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Sample records for early radiation injuries

  1. Early remodeling of nasal mucosa in rat model after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Tang Jianguo; Luo Baozhen; Zhao Li'na; Shi Guozhi

    2008-01-01

    features of remodeling in the rats model of early radiation injury. (authors)

  2. Efficiency of early application of immunomodulators in combined effect of radiation and thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Medical effect of thymus preparations (thymoline, thymoptine) and levamysole under combined radiation-thermal injury is studied. Experimental results have shown that early application of certain immunostimulators under combined radiation-thermal injury of medium criticality is low-efficient. Their ability to sufficiently increase the antibody synthesis is manifested only under combined action of burns and irradiation in non-lethal doses. 5 refs

  3. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  4. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  5. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  6. Treatment-time-dependence models of early and delayed radiation injury in rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, James W.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Kron, Tomas; Langberg, Carl W.

    2000-01-01

    Background: The present study modeled data from a large series of experiments originally designed to investigate the influence of time, dose, and fractionation on early and late pathologic endpoints in rat small intestine after localized irradiation. The objective was to obtain satisfactory descriptions of the regenerative response to injury together with the possible relationships between early and late endpoints. Methods: Two- and 26-week pathologic radiation injury data in groups of Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with 27 different fractionation schedules were modeled using the incomplete repair (IR) version of the linear-quadratic model with or without various time correction models. The following time correction models were tested: (1) No time correction; (2) A simple exponential (SE) regenerative response beginning at an arbitrary time after starting treatment; and (3) A bi-exponential response with its commencement linked to accumulated cellular depletion and fraction size (the 'intelligent response model' [INTR]). Goodness of fit of the various models was assessed by correlating the predicted biological effective dose for each dose group with the observed radiation injury score. Results: (1) The incomplete repair model without time correction did not provide a satisfactory description of either the 2- or 26-week data. (2) The models using SE time correction performed better, providing modest descriptions of the data. (3) The INTR model provided reasonable descriptions of both the 2- and 26-week data, confirming a treatment time dependence of both early and late pathological endpoints. (4) The most satisfactory descriptions of the data by the INTR model were obtained when the regenerative response was assumed to cease 2 weeks after irradiation rather than at the end of irradiation. A fraction-size-dependent delay of the regenerative response was also suggested in the best fitting models. (5) Late endpoints were associated with low-fractionation sensitivity

  7. Biochemical and Radiobiological Factors in the Early Detection of Radiation Injury in Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L. J. [Life Sciences Division, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1971-03-15

    In considering the body of radiobiological knowledge upon which the present possibilities for the development of an objective quantitative laboratory procedure for early detection of radiation injury depend, it is evident that there are at least three general categories of radiation effects which are relevant to this objective: (1) Products of the enzymatic-chemical breakdown of macromolecules, and lysis of killed or dying cells from radiosensitive tissues, for example deoxypolynucleotides from lymphoid tissues and bone marrow; (2) Radiation-induced inhibition of synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and/or other macromolecules, eliciting alterations in tissue and blood concentrations and pool size of metabolic intermediates in the synthesis, for example, deoxycytidine; (3) Radiation-induced alterations, suppression, or cessation of specialized cell function; of particular interest here is the immunological functions of lymphocytes, including those in the circulating blood. For rodents, the exquisite radiosensitivity of bone-marrow-stem cells as well as of lymphocytes has been precisely measured by modern cellular radiobiological techniques: the colony-forming technique of Till and McCulloch, yielding a D{sub 0} for bone-marrow cells of about 80 R; and the graft-versus-host reactivity of transplanted lymphocytes yielding a similar D{sub 0} value. In our own hands, a modified colony-formation technique for dog bone-marrow cells irradiated in.vitro and in vivo give D{sub 0} values of {approx}100 R. Thus, on the basis of radiation sensitivity and the time-relationships for interphase cell death for lymphocytes, it appears that this cell class is probably the best ''candidate'' source for an early radiation-injury detection system. However,- the important report by Zicha and Buric indicates that extrapolation of biochemical data on radiation dosimetry from rodents to man is not necessarily feasible, at least in the. case of the urinary excretion of deoxycytidine

  8. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Liangwen; Diao Ruiying; Wang Shaoxia; Xu Xinping; Luo Qingliang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60 Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  9. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian; Shiyao Bao; Weibo Yin; Chunfeng Liu; Zhilin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in the early stage, a series of experiments were performed as below. The SD rats halfbrain were irradiated by the single dose of 10, 20, and 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron, all those experiments were performed in 1 day to 3 months after radiation. The neurological symptoms, the weight and the skin response inside the field of all the rats were evaluated sequentially. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis, the calculation of the brain water content percentage with wet-dry weight formula. The DNA contents and the quantities of bcl-2 protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The brain histological sections were scanned to assess the present or absence of white matter necrosis in the region of hippocampus, and then the hippocampus region was observed for the morphological changes of the blood vessel, neuroglial, and the neurons. Some of the data were analyzed by the Student t test. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all rats which received 30 Gy and some rats which received 20 Gy, the abnormal neurological signs were not found in all the rats, but the tend of weight increase was less pronounced in 1-3 months in the irradiated rats than those unirradiated. By comparison the unirradiated hemisphere, the rCBF of the contralateral brain decreased in most of the rats. In 20 Gy and 30 Gy groups, rCBF decreased areas expand gradually along with the prolong of observation time, from the nucleus caudate putamen, to the frontal cortex and then the hippocampus, the rCBF of whole the irradiated hemibrain was reduced significantly at 3 month after radiation. The water content of the irradiated halfbrain increased progressively, it means the brain edema exists in the meantime. By comparison the unirradiation halfbrain, the apoptosis of the hippocampus cells in the irradiated brain increased, and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at the meantime, and those

  10. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Tian [Suzhou Medical Coll., Jiangsu (China). 2nd Affiliated Hospital; Shiyao Bao; Weibo Yin; Chunfeng Liu; Zhilin Zhang

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in the early stage, a series of experiments were performed as below. The SD rats halfbrain were irradiated by the single dose of 10, 20, and 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron, all those experiments were performed in 1 day to 3 months after radiation. The neurological symptoms, the weight and the skin response inside the field of all the rats were evaluated sequentially. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis, the calculation of the brain water content percentage with wet-dry weight formula. The DNA contents and the quantities of bcl-2 protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The brain histological sections were scanned to assess the present or absence of white matter necrosis in the region of hippocampus, and then the hippocampus region was observed for the morphological changes of the blood vessel, neuroglial, and the neurons. Some of the data were analyzed by the Student t test. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all rats which received 30 Gy and some rats which received 20 Gy, the abnormal neurological signs were not found in all the rats, but the tend of weight increase was less pronounced in 1-3 months in the irradiated rats than those unirradiated. By comparison the unirradiated hemisphere, the rCBF of the contralateral brain decreased in most of the rats. In 20 Gy and 30 Gy groups, rCBF decreased areas expand gradually along with the prolong of observation time, from the nucleus caudate putamen, to the frontal cortex and then the hippocampus, the rCBF of whole the irradiated hemibrain was reduced significantly at 3 month after radiation. The water content of the irradiated halfbrain increased progressively, it means the brain edema exists in the meantime. By comparison the unirradiation halfbrain, the apoptosis of the hippocampus cells in the irradiated brain increased, and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at the meantime, and those

