum reduced post-SAH accumulation of neutrophils in cerebral vessels and in brain parenchyma. PDTC increased the neutrophil accumulation in cerebral vessels and decreased accumulation in brain parenchyma. In addition, each of the three agents decreased vascular collagenase activity and post-SAH loss of vascular endothelial and basement membrane immunostaining. Conclusions Our results implicate neutrophils in early microvascular injury after SAH and indicate that treatments which reduce neutrophil activity can be beneficial in limiting microvascular injury and increasing survival after SAH.

  5. cis p-tau: early driver of brain injury and tauopathy blocked by antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Qiu, Jianhua; Moncaster, Juliet; Chen, Chun-Hau; Yao, Yandan; Lin, Yu-Min; Driver, Jane A; Sun, Yan; Wei, Shuo; Luo, Man-Li; Albayram, Onder; Huang, Pengyu; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ryo, Akihide; Goldstein, Lee E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; McKee, Ann C.; Meehan, William; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), characterized by acute neurological dysfunction, is one of the best known environmental risk factors for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose defining pathologic features include tauopathy made of phosphorylated tau (p-tau). However, tauopathy has not been detected in early stages after TBI and how TBI leads to tauopathy is unknown. Here we find robust cis p-tau pathology after sport- and military-related TBI in humans and mice. Acutely after TBI in mice and stress in vitro, neurons prominently produce cis p-tau, which disrupts axonal microtubule network and mitochondrial transport, spreads to other neurons, and leads to apoptosis. This process, termed “cistauosis”, appears long before other tauopathy. Treating TBI mice with cis antibody blocks cistauosis, prevents tauopathy development and spread, and restores many TBI-related structural and functional sequelae. Thus, cis p-tau is a major early driver after TBI and leads to tauopathy in CTE and AD, and cis antibody may be further developed to detect and treat TBI, and prevent progressive neurodegeneration after injury. PMID:26176913

  6. Early and Late Damages in Chromosome 3 of Human Lymphocytes After Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Kahdim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor formation in humans or animals is a multi-step process. An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. GI is defined as elevated or persistent genetic damages occurring many generations after the cells are exposed. While early studies have demonstrated radiation-induced GI in several cell types as detected in endpoints such as mutation, apoptosis and damages in chromosomes, the dependence of GI on the quality of radiation remains uncertain. To investigate GI in human lymphocytes induced by both low- and high-LET radiation, we initially exposed white blood cells collected from healthy subjects to gamma rays in vitro, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis post irradiation and at several intervals during the culture period. Among a number of biological endpoints planned for the project, the multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) allows identification of inversions that were expected to be stable. We present here early and late chromosome aberrations detected with mBAND in chromosome 3 after gamma exposure. Comparison of chromosome damages in between human lymphocytes and human epithelial cells is also discussed

  7. Dynamic membrane depolarization is an early regulator of ependymoglial cell response to spinal cord injury in axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Keith; Santos-Ferreira, Tiago; Essig, Jaclyn; Rudasill, Sarah; Echeverri, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Salamanders, such as the Mexican axolotl, are some of the few vertebrates fortunate in their ability to regenerate diverse structures after injury. Unlike mammals they are able to regenerate a fully functional spinal cord after injury. However, the molecular circuitry required to initiate a pro-regenerative response after spinal cord injury is not well understood. To address this question we developed a spinal cord injury model in axolotls and used in vivo imaging of labeled ependymoglial cells to characterize the response of these cells to injury. Using in vivo imaging of ion sensitive dyes we identified that spinal cord injury induces a rapid and dynamic change in the resting membrane potential of ependymoglial cells. Prolonged depolarization of ependymoglial cells after injury inhibits ependymoglial cell proliferation and subsequent axon regeneration. Using transcriptional profiling we identified c-Fos as a key voltage sensitive early response gene that is expressed specifically in the ependymoglial cells after injury. This data establishes that dynamic changes in the membrane potential after injury are essential for regulating the specific spatiotemporal expression of c-Fos that is critical for promoting faithful spinal cord regeneration in axolotl.

  8. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue mitigates kidney injury in a rat model of radiation nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Fish, Brian; Wahl, Geneva; Sharma, Amit; Falck, John R; Paudyal, Mahesh P; Moulder, John E; Imig, John D; Cohen, Eric P

    2016-04-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by CYP epoxygenases, and EETs are kidney protective in multiple pathologies. We determined the ability of an EET analogue, EET-A, to mitigate experimental radiation nephropathy. The kidney expression of the EET producing enzyme CYP2C11 was lower in rats that received total body irradiation (TBI rat) compared with non-irradiated control. At 12 weeks after TBI, the rats had higher systolic blood pressure and impaired renal afferent arteriolar function compared with control, and EET-A or captopril mitigated these abnormalities. The TBI rats had 3-fold higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) compared with control, and EET-A or captopril decreased BUN by 40-60%. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio was increased 94-fold in TBI rats, and EET-A or captopril attenuated that increase by 60-90%. In TBI rats, nephrinuria was elevated 30-fold and EET-A or captopril decreased it by 50-90%. Renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular and glomerular injury were present in the TBI rats, and each was decreased by EET-A or captopril. We further demonstrated elevated renal parenchymal apoptosis in TBI rats, which was mitigated by EET-A or captopril. Additional studies revealed that captopril or EET-A mitigated renal apoptosis by acting on the p53/Fas/FasL (Fas ligand) apoptotic pathway. The present study demonstrates a novel EET analogue-based strategy for mitigation of experimental radiation nephropathy by improving renal afferent arteriolar function and by decreasing renal apoptosis.

  9. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy for one to three axillary node positive early breast cancer: To radiate or not to radiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT in early breast cancer has long been a matter of debate among oncologists. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO recommend the use of PMRT for patients, whose primary tumor is larger than 5 cm and/or patients who have four or more involved axillary lymph nodes (ALNs. Recently, few trials have been published showing the positive impact of PMRT on overall survival (OS even in patients having 1-3 positive ALNs with T1-T2 primary disease or early breast cancer (EBC. So, it has become a matter of controversy whether to radiate or not to radiate? We have made an extensive search in the internet in Pubmed and other sites of medical publication mentioning our topic of discussion and reviewed the relevant articles. We nearly got 3,220 articles. After reviewing the available publications in the internet, we blended the elixir with our experience and tried to find an answer of our question. In conclusion, PMRT significantly and substantially improved loco-regional control and overall survival in patients with 1-3 positive nodes as in patients with 4 or more positive nodes, and nearly the same number of patients is needed to treat to avoid a loco-regional recurrence and/or death in both groups. We should reconsider the current guidelines for the indication for PMRT.

  10. The Protective Effects of 5-Methoxytryptamine-α-lipoic Acid on Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prospective radioprotectors because of their ability to scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. The hematopoietic system is widely studied in radiation research because of its high radiosensitivity. In the present study, we describe the beneficial effects of 5-methoxytryptamine-α-lipoic acid (MLA, which was synthesized from melatonin and α-lipoic acid, against radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. MLA administration significantly enhanced the survival rate of mice after 7.2 Gy total body irradiation. The results showed that MLA not only markedly increased the numbers and clonogenic potential of hematopoietic cells but also decreased DNA damage, as determined by flow cytometric analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. In addition, MLA decreased the levels of ROS in hematopoietic cells by inhibiting NOX4 expression. These data demonstrate that MLA prevents radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the number and function of and by inhibiting DNA damage and ROS production in hematopoietic cells. These data suggest MLA is beneficial for the protection of radiation injuries.

  11. Pulmonary radiation injury manifested by signs of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia after postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Kenichi; Shibata, Kazumi; Nishio, Tetsuo [Kitakyusyu Municipal Medical Center, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawarada, Yuji; Hara, Nobuyuki

    1999-12-01

    A 67-year-old woman underwent surgery for cancer of both breast (right: mastectomy, left: conserving surgery), and received 60 Gy radiation to the left postoperative breast. Three months later, cough and fever developed. A chest radiograph demonstrated infiltrative shadows in the left lung field. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens disclosed organizing exudates in the alveolar spaces and bronchioles. After treatment with prednisolone, the clinical symptoms and radiographic infiltrates disappeared. This was a case of pulmonary radiation injury pathologically manifested by signs of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. (author)

  12. Value of joint detecion of multiple biomarkers on early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光银

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of joint detection of serum cysteine proteinase inhibitors C(sCys-C),urinary kidney injury molecule 1(uKIM-1),urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin(uNGAL)and urinary interleukin 18(uIL-18)for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury(AKI)in critically ill patients.Methods A total of256 adult patients who stayed in Intensive Care Unit for

  13. Skin-resident T cells sense ultraviolet radiation-induced injury and contribute to DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amanda S; Rudolph, Ross; Corriden, Ross; Ye, Ivan; Garijo, Olivia; Havran, Wendy L

    2014-06-15

    Skin-resident T cells have been shown to play important roles in tissue homeostasis and wound repair, but their role in UV radiation (UVR)-mediated skin injury and subsequent tissue regeneration is less clear. In this study, we demonstrate that acute UVR rapidly activates skin-resident T cells in humans and dendritic epidermal γδ T cells (DETCs) in mice through mechanisms involving the release of ATP from keratinocytes. Following UVR, extracellular ATP leads to an increase in CD69 expression, proliferation, and IL-17 production, and to changes in DETC morphology. Furthermore, we find that the purinergic receptor P2X7 and caspase-1 are necessary for UVR-induced IL-1 production in keratinocytes, which increases IL-17 secretion by DETCs. IL-17, in turn, induces epidermal TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis and growth arrest and DNA damage-associated gene 45, two molecules linked to the DNA repair response. Finally, we demonstrate that DETCs and human skin-resident T cells limit DNA damage in keratinocytes. Taken together, our findings establish a novel role for skin-resident T cells in the UVR-associated DNA repair response and underscore the importance of skin-resident T cells to overall skin regeneration.

  14. PLASMA NEUTROPHIL GELATINASE ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN AS AN EARLY BIOMARKER OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN SNAKE BITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamarai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury due to snake bite represents a frequent and devastating problem. Currently, Acute Kidney Injury is diagnosed by biochemical monitoring of increase in serum creatinine. Increase in serum creatinine represents a late indication of a functional change in glomerular function rate. Studies have shown that Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin has been found to be very useful for the detection of acute kidney injury within few hours of nephrotoxic insult. Limited information, however, is available regarding the study of plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in snake bite. AIM: The purpose of the study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an early biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury in patients with snake bite and to correlate with serum creatinine. If early detection of Acute Kidney Injury occurs, it can be followed by effective treatment modalities to abort the development or limit the severity of AKI. Therefore this study was designed to explore the importance of pNGAL in cases of snake bite induced AKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was designed to study the patients admitted for the treatment of snakebite within 6 hours in a tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted for snake bite were followed by estimation of pNGAL on day 1 and serum creatinine from the period of admission for up to 5 days. A total of 130 snake bite patients were enrolled and 100 were included in the final study. Snake bite patients were classified into two groups based on the occurrence and absence of AKI. Plasma NGAL and serum creatinine was estimated by solid phase Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method and Jaffe`s method respectively. Data were entered into the excel sheet and analyzed statistically using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 17. RESULTS:Among 100 snake bite patients 64 individuals had elevated p

  15. The impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of a supermassive star in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Sunmyon

    2016-01-01

    A massive primordial halo near an intensely star forming galaxy may collapse into a supermassive star (SMS) and leave a massive black hole seed of about $10^5~M_{sun}$. To investigate the impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of an SMS from a nearby galaxy, we perform three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations by selecting a pair of massive dark matter halos forming at $z >10$. We find that rich structures such as clumps and filaments around the source galaxy shield the cloud from ionizing radiation. In fact, in some cases cloud collapse is accelerated under ionizing radiation. This fact suggests that the ionization of the cloud's surroundings helps its collapse. Only strong radiation at the early stage of structure formation can halt the cloud collapse, but this is much stronger than observationally allowed value. We also explored the effect of ionizing radiation on a sample of 68 halos by employing an analytical model and found that increase in the mean density of the gas between the SMS...

  16. Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkless, Ryan; Al-Quraishi, Muntather; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    With the growing use of wireless devices in almost all day-to-day activities, exposure to radio-frequency radiation has become an immediate health concern. It is imperative that the effects of such radiation not only on humans, but also on other organisms be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand if RF radiation has any bearing on the gene expression during embryonic development, as this is a crucial and delicate phase for any organism. Owing to possible effects that RF radiation may have on gene expression, it is essential to explore the carcinogenic or teratogenic properties that it may show. This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebra fish. The expression of the gene shha plays a key role in the early development of the fish. This gene has homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Additionally, several biomarkers indicative of cell stress were examined: including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results show a significant decrease in the expression of shha, a significant decrease in LDH activity. There was no significant increase in SOD and LPO activity. No morphological abnormalities were observed in the developing embryos. At present, these results indicate that exposure to cell phone radiation may have a suppressive effect on expression of shha in D. rerio, though such exposure does not appear to cause morphological detriments. More trials are underway to corroborate these results.

  17. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates

  18. Radiation-induced inflammatory markers of brain injury are modulated by PPARdelta activation in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Caroline Isabel

    As a result of improvements in cancer therapy and health care, the population of long-term cancer survivors is growing. For these approximately 12 million long-term cancer survivors, brain metastases are a significant risk. Fractionated partial or whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is often required to treat both primary and metastatic brain cancer. Radiation-induced normal tissue injury, including progressive cognitive impairment, however, can significantly affect the well-being of the approximately 200,000 patients who receive these treatments each year. Recent reports indicate that radiation-induced brain injury is associated with chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, as well as increased microglial activation in the brain. Anti-inflammatory drugs may, therefore, be a beneficial therapy to mitigate radiation-induced brain injury. We hypothesized that activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARō) would prevent or ameliorate radiation-induced brain injury, including cognitive impairment, in part, by alleviating inflammatory responses in microglia. For our in vitro studies, we hypothesized that PPARō activation would prevent the radiation-induced inflammatory response in microglia following irradiation. Incubating BV-2 murine microglial cells with the (PPAR)ō agonist, L-165041, prevented the radiation-induced increase in: i) intracellular ROS generation, ii) Cox-2 and MCP-1 expression, and iii) IL-1β and TNF-α message levels. This occured, in part, through PPARō-mediated modulation of stress activated kinases and proinflammatory transcription factors. PPARō inhibited NF-κB via transrepression by physically interacting with the p65 subunit, and prevented activation of the PKCα/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/AP-1 pathway by inhibiting the radiation-induced increase in intracellular ROS generation. These data support the hypothesis that PPARō activation can modulate the radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in

  19. Smoking and medication during pregnancy predict repeated unintentional injuries in early childhood but not single unintentional injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, M.; Japel, C.; Cote, S.; Xu, Q.; Boivin, M.; Tremblay, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prospectively the development of single and repeated unintentional injuries from birth to 42 months in a random population sample of new-born children in Quebec (Canada) (N = 1,770). The outcome measures are single unintentional injuries (SUI) and repeated unintentional injur

  20. Functional Outcomes in Individuals Undergoing Very Early (h) and Early (5-24 h) Surgical Decompression in Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of Neurological Improvement from the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiassich, Georg; Gollwitzer, Maria; Gaderer, Franz; Blocher, Martina; Osti, Michael; Lill, Markkus; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Haider, Thomas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert; Aschauer-Wallner, Stephanie

    2017-08-10

    Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU). Of the 49 enrolled patients with acute CSCI, 33 underwent surgical decompression within 5 h (mean 3.2 h ± 1.1 h; very early group) after injury, and 16 underwent surgical decompression between 5 and 24 h (mean 8.6 h ± 5.5 h; early group). Significant neurological improvement was observed among the entire study population between the preoperative assessment and the FU. We identified a significant difference in the AIS grade at the last FU between the groups the using Jonckheere-Terpstra test for doubly ordered crosstabs (p = 0.011) and significantly different AIS improvement rates in the early group (Poisson model, p = 0.018). Improvement by one AIS grade was observed in 31% and 42% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.54). Improvement by two AIS grades was observed in 31% and 6% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-35). Improvement by three AIS grades was observed in 6% and 3% of patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Decompression of the spinal cord within 24 h after SCI was associated with an improved neurological outcome. No additional neurological benefit was observed in patients who underwent decompression within 5 h of injury.

  1. Association of Kidney Function and Early Kidney Injury With Incident Hypertension in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Simon B; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A; Tien, Phyllis C; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H; Butch, Anthony W; Young, Mary A; Bennett, Michael R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected people. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and 7 urine biomarkers of tubular injury: α-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and α1-acid-glycoprotein. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as 2 consecutive visits of antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk =1.13 per urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio doubling, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.20), as was lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (relative risk =1.10 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) lower estimated glomerular filtration rate; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher urine interleukin-18, α1-acid-glycoprotein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in

  2. Ultrastructural changes in the optic nerve and capillary vessels during early stages of optic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehong Ju; Xiuyun Li; Xiaoshuang Li; Hongtao Tang; Hongguo Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Capillaries are the only blood supply for optic nerves, which makes the system more vulnerable to impaired blood circulation. OBJECTIVE: To observe the ultrastructural changes in the optic nerves and capillaries in rabbits following intracanalicular segment injury to the optic nerve. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Comparative, observational, pathological morphology was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Weifang Medical College from September to November 2007. MATERIALS: Models of intracanalicular segment injury to the optic nerve were induced in the right eye of thirty healthy, adult rabbits by a flee-falling metal cylinder. The H-7500 transmission electron microscope was provided by Hitachi, Japan. METHODS: All rabbits were randomly assigned into experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 5) groups. Optic nerve specimens were obtained from the experimental group at 0.5, 6, 12, 48, and 96 hours, respectively, following injury. Uitrastructural changes to the optic nerves and their capillaries were observed by electron microscopy. Optic nerve injury was not established in the control group, but optic nerve specimens were collected similarly to the experimental group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructural changes in the injured optic nerves and their capillaries. RESULTS: Thirty rabbits were included in the final analysis. In the control group, cross-sections of the optic nerves exhibited varied thicknesses with regularly arranged fibers. The axons appeared to be smooth with condensed myelin sheaths and oval mitochondria. The microtubules and mierofilaments were clearly seen. The lumens of the capillaries were regular with densely arranged endothelial cells and visible mitochondria. In the experimental group, 30 minutes after injury to the optic nerves, swollen axons, sparse myelin sheath, disordered microtubules and microfilaments, swollen mitochondria, and a decreased number of pinocytosis vesicles and microfilaments in endothelial cells of the capillaries

  3. The importance of early-school radioactivity education in cultivating proper reflexive judgement on radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishina, Kojiro [Aichi Shukutoku Univ., The College of Contemporary Social Studies, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    An attempt is made to draw a preliminary conclusion on the effectiveness of early-school education on radioactivity, based on two cases of student responses. The first is the returns of questionnaires circulated at two colleges, which were typical of an engineering college and a liberal-arts college, respectively. The second is the reactions of liberal arts students to observed, unexpected levels of radiation in their environment. Their reaction was dominated by their preoccupation on radiation, rather than by the quantitative data they themselves collected on the spot. Thus classes in early schooldays are considered to play a vital role in cultivating proper judgement they are to rely on as general citizens. (author)

  4. Gene expression profiling of the rat sciatic nerve in early Wallerian degeneration after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbing Yao; Meiyuan Li; Dingding Shen; Fei Ding; Shibi Lu; Qin Zhao; Xiaosong Gu

    2012-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is an important area of research in modern neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated in the various stages of Wallerian degeneration, especially during the early response. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration of the distal nerve stump at 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours after rat sciatic nerve injury using gene chip microarrays. We screened for differentially-expressed genes and gene expression patterns. We examined the data for Gene Ontology, and explored the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway. This allowed us to identify key regulatory factors and recurrent network motifs. We identified 1 546 differentially-expressed genes and 21 distinct patterns of gene expression in early Wallerian degeneration, and an enrichment of genes associated with the immune response, acute inflammation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, ion transport and the extracellular matrix. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed components involved in the Jak-STAT, ErbB, transforming growth factor-β, T cell receptor and calcium signaling pathways. Key factors included interleukin-6, interleukin-1, integrin, c-sarcoma, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand, matrix metalloproteinase, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 and Rac. The data were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. This study provides a global view of gene expression profiles in early Wallerian degeneration of the rat sciatic nerve. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying early Wallerian degeneration, and the regulation of nerve degeneration and regeneration.