  11. The Evaluation of Melatonin Effect Against The Early Effect of Ionizing Radiation Induced Lung Injury

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    raziyeh tahamtan

    2014-06-01

    Results: the results indicated that radiation increases the collapse and fibrosis and cause the abundance of macrophage compared to control group (p<0.05. Oral administration of melatonin before radiation therapy significantly increased the lymphocyte and macrophage frequency (p<0.001 and decreased the RBC (p<0.05 frequency compared to the radiation group. Conclusion: According to the results, melatonin can prevent early damages in irradiated lungs. Free radicals cause cytotoxicity and melatonin can directly decrease the radiation induced cell damages by converting the free radicals to non- toxic compounds and also through the activation of the major antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  13. Probable reasons for the lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness accompanied by combination of radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Ul'yanova, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanism underlying a lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness in the case of combined radiation and thermal injuries are studied. Experiments were carried out on mice. Animals had been subjected to either a 3B degree thermal burn covering 10% of the body surface or a single whole body gamma-irradiation of 7 Gy dose or a combined injury (radiation exposure + burn), and changes of the blood serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated by means of ELISA kits. Modifying influence of remedies for early therapy (a synthetic analogue of dicorynomycolate trehalose and a preparation based on killed Lacobacillus acidophilus) on the endogenous serum level of IL-6 and on the 30-day survival was evaluated. In accordance with the degree and duration of increased levels of IL-6 in blood serum, the investigated groups of animals were ranged as follows: combined action > burn only > irradiation only. L. acidophilus based preparation rendered a transient modifying action on the IL-6 level at the combined injury and contributed to increasing the 30-day survival. Lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness may be associated with too excessive levels of IL-6 in the blood serum [ru

  14. Injury by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    In view of the vast amount of effort devoted to the study of radiation injury during the past century, it may be concluded that the effects of radiation are better understood than those of any other physical or chemical agent. To this extent, it is useful to review our experience with radiation in addressing health problems associated with other environmental agents

  15. Experimental study of Gadofluorine M enhancement in early diagnosis of radiation brain injury by MRI in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shoumin; Liao Chengde; Guo Ruomi; Huang Ying; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Lu Taixiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of Gadofluorine M, a novel MRI enhancement agent,in the diagnosis the early radiation brain injury. Methods: Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. To establish the radiation injury model, the rat's posterior brain was irradiated with 0 (blank controls), 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 Gy, respectively. After irradiation MR plain scanning and Gadofluorine M enhancement scanning (after the T1WI and T2WI scanning Gf at the dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg was injected intravenously and scanning was performed again 12 h later) were performed once a week for 8 weeks. Another 12 rats were randomly divided into 2 equal groups to exposure to 55 and 65 Gy, respectively, and MR scanning was performed once a week for 8 weeks since the third week after MR. After T1WI and T2WI scanning Gd-DTPA was injected intravenously, MR was conducted again 30 min later, and Gf was injected intravenously (Gd-DTPA enhancement and Gf enhancement contrast). The MR image and the pixel count were compared. Since the third week 2 rats from the Gf enhancement scanning group and 1 rat from the Gd-DTPA enhancement and Gf enhancement contrast were killed after MR with their brains taken out to undergo pathological examination. Results: No abnormal signal changes were found in MRI in 25 and 35 Gy groups within 2 months after irradiation. A high signal in the Gf enhancement T1WI image was found in 45, 55, and 65 Gy groups within the period of 4-6 weeks after radiation. The signal intensity was significantly higher than that of the control, 25, and 35 Gy groups (F=2.15, P<0.05). The emerge time of this signal was negatively correlated with the dose of radiation (r =-0.62, P<0.05). When there was no obvious change was found by Gd-DTPA enhancement, a high signal representing change of injury could be found in Gf enhancement in the same rat. The signal intensity was significantly enhanced in Gf enhancement compared to the Gd-DTPA enhancement (F=2.74, P<0

  16. Computed Tomography Appearance of Early Radiation Injury to the Lung: Correlation With Clinical and Dosimetric Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Welsh, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically assess the spectrum of radiologic changes in the lung after radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the cases of 146 patients treated with radical radiotherapy at our institution. All patients had computed tomography (CT) scans performed 3 months after completion of therapy. Radiographic appearances were categorized using a standard grading system. The association of these abnormalities with pretreatment factors and clinical radiation pneumonitis (RP) was investigated. Results: New intrapulmonary abnormalities were seen in 92 patients (63%). These were ground-glass opacity in 16 (11%), patchy consolidation in 19 (13%), and diffuse consolidation in 57 (39%). Twenty-five patients (17%) developed clinical symptoms of RP. Although 80% of the patients with RP had areas of consolidation seen on the posttreatment CT scan, the majority (74%) of patients with such radiographic changes were asymptomatic. For patients with lung infiltrates, the minimum isodose encompassing the volume of radiologic abnormality was usually ≥27 Gy. Traditional dose-volume metrics, pulmonary function tests, and the coadministration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) were all strongly correlated with the presence of radiologic injury on univariate analysis (p ≤ 0.002). There was also an inverse correlation between prior smoking history and CT scan changes (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, dosimetric parameters and the use of ACE-I retained significance (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is substantial interindividual variation in lung radiosensitivity. ACE-I prevented the radiologic changes seen after high-dose radiation therapy, and their role as radioprotectants warrants further investigation.

  17. Radiation injuries/ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooden, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book was written to aid trial attorneys involved in radiation litigation. Radiologists and medical physicists will also find it helpful as they prepare for trial, either as a litigant or an expert witness. Two chapters present checklists to guide attorneys for both plaintiffs and defendants. Gooden titles these checklists Elements of Damages and Elements of Proof and leads the reader to conclusions about each of these. One section that will be particularly helpful to attorneys contains sample interrogatories associated with a case of alleged radiation exposure resulting in a late radiation injury. There are interrogatories for the plaintiff to ask the defendant and for the defendant to ask the plaintiff

  18. The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed

  19. Cell membranes in radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cell membrane-related phenomena caused by low linear energy transfer radiation with doses lower than those producing cell killing are outlined. Micromorphological alterations as well as functional activities appearing with the receptors and in binding sites render it possible to reveal early and temporary changes. The cell injuries are suggested to transfer damaging conditions to surviving cells and to contribute to further development of non-stochastic effects in tissues

  20. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  1. The effect of pentoxifylline on early and late radiation injury following fractionated irradiation in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, M.W.; Hussey, D.H.; Osborne, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    An experiment was performed to test the effectiveness of pentoxifylline in reducing late radiation injury. One hundred and four C3H mice were randomized into eight groups of 13 mice each, and the right hind limbs were irradiated with 4000, 5000, 6000, or 7000 cGy in ten fractions. Each group was treated with once daily injections of either pentoxifylline or saline for 30+ weeks. An additional ten mice received daily injections of pentoxifylline or saline, but no irradiation. The pentoxifylline animals demonstrated significantly less late injury than the saline treated animals. The most obvious differences were observed in the 5000 and 6000 cGy groups. There were seven radiation related deaths in the saline treated control groups, but only one radiation related death in the pentoxifylline treated groups. Whereas 42% (20/48) of the saline treated animals had a late injury score of 3.0 or greater, only 8% (4/51) of the pentoxifylline treated animals had a late skin score as high as 3.0. Pentoxifylline had no effect on the acute radiation injury scores. The drug was well tolerated with no toxic effects noted. Pentoxifylline is a methyl xanthine derivative that is used to treat vascular occlusive disease in humans. It improves perfusion through small capillaries by improving the deformability of red blood cells, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and stimulating the release of prostacyclin. This study shows that the prophylactic administration of pentoxifylline can modify late radiation induced injury in the mouse extremity. It may have value in the prevention or treatment of late radiation induced injury in humans, and it could be a useful tool to help define the mechanisms of late radiation injury in specific organs.

  2. The effect of pentoxifylline on early and late radiation injury following fractionated irradiation in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, M.W.; Hussey, D.H.; Osborne, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was performed to test the effectiveness of pentoxifylline in reducing late radiation injury. One hundred and four C3H mice were randomized into eight groups of 13 mice each, and the right hind limbs were irradiated with 4000, 5000, 6000, or 7000 cGy in ten fractions. Each group was treated with once daily injections of either pentoxifylline or saline for 30+ weeks. An additional ten mice received daily injections of pentoxifylline or saline, but no irradiation. The pentoxifylline animals demonstrated significantly less late injury than the saline treated animals. The most obvious differences were observed in the 5000 and 6000 cGy groups. There were seven radiation related deaths in the saline treated control groups, but only one radiation related death in the pentoxifylline treated groups. Whereas 42% (20/48) of the saline treated animals had a late injury score of 3.0 or greater, only 8% (4/51) of the pentoxifylline treated animals had a late skin score as high as 3.0. Pentoxifylline had no effect on the acute radiation injury scores. The drug was well tolerated with no toxic effects noted. Pentoxifylline is a methyl xanthine derivative that is used to treat vascular occlusive disease in humans. It improves perfusion through small capillaries by improving the deformability of red blood cells, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and stimulating the release of prostacyclin. This study shows that the prophylactic administration of pentoxifylline can modify late radiation induced injury in the mouse extremity. It may have value in the prevention or treatment of late radiation induced injury in humans, and it could be a useful tool to help define the mechanisms of late radiation injury in specific organs

  3. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  4. Management of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Maria A.

    2003-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to ionizing radiation can be due to the detonation of a nuclear device in a military conflict, or it can occur following a large industrial accident (e.g. Chernobyl), or it can be the result of therapy (e.g. in a laboratory, in the case of cancer or other clinical situations). The severity of biological tissues damage depends on the energy deposited. The skin and subcutaneous tissue alone damaged may be related with an exposure to low energy radiation. In case of an exposure to high energy radiation the deeper structures will be involved. The treatment of the clinical situation after radiation requires special facilities (burn intensive care unit) and a massive support from a dedicated team. (author)

  5. Lysosomes and radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in activities of lysosomal enzymes following whole-body treatment with ionizing radiation have long been recognized (e.g., Douglass and Day 1955, Okada et al., 1957). Attempts to explain nuclear damage by cytoplasmic enzyme attack, concentrated most of the earlier work on DNASE II and acid RNASE. Lysosomal enzymes have subsequently been studied in many tissues following whole-body irradiation. The observations coupled with in vitro results from isolated lysosomes, and u.v. and visible light studies on cells in culture, have led to the presentation of tentative mechanisms of action. General methods of detecting lysosomal damage have utilized the consequent activation or leakage of acid hydrolases. As this is of a temporal nature following irradiation, direct damage to the lysosomal membrane has not as yet been measured and the primary lesion either in the membrane itself or at the hypothetical site of acid hydrolase-membrane attachment has still to be discovered. Despite the accumulating evidence of lysosome disruption subsequent to treatment with radiation of various qualities, the role (if any) of these organelles in cell killing remains obscure. In the following pages a review of the many aspects of radiation damage will be presented and an attempt will be made to correlate the results and to draw general conclusions where possible. A final short section will deal with thecontribution that lysosomal damage may make in cell death and tissue injury and possible implications in radiotherapy

  6. Prevention of ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masashi

    1976-01-01

    In the first age (1895 - 1940), radiation injuries of skin (75% of death caused by RI injury) and chronic radiation injury of heamatopoietic organs (almost remains) appeared in radiologist and people engaged in RI treatment for medical use, and Ra poisoning appeared in workers who treated aluminous paint. As prevention of radiation injuries in this age, measurement of radiation dose, shelter effect and finding of injuries were studied, and internal radiation allowed level was determined. From 1942 to 1960, acute RI injuries due to exposure of large amount of RI by an accident and secondary leukemia appeared to workers of atomic-bomb industries and researcher of atomic energy. U and Pu poisoning accompanied with development of nuclear fuel industry appeared. This expanded industrial hygiene of this age together with epidemiological data of atomic-bomb exposed people. From 1960 onward, it is an age of industry for peaceful use of atomic energy, and manifestation of various kinds of delayed injuries, especially malignant tumor due to RI exposure, is recognized. Labourer has many opportunity to encounter dangerously with pollution and injuries by RI, and regional examination of RI enterprise and countermeasure to decrease exposure dose were mentioned as future theme from a viewpoint of exposure dose of nation. (Kanao, N.)

  7. General aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabatake, T [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Radiation injury in living organisms was discussed. Physical effects of nuclear irradiation fell into two categories: early effects and late effects. The former occurred invariably by nuclear irradiation above a certain dose, but the latter occurred according to the probability based on the exposure dosage. Late effects included cancer and leukemia which had no specific pathology as compared with non-irradiation induced or leukemia, and their latent periods were long. Because of difficulty in clarifying the cause-and-effect relationship, etiological studies such as McKenzie's or Myrden's, were required. In their studies on the relationship between fluoroscopy and thoracic malignant tumors, prognoses of pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had or had not received multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment were followed. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups of patients. Nuclear radiation induced leukemia corresponded to the exposure dose. According to that, exposure dosage of radiological workers was reduced yearly. The latent period of people having low exposure was comparatively prolonged. Medical exposure in radiation therapy was confined to the affected areas and to a small number of patients, although the exposure dose was high. On the other hand, exposure for medical diagnosis was criticized because in spite of its low exposure dose, the exposed population was extremely large.

  8. Changes in intracellular K+ concentration and action potential of myocardiocytes in early stage of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injuries in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Xiao Jiasi; Yan Shuzhi; Wan Zibin

    1996-01-01

    K + -ISME and micro electrode were used respectively to measure the [K + ] i concentration and action potential in ventricular papillary myocardiocytes of 92 Wistar rats, which were divided into four groups: normal rats (group C), and rats receiving radiation (group R), burn (group B) and combined radiation-burn (group RB), and undergoing measurement 1,3,8 and 24 hours after respective treatment. It was found that (1) [K + ] i was reduced in groups B and RB (especially in group B), but there was no change in group R; (2) RP, APA and V max were all decreased in three injured groups; (3) APD 50 and APD 90 were shortened obviously in group B, but were prolonged in both groups R and RB (especially in group R). These results suggest that (1) radiation injury diminishes Na + inflow and K + outflow; (2) burn diminishes Na + inflow and accelerates K + outflow; (3) combined radiation-burn injury is not a simple addition of radiation and burn effects

  9. Radiation injury to skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, C.C.M.; Wondergem, J.; Leer, J.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy of neoplasia has increased the mean life expectancy of cancer patients. On the other hand, more reports are published on morbidity of the treatment with regard to normal tissue. Studies on skeletal muscle injury specifically are scarce, but many clinical long term follow-up studies make note of side effects as muscle atrophy, fibrosis and limited function. Furthermore it is suggested that skeletal muscles of children are more prone to radiation injury than those of adult subjects. Effects of radiation on skeletal muscle were studied in rats. On hind limb of young (100 g) and adult (350 g) rats was irradiated with single doses (15-30 Gy), while the other served as control. Follow-up was up to 12 months post treatment. Muscular function in young rats was decreased significantly at 6 months post irradiation, but did not further decrease in the following 6 months. The amount of collagen, on the other hand, was not increased at 6 months, but became highly elevated at 12 months past treatment. This suggests that at 6 months, impaired muscular function may not be explained by increased fibrotic tissues. This is an agreement with results obtained in adult rats, where function was also impaired, without concomitant increase in collagen. In an earlier study, mitochondrial oxygen consumption was dose dependently decreased after irradiation, at 12 months, but not at 6 months post treatment. Furthermore, myosin-actin interaction was measured in skinned fibers. The first results of this study indicate changes in the interaction of contraction proteins, as early as 6 months post treatment. (authors)

  10. Radiation-induced heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the internal between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue. (Evans, G.)

  11. OWN EXPERIENCE OF LASER THERAPY FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF EARLY AND LATE RADIATION-INDUCED SKIN INJURIES IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER AFTER SIMULTANEOUS RECONSTRUCTIVE PLASTIC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tkachev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy laser radiation has a good anti-inflammatory and stimulating effect on the damaged tissues; therefore, it can be used for the prevention and treatment of both early and late radiation-induced skin injuries in patients receiving radiotherapy. So far, the effect of low-energy laser radiation in the prevention of radiation-induced skin damage remains poorly understood. This article presents a brief overview of the results obtained in the latest foreign studies as well as own experience of laser therapy for the prevention and treatment of both early and late radiation-induced skin injuries in patients with breast cancer after simultaneous reconstructive plastic surgery.