  5. Cambrian suspension-feeding lobopodians and the early radiation of panarthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Aria, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Background Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora evolved from lobopodians, a paraphyletic group of disparate Palaeozoic vermiform animals with soft legs. Although the morphological diversity that this group encompasses likely illustrates the importance of niche diversification in the early radiation of panarthropods, the ecology of lobopodians remains poorly characterized. Results Here we describe a new luolishaniid taxon from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale (Walcott Quarry) in British Col...

  6. Early development and characterization of a DNA-based radiation dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarmaa, Kirsten A.

    It is the priority of first responders to minimize damage to persons and infrastructure in the case of a nuclear emergency due to an accident or deliberate terrorist attack -- if this emergency includes a radioactive hazard, first responders require a simple-to-use, accurate and complete dosimeter for radiation protection purposes in order to minimize the health risk to these individuals and the general population at large. This work consists of the early evaluation of the design and performance of a biologically relevant dosimeter which uses DNA material that can respond to the radiation of any particle type. The construct consists of fluorescently tagged strands of DNA. The signalling components of this dosimeter are also investigated for their sensitivity to radiation damage and light exposure. The dual-labelled dosimeter that is evaluated in this work gave a measurable response to gamma radiation at dose levels of 10 Gy for the given detector design and experimental setup. Further testing outside of this work confirmed this finding and indicated a working range of 100 mGy to 10 Gy using a custom-built fluorimeter as part of a larger CRTI initiative. Characterization of the chromatic components of the dosimeter showed that photobleaching is not expected to have an effect on dosimeter performance, but that radiation can damage the non-DNA signalling components at higher dose levels, although this damage is minimal at lower doses over the expected operating ranges. This work therefore describes the early steps in the quantification of the behaviour of the DNA dosimeter as a potential biologically-based device to measure radiation dose.

  7. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280—320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B ra-diations (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryospores was >93% under the low (11.7—35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%—88.5% under the high (46.8—70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1—70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not signifi-cantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  8. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Su; ZHANG QuanSheng; WANG You; JU Qing; TANG XueXi

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B radiations (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryosperes was >93% under the low (11.7-35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%-88.5% under the high (46.8-70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1-70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not significantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  9. Early and continued manual stimulation is required for long-term recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, Maria; Rink, Svenja; Jansen, Ramona; Bendella, Habib; Pavlov, Stoyan P; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N; Dunlop, Sarah A

    2017-02-18

    We previously have shown that manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles for 2 months after facial nerve injury in rats improves whisking and reduces motor end plate polyinnervation. Here, we seek to determine whether discontinuing or delaying MS after facial-facial anastomosis (FFA) leads to similar results. Rats were subjected to FFA and received MS for (1) 4 months (early and continued), (2) the first but not the last 2 months (discontinued), or (3) the last 2 months (delayed). Intact animals and those not receiving MS (no MS) were also examined. Early and continued MS restored whisking amplitude to 43°, a value significantly higher compared with the discontinued, delayed, and no MS groups (32°, 24°, and 10°, respectively). Motor end plate polyinnervation occurred in all experimental groups but was significantly higher in the delayed group. Early and continued MS results in better recovery than when it is either discontinued or delayed. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The First Concussion Crisis: Head Injury and Evidence in Early American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled “The Concussion Crisis.” Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game’s first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided—allowing the problem to proliferate—because work was done by football’s supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present. PMID:24625171

  11. Early Clinical Predictors of 5-Year Outcome After Concussive Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Barber, Jason; Jordan, Mary; Johnson, Ann M; Dikmen, Sureyya; Fann, Jesse R; Temkin, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The long-term clinical effects of wartime traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), most of which are mild, remain incompletely described. Current medical disability cost estimates from world conflicts continually surpass projections. Additional information regarding long-term functional trajectory is needed to reduce this extensive public health burden. To examine 5-year clinical outcomes leveraging existing clinical data collected at 1 year after injury in the same patients and to identify early risk factors for long-term disability. This prospective, longitudinal study enrolled active-duty US military after concussive blast injury (n = 50) in the acute to subacute stage and combat-deployed control individuals (n = 44) in Afghanistan or after medical evacuation to Germany from November 1, 2008, through July 1, 2013. One- and 5-year clinical evaluations were completed in the United States. All concussive blast injuries met the Department of Defense definition of mild, uncomplicated TBI. In-person clinical evaluations included standardized evaluations for neurobehavior, neuropsychological performance, and mental health burden that were essentially identical to the evaluations completed at 1-year follow-up. Data were analyzed from October 1 through November 30, 2016. Changes in the in-person standardized evaluations for neurobehavior, neuropsychological performance, and mental health burden from the 1- to 5-year follow-up. Predictive modeling was used to identify early risk factors for long-term disability. Among the 94 participants (87 men [93%] and 7 women [7%]; mean [SD] age, 34 [8] years), global disability, satisfaction with life, neurobehavioral symptom severity, psychiatric symptom severity, and sleep impairment were significantly worse in patients with concussive blast TBI compared with combat-deployed controls, whereas performance on cognitive measures was no different between groups at the 5-year evaluation. Logistic regression on the dichotomized Extended

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of early pentoxifylline administration on hepatic injury induced by concanavalin A in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Doaa Ibrahim; Elmelegy, Ahmed Abdel Salam Mohamed; El-Aziz, Lubna Foaad A; Abdel Kawy, Hala Salah; AbdEl-Samad, Abeer Ahmed; El-Kharashi, Omnyah Ali

    2014-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the pathogensis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induced liver injury. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α inhibition with pentoxifylline (PTX) on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatic injury in rats. The rats were distributed among 3 groups: (i) control group (1 mL saline·week(-1) by intravenous injection (i.v.)); (ii) Con A treatment group (20 mg Con A·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1), i.v.), and (iii) rats treated with Con A and with PTX (200 mg PTX·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), per oral) group. Blood samples and livers were collected at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 of Con A treatment. Portal pressure (PP) was measured at the end of week 8. The administration of PTX was found to confer significant protection against the injurious effects of Con A on the liver, by reducing serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, hepatic TNF-α, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological examination revealed that treatment with PTX significantly suppressed early inflammation, reduced alpha smooth muscle actin, and the apoptosis of hepatocytes induced by Con A. Moreover, PTX significantly (P < 0.05) reduced PP, and quantitative analyses of the area of fibrosis induced by treatment with Con A showed a significant reduction at the end of week 8. We conclude that rats treated with PTX revealed a more or less normal hepatocyte architecture as well as marked improvement in fibrosis and PP.

  13. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Eating Disordered Patients With or Without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Els; Dierckx, Eva; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in function of eating disorder (ED) subtypes (restrictive/bulimic) and the presence/absence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Female inpatients (N = 491) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Self-Injury Questionnaire. The influence of ED subtype and the presence/absence of NSSI and their interaction on the EMS were investigated by means of a MANCOVA. The results showed main effects of ED subtype and the presence of NSSI on EMS. Patients with bulimia scored significantly higher on insufficient self-control and emotional deprivation, which are more related to cluster B compared with restrictive patients, whereas restrictive patients scored significantly higher on social undesirability, failure to achieve, subjugation and unrelenting standards compared with patients with bulimia that are more related to cluster C. Patients with ED with NSSI reported significantly higher EMS levels compared with patients without NSSI, suggesting that they could be of particular interest to benefit from schema therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  16. Early Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease with Renal Injury Caused by Hypertension in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yabuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old spayed female Papillon weighing 4.0 kg presented with a history of persistent hematuria and pollakiuria. Concurrent bladder calculi, a mammary gland tumor, and nonazotemic early stage of chronic kidney disease with contracted kidneys were noted in this dog. The dog underwent cystectomy, unilateral mastectomy, and intraoperative renal biopsy. On the basis of histopathological analysis of renal biopsy results, it was suspected that renal injury of the dog was caused by persistent hypertension, and a follow-up examination revealed severe hypertension. The dog was treated with a combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. The treatment produced a good outcome in the dog, and there has been no progression of the chronic kidney disease for over 2 years.

  17. Early brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Where are we at present?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current era has adopted many new innovations in nearly every aspect of management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; however, the neurological outcome has still not changed significantly. These major therapeutic advances mainly addressed the two most important sequels of the SAH-vasospasm and re-bleed. Thus, there is a possibility of some different pathophysiological mechanism that would be responsible for causing poor outcome in these patients. In this article, we have tried to compile the current role of this different yet potentially treatable pathophysiological mechanism in post-SAH patients. The main pathophysiological mechanism for the development of early brain injury (EBI is the apoptotic pathways. The macro-mechanism includes increased intracranial pressure, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and finally global ischemia. Most of the treatment strategies are still in the experimental phase. Although the role of EBI following SAH is now well established, the treatment modalities for human patients are yet to be testified.

  18. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  19. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  20. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wroblewski, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13-14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist suggests

  1. Early rehabilitation for severe acquired brain injury in intensive care unit: multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bargellesi, Stefano; Castioni, Carlo A; Bonaiuti, Donatella; Antenucci, Roberto; Benedetti, Angelo; Capuzzo, Valeria; Gamna, Federica; Radeschi, Giulio; Citerio, Giuseppe; Colombo, Carolina; Del Casale, Laura; Recubini, Elena; Toska, Saimir; Zanello, Marco; D'Aurizio, Carlo; Spina, Tullio; Del Gaudio, Alredo; Di Rienzo, Filomena; Intiso, Domenico; Dallocchio, Giulia; Felisatti, Giovanna; Lavezzi, Susanna; Zoppellari, Roberto; Gariboldi, Valentina; Lorini, Luca; Melizza, Giovanni; Molinero, Guido; Mandalà, Giorgio; Pignataro, Amedeo; Montis, Andrea; Napoleone, Alessandro; Pilia, Felicita; Pisu, Marina; Semerjian, Monica; Pagliaro, Giuseppina; Nardin, Lorella; Scarponi, Federico; Zampolini, Mauro; Zava, Raffaele; Massetti, Maria A; Piccolini, Carlo; Aloj, Fulvio; Antonelli, Sergio; Zucchella, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    The increased survival after a severe acquired brain injury (sABI) raise the problem of making most effective the treatments in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Neurointensive Care Unit (NICU), also integrating rehabilitation care. Despite previous studies reported that early mobilization in ICU was effective in preventing complications and reducing hospital stay, few studies addressed the rehabilitative management of sABI patients in ICU/NICU. To collect clinical and functional data about the early rehabilitative management of sABI patients during ICU/NICU stay. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Fourteen facilities supplied by intensive neurorehabilitation units and ICU/NICUs. Consecutive sABI patients admitted to ICU/NICU. Patients were evaluated at admission and then every 3-5 days. Clinical, functional and rehabilitative data, including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), The Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCF), Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome scale (GOS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were collected. One hundred and two patients (F/M 44/58) were enrolled. The mean duration of ICU stay was 24.7±13.9 days and the first rehabilitative evaluation occurred after 8.7±8.8 days. Regular postural changes and multijoint mobilization were prescribed in 63.7% and 64.7% cases, respectively. The mean session duration was 38±11.5 minutes. Swallowing evaluation was performed in 14.7% patients, psychological support was provided to 12.7% of patients' caregivers, while 17.6% received a psycho-educational intervention, and 28.4% were involved in interdisciplinary team meetings. The main discharge destinations were Severe Acquired Brain Injury rehabilitation units for 43.7%, intensive neurorehabilitation units for 20.7%. Data showed that early rehabilitation was not diffusely performed in sABI subjects in ICU/NICU and rehabilitative interventions were variable; one-third of subjects were

  2. An Appreciation for the Rabbit Ladderlike Modeling of Radiation-induced Lung Injury with High-energy X-Ray

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    Xiang-Ming Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the utility of rabbit ladderlike model of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI for the future investigation of computed tomography perfusion. Methods: A total of 72 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: 36 rabbits in the test group were administered 25 Gy of single fractionated radiation to the whole lung of unilateral lung; 36 rabbits in the control group were sham-radiated. All rabbits were subsequently sacrificed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and 1, 2, 4, 8,1 6, 24 weeks after radiation, and then six specimens were extracted from the upper, middle and lower fields of the bilateral lungs. The pathological changes in these specimens were observed with light and electron microscopy; the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in local lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1 Radiation-induced lung injury occurred in all rabbits in the test group. (2 Expression of TNF-a and TGF-β1 at 1 h and 48 h after radiation, demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the test and control groups (each P 0.05. At greater than 48 h postradiation the relative amount of collagen fibers in the test groups significantly differ from the control groups (each P < 0.05, correlating well with the time postradiation (r = 0.99318. Conclusions: A consistent and reliable rabbit model of RILI can be generated in gradient using 25 Gy of high-energy X-ray, which can simulate the development and evolution of RILI.

  3. Radioprotective effects of the expression of FLT3 ligand regulated by Egr-1 regulated element on radiation injury of SCID mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Nan; Pei Xuetao; Luo Chengji; Su Yongping; Cheng Tianmin

    2001-01-01

    Objective:In order to explore the radioprotective effects of the expression of hematopoietic growth factors regulated by radio-inducible promoter on radiation injury. Methods:The human FL (Flt3 ligand) cDNA and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) cDNA were linked together with IRES and then inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI-Egr, which was constructed by substituting CMV promoter in pCIneo with the Egr-1 promoter (Egr-EF). The vector was transferred into human bone marrow stromal cell line HFCL by lipofectin. The transduced cell clones (HFCL/EF) had been selected by the addition of G418. The cells were exposed to γ-radiation by 60 Co source for 0.5-20Gy. The expressions of transduced cells were detected with FACS, Northern blot ELISA and CFU assay. The HFCL/EF and CD34+ cells from human umbilical cord blood were one after the other transplanted i.v. into sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The white blood cell amount in peripheral blood and human cell engrafted in recipent mice were detected by flow cytometry and CFU-GM etc. Results:The activity of EGFP in transduced cells increased by 3.1 fold as compared to non-transduced cells at 18h after exposure to 2.5Gy. The amounts of secreted FL in serum-free supernatants of Egr-EF increased by 605.46±107.21pg/ml, which were significantly higher than the control group (214.45±35.61pg/ml). The effects of FL in HFCL/EF cultural supernatants on expansion of CD34+ cells derived from cord blood in the presence of SCF, IL-6 and IL-3 were also studied. The results showed that at day 10 of culture the number of CD34+ cells increased by 173. 09±11.58×103/ml, which was significantly higher than that of non-radiation group(68. 04± 13. 73 × 103/ml). It showed that radiation can enhance the ability of the supernatants containing FL of HFCL/EF to expand early hematopoietic progenitor cells and protect hematopoietic cells from radiation-injury effects. The HFCL/EF and CD34

  4. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  5. Reflex wind-up in early chronic spinal injury: plasticity of motor outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D; Frigon, Alain; Hurteau, Marie-France; Cain, Charlette; Heckman, C J

    2017-05-01

    In this study we evaluate temporal summation (wind-up) of reflexes in select distal and proximal hindlimb muscles in response to repeated stimuli of the distal tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in cats 1 mo after complete spinal transection. This report is a continuation of our previous paper on reflex wind-up in the intact and acutely spinalized cat. To evaluate reflex wind-up in both studies, we recorded electromyographic signals from the following left hindlimb muscles: lateral gastrocnemius (LG), tibialis anterior (TA), semitendinosus (ST), and sartorius (Srt), in response to 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. Two distinct components of the reflex responses were considered, a short-latency compound action potential (CAP) and a longer duration bout of sustained activity (SA). These two response types were shown to be differentially modified by acute spinal injury in our previous work (Frigon A, Johnson MD, Heckman CJ. J Physiol 590: 973-989, 2012). We show that these responses exhibit continued plasticity during the 1-mo recovery period following acute spinalization. During this early chronic phase, wind-up of SA responses returned to preinjury levels in one muscle, the ST, but remained depressed in all other muscles tested. In contrast, CAP response amplitudes, which were initially potentiated following acute transection, returned to preinjury levels in all muscles except for Srt, which continued to show marked increase. These findings illustrate that spinal elements exhibit considerable plasticity during the recovery process following spinal injury and highlight the importance of considering SA and CAP responses as distinct phenomena with unique underlying neural mechanisms.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research is the first to assess temporal summation, also called wind-up, of muscle reflexes during the 1-mo recovery period following spinal injury. Our results show that two types of muscle reflex activity are differentially

  6. Clinical Observation on Combined Tuina and Medicated Bath for Early Intervention of Neonatal Brain Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 丁建英; 韩丑萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察推拿、药浴等中医疗法早期干预对婴儿脑损伤的临床疗效.方法:对60例中重度脑损伤婴儿进行小儿健脑推拿及中药浴式水疗,同时配合中医传统五行音乐聆听及运动疗法等治疗.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后采用Gesell测查法进行发育商(Development Quotient,DQ)评估,并在治疗1年半后进行远期随访.结果:治疗前、治疗3个月及一年半后发育商分别为(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)和(75.40±14.69),与治疗前比较,治疗3个月及一年半后发育商各指标均有显著提高(P=0.000).结论:对脑损伤婴儿进行推拿中医早期干预可促进大脑发育,修复神经损伤,促进运动、认知的发育,有效预防神经系统后遗症的发生.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of early intervention of combined tuina with medicated bath for neonatal brain injuries.Methods: Brain-benefiting tuina manipulations,medicated bath and music plus exercise therapies were employed in 60 infants with medium or severe brain injuries.The Gesell measurement methods were adopted prior to and 3 months after treatment to evaluate the development quotient(DQ).In addition,the long-term follow-up was made after one and a half years.Result: The scores of DQ prior to treatment,3 month after treatment and 1.5 years after treatment were(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)and(75.40±14.69)respectively,showing a marked improvement after 3months and 1.5 years of treatment(P=0.000).Conclusion: Early intervention using tuina manipulations could enhance the brain development,repair the nerve injury,improve the motion and cognitive ability and prevent the sequela of the nervous system.