  12. Radiation injuries and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, H.

    1974-01-01

    In memory of Prof. Dr. Langendorff, a survey and a cross-section are given of the development of radiobiology during the last 40 years. The importance of radiobiology is shown using several examples. The mechanisms and effects of radiation on man, animals and plants are discussed. Effects of radiation and radiolesious are explained down ot the molecular field, and their importance is discussed quantitatively with stochastic considerations. Stress is laid upon recovering from radiolesious. It is tried to explain recovery quantitatively in all its several sorts. Using all these deliberations, the author also tries to give a wide spectrum for radiation protection. These fundamental deliberations and works of Prof. Dr. Langendorff are guidelines of great importance also for radiation protection in connection with the protection of the civil population. (GSE) [de

  13. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  14. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  15. Radiation hormesis and its potential to manage radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, Madhu; Mathew, Lazar

    2000-01-01

    The term radiation hormesis explains stimulatory or beneficial effects of low dose radiation exposure, which cannot be predicted by extrapolation of detrimental or lethal effects of high dose radiation exposure. Although beneficial effects of low doses of radiation were observed soon after discovery of x-rays and radioactivity, studies remained inconclusive until recently, due to (i) inadequate statistical planning of experiments conducted in early part of the 20th century; and (ii) poor dose monitoring. Recently (1980s onwards), large scale, systematic epidemiological and experimental studies with a number of diverse systems have demonstrated existence of radiation hormesis beyond doubt. It is pointed out that the hormetic effects of radiation have not been successfully exploited so far for human benefits, primarily because underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. It is argued that with more and more studies, it is becoming evident that radiation hormesis is not merely physiological adaptation, but a genetically regulated phenomenon and involves de novo synthesis of proteins. Role of these proteins in induction of radiation hormesis is the current area of research in a number of world-renowned laboratories. The first part of this review elucidates the shifts in paradigms on radiation effects in the 20th century and the later portion presents a brief on underlying molecular mechanisms of radiation hormesis and their implications towards management of radiation injuries. (author)

  16. Radiologic observations on pulmonary radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yong

    1992-01-01

    Based on the data of pulmonary radiation injury in 16 cases, the relationship among the radiation dosage and field, the development and onset time of the pulmonary radiation injury were discussed, and the dynamic changes of pulmonary radiation injury in X-ray films were analysed. The author found that: (1) there was a close relationship between the development of radiation injury and radiation dosages and the size of radiation fields, i.e. for the large radiation field, a relatively small dosage was needed for developing radiation injury ; (2) most off acute radiation injury of the lungs appeared within one month of postirradiation therapy, and the chronic pulmonary fibrosis appeared at 4.23 months after radiation therapy, with a fibrosis rate of about 85.7% within a half year; (3) the clinical manifestations of pulmonary radiation injury were not parallel to the X-ray signs, namely the X-ray changes were more severe than clinical manifestations. On the basis of X-ray signs and the dynamic changes of pulmonary radiation injury, the differentiation of radiation injury from interstitial pulmonary metastasis, primary tumor, common pneumonia, and tumor recurrence after radiation therapy were discussed

  17. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, C C; Fliedner, T M

    1971-04-01

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  18. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  19. Quantification of regional early stage gas exchange changes using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe MRI in a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doganay, Ozkan, E-mail: ozkan.doganay@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Stirrat, Elaine [Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); McKenzie, Charles [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Schulte, Rolf F. [General Electric Global Research, Munich 85748 (Germany); Santyr, Giles E. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G1L7 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of hyperpolarized (HP) {sup 129}Xe MRI for detection of early stage radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in a rat model involving unilateral irradiation by assessing differences in gas exchange dynamics between irradiated and unirradiated lungs. Methods: The dynamics of gas exchange between alveolar air space and pulmonary tissue (PT), PT and red blood cells (RBCs) was measured using single-shot spiral iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation images of the right and left lungs of two age-matched cohorts of Sprague Dawley rats. The first cohort (n = 5) received 18 Gy irradiation to the right lung using a {sup 60}Co source and the second cohort (n = 5) was not irradiated and served as the healthy control. Both groups were imaged two weeks following irradiation when radiation pneumonitis (RP) was expected to be present. The gas exchange data were fit to a theoretical gas exchange model to extract measurements of pulmonary tissue thickness (L{sub PT}) and relative blood volume (V{sub RBC}) from each of the right and left lungs of both cohorts. Following imaging, lung specimens were retrieved and percent tissue area (PTA) was assessed histologically to confirm RP and correlate with MRI measurements. Results: Statistically significant differences in L{sub PT} and V{sub RBC} were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts. In particular, L{sub PT} of the right and left lungs was increased approximately 8.2% and 5.0% respectively in the irradiated cohort. Additionally, V{sub RBC} of the right and left lungs was decreased approximately 36.1% and 11.7% respectively for the irradiated cohort compared to the non-irradiated cohort. PTA measurements in both right and left lungs were increased in the irradiated group compared to the non-irradiated cohort for both the left (P < 0.05) and right lungs (P < 0.01) confirming the presence of RP. PTA measurements also correlated with the

  20. Quantification of regional early stage gas exchange changes using hyperpolarized "1"2"9Xe MRI in a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doganay, Ozkan; Stirrat, Elaine; McKenzie, Charles; Schulte, Rolf F.; Santyr, Giles E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of hyperpolarized (HP) "1"2"9Xe MRI for detection of early stage radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in a rat model involving unilateral irradiation by assessing differences in gas exchange dynamics between irradiated and unirradiated lungs. Methods: The dynamics of gas exchange between alveolar air space and pulmonary tissue (PT), PT and red blood cells (RBCs) was measured using single-shot spiral iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation images of the right and left lungs of two age-matched cohorts of Sprague Dawley rats. The first cohort (n = 5) received 18 Gy irradiation to the right lung using a "6"0Co source and the second cohort (n = 5) was not irradiated and served as the healthy control. Both groups were imaged two weeks following irradiation when radiation pneumonitis (RP) was expected to be present. The gas exchange data were fit to a theoretical gas exchange model to extract measurements of pulmonary tissue thickness (L_P_T) and relative blood volume (V_R_B_C) from each of the right and left lungs of both cohorts. Following imaging, lung specimens were retrieved and percent tissue area (PTA) was assessed histologically to confirm RP and correlate with MRI measurements. Results: Statistically significant differences in L_P_T and V_R_B_C were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts. In particular, L_P_T of the right and left lungs was increased approximately 8.2% and 5.0% respectively in the irradiated cohort. Additionally, V_R_B_C of the right and left lungs was decreased approximately 36.1% and 11.7% respectively for the irradiated cohort compared to the non-irradiated cohort. PTA measurements in both right and left lungs were increased in the irradiated group compared to the non-irradiated cohort for both the left (P < 0.05) and right lungs (P < 0.01) confirming the presence of RP. PTA measurements also correlated with the MRI measurements for both

  1. Radiation injury to the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.; Sneline, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to describe to the radiation biologist, radiation oncologist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, medical oncologist, and neuro-oncologist, the current state of knowledge about the tolerance of the nervous system to various kinds of radiation, the mechanisms of radiation injury, and how nervous system tolerance and injury are related to the more general problem of radiation damage to normal tissue of all types. The information collected here should stimulate interest in and facilitate the growing research effort into radiation injury to the nervous system

  2. Differential diagnosis of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, F

    1971-04-01

    A single haematological alteration is not sufficient to diagnose whether it is a radiation-induced change or not. For the differential diagnosis of possibly radiation-induced changes in the peripheral blood and blood-forming organs, information on the radiation exposure in terms of time, quality, quantity and localization, and the clinical symptoms have to be taken into account. Ionizing radiation within the dosage range considered here produces cell division delay, mitotic inhibition, chromosomal damage or interphase cell death; it thereby interferes with the steady-state equilibria in the cell-renewal systems of the organism (Bond et al., 1965; Little, 1968). The cause of haematological changes appearing immediately after a short-term, external whole-body radiation exposure has been described and analysed elsewhere in this Manual. The critical cell component is the 'stem cell compartment' which is highly radiosensitive and suffers damage but, because stem cells cannot be identified morphologically, a direct study of stem cell injury is not possible.

  3. Mass casualties of radiation injuries after nuclear weapon explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Burns, mechanical lesions, radiation injuries as well as combinations of these types of injuries as a consequence of a nuclear explosion demand different basic lines of triage. The lack of a suitable physical dosimetry is a special problem for the evaluation of radiation injuries. While in cases of wounds and burns treatment, like surgery, is recommended to take place early, for example, within hours or days after those injuries, treatment of radiation victims is necessary only in the stage of severe haematologic changes including disturbances of coagulation and occurrence of high fever which appears after one or two weeks subsequent to exposure. The lack of medical personnel and medical equipment result in even a worse prognosis for the various injuries than in peace time accidents. (orig.) [de

  4. Ninety-nine years of radiation injuries in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kadzuo

    1994-01-01

    A German dentist, F.O. Walkhoff, has started dental radiography as early as two weeks after Roentgen's discovery on November 8, 1895. The purpose of this paper is to revisit radiation injuries by dividing the era into the era of Kells (before World War II) and the era of low exposure doses (after World War II). Edmund Kells (1856-1928), a pioneer of dental radiologist in the United States, has later become a victim of radiation injuries. During the era of Kells, skin radiation injuries were frequent among the group of dental and medical personnels. In the era of low exposure doses, cancers, leukemia, and genetic effects have begun to receive attention. Radiation injuries occurring in a dental practice are discussed in the context of the two eras. (N.K.) 43 refs

  5. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1989-01-01

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  6. Physical and biological predictors of radiation-induced whole lung injury: early results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.B.; Munley, M.; Bentel, G.; Hollis, D.; Zhou, S.; Jirtle, R.; Kong, F.M.; Scarfone, C.; Antoine, P.; Chew, M.; Tapson, V.; Spencer, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, E.; Anscher, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods of predicting the pulmonary consequences of thoracic irradiation (RT) by prospectively studying changes in pulmonary function following RT. Methods: 105 patients receiving incidental partial lung irradiation during treatment of tumors in/around the thorax (lung-70, breast-18, lymphoma-4, misc-3) had whole lung function assessed (symptoms and pulmonary function tests [PFTs: FEV1-forced expiratory volume 1 sec; DLCO-diffusion capacity]) before and repeatedly 6-48 months following RT. All had computed tomography-based 3-dimensional (3D) dose calculations with lung density heterogeneity corrections for dose-volume histogram (DVH) and NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) calculations. Functional DVHs (DVfH) based on SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) lung perfusion scans, and serial transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) levels were available in 50 and 30 patients, respectively. The incidence and severity of changes in whole lung function were correlated with clinical, physical and biological factors outlined in the results. Exploratory statistical analyses were preformed using chi-square, logistic regression, and multiple linear regression. Mean pt age=57, range 21-87; sex: 63 F, 42 M; 29 had chemotherapy (CT) before/with RT; Follow-up 6-48 months (mean 15, median 12). Results RT-induced symptoms developed in 26 patients (7-grade I-no intervention; 16 grade II-steroids; 3 grade III-oxygen and steroids). A mixed model based on pre-RT DLCO and CT-based NTCP was strongly predictive for the development of symptoms (p 30 Gy. In patients with 'good' pre-RT PFTs, there may be a relationship between the % reduction in PFT and % lung volume receiving >30 Gy (figure). Conclusion: Whole lung injury (symptoms or PFT changes) appears to be related to a variety of physical, biological and clinical factors. The data suggest that no one variable is likely to be an adequate predictor and that multi-faceted predictive models will be

  7. Radiation injuries of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galantseva, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The review is given of factors which cause the beginning of radiation injuries of oral cavity in oncologic patients following radiotherapy: dose rate absorbed with tumor and surrounding healthy tissues; irradiation procedures; size of irradiated volume. Pathogenesis and clinical picture are considered as well as prophylaxis and tactics of treatments of patients with radiation injuries of oral cavity

  8. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  9. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  10. Radiation injury claims: an overview and update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The author reviews the radiation injury claims problem and summarizes the legal framework in which the claims are presently brought. Two cases are reviewed in which the decisions are troubling. The implications of these decisions are discussed in the overall radiation injury claims problem. The author notes that in the largest radiation injury case tried in the United States, the court was unable to resolve the claims within the confines of the existing law. The disregard for established norms of adjudication and the resultant decline in predictability of outcome portends grave consequences, not only for the nuclear industry but for other industries involved with potentially toxic substances

  11. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jack Kurland

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice.Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI. Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate, fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid and DNA damage markers (uridine.We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney.

  12. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, A.F.; Farshatova, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  14. The history of knowledge on radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possible endangering with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and the fateful threat of mankind by nuclear weapons in a world-wide extent keep the discussion on problems of radiation injuries and the national and international activities to avoid them as well running. In view of the burning discussions, the impression may rise that radiation injuries became aware to the human-being only recently. Actually this knowledge dats back to the turn of the century. The development of the knowledge on radiation injuries originating immediately after discovery of W.C. Roentgen in 1895 is presented concisely. The application of radiotherapy is taken into consideration. A historical retrospect in various sections deals with the initial period of radiogenic skin injuries, with the recognition of radiation injuries at the internal organs, the proof of carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations and its mutagenic influence. Finally it is presented how experience gained during decades, is used as a basis for the conception of present radiation protection. (author)

  15. Radiation injury caused by internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyrek, P.

    1988-01-01

    Basic data are given of radiation injury of the respiratory organs, digestive tract, hematogenous tissues and the thyroid due to internal contamination. Attention is drawn to the complexity of the problem and to the effect of the various factors affecting the picture and course of the radiation damage. The treatment is based on the assumption that fundamental is the damage of the stem cells of the critical organs. Discussed are also the basic clinical pictures that can occur due to internal contamination with activities causing radiation injury. (B.S.). 27 refs

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Doerter, G.; Gueclue, I.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the translation of IAEA Safety Reports Series No.2 ,Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries. This report is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measure and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assesment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  17. Studies on radiation injury of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Akio

    1982-01-01

    According to many experimental reports on the radiation renal injuries, the influences of irradiation were observed not only in the irradiated kidney, but also in the contralateral kidney. However, its mechanism has not yet been demonstrated clearly. In order to clarify the mechanism of development of pathophysiological changes seen on the kidney of non-irradiated side, a study was made of function and pathological condition of a remaining kidney after the enucleation of ir radiated side kidney after irradiation. Twenty-eitht rabbits were divided into 4 groups. A: 14 rabbits were irradiated on their left kidney with 60 Co- gamma ray 50 Gy doses. B: 6 rabbits were nephrectomized of their left kidney on the first day after 50 Gy irradiation. C: 4 rabbits were nephrectomized of their left kidney on the eighth day after 50 Gy irradiation. D: 4 rabbits were simple nephrectomized. The results suggest that changes on the irradiated side of kidney bring about effect to the contra-lateral kidney at an early stage after the irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  18. Prophylaxis against radiation injury. The use of elemental diet prior to and during radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer and in early postoperative feeding following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, A.H.; Reid, E.C.; Laplante, M.P.; Freeman, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies done in animals have shown that significant prophylaxis against radiation injury could be afforded by feeding an elemental diet (ED) for three days before and during radiation. In the present study 20 patients were fed an ED for three days before and for the four days during radiotherapy (five fractions of 400 rad [4 Gy] each) prior to radical cystectomy and ileal conduit for invasive bladder cancer; ED feeding was recommenced 24 hours postoperatively via a feeding jejunostomy. The ED-fed patients exhibited positive nitrogen balance preoperatively and had an early return to positive nitrogen balance postoperatively (3.60 +/- 0.32 days). There was also prompt return of bowel sounds (3.00 +/- 0.32 days). Histologically and ultrastructurally, biopsy specimens of the ileal mucosa showed normal morphologic findings, with maintenance of normal levels of enzyme activity in the brush border. Severe or bloody diarrhea was absent in these patients. These data suggest that ED feeding provides prophylaxis against the acute phase of radiation injury in patients undergoing high-dose, short-course radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer and that it is a safe and feasible means of postoperative nutritional support, even in the presence of a fresh bowel anastomosis

  19. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A; Yonezawa, M; Katoh, N [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1978-11-01

    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported.