  7. Multidisciplinary approach of early breast cancer: The biology applied to radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azria David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early breast cancer treatment is based on a multimodality approach with the application of clinical and histological prognostic factors to determine locoregional and systemic treatments. The entire scientific community is strongly involved in the management of this disease: radiologists for screening and early diagnosis, gynecologists, surgical oncologists and radiation oncologists for locoregional treatment, pathologists and biologists for personalized characterization, genetic counselors for BRCA mutation history and medical oncologists for systemic therapies. Recently, new biological tools have established various prognostic subsets of breast cancer and developed predictive markers for miscellaneous treatments. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of biological tools in the locoregional management of early breast cancer.

  8. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Sang Jun [Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10{approx}16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13{approx}179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy ({<=}6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks.

  9. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web...

  10. Early detection of skeletal muscle injury by assay of creatine kinase MM isoforms in serum after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apple, F. S.; Hellsten, Ylva; Clarkson, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    We could detect skeletal muscle injury early after an acute exercise bout by measuring creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) MM isoforms in serum. Eleven men performed 120 alternating-arm, eccentric (muscle lengthening) biceps contractions with the intensity of each contraction being 110% of maximal...

  11. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in mild to moderate head injury : Early and late imaging related to outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Naalt, J; Hew, JM; van Zomeren, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Minderhoud, JM

    1999-01-01

    Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) studies were performed in mild to moderate head injury to evaluate whether early and late imaging have additional value in predicting outcome in this category of patients. During 1-year follow-up of a series of 67 patients, a CT s

  12. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  13. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  14. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  15. Ionizing radiation-induced damage on developing cerebellar granule cells cultures can be prevented by an early amifostine post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelman, Laura Ruth; Cabana, Javier Ignacio; del Luján Pagotto, Romina María; Zieher, Luis María

    2005-02-01

    Developing central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation due, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. A variety of compounds able to protect brain cells essentially by decreasing ROS production have been widely used to confirm ROS participation in different mechanisms of brain injury, as well as to evaluate them as therapeutic tools. To test if ionizing radiation-induced damage on immature cerebellar granule cells is mainly mediated by ROS accumulation, a free radical scavenger--amifostine (amf)--was used in an in vitro model. Moreover, the amf therapeutic effect was investigated. Results show that only an early (20-30 min) post-treatment with amf, acting through an antioxidant mechanism, has been effective in preventing cerebellar granule cell loss observed after ionizing radiation exposure in vitro. These data suggest that immature cerebellar granule cells grown in vitro are highly vulnerable to ROS damage and that a therapeutic intervention could be effective in a narrow temporal window. Moreover, radiation-induced cell death can be partially prevented by a complete limitation of ROS generation, suggesting that other mechanisms besides oxidative stress would also be responsible for the cellular damage found in this model.

  16. A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kwaon Lui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8±19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%. Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4% and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P<0.001. Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P=0.03. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.

  17. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  18. Neuroprotective effects of edaravone on early brain injury in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; DING Xin-sheng; XU Shu; WANG Wei; ZUO Qi-long; KUAI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background The underlying mechanism of early neurobiological impairment after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not well understood,but the system of reactive oxygen superoxide (ROS) might be involved.Edaravone (MC1-186),a potent free radical scavenger that prevents apoptosis of neurons,was thus used in this study to see its possible therapeutic effect in early brain injury due to SAH in a rat model.Methods One hundred and twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups:group 1,control rats receiving sham operation only;group 2,rats with SAH treated by saline;group 3,rats with SAH treated with 1 mg/kg MCI-186 injected intraperitoneally;and group 4,rats with SAH treated with 3 mg/kg MC1-186.Treated with either saline or MC1-186 twice daily for two consecutive days after SAH,the rats were sacrificed for measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and histological analysis of caspase-3 protein by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining.In addition,mortality and neurological scores were statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and Dunn's procedure respectively for each group.One-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's procedure was also used in data analysis.Results The rats in group 2 that received saline only showed neurological impairment as well as elevated mortality,and were found to have significantly increased levels of MDA and caspase-3,but reduced SOD activities in brain tissues (P<0.05).When treated with MC1-186 at two different dosages,the rats in groups 3 and 4 had markedly decreased levels of MDA and caspase-3 but increased SOD activities in the brain tissue (P<0.05),along with improved scores of neurological evaluation (P<0.05).Conclusions This study sheds some lights on the therapy of SAH-induced early brain injury by providing the promising data indicating that MC1-186,a radical scavenger,can efficiently diminish apoptosis of neurons and thus prevent the function

  19. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kuhlthau, Karen A. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  20. Gene expression arrays as a tool to unravel mechanisms of normal tissue radiation injury and prediction of response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline JCM Kruse; Fiona A Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a rapid increase in the use of microarray technology in the field of cancer research. The majority of studies use microarray analysis of tumor biopsies for profiling of molecular characteristics in an attempt to produce robust classifiers for prognosis. There are now several published gene sets that have been shown to predict for aggressive forms of breast cancer, where patients are most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and tumors most likely to develop distant metastases, or be resistant to treatment. The number of publications relating to the use of microarrays for analysis of normal tissue damage, after cancer treatment or genotoxic exposure, is much more limited. A PubMed literature search was conducted using the following keywords and combination of terms: radiation, normal tissue, microarray, gene expression profiling, prediction. With respect to normal tissue radiation injury, microarrays have been used in three ways: (1) to generate gene signatures to identify sensitive and resistant populations (prognosis); (2) to identify sets of biomarker genes for estimating radiation exposure, either accidental or as a result of terrorist attack (diagnosis); (3) to identify genes and pathways involved in tissue response to injury (mechanistic). In this article we will review all (relevant) papers that covered our literature search criteria on microarray technology as it has been applied to normal tissue radiation biology and discuss how successful this has been in defining predisposition markers for radiation sensitivity or how it has helped us to unravel molecular mechanisms leading to acute and late tissue toxicity. We also discuss some of the problems and limitations in application and interpretation of such data.

  1. Protective effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on radiation-induced dermatitis and skin injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sadahiro; Fujita, Masanori; Ishihara, Masayuki; Tachibana, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Kaji, Tatsumi; Kawauchi, Toshio; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The effect of inhalation of hydrogen-containing gas (1.3% hydrogen + 20.8% oxygen + 77.9% nitrogen) (HCG) on radiation-induced dermatitis and on the healing of healing-impaired skin wounds in rats was examined using a rat model of radiation-induced skin injury. An X-ray dose of 20 Gy was irradiated onto the lower part of the back through two holes in a lead shield. Irradiation was performed before or after inhalation of HCG for 2 h. Inhalation of HCG significantly reduced the severity of radiodermatitis and accelerated healing-impaired wound repair. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and 8-hydroxy-2(')-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) showed that the proportion of apoptotic keratinocytes and the level of staining in the X-irradiated skin of rats that pre-inhaled HCG were significantly lower than that of rats which did not pre-inhale HCG. Cutaneous full-thickness wounds were then created in the X-irradiated area to examine the time-course of wound healing. X-irradiation significantly increased the time required for wound healing, but the inhalation of HCG prior to the irradiation significantly decreased the delay in wound healing compared with the control and post-inhalation of HCG groups. Therefore, radiation-induced skin injury can potentially be alleviated by the pre-inhalation of HCG.

  2. Early Trends in Cystatin C and Outcomes in Patients with Cirrhosis and Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Belcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of AKI to a higher stage associates with increased mortality. Intervening early in AKI when renal dysfunction is worsening may improve outcomes. However, serum creatinine correlates poorly with glomerular filtration in patients with cirrhosis and fluctuations may mask progression early in the course of AKI. Cystatin C, a low-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is a potentially more accurate marker of glomerular filtration. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter study in patients with cirrhosis comparing changes in cystatin and creatinine immediately following onset of AKI as predictors of a composite endpoint of dialysis or mortality. Results. Of 106 patients, 37 (35% met the endpoint. Cystatin demonstrated less variability between samples than creatinine. Patients were stratified into four groups reflecting changes in creatinine and cystatin: both unchanged or decreased 38 (36% (Scr−/CysC−; only cystatin increased 25 (24% (Scr−/CysC+; only creatinine increased 15 (14% (Scr+/CysC−; and both increased 28 (26% (Scr+/CysC+. With Scr−/CysC− as the reference, in both instances where cystatin rose, Scr−/CysC+ and Scr+/CysC+, the primary outcome was significantly more frequent in multivariate analysis, P=0.02 and 0.03, respectively. However, when only creatinine rose, outcomes were similar to the reference group. Conclusions. Changes in cystatin levels early in AKI are more closely associated with eventual dialysis or mortality than creatinine and may allow more rapid identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes.

  3. The effect of early radiation in N-body simulations of cosmic structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Julian; Brandbyge, Jacob; Fidler, Christian; Hannestad, Steen; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Newtonian N-body simulations have been employed successfully over the past decades for the simulation of the cosmological large-scale structure. Such simulations usually ignore radiation perturbations (photons and massless neutrinos) and the impact of general relativity (GR) beyond the background expansion. This approximation can be relaxed and we discuss three different approaches that are accurate to leading order in GR. For simulations that start at redshift less than about 100, we find that the presence of early radiation typically leads to per cent-level effects on the numerical power spectra at large scales. Our numerical results agree across the three methods, and we conclude that all of the three methods are suitable for simulations in a standard cosmology. Two of the methods modify the N-body evolution directly, while the third method can be applied as a post-processing prescription.

  4. Expression of c-myc gene as an early indicator of late radiation damage of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Genetics Medical Inst. of Bioregulation; Masuda, Koji

    1998-02-01

    We have previously described the increased proliferation and appearance of abnormally large nuclei in renal proximal tubule cells after radiation. A model has been proposed that the large nuclear cells might be dying and the increased proliferation might lead to mitotic death of these cells and cause functional damage. We measured the amount of c-myc transcript taking the ratio of densities of bands for irradiated left kidney to unirradiated right kidney after RT-PCR procedure on 24 hours after 9, 12 and 15 Gy irradiation, and found positive in 1 out of 10 after 9 Gy, 6 out of 10 after 12 Gy and 9 out of 10 after 15 Gy. Measuring c-myc expression seems to be a potential very early indicator of late radiation damage of kidney. (author)

  5. Early growth dynamical implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benduhn, François; Schallock, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol growth dynamics may have implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur particles. This paper derives a set of critical initial growth conditions that are analyzed as a function of two key parameters: the initial concentration of the injected sulfuric acid and its dilution rate with the surrounding air. Based upon this analysis, early aerosol growth dynamical regimes may be defined and classified in terms of their likelihood to serve as candidates for the controlled generation of a radiatively effective aerosol. Our results indicate that the regime that fulfills all critical conditions would require that airplane turbines be used to provide sufficient turbulence. The regime's parameter space is narrow and related to steep gradients, thus pointing to potential fine tuning requirements. More research, development, and testing would be required to refine our findings and determine their global-scale implications.

  6. The Origin and Early Radiation of Archosauriforms: Integrating the Skeletal and Footprint Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Massimo; Klein, Hendrik; Petti, Fabio Massimo; Ezcurra, Martín D

    2015-01-01

    We present a holistic approach to the study of early archosauriform evolution by integrating body and track records. The ichnological record supports a Late Permian-Early Triassic radiation of archosauriforms not well documented by skeletal material, and new footprints from the Upper Permian of the southern Alps (Italy) provide evidence for a diversity not yet sampled by body fossils. The integrative study of body fossil and footprint data supports the hypothesis that archosauriforms had already undergone substantial taxonomic diversification by the Late Permian and that by the Early Triassic archosauromorphs attained a broad geographical distribution over most parts of Pangea. Analysis of body size, as deduced from track size, suggests that archosauriform average body size did not change significantly from the Late Permian to the Early Triassic. A survey of facies yielding both skeletal and track record indicate an ecological preference for inland fluvial (lacustrine) environments for early archosauromorphs. Finally, although more data is needed, Late Permian chirotheriid imprints suggest a shift from sprawling to erect posture in archosauriforms before the end-Permian mass extinction event. We highlight the importance of approaching palaeobiological questions by using all available sources of data, specifically through integrating the body and track fossil record.

  7. The Origin and Early Radiation of Archosauriforms: Integrating the Skeletal and Footprint Record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bernardi

    Full Text Available We present a holistic approach to the study of early archosauriform evolution by integrating body and track records. The ichnological record supports a Late Permian-Early Triassic radiation of archosauriforms not well documented by skeletal material, and new footprints from the Upper Permian of the southern Alps (Italy provide evidence for a diversity not yet sampled by body fossils. The integrative study of body fossil and footprint data supports the hypothesis that archosauriforms had already undergone substantial taxonomic diversification by the Late Permian and that by the Early Triassic archosauromorphs attained a broad geographical distribution over most parts of Pangea. Analysis of body size, as deduced from track size, suggests that archosauriform average body size did not change significantly from the Late Permian to the Early Triassic. A survey of facies yielding both skeletal and track record indicate an ecological preference for inland fluvial (lacustrine environments for early archosauromorphs. Finally, although more data is needed, Late Permian chirotheriid imprints suggest a shift from sprawling to erect posture in archosauriforms before the end-Permian mass extinction event. We highlight the importance of approaching palaeobiological questions by using all available sources of data, specifically through integrating the body and track fossil record.

  8. An Appreciation for the Rabbit Ladderlike Modeling of Radiation-induced Lung Injury with High-energy X-Ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ming Fang; Chun-Hong Hu; Xiao-Yun Hu; Xuan-Jun Yao; Ping-Yan Qian; Ju-Ying Zhou; Jian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To evaluate the utility of rabbit ladderlike model of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) for the future investigation of computed tomography perfusion.Methods:A total of 72 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups:36 rabbits in the test group were administered 25 Gy of single fractionated radiation to the whole lung of unilateral lung;36 rabbits in the control group were sham-radiated.All rabbits were subsequently sacrificed at 1,6,12,24,48,72 h,and 1,2,4,8,1 6,24 weeks after radiation,and then six specimens were extracted from the upper,middle and lower fields of the bilateral lungs.The pathological changes in these specimens were observed with light and electron microscopy;the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor-βl (TGF-β1) in local lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry.Results:(1) Radiation-induced lung injury occurred in all rabbits in the test group.(2) Expression of TNF-a and TGF-β1 at 1 h and 48 h after radiation,demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the test and control groups (each P < 0.05).(3) Evaluation by light microscopy demonstrated statistically significant differences between the two groups in the following parameters (each P < 0.05):thickness of alveolar wall,density of pulmonary interstitium area (1 h after radiation),number offibroblasts and fibrocytes in interstitium (24 h after radiation).The test group metrics also correlated well with the time ofpostradiation.(4) Evaluation by electron microscopy demonstrated statistically significant differences in the relative amounts of collagen fibers at various time points postradiation in the test group (P < 0.005),with no significant differences in the control group (P > 0.05).At greater than 48 h postradiation the relative amount of collagen fibers in the test groups significantly differ from the control groups (each P < 0.05),correlating well with the time postradiation (r =0

  9. Early Hemodynamic Disorders and Their Association with the Development of Acute Pulmonary Lesion in Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Early changes in the parameters of central hemodynamics and pulmonary extravascular fluid were studied in patients who had sustained a severe concomitant injury in combination with acute massive blood loss. Early postoperative monitoring of these parameters by a «Pulsion Picco Plus» invasive monitoring apparatus was ascertained to verify the early stages on non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, to assess a risk for acute lung lesion and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the phase of reperfusion lesions, and to perform an adequate correction of therapy.

  10. Early platelet dysfunction in a rodent model of blunt traumatic brain injury reflects the acute traumatic coagulopathy found in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Deborah L; Beck, Julia; Fritz, Braxton; Davis, Patrick; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J; Thomas, Scott G; Yount, Robert A; Walsh, Mark; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-02-15

    Acute coagulopathy is a serious complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is of uncertain etiology because of the complex nature of TBI. However, recent work has shown a correlation between mortality and abnormal hemostasis resulting from early platelet dysfunction. The aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a rodent model of TBI that mimics the human coagulopathic condition so that mechanisms of the early acute coagulopathy in TBI can be more readily assessed. Studies utilizing a highly reproducible constrained blunt-force brain injury in rats demonstrate a strong correlation with important postinjury pathological changes that are observed in human TBI patients, namely, diminished platelet responses to agonists, especially adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and subarachnoid bleeding. Additionally, administration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, preinjury, recovers platelet functionality to ADP stimulation, indicating a direct role for excess thrombin production in TBI-induced early platelet dysfunction.

  11. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  12. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Filippi, Andrea R. [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Illidge, Tim [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A. [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Headley, Jayne [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Specht, Lena [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  13. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M; Schut, Deborah A; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Delta-tocotrienol suppresses radiation-induced microRNA-30 and protects mice and human CD34+ cells from radiation injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hong Li

    Full Text Available We reported that microRNA-30c (miR-30c plays a key role in radiation-induced human cell damage through an apoptotic pathway. Herein we further evaluated radiation-induced miR-30 expression and mechanisms of delta-tocotrienol (DT3, a radiation countermeasure candidate, for regulating miR-30 in a mouse model and human hematopoietic CD34+ cells. CD2F1 mice were exposed to 0 (control or 7-12.5 Gy total-body gamma-radiation, and CD34+ cells were irradiated with 0, 2 or 4 Gy of radiation. Single doses of DT3 (75 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection for mice or 2 μM for CD34+ cell culture were administrated 24 h before irradiation and animal survival was monitored for 30 days. Mouse bone marrow (BM, jejunum, kidney, liver and serum as well as CD34+ cells were collected at 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 or 72 h after irradiation to determine apoptotic markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6, miR-30, and stress response protein expression. Our results showed that radiation-induced IL-1β release and cell damage are pathological states that lead to an early expression and secretion of miR-30b and miR-30c in mouse tissues and serum and in human CD34+ cells. DT3 suppressed IL-1β and miR-30 expression, protected against radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse and human cells, and increased survival of irradiated mice. Furthermore, an anti-IL-1β antibody downregulated radiation-induced NFκBp65 phosphorylation, inhibited miR-30 expression and protected CD34+ cells from radiation exposure. Knockdown of NFκBp65 by small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly suppressed radiation-induced miR-30 expression in CD34+ cells. Our data suggest that DT3 protects human and mouse cells from radiation damage may through suppression of IL-1β-induced NFκB/miR-30 signaling.