  20. Radiation-induced heart injury. Radiopathological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Niibe, H [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the interval between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue.

  1. Surgical treatment of intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, J.Ne.; Nevasaari, K.; Kairaluoma, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    A review of 43 consecutive patients requiring operation for serious intestinal radiation injury was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of surgical treatment. The most common site of radiation injury was the rectum (19 cases), followed by the small bowel (13 cases), the colon (7 cases), and the combination of these (4 cases). The overall operative mortality was 14%; morbidity, 47%; and the postoperative symptom-free period, 18 +/- 30 months. Colostomy (N = 20) carried the lowest risk of mortality, 0%, as compared with resection (N = 17) and bypass procedure (N = 6), which were accompanied by the mortalities of 24% and 33%, respectively. During the follow-up (3-13 years) 12 patients (28%) died of recurrent cancer and 9 patients (21%) of persistent radiation injury, which yielded an overall mortality of 65% after resection and 50% and 65% after bypass and colostomy procedures, respectively. Continuing radiation damage led to 15 late reoperations. Ten of these were performed after colostomy, four after resection, and one after bypass. We conclude that colostomy cannot be regarded as a preferred operative method, because it does not prevent the progression of radiation injury and because it is, for this reason, associated with a higher late-complication rate. A more radical surgery is recommended but with the limitation that the operative method must be adapted to the operative finding

  2. Parenteral nutrition in radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glants, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Basing on the results of experiments on mice and rats and their clinical use in oncological patients treatment recommendations are given on use of parenteral nutrition in treatment of radiation disease

  3. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P H; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is widely used in the treatment of various cancers and in radiological imaging procedures. Ionizing radiation causes adverse effects, leading to decreased quality of life in patients, by releasing free radicals that cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. The sleep......-hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... and protected against radiation enteritis. These protective effects were only documented when melatonin was administered prior to exposure to ionizing radiation. Discussion: This review documents that melatonin effectively protects animals against injury to healthy tissues from ionizing radiation. However...

  4. The Urine Proteome as a Biomarker of Radiation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D.; Wakim, Bassam T.; Savin, Virginia J.; Cohen, Eric P.; Moulder, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Terrorist attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation, and early biomarkers of radiation injury would be critical for triage, treatment and follow-up of such individuals. However, no such biomarkers have yet been proven to exist. We tested the potential of high throughput proteomics to identify protein biomarkers of radiation injury after total body X-ray irradiation in a rat model. Subtle functional changes in the kidney are suggested by an increased glomerular permeability for macromolecules measured within 24 hours after TBI. Ultrastructural changes in glomerular podocytes include partial loss of the interdigitating organization of foot processes. Analysis of urine by LC-MS/MS and 2D-GE showed significant changes in the urine proteome within 24 hours after TBI. Tissue kallikrein 1-related peptidase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C and oxidized histidine were found to be increased while a number of proteinase inhibitors including kallikrein-binding protein and albumin were found to be decreased post-irradiation. Thus, TBI causes immediately detectable changes in renal structure and function and in the urinary protein profile. This suggests that both systemic and renal changes are induced by radiation and it may be possible to identify a set of biomarkers unique to radiation injury. PMID:19746194

  5. Radiation injury to peripheral and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.L.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the results of laboratory and clinical investigations regarding the radiosensitivity of peripheral nerve are presented. Before outlining this research the authors briefly review peripheral neuroanatomy and physiology and then discuss variables associated with injury. It is important to remember that radiation injury is multifactorial in nature, and that the relative importance of individual factors is not well understood. Reports up through the middle of this century were fraught with rudimentary dosimetry, primitive investigative methods, and arbitrary endpoints that resulted in widely conflicting conclusions that continue to date

  6. Elevated lactate as an early marker of brain injury in inflicted traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoroff, Kathi L.; Cecil, Kim M.; Ball, William S.; Care, Marguerite

    2005-01-01

    Patients with inflicted traumatic brain injury and evidence of hypoxic-ischemic injury as indicated by elevated lactate on MRS tend to have worse early neurological status and early outcome scores. Lactate levels as sampled by MRS might predict early clinical outcome in inflicted traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  7. Early endoscopic realignment in posterior urethral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Baidya, J L

    2013-01-01

    Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully. The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November 2007 till October 2010. They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software. After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. Out of eight remaining patients, two had features of restricture and were managed with DVU followed by CISC again. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors. None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency.

  8. Chemotherapy of radiation injuries: research perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynchev, N.

    1993-01-01

    The therapy of radiation injuries - single and combined with other physical trauma (burn or wound) - are considered. Anti-bacterial therapy of infections in irradiated mice, rats and dogs and in irradiated dogs inflicted with burns has been applied. The results demonstrate that radiation induced exogenous and endogenous infections can be treated successfully with proper antimicrobial agents. Some immunomodulators also are effective in treating endogenous infection. The synergy between antimicrobial and immuno-modulator therapy holds promise for increasing the survival of irradiated victims. The improvement of managing infections in immuno-compromised (irradiated and injured) hosts will require further research using these therapeutic modalities. (author)

  9. Regulatory limits in radiation injury cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the application of the principles of tort, and the impact of governmental regulations on tort law in the U.S.A. are summarised in relation to the following 1979 events raising the issue of liability for radiation injuries: Three Mile Island accident, the Karen Silkwood trial, nuclear weapons testing exposure cases, the use of uranium tailings in residential construction, and radon gas collected in old copper mines. (U.K.)

  10. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  11. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  12. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  13. Radiation-Induced Skin Injuries to Patients: What the Interventional Radiologist Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschke, Werner; Schmuth, Matthias; Trianni, Annalisa; Bartal, Gabriel

    2017-08-01

    For a long time, radiation-induced skin injuries were only encountered in patients undergoing radiation therapy. In diagnostic radiology, radiation exposures of patients causing skin injuries were extremely rare. The introduction of fast multislice CT scanners and fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) changed the situation. Both methods carry the risk of excessive high doses to the skin of patients resulting in skin injuries. In the early nineties, several reports of epilation and skin injuries following CT brain perfusion studies were published. During the same time, several papers reported skin injuries following FGI, especially after percutaneous coronary interventions and neuroembolisations. Thus, CT and FGI are of major concern regarding radiation safety since both methods can apply doses to patients exceeding 5 Gy (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements threshold for substantial radiation dose level). This paper reviews the problem of skin injuries observed after FGI. Also, some practical advices are given how to effectively avoid skin injuries. In addition, guidelines are discussed how to deal with patients who were exposed to a potentially dangerous radiation skin dose during medically justified interventional procedures.

  14. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature data and clinical of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%) [ru

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity (i.e. those handling the emergency situation may not know the extent and severity of the accident). Experience has shown that in addition to occupational physicians, the complete management of an emergency case involves other professionals such as haematologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, dermatologists, vascular surgeons, psychiatrists and consultants in other medical specialities. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measures and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assessment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  16. Laboratory contamination in the early period of radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rona, E.

    1979-01-01

    Meagre records exist of the levels of contamination and human exposure encountered by those who took part in the early research on radioactive materials. In order to throw some light on the nature and extent of the problem the author presents some recollections of the conditions of the laboratories in which she worked from 1924-1940. These include the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, the Radium Institute of Vienna and the Curie Institute. The health, radiation injuries and causes of death of some early workers are discussed. Although the effects of acute exposure were recognised early on, there was less awareness of the possible effects of chronic exposure, and lack of prompt clinical signs of injury encouraged complacency. Laboratory contamination was often seen more as a problem affecting experimental results than as a health hazard. (author)

  17. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D., E-mail: mrobbins@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2012-07-19

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  18. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  19. Delayed radiation injury to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Shingo; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Okazaki, Masao; Nose, Tadao; Aida, Shinsuke

    1989-01-01

    The authors report four cases of delayed radiation injury to the brain. One case was diagnosed histologically, and the other three cases, by means of serial CT scans and clinical symptoms. In all cases, a low-density area was observed 4-15 months after radiotherapy, then the contrast-enhanced area appeared within the low-density area about 4 months later. The enhanced area was distant from the original tumor, but within the field of radiotherapy. In the relationship between CT scans and superimposed dose distributions, the enhanced area and the low-density area were always observed within a zone of more than 80% of the total doses, and, as for the irradiated doses, there was no difference between the two areas. However, a distinct difference between these two areas was noted in the MRI scans and histopathology. The enhanced area was imaged as an area of a high signal by means of Gd-DTPA enhanced T 1 -weighted images in two cases. In the one histologically verified case, the fibrinoid necrosis of the blood vessel and demyelination appeared significantly higher in the enhanced area than in the low-density area. In conclusion, when a low-density area was observed by CT scan within the field of radiotherapy, we also suspected radiation injury and considered steroid or anticoagulant therapy in order to reverse it. However, if an enhanced area appeared within the injured lesion, the area seemed to have become irreversible and surgical therapy might also be needed. (author)

  20. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  1. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  2. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucicevic, M.; Sukalo, I.

    1989-01-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  3. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucicevic, M; Sukalo, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  4. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  5. Plastic and reconstructive surgical treatment of the radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Nobutaka; Ogo, Ken; Uchiyama, Kanenari; Fukushima, Hisaki

    1977-01-01

    Eleven cases of radiation injury are reported. Three of them were relatively superficial ''radiation dermatitis''. They received radical excision and free skin-grafting to the cosmetic and functional satisfaction. Eight patients had deeper injury, ''radiation ulcer''. Six cases were treated by ''local flap''. The local flap technique is the simplest and the most effective way to treat the radiation ulcer. The reason is 1) it is a one stage operation, 2) it has a permanent pedicle supplying good blood flow, 3) it has very close texture and color match to the area. However, a skin-grafting performed on one patient of radiation ulcer ended up with failure. The indication of the skin-grafting and the local flap was discussed from the point of the stage or degree of radiation injuries and the recommendable method is the skin-grafting to the radiation dermatitis and the local flap to the radiation ulcer. (auth.)

  6. Prenatal radiation injury and immune development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, J.B.; Miller, G.K.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a significant reduction in thymic medullary and epithelial volumes in irradiated canine fetuses. The present study was performed to determine if this prenatal radiation-induced damage persists and is accompanied by functional immune abnormalities after birth. Six pregnant beagle dogs received sham-irradiation or single abdominal exposures to 200R of 60Co radiation at 35 days gestation. The mean fetal dose was approximately 1.5 Gy. Half the dogs of each litter were sacrificed at birth; half were sacrificed at 24 weeks of age. Following sacrifice, thymus sections from each dog were examined morphometrically. The following in vitro and in vivo assays were performed at selected times; lymphocyte blastogenesis, hematology, bone marrow progenitor cell (CFU-GM) colony growth, humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells, dinitrochloro-benzene skin sensitization, and gross and histopathology. When compared with age-matched controls, thymic medullary volumes in irradiated dogs were significantly reduced at birth; but, by 24 weeks of age, were similar to control values. At 12-16 weeks of age irradiated dogs showed a significant decrease in humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells. In vitro culture of bone marrow demonstrated a significant reduction of CFU-GM colony growth in irradiated dogs at 24 weeks of age. This was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral white blood cell counts in these dogs from 12-24 weeks of age. These data suggest that radiation injury to the fetal lymphohematopoietic system results in significant postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects

  7. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  8. The effect of the diazepam to the free radical under the brain radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hongmei; Wang Chen; Zhang Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the diazepam on free radical under in the brain radiation injury in the early stage. Methods: A model of whole brain radiation injury in wakefulness was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Diazepam was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes before radiation. The brain tissue homogenate was prepared respectively while the rats were executed 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after irradiation. The contents of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tissue homogenate were measured by chemical colorimetry. Results: Diazepam could increase the vigor of SOD and reduce the MDA contents after irradiated. Conclusions: Diazepam has certain neuroprotection effect on radiation injury and decreasing the level of the free radicals. (authors)

  9. Radiation resistance and injury of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Rowley, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The D values of Yersinia enterocolitica strains IP134, IP107, and WA, irradiated at 25/sup 0/C in Trypticase soy broth, ranged from 9.7 to 11.8 krad. When irradiated in ground beef at 25 and -30/sup 0/C, the D value of strain IP107 and 19.5 and 38.8 krad, respectively. Cells suspended in Trypticase soy broth were more sensitive to storage at -20/sup 0/C than those mixed in ground beef. The percentages of inactivation and of injury (inability to form colonies in the presence of 3.0% NaCl) of cells stored in ground beef for 10 days at -20/sup 0/C were 70 and 23%, respectively. Prior irradiation did not alter the cell's sensitivity to storage at -20/sup 0/C, nor did storage at -20/sup 0/C alter the cell's resistance to irradiation at 25/sup 0/C. Added NaCl concentrations of up to 4.0% in Trypticase soy agar (TSA) (which contains 0.5% NaCl) had little effect on colony formation at 36/sup 0/C of unirradiated Y. enterocolitica. With added 4.0% NaCl, 79% of the cells formed colonies at 36/sup 0/C; with 5.0% NaCl added, no colonies were formed. Although 2.5% NaCl added to ground beef did not sensitize Y. enterocolitica cells to irradiation, when added to TSA it reduced the number of apparent radiation survivors. Cells uninjured by irradiation formed colonies on TSA when incubated at either 36 or 5/sup 0/C. More survivors of an exposure to 60 krad were capable of recovery and forming colonies on TSA when incubated at 36/sup 0/C for 1 day than at 5/sup 0/C for 14 days. This difference in count was considered a manifestation of injury to certain survivors of irradiation.

  10. Radiation resistance and injury of Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Rowley, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The D values of Yersinia enterocolitica strains IP134, IP107, and WA, irradiated at 25 0 C in Trypticase soy broth, ranged from 9.7 to 11.8 krad. When irradiated in ground beef at 25 and -30 0 C, the D value of strain IP107 and 19.5 and 38.8 krad, respectively. Cells suspended in Trypticase soy broth were more sensitive to storage at -20 0 C than those mixed in ground beef. The percentages of inactivation and of injury (inability to form colonies in the presence of 3.0% NaCl) of cells stored in ground beef for 10 days at -20 0 C were 70 and 23%, respectively. Prior irradiation did not alter the cell's sensitivity to storage at -20 0 C, nor did storage at -20 0 C alter the cell's resistance to irradiation at 25 0 C. Added NaCl concentrations of up to 4.0% in Trypticase soy agar (TSA) (which contains 0.5% NaCl) had little effect on colony formation at 36 0 C of unirradiated Y. enterocolitica. With added 4.0% NaCl, 79% of the cells formed colonies at 36 0 C; with 5.0% NaCl added, no colonies were formed. Although 2.5% NaCl added to ground beef did not sensitize Y. enterocolitica cells to irradiation, when added to TSA it reduced the number of apparent radiation survivors. Cells uninjured by irradiation formed colonies on TSA when incubated at either 36 or 5 0 C. More survivors of an exposure to 60 krad were capable of recovery and forming colonies on TSA when incubated at 36 0 C for 1 day than at 5 0 C for 14 days. This difference in count was considered a manifestation of injury to certain survivors of irradiation