  15. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L.; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis. PMID:27668081

  16. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis.

  17. No impact of early intervention on late outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Waterloo, Knut; Baardsen, Roald

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury.......To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury....

  18. Home Environment as a Predictor of Long-Term Executive Functioning following Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durish, Christianne Laliberté; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-20

    This study examined the relationship of the home environment to long-term executive functioning (EF) following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants (N=134) were drawn from a larger parent study of 3- to 6-year-old children hospitalized for severe TBI (n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=44), or orthopedic injury (OI; n=74), recruited prospectively at four tertiary care hospitals in the United States and followed for an average of 6.8 years post-injury. Quality of the home environment, caregiver psychological distress, and general family functioning were assessed shortly after injury (i.e., early home) and again at follow-up (i.e., late home). Participants completed several performance-based measures of EF at follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the early and late home environment measures as predictors of EF, both as main effects and as moderators of group differences. The early and late home environment were inconsistent predictors of long-term EF across groups. Group differences in EF were significant for only the TEA-Ch Walk/Don't Walk subtest, with poorer performance in the severe TBI group. However, several significant interactions suggested that the home environment moderated group differences in EF, particularly after complicated mild/moderate TBI. The home environment is not a consistent predictor of long-term EF in children with early TBI and OI, but may moderate the effects of TBI on EF. The findings suggest that interventions designed to improve the quality of stimulation in children's home environments might reduce the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on EF. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-11).

  19. Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in Early Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Critically Ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Lestari Paramastuty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI often associated with a high hospital morbi-mortality rate in the intensive care unit patients. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, has many characteristics of ideal biomarker for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to compared the temporal pattern of elevation urinary KIM-1 level following critically ill children with SCr as standart biomarker of AKI. Prospective analytic observational study was conducted during October to March 2014 in the Saiful Anwar General Hospital and Physiology Laboratory Brawijaya University. There were 13 critically ill as subjects. SCr and KIM-1 levels from all subjects were measured three times ( at admission, after 1st and 6th hour. Subjects were devided into AKI - non-AKI groups by SCr level and survivor - non survivor group at the and of the observations. Results showed that there were significantly increased levels of KIM-1 in the AKI and non-AKI and survivor-non survivor group at time point. However, we found that delta KIM-1 at time point increased significant in non AKI group and survivor group. KIM-1 at admission can diagnosed AKI in critically ill children. We conclude that urinary KIM-1 is a sensitive non-invasive biomarker to diagnosed acute kidney injury in critically ill children. Increase level of KIM-1 by time shows protective and good outcome in critically ill children.

  20. Early psychological stress after forearm nerve injuries: a predictor for long-term functional outcome and return to productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Jean-Bart; Kalmijn, Sandra; Kuypers, Paul D L; Hofman, Albert; Passchier, Jan; Hovius, Steven E R

    2002-07-01

    Forearm and wrist injuries can result in a nonfunctional hand caused by loss of motor and sensory functions. Psychological stress is known to accompany traumatic hand injuries and may therefore affect functional outcome. The authors conducted a retrospective study of 107 patients diagnosed with a median, ulnar, or combined median-ulnar nerve injury (79% response rate) who completed a questionnaire package consisting of the Impact of Event Scale (IES); Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand; and a questionnaire concerning return to work and time off work. In an outpatient setting, motor and sensory recovery were examined. Ninety-four percent of those studied experienced early psychological stress. Thirty-six percent of patients reported sufficient symptoms 1 month postoperatively to be classified as in need for psychological treatment (IES score > 30 points). Combined median-ulnar nerve injuries (mean, 35.0 +/- 20.3 points [standard deviation]) were accompanied by a higher psychological stress compared with single nerve injuries (median injuries: mean, 24.2 +/- 20.6 points; ulnar injuries: mean, 22.6 +/- 19.5 points; p = 0.049 and p = 0.021 respectively). Multiple linear regression adjusting for age, gender, and severity of the trauma revealed an association between the IES score and the functional symptom score (beta = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.65), mean time off work (beta = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25-0.75), and motor recovery (grip: beta = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09-0.65; tip-pinch: beta = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.13-0.80). Patients with higher scores on the IES were found to be at increased risk for incapacity for work (odds ratio, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.60-6.91). Higher education was found to be a protecting variable for posttraumatic psychopathology (beta = -0.23; 95% CI, -6.05--0.246). This study demonstrated a high level of early posttraumatic psychological stress after forearm and wrist nerve injuries. These data provide evidence that functional outcome and work

  1. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Elisa K. [Department of Oncology, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John (Canada); Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L. [Cancer Control Research Department, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Virani, Sean [Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Wai, Elaine S. [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiac risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early-stage breast

  2. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  3. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. [Experimental studies on the early treatment of soft tissue explosion injury by vacuum-assisted closure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Xue, Yun; Ge, Bao-feng; Chen, Ke-ming; Zhao, Dong-hua; Han, Gui-qiu; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect on early treatment with vacuum-assisted closure(VAC) to wound healing of acute explosion injury in pigs, and provide a new way for early treatment of battle wounds. Eight healthy 3-month Landrace pigs of both sexes with the body mass of (50 +/- 5) kg were selected in the study. Sixteen battle wounds were made by explosion of same type detonator (pattern number: 660929F48840-55, included DDNP 0.3 g, RDX 0.7 g) in hibateral skin of buttock of 8 pigs, which were divided into experimental group and control group (pair wounds of left and right). The raw sufaces were thorough debrided at 3 h after exposure, according to the characteristics of treatment on the battlefield, experimental group was treated with VAC under the pressure of (-50 +/- 5) Kpa after debridement and sterilization and control group was treated with routine dry sterile gauze draping. Results of bacteriology (bacterial counts and the proportion of G+ bacteria) and pathology (HE stain and Masson stain) were detected at every wound before and after treatment. At the 3 days after treatment,the bacterial number in the experimental group was [(7.82 +/- 0.55) x 10(4) ] CFU/g, in control group was [(1.07 +/- 0.14) x 10(6)] CFU/g. There was significant difference between two groups. The proportion of G+ bacteria in experimental group was significantly increased. The raw surface in experimental group was clean with affluent and neoformative granulation tissue, blood vessels and collagen, necrotic tissue decreased obviously by pathological observation. VAC could reduce the quantity of bacteria, improve the proportion of G+ bacteria, and promote the formation of granulation tissue and the healing of wound. The VAC for the treatment of battle wounds has a positive effect.

  5. Clinical utility of early amplitude integrated EEG in monitoring term newborns at risk of neurological injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Toso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test the clinical utility of an early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG to predict short-term neurological outcome in term newborns at risk of neurology injury. METHODS: this was a prospective, descriptive study. The inclusion criteria were neonatal encephalopathy, neurologic disturbances, and severe respiratory distress syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio (LR were calculated. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed. Neurological outcome was defined as the sum of clinical, electroimaging, and neuroimaging findings. RESULTS: ten of the 21 monitored infants (48% presented altered short-term neurologic outcome. The aEEG had 90% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 82% positive predictive value, and 90% negative predictive value. The positive LR was 4.95, and the negative LR was 0.12. In three of 12 (25% encephalopathic infants, the aEEG allowed for a better definition of the severity of their condition. Seizures were detected in eight infants (38%, all subclinical at baseline, and none had a normal aEEG background pattern. The status of three infants (43% evolved and required two or more drugs for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: in infants with encephalopathy or other severe illness, aEEG disturbances occur frequently. aEEG provided a better classification of the severity of encephalopathy, detected early subclinical seizures, and allowed for monitoring of the response to treatment. aEEG was a useful tool at the neonatal intensive care unit for predicting poor short-term neurological outcomes for all sick newborn.

  6. Neuroaxonal regeneration is more pronounced in early multiple sclerosis than in traumatic brain injury lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Merkler, Doron; König, Fatima B; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The extent of irreversible neuroaxonal damage is the key determinant of permanent disability in traumatic and inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). Structural damage is nevertheless in part compensated by neuroplastic events. However, it is unknown whether the same kinetics and mechanisms of neuroaxonal de- and regeneration take place in inflammatory and traumatic conditions. We analyzed neuroaxonal degeneration and plasticity in early multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroaxonal degeneration identified by the presence of SMI31+ chromatolytic neurons and SMI32+ axonal profiles were characteristic features of leukocortical TBI lesions. Axonal transport disturbances as determined by amyloid precursor protein (APP)+ spheroids were present in both TBI and MS lesions to a similar degree. Neurons expressing growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and synaptophysin (Syn) were found under both pathological conditions. However, axonal swellings immunopositive for GAP43 and Syn clearly prevailed in subcortical MS lesions, suggesting a higher regenerative potential in MS. In this context, GAP43+/APP+ axonal spheroid ratios correlated with macrophage infiltration in TBI and MS lesions, supporting the idea that phagocyte activation might promote neuroplastic events. Furthermore, axonal GAP43+ and Syn+ swellings correlated with prolonged survival after TBI, indicating a sustained regenerative response.

  7. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  8. Role of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Dingding; Hao, Shuangying; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial Ca(2+) is undertaken by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and its accumulation is associated with the development of many diseases. However, little was known about the role of MCU in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MCU can be opened by spermine under a physiological condition and inhibited by ruthenium red (RR). Herein, we investigated the effects of RR and spermine to reveal the role of MCU in SAH animal model. The data obtained with biochemical and histological assays showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration was significantly increased in the temporal cortex of rats 1, 2, and 3 days after SAH, consistent with constant high levels of cellular Ca(2+) concentration. In agreement with the observation in the acute phase, SAH rats showed an obvious increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decrease of ATP production. Blockage of MCU prevented Ca(2+) accumulation, abated the level of oxidative stress, and improved the energy supply. Translocation of cytochrome c, increased cleaved caspase-3, and a large amount of apoptotic cells after SAH were reversed by RR administration. Surprisingly, exogenous spermine did not increase cellular Ca(2+) concentration, but lessened the Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH to benefit the rats. Taken together, our results demonstrated that blockage of MCU or prevention of Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH is essential in EBI after SAH. These findings suggest that MCU is considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  9. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  10. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  11. The Control Strategies of Radiation Injuries to the Digestive System%核辐射对消化系统损害的防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿超; 林森

    2011-01-01

    消化系统中多个器官具有细胞代谢快、易受核射线损伤的特点,成为骨髓以外最容易遭受核辐射破坏的身体部位.日本核电站的泄露事故,使核辐射再度成为世界的焦点.随着人们对电离辐射认识的增加,核辐射对消化系统的损害也逐渐受到重视.本文通过对消化系统的损害机制的研究,论述了核辐射对消化系统的损害的防护和治疗策略.%Tissues and organs of the digestive system which often metabolize fast and are susceptible to the nuclear radiation are the most vulnerable to radiation injuries accept bone marrow. Recently, due to the leakage of Japanese nuclear power plant, people around the world focus on the problem of nuclear radiation once again. With increased understanding of ionizing radiation, radiation injuries to digestive system are gradually recognized. So this paper studies the mechanism of the digestive system injuries and discusses the prevention and treatment strategies for radiation injuries to digestive system.

  12. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  13. Long-term classroom functioning and its association with neuropsychological and academic performance following traumatic brain injury during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R;

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express ...... in tumor cells may promote the development of innovative molecular-targeted therapeutic antitumor strategies.......Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...... signaling-incompetent beta1B variants. Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, beta1-integrin-IgG or poly-l-lysine were exposed to 0-6 Gy X-rays in presence or depletion of growth factors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin). In order to test the relevance...

  15. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  16. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, I.A. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marmara Univ., Ustkaynarca/Pendik (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ates, R.; Dhaens, J.; Storme, G. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. Patients and methods: The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm{sup 3} (median, 2.3 cm{sup 3}) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.74-60.09 cm{sup 3}). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) > 10 cm{sup 3}], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V12 < 10 cm{sup 3}, small volume, and Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49, as determined by multivariate analyses. Factors associated with radiation injury were V12 > 10 cm{sup 3} (p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. Conclusion: These data

  17. Early depth assessment of local burns by videomicroscopy: 24 h after injury is a critical time point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kyomi; Shindo, Hajime; Ohtani, Minako; Nagasaki, Kotaro; Nakashima, Reiko; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2011-09-01

    Videomicroscopy has simple and prompt operability, and useful in the burn depth assessment in its early phase. A burn wound is, however, a dynamic environment in the first few days and the critical time to assess a burn wound by videomicroscopy has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy. Forty one patients with 44 intermediate depth burns admitted within 7 days after injury were included. Accuracies were assessed by comparison with clinical outcome: healing within 21 days after injury or not with conservative treatment. We prospectively evaluated and compared the accuracy of the videomicroscopy measurements with the clinical assessments. All findings were serialized in order of time after injury and divided into three groups, and we compared the appreciation of burn depth by videomicroscopy findings among groups. The videomicroscopy measurements is significantly accurate compared with clinical assessments (p=0.001). The accuracy of videomicroscopy measurements was significantly lower in the post-injury burn depth and the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy is 24 h after injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor impairment factors related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part I: expression of upper-extremity weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on the magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. A total of 24 individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple-degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (P < .001) and joint torque direction (P < .001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared with proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, whereas those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral corticobulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm.

  19. Motor impairment factors related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis Part I: expression of upper extremity weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. Objective This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. Methods Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n=8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n=8) or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n=8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. Results There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (p<0.001) and joint torque direction (p<0.001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared to proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. Conclusions The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, while those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral cortico-bulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm. PMID:24009182

  20. Early Diagnosis of Penetrating Cardiac and Pleural Injury by Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, K. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Pandit, Vinay R.

    2016-01-01

    In India, stab injury is not uncommon, but identifying potential life threatening conditions in the emergency room (ER) and initiating prompt treatment are challenging. This is a case report of a young patient who presented to the ER with assault injury to the chest and shock; timely extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma helped to fast-track the patient to the operating room. A brief review of diagnosis and management of penetrating cardiac injury is presented herewith.

  1. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  2. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to

  3. Tissue-engineered conduit promotes sciatic nerve regeneration following radiation-induced injury as monitored by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengde; Zheng, Rui; Wei, Changzheng; Yan, Jun; Ding, Yingying; Wang, Guangshun; Li, Zhuolin; Zhang, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the longitudinal changes in peripheral nerve repaired with chitosan conduits in a rat model of radiation-induced neuropathy. Four months after 40 Gy radiation to the right lower limbs, forty-two rats were divided randomly into three groups. Chitosan conduits were implanted with (group A, n=12) or without (group B, n=12) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and untreated controls (group C, n=12). Following sciatic nerve MR imaging (including T2WI and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI), functional evaluation and electrophysiological exam were performed two-monthly, final histological assessments were done at the end of one year. The differences among the experimental and control groups were statistically analysed with Fisher's PLSD or t-test. The compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sciatic function index (SFI) had declined since 4 months after radiation injury. The focal nerve enlargement and hyperintensity, the perineurium and connecting muscle enhancement were demonstrated by MR neurography images. After chitosan tube implantation, the normalized signal intensities (SIs) in group A were declined more rapidly than SIs in other groups. The histological assessments indicated that group A had better remyelination, combined with higher CMAPs amplitude and SFI score than other groups. A single fraction dose of 40 Gy can be used to establish a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Longitudinal electrophysiological examination and MR neurography are useful to evaluate the post-irradiation sciatic neuropathy. The rats with tissue-engineered conduits implantation showed some improvement of lower limb function, accompanied by a normalization of (T1W/T2W) MR signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An integrative review of skin assessment tools used to evaluate skin injury related to external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Carol R; McGuiness, William; O'Rourke, Geraldine A

    2017-04-01

    To review literature associated with external beam radiotherapy and skin damage. A focus of the literature search is to highlight and discuss the myriad of skin assessment tools that are available to the clinician when assessing skin injury in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy. It is apparent that despite considerable work being progressed in the development of individualised skin assessment tools, uptake and use is poor. These tools are designed to assist the clinician in the evaluation of damaged skin and predict the radiation wound development pathway. An integrated review can be used to address a mature or new and emerging topic through a systematic methodology, which is either theoretical or empirical, gained from research, practice or policy initiatives (Whittemore & Knafl, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546). This review is particularly concerned with the employment of skin assessment tools by clinicians in patients with radiation damaged skin. Using the search terms synonyms for radiation, skin and epidermal damage, PubMed/MEDLINE, Medical Complete and Web of Science databases were searched. Consulting professional peers was employed as part of the inclusion and exclusion process. There is a high level of unpredictability about which patient will have an uncomplicated course of external beam radiotherapy. Variables may include, but are not limited to, an acute reaction, a delayed reaction resulting in actual skin damage or no visible skin disturbance. The skin assessment tools that are readily available are not regularly referenced in clinical practice when attempting to manage the many side effects of radiation therapy. Skin assessment tools require ongoing clinical validation, so they can be used to guide practitioners to undertake further assessment of skin integrity. The current body of knowledge suggests clinicians caring for patients receiving therapeutic radiotherapy should consider integrating a recognised patient assessment

  5. Development of a long-term ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation injury and the effects of early excision and skin autografting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Rehberg, Sebastian; Asmussen, Sven; Ito, Hiroshi; Sousse, Linda E.; Cox, Robert A.; Deyo, Donald J.; Traber, Lillian D.; Traber, Maret G.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury frequently increases the risk of pneumonia and mortality in burn patients. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury secondary to burn and smoke inhalation is well studied, but long-term pulmonary function, especially the process of lung tissue healing following burn and smoke inhalation, has not been fully investigated. By contrast, early burn excision has become the standard of care in the management of major burn injury. While many clinical studies and small-animal experiments support the concept of early burn wound excision, and show improved survival and infectious outcomes, we have developed a new chronic ovine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury with early excision and skin grafting that can be used to investigate lung pathophysiology over a period of 3 weeks. Materials and methods Eighteen female sheep were surgically prepared for this study under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were divided into three groups: an Early Excision group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke followed by early excision and skin autografting at 24 h after injury, n = 6), a Control group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke without early excision, n = 6) and a Sham group (no injury, no early excision, n = 6). After induced injury, all sheep were placed on a ventilator and fluid-resuscitated with Lactated Ringers solution (4 mL/% TBS/kg). At 24 h post-injury, early excision was carried out to fascia, and skin grafting with meshed autografts (20/1000 in., 1:4 ratio) was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. At 48 h post-injury, weaning from ventilator was begun if PaO2/FiO2 was above 250 and sheep were monitored for 3 weeks. Results At 96 h post-injury, all animals were weaned from ventilator. There are no significant differences in PaO2/FiO2 between Early Excision and Control groups at any points. All animals were survived for 3 weeks without infectious complication in Early Excision

  6. WE-D-BRE-01: A Sr-90 Irradiation Device for the Study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorand, JE; Bourland, JD [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Burnett, LR [KeraNetics, LLC, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tytell, M [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric character for a custom-built Sr-90 beta irradiator designed for the study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury (CRI) in a porcine animal model. In the event of a radiological accident or terrorist event, Sr-90, a fission by-product, will likely be produced. CRI is a main concern due to the low energy and superficial penetration in tissue of beta particles from Sr-90. Seven 100 mCi plaque Sr-90 radiation sources within a custom-built irradiation device create a 40 mm diameter region of radiation-induced skin injury as part of a larger project to study the efficacy of a topical keratin-based product in CRI healing. Methods: A custom-built mobile irradiation device was designed and implemented for in vivo irradiations. Gafchromic™ EBT3 radiochromic film and a PTW Markus chamber type 23343 were utilized for dosimetric characterization of the beta fluence at the surface produced by this device. Films were used to assess 2-dimensional dose distribution and percent depth dose characteristics of the radiation field. Ion chamber measurements provided dose rate data within the field. Results: The radiation field produced by the irradiation device is homogeneous with high uniformity (∼5%) and symmetry (∼3%) with a steep dose fall-off with depth from the surface. Dose rates were determined to be 3.8 Gy/min and 3.3 Gy/min for film and ion chamber measurements, respectively. A dose rate of 3.4 Gy/min was used to calculate irradiation times for in vivo irradiations. Conclusion: The custom-built irradiation device enables the use of seven Sr-90 beta sources in an array to deliver a 40 mm diameter area of homogeneous skin dose with a dose rate that is useful for research purposes and clinically relevant for the induction of CRI. Doses of 36 and 42 Gy successfully produce Grade III CRI and are used in the study of the efficacy of KeraStat™. This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and

  7. Reduction of early reperfusion injury with the mitochondria-targeting peptide bendavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David A; Hale, Sharon L; Baines, Christopher P; del Rio, Carlos L; Hamlin, Robert L; Yueyama, Yukie; Kijtawornrat, Anusak; Yeh, Steve T; Frasier, Chad R; Stewart, Luke M; Moukdar, Fatiha; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Neufer, P Darrell; Kloner, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that Bendavia, a novel mitochondria-targeting peptide, reduced infarction and no-reflow across several experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic timing and mechanism of action that underlie Bendavia's cytoprotective property. In rabbits exposed to in vivo ischemia/reperfusion (30/180 min), Bendavia administered 20 minutes prior to reperfusion (0.05 mg/kg/h, intravenously) reduced myocardial infarct size by ∼50% when administered for either 1 or 3 hours of reperfusion. However, when Bendavia perfusion began just 10 minutes after the onset of reperfusion, the protection against infarction and no-reflow was completely lost, indicating that the mechanism of protection is occurring early in reperfusion. Experiments in isolated mouse liver mitochondria found no discernible effect of Bendavia on blocking the permeability transition pore, and studies in isolated heart mitochondria showed no effect of Bendavia on respiratory rates. As Bendavia significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in isolated heart mitochondria, the ROS-scavenging capacity of Bendavia was compared to well-known ROS scavengers using in vitro (cell-free) systems that enzymatically generate ROS. Across doses ranging from 1 nmol/L to 1 mmol/L, Bendavia showed no discernible ROS-scavenging properties, clearly differentiating itself from prototypical scavengers. In conclusion, Bendavia is a promising candidate to reduce cardiac injury when present at the onset of reperfusion but not after reperfusion has already commenced. Given that both infarction and no-reflow are related to increased cellular ROS, Bendavia's protective mechanism of action likely involves reduced ROS generation (as opposed to augmented scavenging) by endothelial and myocyte mitochondria.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yonghua; Duan, Xiaochun; Li, Haiying; Dang, Baoqi; Yin, Jia; Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Increasing studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, the potential application value of H2S in the therapy of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not well known. This study was to investigate the potential effect of H2S on early brain injury (EBI) induced by SAH and explore the underlying mechanisms. The role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, in SAH-induced EBI, was investigated in both in vivo and in vitro. A prechiasmatic cistern single injection model was used to produce experimental SAH in vivo. In vitro, cultured primary rat cortical neurons and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to OxyHb at concentration of 10 μM to mimic SAH. Endogenous production of H2S in the brain was significantly inhibited by SAH. The protein levels of the predominant H2S-generating enzymes in the brain, including cystathionineb-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST), were also correspondingly reduced by SAH, while treatment with NaHS restored H2S production and the expressions of CBS and 3MST. More importantly, NaHS treatment could significantly attenuate EBI (including brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, brain cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, and cerebral vasospasm) after SAH. In vitro, H2S protects neurons and endothelial function by functioning as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic mediator. Our results suggest that NaSH as an exogenous H2S donor could significantly reduce EBI induced by SAH.

  9. A Bayesian framework for early risk prediction in traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Plassard, Andrew J.; Wilson, Laura; Smith, Miya A.; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of risk is critical in determining the course of treatment in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) acquired at admission has shown latent prognostic value in prior studies; however, no robust clinical risk predictions have been achieved based on the imaging data in large-scale TBI analysis. The major challenge lies in the lack of consistent and complete medical records for patients, and an inherent bias associated with the limited number of patients samples with high-risk outcomes in available TBI datasets. Herein, we propose a Bayesian framework with mutual information-based forward feature selection to handle this type of data. Using multi-atlas segmentation, 154 image-based features (capturing intensity, volume and texture) were computed over 22 ROIs in 1791 CT scans. These features were combined with 14 clinical parameters and converted into risk likelihood scores using Bayes modeling. We explore the prediction power of the image features versus the clinical measures for various risk outcomes. The imaging data alone were more predictive of outcomes than the clinical data (including Marshall CT classification) for discharge disposition with an area under the curve of 0.81 vs. 0.67, but less predictive than clinical data for discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score with an area under the curve of 0.65 vs. 0.85. However, in both cases, combining imaging and clinical data increased the combined area under the curve with 0.86 for discharge disposition and 0.88 for discharge GCS score. In conclusion, CT data have meaningful prognostic value for TBI patients beyond what is captured in clinical measures and the Marshall CT classification.

  10. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  11. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cognitive function in childhood is a modifiable risk factor for adult injury. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function measured at the age of 12 and 18 years and fatal and non-fatal injuries later in adult life. METHODS: A total of 11 ...

  12. [Autotransplantation of the greater omentum in patients with radiation injuries of the integumentary tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, N O; Bardyshev, M S; Shilov, B L; Trofimov, E I

    1989-05-01

    The treatment of radiation damages of the integumentary tissues is a complicated problem of reconstructive plastic surgery. The condition of the tissues in the irradiated zone do not allow wide application of the traditional methods. Microsurgical autotransplantation of the greater omentum provides the possibility for adequate closure of the radiation ulcers. Operations were conducted on 9 patients with such ulcers of various localization; the cosmetic and functional result was good in 7 of them.

  13. Protective effects and time course of Huangqion early-stage free radical injury following brain trauma in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjie Wang; Xingbo Liu; Xun Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Huangqi (Astragalus mongholicus), a Chinese herb, has already been included in the "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Secondary injury following brain injury is associated with free radical production, and Huangqi possesses the ability to ameliorate free radical-mediated injury. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the correlation between anti-free-radical properties of Huangqi and early histological changes of brain tissues following traumatic brain injury. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This study, a randomized, controlled, animal experiment, was performed from May 2006 to June 2007 at the Experimental Center of Science and Technology, School of Basic Science, Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province, China. MATERIALS: Healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats of either gender were included. Huangqi injection was purchased from Heilongjiang Provincial Zhenbaodao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China (National License Medical Number: Z23020781). Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase, as well as kits to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Biological Reagent Company, China. METHODS: Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 24 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group: rats were only exposed, but not injured; (2) model group: brain focal laceration rat models were established by free-falling. These groups were intraperitoneally injected with saline, once every 10 hours; (3) Huangqi group: rats were intraperitoneally injected with 4 mL/kg Huangqi (2 g/mL), once every 10 hours, following brain focal laceration by free-falling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructural changes in brain tissue were observed under an electron microscope 24 hours after injury. The water content of brain tissue was measured using the dry-wet weight method. In addition, the activity of ATPase

  14. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

  15. Attraction to a radiation-like era in early superstring cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bourliot, Francois; Partouche, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Starting from an initial classical four dimensional flat background of the heterotic or type II superstrings, we are able to determine at the string one-loop level the quantum corrections to the effective potential due to the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry by "geometrical fluxes". Furthermore, considering a gas of strings at finite temperature, the full "effective thermal potential" is determined, giving rise to an effective non-trivial pressure. The backreaction of the quantum and thermal corrections to the space-time metric as well as to the moduli fields induces a cosmological evolution that depends on the early time initial conditions and the number of spontaneously broken supersymmetries. We show that for a whole set of initial conditions, the cosmological solutions converge at late times to two qualitatively different trajectories: They are either attracted to (i) a thermal evolution similar to a radiation dominated cosmology, implemented by a coherent motion of some moduli fields, or to (ii) a "...

  16. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 34; Survival effects of aqueous extracts of various Chinese traditional medicines on radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    In order to develop a nontoxic radioprotector, 60 kinds of Chinese traditional medicines were chosen, and their aqueous extracts tested for their survival effects against the lethal effect of X-irradiation in mice. Radiation factors used were as follows: soft X-rays, 2100 R (5.418x10{sup -1}Ckg{sup -1}), 70 kVp, 10 mA, 10 mm acrylic filter, 70 R (1.806x10{sup -2} Ckg{sup -1})/min. Among 60 medicines tested by intraperitoneal injection immediately before the irradiation, 15 are shown to have the significant survival effect. These 15 effective medicines were also tested by intraperitoneal injection after the irradiation, and the survival effect was recognized in Keisi-syakuyaku-chimo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Shimotu-to, Syakuyaku-kanzo-to and Hange-syasin-to. On the other hand, the survival effects of 25 medicines including the above-mentioned 15 medicines were investigated by the oral administration at various times before or after the irradiation. As the results of these studies, only Keigai-rengyo-to and Bukuryo-in are shown to have the significant survival effect when administered 2 h before the irradiation. (author).

  18. Early-onset Infectious Complications among Penetrating and Severe Closed Traumatic Brain Injury in Active Duty Deployed during OIF and OEF, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    trauma that manifests as cerebral contusions and bleeding that occurs inside the skull, but outside the brain. The level of injury severity (mild...the form of early in-theater cranial decompression, followed by aggressive critical care management. 8 Medical advances, in addition to improved body...with severe disability. 4 However, early medical complications, that result from the ongoing cellular effects of trauma from the primary injury

  19. Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication mechanisms. To cope with the induced stress and the changes in the redox environment, organisms elicit transient responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to counteract toxic effects of radiation. Metabolic pathways are induced during and shortly after the exposure. Depending on radiation dose, dose-rate and quality, these protective mechanisms may or may not be sufficient to cope with the stress. When the harmful effects exceed those of homeostatic biochemical processes, induced biological changes persist and may be propagated to progeny cells. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play critical roles in many cellular functions. In irradiated cells, levels of these reactive species may be increased due to perturbations in oxidative metabolism and chronic inflammatory responses, thereby contributing to the long-term effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on genomic stability. Here, in addition to immediate biological effects of water radiolysis on DNA damage, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in the delayed outcomes of ionization radiation. Defects in mitochondrial functions lead to accelerated aging and numerous pathological conditions. Different types of radiation vary in their linear energy transfer (LET) properties, and we discuss their effects on various aspects of mitochondrial physiology. These include short and long-term in vitro and in vivo effects on mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial protein import and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22182453

  20. Early changes of endothelin,nitric oxide and arginine—vasopressin in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To ivvestigate the early changes and clinical significance of plasma endothelin(ET),nitric oxide(NO)and arginine-vasopressin(AVP)in patients wisth acute moderate or severe cerebral injury.Metods:The ealy(at24 hours after injury)plasma concentrations of ET,NOand AVP were measured with radionimmunoassay and Green technique in48cases of acute moderate(GCS≤8in27cases)or severe(GCS>8in21cases)cerebral injury(GroupA),in42cases of non-cerebral injury(GroupB)and in38normal individuals(GroupC),respectively,Results:The early plasma concentrations of ET(109.73ng/L±12.61ng/L),NO(92.82μmol/L013218.21μmol/L)andAVP(49.78ng/L±14.29ng/L)inGroup Awere higher than those in Group B(67。013211.33ng/L,52.66μmol/L±12.82μmol/Land29.93ng/L±12.11ng/L,respectiely,P<0.01)andGroupC(50.65ng/L±17.12ng/L,36.12μmol/L013212.16μmol/Land5.18ng/L±4.18ng/L,respectively,P<0.001).The amounts of ET,NOand AVPin patients with severe cerebral injury were 116.18ng/L±18.12ng/L,108.19μmol/L±13.28μmol/Land58.13ng/L±16.78ng/L,respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the patients with moderate cerebral injury(92.33ng/L±16.32ng/L,76.38μmol/L±12.71μmol/Land36.18ng/L±12.13ng/L respectively,P<0.01).The early levels of ET,NO and AVP in Group A were negatively related to the GCS scales.The amounts of ET,NO and AVP were126.23ng/L±15.23ng/L,118.18μmol/L±10.12μmol/Land63.49ng/L±14.36ng/Lrespectively in patients with subdural hematoma,which were significantly higher than those in patients with epidural hematoma(81.13ng/L±12.37ng/L,68.02μmol/L013213.18μmol/Land 45.63ng/L±12.41ng/L respectively,P<0.01).The plasma concentrations of ET,NO and AVP in stable duration(at336 hours after injury)in Group A and Group Bwere similar to those in GroupC.Conclusions:ET,NO and AVP were related to the pathophysiological process that occurs in the early stage of acute cerebral injury and the values of ET.NO and AVP correlate positively with the clinical manifestations,The changes

  1. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of γ-irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation.

  2. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  3. Characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo after spinal cord injury

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    Galvan Manuel D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumatic CNS injury can also result in the formation and deposition of C5b-9 membrane attack complex (C5b-9/MAC, causing cell lysis or sublytic effects on vital CNS cells. Although complement proteins derived from serum/blood-brain barrier breakdown can contribute to injury or disease, infiltrating immune cells may represent an important local source of complement after injury. As the first immune cells to infiltrate the CNS within hours post-injury, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs may affect injury through mechanisms associated with complement-mediated events. However, the expression/association of both early and terminal complement proteins by PMNs has not been fully characterized in vitro, and has not observed previously in vivo after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. Method We investigated the expression of complement mRNAs using rt-PCR and the presence of complement proteins associated with PMNs using immunofluroescence and quantitative flow cytometry. Results Stimulated or unstimulated PMNs expressed mRNAs encoding for C1q, C3, and C4, but not C5, C6, C7 or C9 in culture. Complement protein C1q or C3 was also detected in less than 30% of cultured PMNs. In contrast, over 70% of PMNs that infiltrated the injured spinal cord were associated with C1q, C3, C7 and C5b-9/MAC 3 days post-SCI. The localization/association of C7 or C5b-9/MAC with infiltrating PMNs in the injured spinal cord suggests the incorporation or internalization of C7 or C5b-9/MAC bound cellular debris by infiltrating PMNs because C7 and C5b-9/MAC were mostly localized to granular vesicles within PMNs at the spinal cord epicenter region. Furthermore, PMN presence in the injured spinal cord was observed for many weeks post-SCI, suggesting that this

  4. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  5. Early modulation of pro-inflammatory microglia by minocycline loaded nanoparticles confers long lasting protection after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Simonetta; Caron, Ilaria; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; De Paola, Massimiliano; Mariani, Alessandro; Colombo, Claudio; Ferrari, Raffaele; Pozzer, Diego; Zanier, Elisa R; Pischiutta, Francesca; Lucchetti, Jacopo; Bassi, Andrea; Valentini, Gianluca; Simonutti, Giulio; Rossi, Filippo; Moscatelli, Davide; Forloni, Gianluigi; Veglianese, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been performed in order to understand the role of recruited macrophages in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). Different studies revealed a pleiotropic effect played by these cells associated to distinct phenotypes (M1 and M2), showing a predictable spatial and temporal distribution in the injured site after SCI. Differently, the role of activated microglia in injury progression has been poorly investigated, mainly because of the challenges to target and selectively modulate them in situ. A delivery nanovector tool (poly-ε-caprolactone-based nanoparticles) able to selectively treat/target microglia has been developed and used here to clarify the temporal and spatial involvement of the pro-inflammatory response associated to microglial cells in SCI. We show that a treatment with nanoparticles loaded with minocycline, the latter a well-known anti-inflammatory drug, when administered acutely in a SCI mouse model is able to efficiently modulate the resident microglial cells reducing the pro-inflammatory response, maintaining a pro-regenerative milieu and ameliorating the behavioral outcome up to 63 days post injury. Furthermore, by using this selective delivery tool we demonstrate a mechanistic link between early microglia activation and M1 macrophages recruitment to the injured site via CCL2 chemokine, revealing a detrimental contribution of pro-inflammatory macrophages to injury progression after SCI.

  6. Early diagnosis and treatment of traffic injuries%道路交通伤的早期救治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高劲谋

    2011-01-01

    道路交通伤是人类安全的重大威胁,是15~19岁青少年的第一死因.在不同受伤人群、车型和事故类型,具有不同的损伤特点和规律性.了解这些临床特点,有助于提高早期诊断治疗水平.道路交通伤时多发伤发生率高,诊断治疗牵涉到多学科、多专业,高效率的院前急救和专业化的创伤科有利于提高抢救生存率.%Traffic injury is seriously threatening the human's safety in the world, which is the first cause of death in the youth from 15 to 19 years. The regularity of the injury characteristic and injury pattern in different population, vehicle style and accident type of road traffic accident have different clinical features,which may be useful in early diagnosis and treatment strategies. To deal with traffic injuries,various departments and specialities are required, because of a high incidence of polytrauma. Therefore, a highly effective pre-hospital first aid as well as a professional unit of traumotology is helpful to improve the survive rate.

  7. Bakumondo-to appears to alleviate radiation-induced mucositis in early laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Koichiro [Saiseikai Yamaguchi General Hospital (Japan); Imate, Yuji; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasuike, Koji; Watanuki, Koichi; Moriya, Keiji

    2002-02-01

    Tsumura Co.'s Bakumondo-to (TJ-29) is a Chinese herb medicine prescribed widely in Japan for bronchitis and laryngitis. It is well known that TJ-29 not only has a variety of effects including anti-inflammatory and antitussive properties, but also is capable of increasing salivary secretions. The purpose of this study is to examine whether TJ-29 can reduce mucosal toxicity caused by radiotherapy in patients with early laryngeal carcinoma. Between 1993 and 1999, 20 patients with primary early laryngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy at Nagato General Hospital. All patients were treated with 2 Gy per fraction daily, 5 days a week. Eight patients formed the control group (no TJ-29) and 12 patients received TJ-29 throughout the radiation therapy. The severity of daily subjective symptoms such as hoarseness, xerostomia or pharyngoxerosis, cough, and sore throat were graded 0 to 3 according to descriptions on the clinical charts. No statistically significant between-group differences were seen in subjective hoarseness, xerostomia or pharyngoxerosis, and cough. However the mean final grade of subjective sore throat was less severe in the TJ-29 group (p=0.0023). Despite the limited number of patients, this study suggests that TJ-29 was able to reduce the severity of mucositis induced by radiotherapy. Further intensive research is needed. (author)

  8. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  9. Long-Term Neuropsychological Profiles and Their Role as Mediators of Adaptive Functioning after Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari

    2017-01-15

    The objectives of the study were to characterize long-term neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during early childhood, and determine whether identified neuropsychological impairments mediated the effect of TBI on long-term adaptive functioning. Participants included 16 children with severe TBI, 42 children with moderate TBI, and 72 children with orthopedic injuries (OI) sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. Children completed neuropsychological tests and caregivers completed a structured interview of child adaptive functioning at 6.9 (±1.10) years post-injury. Profile analysis and multiple mediator modeling were employed. Children with severe TBI demonstrated poorer fluid reasoning and inhibitory control than both children with moderate TBI and OI, as well as slower processing speed than the OI group. Both fluid reasoning and processing speed were significant independent mediators of the effect of severe TBI on adaptive functioning. No neuropsychological measure significantly mediated the effect of moderate TBI on adaptive functioning. Children sustaining early severe TBI demonstrate persisting neuropsychological impairments into adolescence and young adulthood. The impact of severe TBI on children's long-term adaptive functioning is mediated in part by its effects on fluid reasoning and processing speed.

  10. Investigation of robotic-assisted tilt-table therapy for early-stage spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Colm T D; Gollee, Henrik; Coupaud, Sylvie; Purcell, Mariel A; Allan, David B

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the spinal cord compromises motor function and sensation below the level of injury, resulting in paralysis and progressive secondary health complications. Inactivity and reduced energy requirements result in reduced cardiopulmonary fitness and an increased risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular complications. These risks may be minimized through regular physical activity. It is proposed that such activity should begin at the earliest possible time point after injury, before extensive neuromuscular degeneration has occurred. Robotic-assisted tilt-table therapy may be used during early-stage spinal cord injury (SCI) to facilitate stepping training, before orthostatic stability has been achieved. This study investigates whether such a stimulus may be used to maintain pulmonary and coronary health by describing the acute responses of patients with early-stage (<1 yr) motor-complete SCI (cSCI) and motor-incomplete SCI (iSCI) to passive, active, and electrically stimulated robotic-assisted stepping. Active participation was found to elicit an increased response from iSCI patients. The addition of electrical stimulation did not consistently elicit further increases. Extensive muscle atrophy was found to have occurred in those patients with cSCI, thereby limiting the potential effectiveness of electrical stimulation. Active participation in robotic-assisted tilt-table therapy may be used to improve cardiopulmonary fitness in iSCI patients if implemented as part of a regular training program.

  11. The Effect of PSD-93 Deficiency on the Expression of Early Inflammatory Cytokines Induced by Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxiu; Cheng, Hongyu; Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Ji, Qiuhong; Li, Qingjie; Rong, Liangqun; Hu, Gang; Xu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of PSD-93 deficiency on the expression of early inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ten- to twelve-week-old male PSD-93 knockout (PSD-93 KO) mice (C57BL/6 genetic background) and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly divided into sham and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group. The focal cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suture method. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α4h following reperfusion. Infarct volume at different time points after I/R was analyzed using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium staining, and neurological damage score (neurological severity scores, NSS) was used to evaluate the effect of PSD-93 gene knockout on the MCAO-induced neurological injury. In WT mice, early I/R injury led to the increase in the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α that coincided with the decrease in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, as compared to the sham group (P cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia.

  12. The use of low intensity laser radiation in the treatment of patients with closed traumatic brain injury consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov V.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the use of low-intensity helium-neon laser radiation in patients with post-traumatic cerebral arachnoiditis. Material and Methods. We observed 164 patients with the effects of closed craniocerebral injuries of a various severity. Methods of percutaneous laser irradiation of blood in the projection of the common carotid artery at the level of IV cervical vertebra was carried out underthe supervision of the clinical evaluation of hemodynamic data survey methods. Results. Positive results of hemodynamic parameters of examination methods indicate regression of cerebral vasospasm and improving brain vascular reserve, which led to a decrease in cerebral and focal neurological symptoms. Conclusion. The method allows the use of this technique in these patients both in the hospital and at the outpatient stage.

  13. Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heung Lae; Kim, Cheo Ljin; Park, Sung Kwang; Oh, Min Kyung; Lee, Jin Yong; Ahn, Ki Jung [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range 43.8-129.4 months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for Tis and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had 1-3 lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close ({<=}2 mm) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy (41.4-60.4 Gy) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0

  14. Modulation of Mortality by Tissue Trauma and Sepsis in Mice after Radiation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    States, and Chernobyl, U.S.S.R.) and from abandoned medical radiation devices (Juarez, Mexico, and Goiania , Brazil). Th ;nceased risk to human health as...well as the loss of life in Chernobyl and Goiania have had sobering influences upon the world. 202 92-19333 92 o J1 I l ~l ,,TIIII,1 .\\hodtatlon Of...exposed to radiation in the accident at Goiania (Brandao-Mello et al. 1991, Butturini et al. 1988). Several patients responded to GM-CSF with

  15. Effect of electrosleep therapy on the course and outcome of radiation injuries in animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhavadyan, N.S.; Abgaryan, D.V.; Neifets, Yu.B.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with regard to the effect of electrosleep therapy on the course of severe radiation sickness and the survival of animals (rabbits and dogs). The results of the studies showed that the use of a number of electrosleep seances before irradiation, and especially, in the first two weeks after irradiation had a favorable effect on the course of the severe radiation sickness, as expressed in the slow and relatively weak development of leucopenia and in the high percentage of animal survivals. 13 refs. (SJR)

  16. Clinical outcome and cost effectiveness of early tracheostomy in isolated severe head injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Tariq Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In patients with severe TBI, ET decreases total days of ventilation and ICU stay, and is associated with a decrease in the frequency of VAP. ET should be considered in severe head injury patients requiring prolong ventilatory support.

  17. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Jordan A., E-mail: jordan.torok@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Yuan [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F. [Division of Hematologic Malignancy and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  18. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  19. Behavioral and physiological methods for early quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury and prognosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Giglio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for reliable evaluation of spinal cord (SC injury in rats at short periods (2 and 24 h after lesion were tested to characterize the mechanisms implicated in primary SC damage. We measured the physiological changes occurring after several procedures for producing SC injury, with particular emphasis on sensorimotor functions. Segmental and suprasegmental reflexes were tested in 39 male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g divided into three control groups that were subjected to a anesthesia, b dissection of soft prevertebral tissue, and c laminectomy of the vertebral segments between T10 and L1. In the lesion group the SC was completely transected, hemisected or subjected to vertebral compression. All animals were evaluated 2 and 24 h after the experimental procedure by the hind limb motility index, Bohlman motor score, open-field, hot-plate, tail flick, and paw compression tests. The locomotion scale proved to be less sensitive than the sensorimotor tests. A reduction in exploratory movements was detected in the animals 24 h after the procedures. The hot-plate was the most sensitive test for detecting sensorimotor deficiencies following light, moderate or severe SC injury. The most sensitive and simplest test of reflex function was the hot-plate. The hemisection model promoted reproducible moderate SC injury which allowed us to quantify the resulting behavior and analyze the evolution of the lesion and its consequences during the first 24 h after injury. We conclude that hemisection permitted the quantitation of behavioral responses for evaluation of the development of deficits after lesions. Hind limb evaluation scores and spontaneous exploration events provided a sensitive index of immediate injury effects after SC lesion at 2 and 24 h. Taken together, locomotion scales, open-field, and hot-plate tests represent reproducible, quantitatively sensitive methods for detecting functional deficiencies within short periods of time, indicating their

  20. Myocardial function at the early phase of traumatic brain injury: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisinier, Adrien; Maufrais, Claire; Payen, Jean-François; Nottin, Stephane; Walther, Guillaume; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of brain-heart interaction has been described in several brain injuries. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may also lead to cardiac dysfunction but evidences are mainly based upon experimental and clinical retrospective studies. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study in a level I trauma center. Twenty consecutive adult patients with severe TBI were matched according to age and gender with 20 control patients. The control group included adult patients undergoin...

  1. A Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Traumatic Brain Injury: Early Predictors of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Colohan A, O’Leary T, Rimel R, Jane J: Understanding posttraumatic symptoms after minor head injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1986;1(2):1-12. Alves W...Athletic Training. 2001;36(3):236-243. Barth JT, Macciocchi SN, Giordani B, Rimel R, Jane JA, Boll TJ. Neuropsychological sequelae of minor head...2000;35:19-25.* Rimel RW, Giordani B, Barth JT, Boll TJ, Jane JA. Disability caused by minor head injury. Neurosurgery. 1981;9(3):221-228

  2. Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanyong Zhang; Dankai Wu; Jincheng Wang; Yongming Wang; Guoxiang Wang; Maoguang Yang; Xiaoyu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differential y expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initial y improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradual y decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6–12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induc-tion. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons.

  3. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Soto, Gissela; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto, E-mail: arojasmtz@gmail.com, E-mail: augusto.rojasm@uanl.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. (author)

  4. The use of discriminant analysis for evaluation of early-response multiple biomarkers of radiation exposure using non-human primate 6-Gy whole-body radiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil; Farese, A.M.; MacVittie, T.J. [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Bressler Research Building, Room 7-039, University of Maryland-Baltimore, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Manglapus, G.L.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The present need to rapidly identify severely irradiated individuals in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of potential protein biomarkers to provide early diagnostic information after exposure. The level of specific proteins measured using immunodiagnostic technologies may be useful as protein biomarkers to provide early diagnostic information for acute radiation exposures. Herein we present results from on-going studies using a non-human primate (NHP) 6-Gy X-rays ( 0.13Gymin{sup -1}) whole-body radiation model. Protein targets were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood plasma before, 1, and 2 days after exposure. Exposure of 10 NHPs to 6 Gy resulted in the up-regulation of plasma levels of (a) p21 WAF1/CIP1, (b) interleukin 6 (IL-6), (c) tissue enzyme salivary {alpha}-amylase, and (d) C-reactive protein. Data presented show the potential utility of protein biomarkers selected from distinctly different pathways to detect radiation exposure. A correlation analysis demonstrated strong correlations among different combinations of four candidate radiation-responsive blood protein biomarkers. Data analyzed with use of multivariate discriminant analysis established very successful separation of NHP groups: 100% discrimination power for animals with correct classification for separation between groups before and 1 day after irradiation, and 95% discrimination power for separation between groups before and 2 days after irradiation. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that multiple protein biomarkers provide early diagnostic information to the medical community, along with classical biodosimetric methodologies, to effectively manage radiation casualty incidents.

  5. Apoptosis and injuries of heavy ion beam and x-ray radiation on malignant melanoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Li, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Dong-Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed. Then, median survival time was calculated and tumors on mice were proliferated. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out for apoptosis-related proteins to reflect the expression level. After tumor-bearing mice were radiated to heavy ion, median survival time improved and tumor volume significantly decreased in conjunction with the upregulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, Bax and cytochrome C, and the downregulated expression of apoptosis-profilin (Bcl-2, Survivin) and proliferation-related proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The results indicated that radiation can promote the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit their proliferation. This case was more suitable for heavy ion ((12)C(6+)). High LET heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) radiation could significantly improve the killing ability for malignant melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibiting their proliferation. These results demonstrated that heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) presented special advantages in terms of treating malignant melanoma. Impact statement Malignant melanoma is a malignant skin tumor derived from melanin cells, which has a high malignant degree and high fatality rate. In this study, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) can induce the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit its proliferation, and its induction effect on apoptosis is significantly higher than low LET X-ray; hence, it is expected to

  6. Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Anders

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. Methods Seven consecutive male patients (median age 33; range 15-61 with brachial plexus injuries, caused by motor cycle accidents in 5/7 patients, who underwent extensive radiological work-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography myelography (CT-M or both were included in this retrospective study. A total of 34 spinal nerve roots were evaluated by neuroradiologists at two different occasions. The degree of agreement between the radiological findings of every individual nerve root and the intraoperative findings was estimated by calculation of kappa coefficient (К-value. Using the operative findings as a gold standard, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the clinical findings and the radiological findings were estimated. Results The diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings was 88% compared with 65% for the clinical findings. The concordance between the radiological findings and the intraoperative findings was substantial (К = 0.76 compared with only fair (К = 0.34 for the clinical findings. There were two false positive and two false negative radiological findings (sensitivity and PPV of 0.90; specificity and NPV of 0.87. Conclusions The advanced optimized radiological work-up used showed high reliability and substantial agreement with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

  7. Early to late sparing of radiation damage to the parotid gland by adrenergic and muscarinic receptor agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Kampinga, HH; Konings, AWT

    2001-01-01

    Damage to salivary glands after radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck tumours can severely impair the quality of life of the patients. In the current study we have investigated the early-to-late pathogenesis of the parotid gland after radiation. Also the ability to ameliorate the damage using

  8. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of pathologist Clarence Lushbaugh, M.D., conducted October 5, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview with Dr. Clarance Lushbaugh by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Lushbaugh was chosen for this interview because of his research involving experimental use of irradiation with human beings at Los Alamos and at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Science (ORINS). After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Lushbaugh and his assistant Mrs. Ann Swipe defend their use of total body irradiation using the LETBI (Low Exposure Total Body Irradiation) and the LETBI (Medium Energy Total Body Irradiator). Dr. Lushbaugh also discusses his earlier experiments involving use of nitrogen mustards in chemotherapy application, his early interest in the LD50 for man, his early impressions of low-level spray radiation as introduced by Heubline, anedotal information for his duties a pathologist for Los Alamos, and his developing interest in establishing safer radiation limits for human exposure.

  9. Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In Part I of this series, it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury affects joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). Individuals with hemiparesis and 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity was concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may use relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways.

  10. Astaxanthin Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possible Involvement of Akt/Bad Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Sheng Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Kukoamine a against Radiation-induced Rat Brain Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Cheng, Zhihua; Wang, Changli; Ma, Hongda; Meng, Weihong; Zhao, Qingchun

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a prominent side effect of radiotherapy for cranial tumors. Kukoamine A (KuA) has the ability of anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether KuA would prevent the detrimental effect of ionizing radiation on hippocampal neurons. For this study, male Wistar rats were received either sham irradiation or whole brain irradiation (30 Gy single dose of X-rays) followed by the immediate injection of either KuA or vehicle intravenously. The dose of KuA was 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively. The protective effects of KuA were assessed by Nissl staining. The levels of oxidative stress marker and antioxidants activities were assayed by kits. TUNEL staining was performed to detect the level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins as well as the brain-derived neurophic factor (BDNF) was evaluated by western blot. Whole brain irradiation led to the neuronal abnormality and it was alleviated by KuA. KuA decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome C, Bax and Bcl-2. Additionally, KuA increased the expression of BDNF. These data indicate that KuA has neuroprotective effects against RIBI through inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  12. Gene Mutation as Biomarker of Radiation Induced Cell Injury and Genomic Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syaifudin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling and its mutation has become one of the most widely used approaches to identify genes and their functions in the context of identify and categorize genes to be used as radiation effect markers including cell and tissue sensitivities. Ionizing radiation produces genetic damage and changes in gene expression that may lead to cancer due to specific protein that controlling cell proliferation altered the function, its expression or both. P53 protein encoded by p53 gene plays an important role in protecting cell by inducing growth arrest and or cell suicide (apoptosis after deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage induced by mutagen such as ionizing radiation. The mutant and thereby dysfunctional of this gene was found in more than 50% of various human cancers, but it is as yet unclear how p53 mutations lead to neoplastic development. Wild-type p53 has been postulated to play a role in DNA repair, suggesting that expression of mutant forms of p53 might alter cellular resistance to the DNA damage caused by radiation. Moreover, p53 is thought to function as a cell cycle checkpoint after irradiation, also suggesting that mutant p53 might change the cellular proliferative response to radiation. p53 mutations affect the cellular response to DNA damage, either by increasing DNA repair processes or, possibly, by increasing cellular tolerance to DNA damage. The association of p53 mutations with increased radioresistance suggests that alterations in the p53 gene might lead to oncogenic transformation. Current attractive model of carcinogenesis also showed that p53 gene is the major target of radiation. The majority of p53 mutations found so far is single base pairchanges (point mutations, which result in amino acid substitutionsor truncated forms of the P53 protein, and are widely distributedthroughout the evolutionarily conserved regions of the gene. Examination of p53 mutations in human cancer also shows an association between particular

  13. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks.

  14. Lack of Bystander Effects From High LET Radiation For Early Cytogenetic Endpoints.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groesser, Torsten; Cooper, Brian; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2008-05-07

    The aim of this work was to study radiation-induced bystander effects for early cytogenetic end points in various cell lines using the medium transfer technique after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Cells were exposed to 20 MeV/ nucleon nitrogen ions, 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions, or 575 MeV/nucleon iron ions followed by transfer of the conditioned medium from the irradiated cells to unirradiated test cells. The effects studied included DNA double-strand break induction, {gamma}-H2AX focus formation, induction of chromatid breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes, and micronucleus formation using DNA repair-proficient and -deficient hamster and human cell lines (xrs6, V79, SW48, MO59K and MO59J). Cell survival was also measured in SW48 bystander cells using X rays. Although it was occasionally possible to detect an increase in chromatid break levels using nitrogen ions and to see a higher number of {gamma}-H2AX foci using nitrogen and iron ions in xrs6 bystander cells in single experiments, the results were not reproducible. After we pooled all the data, we could not verify a significant bystander effect for any of these end points. Also, we did not detect a significant bystander effect for DSB induction or micronucleus formation in these cell lines or for clonogenic survival in SW48 cells. The data suggest that DNA damage and cytogenetic changes are not induced in bystander cells. In contrast, data in the literature show pronounced bystander effects in a variety of cell lines, including clonogenic survival in SW48 cells and induction of chromatid breaks and micronuclei in hamster cells. To reconcile these conflicting data, it is possible that the epigenetic status of the specific cell line or the precise culture conditions and medium supplements, such as serum, may be critical for inducing bystander effects.

  15. Early inflammatory changes in radiation-induced oral mucositis. Effect of pentoxifylline in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Roitinger, Eva; Schwarz, Karoline [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Early inflammation is a major factor of mucosal reactions to radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline administration resulted in a significant amelioration of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the mouse tongue model. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the drug. The present study hence focuses on the manifestation of early inflammatory changes in mouse tongue during daily fractionated irradiation and their potential modulation by pentoxifylline. Daily fractionated irradiation with 5 fractions of 3 Gy/week (days 0-4, 7-11) was given to the snouts of mice. Groups of 3 animals per day were euthanized every second day between day 0 and 14. Pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered daily from day 5 to the day before sacrifice. The expression of the inflammatory proteins TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β were analysed. Fractionated irradiation increased the expression of all inflammatory markers. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced the expression of TNFα and IL-1β, but not NF-κB. Early inflammation, as indicated by the expression of the inflammatory markers TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β, is an essential component of early radiogenic oral mucositis. Pentoxifylline differentially modulated the expression of different inflammatory markers. The mucoprotective effect of pentoxifylline does not appear to be based on modulation of NF-κB-associated inflammation. (orig.) [German] Fruehe entzuendliche Veraenderungen sind ein bedeutender Faktor waehrend der Strahlenreaktion der Schleimhaut. Die Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin erzielte eine signifikante Minderung strahleninduzierter oraler Mukositis im Mauszungenmodel. Die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen sind potenziell auf die immunomodulatorischen Eigenschaften des Wirkstoffs zurueckzufuehren. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen fokussieren daher auf die Manifestation frueher entzuendlicher Veraenderungen in der Mauszunge waehrend taeglich fraktionierter Bestrahlung und deren potenzieller Modifikation

  16. Effects of nutritional support route on intestinal structure and function in the early stage of severe burn injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-yong; WANG Shi-liang; YU Bin; LI Ao

    2001-01-01

    To assess the clinical effects ofenteral nutrition on intestinal structure and function in the early stage of severe burns. Methods: Nineteen cases of severe burn injury were divided randomly into enteral nutrition group (EN) and parenteral nutrition group (PN). Gastrin, motilin, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), endotoxin, rumor necrosis (TNF), diamine oxidase (DAO) and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) were determined on postburn day 1, 4, 8, 14 (PBD) respectively. Results: Serum gastrin and motilin on PBD 4 and 8 were significantly higher in EN group than in PN group (P<0.05-0.01). Plasma MDA on PBD4 and PBD8 was obviously lower in EN group than in PN group (P<0.01). Plasma SOD on PBD4 and PBD8 was significantly higher in EN group than in PN group (P<0.01). At the most time points, endotoxin and TNF were significantly lower in EN group than in PN group (P<0.01). Serum DAO tended to decrease in EN group, and on PBD4 it was obviously lower in EN group than in PN group (P<0.01). Gut permeability L/M on PBD4, PBD8 was obviously in EN group lower than in PN group (P<0.05-0.01). There was positive correlation between L/M and DAO, and between MDA and TNF (P<0.05-0.01), and negative correlation between L/M and SOD (P<0.01). Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it is considered that the early enteral nutrition is more effective to preserve the secretion and motility of gastrointestinal tract, decrease intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury, reduce intestinal permeability, decrease plasma endotoxin and mediators,and maintain mucosa barrier function. Enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition in the early stage of severe bum injury.

  17. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Lucas H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Methods A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD. Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. Results No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664. Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753. With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895. Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. Conclusions We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum.

  18. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi M Sureban

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death. Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d, and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  19. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureban, Sripathi M; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J; Houchen, Courtney W

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  20. Patient-reported outcomes after electron radiation treatment for early-stage palmar and plantar fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jessica; Saraiya, Siddharth; Tennyson, Nathan; Nedelka, Michele; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Palmar and plantar fibromatosis (PPF) is a progressive connective tissue disorder of the hand/foot that often leads to debilitating functional impairment. In Europe, orthovoltage radiation therapy (RT) has been demonstrated to prevent local disease progression for up to 80% of patients with early-stage PPF. There are limited data reporting outcomes for populations outside of Europe or using electron RT. Between 2008 and 2013, 44 early-stage PPF cases received RT. RT fields involved clinically defined targets encompassing involved areas (skin changes, cords, nodules) with at least 1.5-cm margins. En face electrons (6-12 MeV) and bolus (0.5-1 cm) were selected individually. Outcomes are reported for patients who participated in an institutional review board-approved standardized questionnaire and chart review. Thirty-three patients received 66 treatments (45 hands/15 feet and 6 reirradiations). Most frequent dose schemes were 21 Gy (3 Gy in 7 fractions) and 30 Gy (3 Gy in 10 fractions with 6- to 8-week breaks after 15 Gy). Median time to follow-up survey was 31 months. Disease progression at any location within or outside the RT treatment field occurred in 20 of 33 patients (61%). Fourteen of 60 sites (23%) developed in-field progression, but 4 sites were successfully reirradiated with final local control in 50 of 60 sites (83%). RT improved pretreatment symptoms of pain with strain at 30 of 37 sites (81%) and itch/burn sensations at 17 of 21 sites (81%). There were no reported grade ≥2 late toxicities even with reirradiation. Patient reported overall success with treatment was 31 of 33 patients (94%). PPF is a progressive disease. En face electron RT is an effective therapy that stabilizes or improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Reirradiation can be considered as a treatment option for in-field progression. Patients report minimal toxicity and a high rate of satisfaction with treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published

  1. Dragon's blood may have radioprotective effects in radiation-induced rat brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Hai-Long; Ma, Hong; Schläppi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2012-07-01

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis. It is a traditional medicinal that is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity appears to be from phenolic compounds found in Dragon's blood. In this study, the radioprotective effects of Dragon's blood were examined after whole brain irradiation of rats with either 100 MeV/u Carbon (12)C(6+) heavy ions or (60)Co γ-rays. The amounts of radiation-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in irradiated rat brains were compared with and without Dragon's blood treatment. Compared to the "irradiation only" control group, the Dragon's blood treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels, and increased superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels induced by oxidative stress in radiation exposed rats (P Dragon's blood also significantly reduced radiation-induced inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and interleukin-6 levels (P Dragon's blood significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurophic factor and inhibited the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase 3 (P Dragon's blood significantly inhibited expression of the AP-1 transcription factor family members c-fos and c-jun proteins (P Dragon's blood has radioprotective properties in rat brains after both heavy ions and (60)Co γ-ray exposure.

  2. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  3. Cyclophilin A/Cluster of Differentiation 147 Interactions Participate in Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Baoqi; Li, Haiying; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; He, Weichun; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin A has been found to be involved in many inflammatory diseases via its receptor, cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147). This study was designed to estimate the potential role of cyclophilin A/CD147 in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury. Controlled in vivo laboratory study. Animal research laboratory. Two hundred ninety adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g. A prechiasmatic cistern single-injection model was used to produce experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expressions of cyclophilin A and CD147, the interaction between cyclophilin A and CD147, and the secretion of cyclophilin A were assessed using immunofluorescence staining, Western blot analysis, and coimmunoprecipitation analysis. Down-regulation of cyclophilin A expression by small interfering RNA was performed, and recombinant human cyclophilin A and monoclonal antibody of CD147 were exploited to study the role of cyclophilin A/CD147 in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury. The expressions of cyclophilin A and CD147 in neurons were higher than that of the sham group and peaked at 24 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Compared with sham group, subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to increase the secretion of cyclophilin A and the interaction between cyclophilin A and CD147. Cyclophilin A small interfering RNA and anti-CD147 treatments were found to ameliorate subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury, including cortical apoptosis and necrosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier damage, and neurobehavioral deficits. Cyclophilin A small interfering RNA and anti-CD147 treatments also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, the protein levels of p53 and caspase-3, and the level of active nuclear factor-κB. Finally, recombinant human cyclophilin A treatment resulted in an opposite effect, which was inhibited by anti-CD147 treatment. Cyclophilin A/CD147 interactions may participate

  4. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  5. The sail-backed reptile Ctenosauriscus from the latest Early Triassic of Germany and the timing and biogeography of the early archosaur radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archosaurs (birds, crocodilians and their extinct relatives including dinosaurs dominated Mesozoic continental ecosystems from the Late Triassic onwards, and still form a major component of modern ecosystems (>10,000 species. The earliest diverse archosaur faunal assemblages are known from the Middle Triassic (c. 244 Ma, implying that the archosaur radiation began in the Early Triassic (252.3-247.2 Ma. Understanding of this radiation is currently limited by the poor early fossil record of the group in terms of skeletal remains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We redescribe the anatomy and stratigraphic position of the type specimen of Ctenosauriscus koeneni (Huene, a sail-backed reptile from the Early Triassic (late Olenekian Solling Formation of northern Germany that potentially represents the oldest known archosaur. We critically discuss previous biomechanical work on the 'sail' of Ctenosauriscus, which is formed by a series of elongated neural spines. In addition, we describe Ctenosauriscus-like postcranial material from the earliest Middle Triassic (early Anisian Röt Formation of Waldhaus, southwestern Germany. Finally, we review the spatial and temporal distribution of the earliest archosaur fossils and their implications for understanding the dynamics of the archosaur radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Comprehensive numerical phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that both Ctenosauriscus and the Waldhaus taxon are members of a monophyletic grouping of poposauroid archosaurs, Ctenosauriscidae, characterised by greatly elongated neural spines in the posterior cervical to anterior caudal vertebrae. The earliest archosaurs, including Ctenosauriscus, appear in the body fossil record just prior to the Olenekian/Anisian boundary (c. 248 Ma, less than 5 million years after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. These earliest archosaur assemblages are dominated by ctenosauriscids, which were broadly distributed across northern Pangea and

  6. The TGF-β/Smad repressor TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury independently of a Smad signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hneino

    Full Text Available Despite advances in radiation delivery protocols, exposure of normal tissues during the course of radiation therapy remains a limiting factor of cancer treatment. If the canonical TGF-β/Smad pathway has been extensively studied and implicated in the development of radiation damage in various organs, the precise modalities of its activation following radiation exposure remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 signaling and target genes expression may depend on radiation-induced modifications in Smad transcriptional co-repressors/inhibitors expressions (TGIF1, SnoN, Ski and Smad7. In endothelial cells (HUVECs and in a model of experimental radiation enteropathy in mice, radiation exposure increases expression of TGF-β/Smad pathway and of its target gene PAI-1, together with the overexpression of Smad co-repressor TGIF1. In mice, TGIF1 deficiency is not associated with changes in the expression of radiation-induced TGF-β pathway-related transcripts following localized small intestinal irradiation. In HUVECs, TGIF1 overexpression or silencing has no influence either on the radiation-induced Smad activation or the Smad3-dependent PAI-1 overexpression. However, TGIF1 genetic deficiency sensitizes mice to radiation-induced intestinal damage after total body or localized small intestinal radiation exposure, demonstrating that TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, the TGF-β/Smad co-repressor TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced normal tissue damage by a Smad-independent mechanism.

  7. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ [BC Cancer Agency — Vancouver Island Centre (Canada); Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A [Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria (Australia); Brolo, AG [Chemistry, University of Victoria (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  8. Early monitoring of PtiO2, PtiCO2, pH and brain temperat ure in patients with brain injuries and the clinical significanc e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the regulation of early br ain tissue metabolic changing after brain injuries and the clinical significance .   Methods: There were 17 patients with brain injuries. Early dire ct monitoring of PtiO2, PtiCO2, pH and brain temperature, dynami c observation of the relation between various parameters and clinics after brai n injuries were performed.   Results: Early changes of PtiO2, PtiCO2 and pH we re closely correlated with outcome. The death rate obviously increased when P tiO2 was continuously lower than 9 mm?Hg within 24 hours after injuries. Secondary brain injury prolonged and aggravated brain tissue metabolic disturban ce. When intracerebral pressure was over 30 mm?Hg PtiO2 began to de crea se. The brain temperature in brain death patients was evidently lower than axill ary temperature.   Conclusions: The direct monitoring of PtiO2, PtiC O2, pH and brain temperature is safe and accurate and can find early anoxia da mage to brain tissue and provide reliable basis for clinical therapy. It ha s an instructive significance in selecting and studying a new treatment method i n brain injuries. And it can be taken as a criterion in clinical judging brain d eaths.

  9. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Li, Dongdong [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olson, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Centre for the North, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada); McBride, Mary [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  10. The inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity in spinal cord injury dogs: is early stimulation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqing; Liao, Limin; Dong, Qian; Ju, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    To determine the inhibitory effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (5 Hz) on bladder overactivity at early and late stages of spinal cord injury in dogs. The study was performed in eight dogs with chronic spinal cord transection at the T9-T10 level. Group 1 (four dogs) underwent electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve one month after spinal cord transection. Group 2 (four dogs) underwent stimulation six months after spinal cord transection. The bladders were removed for histological examination of fibrosis after the stimulation. The bladder capacity and the compliance were significantly increased (p stimulation in group 1, but not in group 2. The nonvoiding contractions were inhibited in both groups by electrical stimulation. Collagen fiber was increased, while elastic fiber was significantly decreased (p stimulation can increase the bladder capacity and compliance only during the early period before the bladder wall becomes fibrosit and can inhibit the nonvoiding contraction during two stages. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  11. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  12. Radiation therapy for early stage unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma: is dose reduction feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Kumar, Deepak P; Khanna, Nehal; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Arora, Brijesh; Gujral, Sumeet; Shet, Tanuja; Sridhar, Epari; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Muckaden, Mary Ann; Nair, Reena; Banavali, Shripad

    2014-10-01

    One hundred and fifty-one patients aged between 3 and 70 years with early stage unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma were included. Patients received 4-6 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) chemotherapy and involved field radiation therapy (IFRT). The most common histology was mixed cellularity (43%). The majority had stage IIAX disease. IFRT doses were 25.2 Gy/14 fractions and 34.2 Gy/19 fractions for adults with a complete response (CR) and partial response (PR), respectively, while the doses were 19.8 Gy/11 fractions and 30.6 Gy/17 fractions, respectively, for children. After 60 months (median), the 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 88.4% and 93.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, prognostic factors with significant impact on PFS were age ≥ 18 years, nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) histology, extranodal disease and response to treatment. Extranodal disease had a significant impact on OS. On multivariate analysis, NLPHL histology (p = 0.001) and response at 3 months (p = 0.000) had a significant impact on PFS. There were no in-field relapses in patients with bulky disease receiving RT doses > 25.2 Gy. Chemotherapy related acute pulmonary toxicity was documented in 21.4% and 4.8% of patients after six and four cycles of ABVD chemotherapy (p = 0.041). Four cycles of ABVD and reduced dose IFRT resulted in optimal outcomes.

  13. Cytokines, Fatigue, and Cutaneous Erythema in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliana De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5% patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.05. After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001 was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026. A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  14. Cytokines, fatigue, and cutaneous erythema in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Agolli, Linda; Visco, Vincenzo; Monaco, Flavia; Muni, Roberta; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Campanella, Barbara; Valeriani, Maurizio; Minniti, Giuseppe; Osti, Mattia F; Amanti, Claudio; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Brunetti, Serena; Costantini, Anna; Alfò, Marco; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Marchetti, Paolo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5%) patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  15. Breath pentane: an indicator for early and continuous monitoring of lipid peroxidation in hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Xu, Guowang; Wang, Changsong; Gong, Yulei; He, Ying

    2009-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays an important role during liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Pentane in breath is often used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We observed the changes in levels of breath pentane during the lipid peroxidation process caused by liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Ten male swine were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate 0.3-0.5 g kg(-1) min(-1). Total hepatic ischaemia was induced by occluding the portal inflow vessels. Ischaemia lasted 30 min followed by reperfusion for 180 min. Breath samples were sampled from the anaesthesia circuit and blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava. Pentane concentrations in breath and blood were quantified by means of solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrography technique. Exhaled pentane concentrations (means +/- SE) increased markedly after reperfusion for 1 min (244.13 +/- 33.3 pmol l(-1)) and decreased gradually to initial levels after reperfusion for 60 min. Blood pentane concentrations (means +/- SE) increased significantly after reperfusion for 1 min (333.46 +/- 63.05 pmol l(-1)) and then decreased to basal level. Breath pentane concentrations showed a correlation with blood (r = 0.709, P pentane analysis could provide early, rapid, noninvasive and continuous assessment of lipid peroxidation during hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  16. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  17. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium

  18. Transplantation of Endothelial Cells to Mitigate Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury to Vital Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Shahin; Ginsberg, Michael; Scandura, Joseph; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-08-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for treatment of exposure to radiation involve the use of antioxidants, chelating agents, recombinant growth factors and transplantation of stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). However, exposure to high-dose radiation is associated with severe damage to the vasculature of vital organs, often leading to impaired healing, tissue necrosis, thrombosis and defective regeneration caused by aberrant fibrosis. It is very unlikely that infusion of protective chemicals will reverse severe damage to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The role of irradiated vasculature in mediating acute and chronic radiation syndromes has not been fully appreciated or well studied. New approaches are necessary to replace and reconstitute ECs in organs that are irreversibly damaged by radiation. We have set forth the novel concept that ECs provide paracrine signals, also known as angiocrine signals, which not only promote healing of irradiated tissue but also direct organ regeneration without provoking fibrosis. We have developed innovative technologies that enable manufacturing and banking of human GMP-grade ECs. These ECs can be transplanted intravenously to home to and engraft to injured tissues where they augment organ repair, while preventing maladaptive fibrosis. In the past, therapeutic transplantation of ECs was not possible due to a shortage of availability of suitable donor cell sources and preclinical models, a lack of understanding of the immune privilege of ECs, and inadequate methodologies for expansion and banking of engraftable ECs. Recent advances made by our group as well as other laboratories have breached the most significant of these obstacles with the development of technologies to manufacture clinical-scale quantities of GMP-grade and human ECs in culture, including genetically diverse reprogrammed human amniotic cells into vascular ECs (rAC-VECs) or human pluripotent stem cells into vascular ECs (iVECs). This

  19. Self-Injury among Early Adolescents: Identifying Segments Protected and at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Kaur, Ravneet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injury has been described as a "silent school crisis," reflecting insufficient knowledge, confusion, lack of effective interventions, and the tendency for adults and youth to shy away from dealing directly with the issue. This purpose of this study was to identify distinct subgroups of youth who may be at increased risk…

  20. Parents' Role in Early Adolescent Self-Injury: An Application of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A. Ann; Heath, Nancy L.; Rogers, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We applied self-determination theory to examine a model whereby perceived parental autonomy support directly and indirectly affects nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through difficulties in emotion regulation. Method: 639 participants (53% female) with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD 0.51) completed the How I Deal with Stress Questionnaire…

  1. Ray Guns and Radium: Radiation in the Public Imagination as Reflected in Early American Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s and 1930s were a period which saw great popular interest in radiation and radioactivity in America, and the establishment of a new genre of pulp literature, science fiction. Radiation was prevalent in American popular culture at the time, and sf stories were dependent upon radiation for much of their color and excitement. In this case…

  2. Ray Guns and Radium: Radiation in the Public Imagination as Reflected in Early American Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s and 1930s were a period which saw great popular interest in radiation and radioactivity in America, and the establishment of a new genre of pulp literature, science fiction. Radiation was prevalent in American popular culture at the time, and sf stories were dependent upon radiation for much of their color and excitement. In this case…

  3. Action spectrum and mechanisms of UV radiation-induced injury in lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochevar, I.E.

    1985-07-01

    Photosensitivity associated with lupus erythematosus (LE) is well established. The photobiologic basis for this abnormal response to ultraviolet radiation, however, has not been determined. This paper summarizes the criteria for elucidating possible photobiologic mechanisms and reviews the literature relevant to the mechanism of photosensitivity in LE. In patients with LE, photosensitivity to wavelengths shorter than 320 nm has been demonstrated; wavelengths longer than 320 nm have not been adequately evaluated. DNA is a possible chromophore for photosensitivity below 320 nm. UV irradiation of skin produces thymine photodimers in DNA. UV-irradiated DNA is more antigenic than native DNA and the antigenicity of UV-irradiated DNA has been proposed, but not proven, to be involved in the development of clinical lesions. UV irradiation of mice previously injected with anti-UV-DNA antibodies produces Ig deposition and complement fixation that appears to be similar to the changes seen in lupus lesions. Antibodies to UV-irradiated DNA occur in the serum of LE patients although a correlation between antibody titers and photosensitivity was not observed. Defective repair of UV-induced DNA damage does not appear to be a mechanism for the photosensitivity in LE. Other mechanisms must also be considered. The chromophore for photosensitivity induced by wavelengths longer than 320 nm has not been investigated in vivo. In vitro studies indicate that 360-400 nm radiation activates a photosensitizing compound in the lymphocytes and serum of LE patients and causes chromosomal aberrations and cell death. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion.

  4. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnbom, Karin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase.

  5. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. Method A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Results Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Conclusion Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase. PMID:28273158

  6. Effect of early peritoneal drainage on the injury of intestinal mucosa in the rats with severe acute pancreatitis

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    Chao DENG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protective effect of early peritoneal drainage against injury of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods  Thirty-six SD rats were randomly and equally divided into three group, i.e. control group, model (SAP group, drainage (APD group. Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate (2ml/h, 0.1ml/100g into the common biliopancreatic duct. All the rats were sacrificed 24 hours after operation. The condition of abdominal cavity was observed, and pathological changes in ileum were detected by HE staining. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, diamine oxidase (DAO and D-lactate were determined by ELISA. Results  Compared with the control group, the histopathological changes in ileum were more marked, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, DAO and D-lactate were significantly higher in SAP group and APD group (P<0.05; Compared with SAP group, the histopathological changes in ileum were less marked, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, DAO and D-lactate were significantly lower in APD group (P<0.05. Conclusion  Early peritoneal drainage can effectively improve the intestinal mucosal injury in acute pancreatitis rats, and reduce the systemic inflammatory response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.07

  7. Early insulin resistance in severe trauma without head injury as outcome predictor? A prospective, monocentric pilot study

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    Bonizzoli Manuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia following major trauma is a well know phenomenon related to stress-induced systemic reaction. Reports on glucose level management in patients with head trauma have been published, but the development of insulin resistance in trauma patients without head injury has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic role of acute insulin-resistance, assessed by the HOMA model, in patients with severe trauma without head injury. Methods All patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT for major trauma without head injury (Jan-Dec 2010 were enrolled. Patients with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy or metabolism alteration were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into “insulin resistant” and “non-insulin resistant” based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA IR. Results are expressed as medians. Results Out of 175 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, a total of 54 patients without head trauma were considered for the study, 37 of whom met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 patients (62.2% resulted insulin resistant, whereas 14 patients (37.8% were non-insulin resistant. Groups were comparable in demographic, clinical/laboratory characteristics, and severity of injury. Insulin resistant patients had a significantly higher BMI (P=0.0416, C-reactive protein (P=0.0265, and leukocytes count (0.0301, compared to non-insulin resistant patients. Also ICU length of stay was longer in insulin resistant patients (P=0.0381. Conclusions Our data suggest that admission insulin resistance might be used as an early outcome predictor.

  8. Early Treatment With Olmesartan Prevents Juxtamedullary Glomerular Podocyte Injury and the Onset of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Tadashi; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Urushihara, Maki; Nishijima, Yoko; Kaifu, Kumiko; Hara, Taiga; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Hayden, Melvin R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kohno, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies were performed to determine if early treatment with an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, prevents the onset of microalbuminuria by attenuating glomerular podocyte injury in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods OLETF rats were treated with either a vehicle, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or a combination of nonspecific vasodilators (hydralazine 15 mg/kg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 6 mg/kg/day, and reserpine 0.3 mg/kg/day; HHR) from the age of 7–25 weeks. Results OLETF rats were hypertensive and had microalbuminuria from 9 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, OLETF rats had higher Ang II levels in the kidney, larger glomerular desmin-staining areas (an index of podocyte injury), and lower gene expression of nephrin in juxtamedullary glomeruli, than nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. At 25 weeks, OLETF rats showed overt albuminuria, and higher levels of Ang II in the kidney and larger glomerular desmin-staining areas in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli compared to LETO rats. Reductions in mRNA levels of nephrin were also observed in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli. Although olmesartan did not affect glucose metabolism, it decreased blood pressure and prevented the renal changes in OLETF rats. HHR treatment also reduced blood pressure, but did not affect the renal parameters. Conclusions This study demonstrated that podocyte injury occurs in juxtamedullary glomeruli prior to superficial glomeruli in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria. Early treatment with an ARB may prevent the onset of albuminuria through its protective effects on juxtamedullary glomerular podocytes. PMID:22318512

  9. Early tracheostomy in closed head injuries: experience at a tertiary center in a developing country – a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyambada Binita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important factor contributing to the high mortality in patients with severe head trauma is cerebral hypoxia. The mechanical ventilation helps both by reduction in the intracranial pressure and hypoxia. Ventilatory support is also required in these patients because of patient's inability to protect the airway, persistence of excessive secretions, and inadequacy of spontaneous ventilation. Prolonged endotracheal intubation is however associated with trauma to the larynx, trachea, and patient discomfort in addition to requirement of sedatives. Tracheostomy has been found to play an integral role in the airway management of such patients, but its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. In a developing country like India where the intensive care facilities are scarce and rarely available, these critical patients have to be managed in high dependency cubicles in the ward, often with inadequately trained nursing staff and equipment to monitor them. An early tracheostomy in the selected group of patients based on Glasgow Coma Score(GCS may prove to be life saving.Against this background a prospective study was contemplated to assess the role of early tracheostomy in patients with isolated closed head injury. Methods The series consisted of a cohort of 50 patients admitted to the surgical emergency with isolated closed head injury, that were not considered for surgery by the neuro-surgeon or shifted to ICU, but had GCS score of less than 8 and SAPS II score of more than 50. First 50 case records from January 2001 that fulfilled the criteria constituted the control group. The patients were managed as per ATLS protocol and intubated if required at any time before decision to perform tracheostomy was taken. These patients were serially assessed for GCS (worst score of the day as calculated by senior surgical resident and SAPS scores till day 15 to chart any changes in their status of head injuries and predictive

  10. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dumnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1 we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2 we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients.

  11. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumnicka, Paulina; Maduzia, Dawid; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1) we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2) we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients. PMID:28208708

  12. Risk factors and early diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus occlusion secondary to traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Paying close attention to the past medical history of DVT, skull fracture, and the imaging finding of an epidural hematoma that crosses the sinus are necessary for the early diagnosis of CVSO. CTV and MRV help in making an early diagnosis of CVSO.

  13. The potential benefits of nicaraven to protect against radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with relative low dose exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Haytham [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Galal, Omima [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Luo, Lan [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Abdelrahim, Eman [Department of Medical Histology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Ono, Yusuke [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Mostafa, Emtethal [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Li, Tao-Sheng, E-mail: litaoshe@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Nicaraven mitigated the radiation-induced reduction of c-kit{sup +} stem cells. • Nicaraven enhanced the function of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. • Complex mechanisms involved in the protection of nicaraven to radiation injury. - Abstract: Nicaraven, a hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger has been demonstrated to attenuate radiation injury in hematopoietic stem cells with 5 Gy γ-ray exposures. We explored the effect and related mechanisms of nicaraven for protecting radiation injury induced by sequential exposures to a relatively lower dose γ-ray. C57BL/6 mice were given nicaraven or placebo within 30 min before exposure to 50 mGy γ-ray daily for 30 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy). Mice were victimized 24 h after the last radiation exposure, and the number, function and oxidative stress of hematopoietic stem cells were quantitatively estimated. We also compared the gene expression in these purified stem cells from mice received nicaraven and placebo treatment. Nicaraven increased the number of c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with a recovery rate around 60–90% of age-matched non-irradiated healthy mice. The potency of colony forming from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as indicator of function was completely protected with nicaraven treatment. Furthermore, nicaraven treatment changed the expression of many genes associated to DNA repair, inflammatory response, and immunomodulation in c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. Nicaraven effectively protected against damages of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by sequential exposures to a relatively low dose radiation, via complex mechanisms.

  14. Preinjury resilience and mood as predictors of early outcome following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Miller, Emmy R; Frisby, Melissa L; Garza, Hector M; Varghese, Reni; Levin, Harvey S; Robertson, Claudia S; McCarthy, James J

    2013-04-15

    There is significant heterogeneity in outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While several host factors (age, gender, and preinjury psychiatric history) have been investigated, the influence of preinjury psychological resilience and mood status in conjunction with mild TBI remains relatively unexplored. Euthymic mood and high resilience are potentially protective against anxiety and postconcussion symptoms, but their relative contributions are currently unknown. This prospective study obtained preinjury estimates of resilience and mood measures in addition to measures of anxiety (Acute Stress Disorder Scale and PTSD-Checklist-Civilian form) and postconcussion symptom severity (Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire) resilience or mood status at baseline, but differed significantly on measures of anxiety and postconcussion symptom severity at each subsequent study occasion. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if preinjury resilience and mood were significant contributors to anxiety and postconcussion symptoms during the first month postinjury after accounting for other known host factors (e.g., age at injury, gender, and education). Injury group and preinjury mood status were significant predictors for all three dependent variables at each study occasion (all presilience showed a positive trend only for acute stress severity at baseline, but demonstrated significant prediction of all three dependent measures at one week and one month postinjury. These results suggest that preinjury depressed mood and resilience are significant contributors to the severity of postinjury anxiety and postconcussion symptoms, even after accounting for effects of other specific host factors.

  15. E-mentoring for violence and injury prevention: early lessons from a global programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Meddings, David; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing burden of violence and injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in 2007 the World Health Organization launched MENTOR-VIP, a global violence and injury prevention (VIP)-mentoring programme. The programme aims to develop human resource capacity through 12-month mentoring arrangements between individual VIP experts (mentors) and less-experienced injury practitioners (mentees). In this paper, we review the first five years of the programme (2007-2011) using a systems analysis and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) frameworks, discuss programme findings and make recommendations. A well-defined programme with clear instructions, successful matching of mentorship pairs with similar interests and language, a formal accord agreement, institutional support and effective communication were identified as programme strengths. Overambitious projects, lack of funds and difficulties with communications were identified as programme weaknesses. Mentorship projects that require institutional permissions or resources could be potential threats to the success of mentorship. The study resulted in the four following recommendations to strengthen the programme: (1) institute additional steps in selection and matching mentor-mentee pair; (2) train mentors on e-mentoring; (3) conduct special orientation for mentees to the programme; and (4) maintain effective and open communication throughout the programme.

  16. Early Cerebral Circulation Disturbance in Patients Suffering from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Xenon CT and Perfusion CT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONDA, Mitsuru; ICHIBAYASHI, Ryo; YOKOMURO, Hiroki; YOSHIHARA, Katsunori; MASUDA, Hiroyuki; HAGA, Daisuke; SEIKI, Yoshikatsu; KUDOH, Chiaki; KISHI, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is widely known to cause dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following TBI. Detecting early ischemia in TBI patients is important to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cerebral circulatory disturbance during the early phase and whether it can be used to predict patient outcome. A total of 90 patients with TBI underwent a xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT) and subsequently perfusion CT to evaluate the cerebral circulation on days 1–3. We measured CBF using Xe-CT and mean transit time (MTT: the width between two inflection points [maximum upward slope and maximum downward slope from inflow to outflow of the contrast agent]) using perfusion CT and calculated the cerebral blood volume (CBV) using the AZ-7000W98 computer system. The relationships of the hemodynamic parameters CBF, MTT, and CBV to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were examined. There were no significant differences in CBF, MTT, and CBV among GCS3–4, GCS5–6, and GCS7–8 groups. The patients with a favorable outcome (GR and MD) had significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than those with an unfavorable one (SD, VS, or D). The discriminant analysis of these parameters could predict patient outcome with a probability of 70.6%. During the early phase, CBF reduction and MTT prolongation might influence the clinical outcome of TBI. These parameters are helpful for evaluating the severity of cerebral circulatory disturbance and predicting the outcome of TBI patients. PMID:27356957

  17. Early Cerebral Circulation Disturbance in Patients Suffering from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Xenon CT and Perfusion CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuru; Ichibayashi, Ryo; Yokomuro, Hiroki; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Haga, Daisuke; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Kudoh, Chiaki; Kishi, Taichi

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is widely known to cause dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following TBI. Detecting early ischemia in TBI patients is important to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cerebral circulatory disturbance during the early phase and whether it can be used to predict patient outcome. A total of 90 patients with TBI underwent a xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT) and subsequently perfusion CT to evaluate the cerebral circulation on days 1-3. We measured CBF using Xe-CT and mean transit time (MTT: the width between two inflection points [maximum upward slope and maximum downward slope from inflow to outflow of the contrast agent]) using perfusion CT and calculated the cerebral blood volume (CBV) using the AZ-7000W98 computer system. The relationships of the hemodynamic parameters CBF, MTT, and CBV to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were examined. There were no significant differences in CBF, MTT, and CBV among GCS3-4, GCS5-6, and GCS7-8 groups. The patients with a favorable outcome (GR and MD) had significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than those with an unfavorable one (SD, VS, or D). The discriminant analysis of these parameters could predict patient outcome with a probability of 70.6%. During the early phase, CBF reduction and MTT prolongation might influence the clinical outcome of TBI. These parameters are helpful for evaluating the severity of cerebral circulatory disturbance and predicting the outcome of TBI patients.

  18. Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Clavijo, Viviana; Arbour, Jessica H; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-05-01

    Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a macroevolutionary adaptive landscape. However, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this adaptive landscape and its consequences for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fish radiations the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification given the implications of locomotion for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine cichlids represent a newly identified adaptive radiation and provide a useful system for studying patterns of locomotor diversification and the implications of selective constraints on phenotypic divergence in general. We use multivariate ordination, models of phenotypic evolution and posterior predictive approaches to investigate the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and test for evidence of early divergence of locomotor phenotypes in Geophagini. The evolution of locomotor phenotypes was characterized by selection towards at least two distinct adaptive peaks and the early divergence of modern morphological disparity. One adaptive peak included the benthic and epibenthic invertivores and was characterized by fishes with deep, laterally compressed bodies that optimize precise, slow-swimming manoeuvres. The second adaptive peak resulted from a shift in adaptive optima in the species-rich ram-feeding/rheophilic Crenicichla-Teleocichla clade and was characterized by species with streamlined bodies that optimize fast starts and rapid manoeuvres. Evolutionary models and posterior predictive approaches favoured an early shift to a new adaptive peak over decreasing rates of evolution as the underlying process driving the early divergence of locomotor phenotypes. The influence of multiple adaptive peaks on the divergence of locomotor phenotypes in Geophagini is compatible with the expectations of an ecologically driven

  19. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  20. Ventilation/Perfusion Positron Emission Tomography—Based Assessment of Radiation Injury to Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Shankar, E-mail: shankar.siva@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Hardcastle, Nicholas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P.; Shaw, Mark; Plumridge, Nikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Steinfort, Daniel [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Department of Cancer Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Ball, David L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 68}Ga-ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as a novel imaging modality for assessment of perfusion, ventilation, and lung density changes in the context of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: In a prospective clinical trial, 20 patients underwent 4-dimensional (4D)-V/Q PET/CT before, midway through, and 3 months after definitive lung RT. Eligible patients were prescribed 60 Gy in 30 fractions with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Functional images were registered to the RT planning 4D-CT, and isodose volumes were averaged into 10-Gy bins. Within each dose bin, relative loss in standardized uptake value (SUV) was recorded for ventilation and perfusion, and loss in air-filled fraction was recorded to assess RT-induced lung fibrosis. A dose-effect relationship was described using both linear and 2-parameter logistic fit models, and goodness of fit was assessed with Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results: A total of 179 imaging datasets were available for analys