  11. Changes of some immune functions in combined radiation-burn injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of some immune functions in radiation injury (6 Gy), burn injury (15%, III deg) and combined radiation-burn injury (CRBI) were studied in rats. The results showed that the functions of splenocytes and thymocytes in radiation injury group (RIG) were depressed more markedly 24-72 h after injury. The degree of thymocyte depression in burn injury group (BIG) was significantly lower than that in RIG and recovered more easily. The characteristics of the CRBI effects were as follows: (1) The combined depression effect on thymocytes in CRBI as compared with that in RIG was deeper and the recovery was slower. (2) The depression course of splenocytes was similar to that in RIG, but the depression degree in the early stage was significantly more heavy than that in RIG. (3) In the later stage of CRBI the level of recovery of T H cells was significantly lower than that in RIG. (4) Eschar-excision plus skin grafting at 24 h after combined injury was helpful for the recovery of thymocyte and splenocytes function. The results showed that the depression and recovery of immune functions in combined injury were closely related to the wound of burn

  12. The use of computer in the biological dosimetry of radiation injury with lymphocyte micronucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Yao Buo

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for determining by computer the radiation dosage in early diagnosis of radiation injury was presented, with a purpose to widen its practical application. A set of programs designed in Clanguage for computing and drawing was compiled. The technical details discussed here can be used for compiling other kinds of practical programs. It is a valuable attempt in improving the efficiency of the computer-aid clinical diagnosis

  13. Medical modification of human acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, N.; Watson, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    In weighing the benefits and risks of utilizing nuclear energy, there must be a continuing reassessment as nuclear technology develops and changes. The health effects of radiation accidents, as most important part of the risk, must also be reevaluated as our medical ability grows to modify and ameliorate the consequences. The therapeutic efforts were classified as minimal, supportive or heroic. Supportive treatment included reverse isolation, detailed clinical laboratory measurements copious antibiotics, and transfusions of various blood cells, electrolytes and nutrients. Heroic treatment added bone marrow transplantation, while minimal treatment included none of these. It was concluded that while the LD 50 for man is about 340 rads with only minimal treatment, it could be increased to 510 rads with supportive therapy and to over 1,000 rads with heroic treatment. Hematopoietic injury predominated in this exposure range. Finally an estimate of the medical facilities available in the United States to meet these potential clinical needs was made. The relationship of the medical care resources to the likely needs following a serious nuclear power plant accident will be discussed

  14. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    1999-01-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-α and TGF β and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-α and TGF-β] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation alone group. It

  15. Specificity and sensitivity of NMR based urinary metabolic biomarker for radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Ritu; Watve, Apurva; Khushu, Subash; Rana, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Increasing burden of natural background radiation and terrestrial radionuclides is a big threat of radiation exposure to the population at large. It is necessary to develop biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure that can be used for mass screening in the event of a radiological mass casualty incident. Metabolomics has already been proven as an excellent developing prospect for capturing diseases specific metabolic signatures as possible biomarkers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the urinary metabolites after whole body radiation exposure which can further be used as early predictive marker. The PLS-DA based ROC curve depicted taurine as a biomarker of early radiation injury. This study along with other 'omics' technique will be useful to help design strategies for non-invasive radiation biodosimetry through metabolomics in human populations

  16. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Kormos, C.; Kerekes, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  17. Radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane and lethal action of radiation on cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomenko, B S; Akoev, I G [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1984-01-01

    Data on modification of procaryotes and eukaryotes cell injuries using preparations not penetrating into cells and also membrane-specific drugs localized in cells in a lipid phase are generalized. A conclusion is drawn that radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane of prokaryotes and eukaryotes contribute considerably to lethal action of radiation on cells.

  18. Radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane and lethal action of radiation on cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Akoev, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Data on modification of procaryotes and eukaryotes cell injuries using preparations not penetrating into cells and also membrane-specific drugs localized in cells in a lipid phase are generalized. A conclusion is drawn that radiation injuries of plasmatic membrane of prokaryotes and eukaryotes contribute considerably to lethal action of radiation on cells

  19. Pathophysiological Responses in Rat and Mouse Models of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianhong; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Guoqian; Li, Yi; Wu, Rong; Cheng, Jinping; Tang, Yamei

    2017-03-01

    The brain is the major dose-limiting organ in patients undergoing radiotherapy for assorted conditions. Radiation-induced brain injury is common and mainly occurs in patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant head and neck tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or lung cancer-derived brain metastases. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury are largely unknown. Although many treatment strategies are employed for affected individuals, the effects remain suboptimal. Accordingly, animal models are extremely important for elucidating pathogenic radiation-associated mechanisms and for developing more efficacious therapies. So far, models employing various animal species with different radiation dosages and fractions have been introduced to investigate the prevention, mechanisms, early detection, and management of radiation-induced brain injury. However, these models all have limitations, and none are widely accepted. This review summarizes the animal models currently set forth for studies of radiation-induced brain injury, especially rat and mouse, as well as radiation dosages, dose fractionation, and secondary pathophysiological responses.

  20. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term.

  1. Early vasopressor use following traumatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylands, Mathieu; Toma, Augustin; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids. This systema......OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids...... trials are currently ongoing. No study measured long-term quality of life or cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Existing data on the effects of vasopressors following traumatic injury are of very low quality according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology...

  2. Early elective colostomy following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Michelle

    Elective colostomy is an accepted method of bowel management for patients who have had a spinal cord injury (SCI). Approximately 2.4% of patients with SCI have a colostomy, and traditionally it is performed as a last resort several years after injury, and only if bowel complications persist when all other methods have failed. This is despite evidence that patients find a colostomy easier to manage and frequently report wishing it had been performed earlier. It was noticed in the author's spinal unit that increasing numbers of patients were requesting colostomy formation during inpatient rehabilitation following SCI. No supporting literature was found for this; it appears to be an emerging and untested practice. This article explores colostomy formation as a method of bowel management in patients with SCI, considers the optimal time for colostomy formation after injury and examines issues for health professionals.

  3. Risk estimation of radiation exposure in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Waesser, S.

    1977-01-01

    The biomedical effects of radiation exposure (occupational, by X-ray diagnosis or examinations in nuclear medicine) to low doses on early pregnancy have been subject of a research work dealing with the dose level which, in case of exceeding, may lead to somatic damage (1.5 to 10 rem), and with the type of radiation injuries (malformations, functional disorder, cancer induction, increase in morbidity rate, genetic damage). A pilot study was the basis for the programme which will record such cases from all over the GDR. Within the scope of the health centre at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR, medical opinion on the interruption or preservation of pregnancy at its early stage, after exposure, was delivered in more than 50 cases. Exposure of the foetus was exactly determined. These children were re-investigated at the age of 1 to 3 years by applying pediatric and genetic examinations. The latter were based on clinical and biochemical methods as well as chromosome analyses. From these results, the risk of exposure in early pregnancy is estimated and adequate dose limits are suggested. In case these limits are exceeded, an interruption should be advised

  4. Occurrence and treatment of radiation injuries following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao

    1978-01-01

    General side effects recognized in digestive organ and hematopoietic organ during radiotherapy were described, and curative medicines for them were mentioned. Countermeasures for dermatitis, reactions of oral, pharyngeal or espophageal mucosae, radiation pneumonitis, radiation enteritis, urinary tract injuries which appeared during radiotherapy were described, and curative medicines for them were mentioned. Skin ulcer, ulcers in oral cavity, and larynx, edema in larynx and lower larynx, bone necrosis, necrosis of thyroid cartilage, injuries of eyeball, radiation damage in lung, delayed injuries following radiotherapy for uterine cancer, nervous system disorder, and lymphatic system disorder were mentioned as main delayed local injuries, and countermeasures for them were described. Lastly, a mental attitude for radiotherapy was described. (Serizawa, K.)

  5. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  6. Radiation induced early delayed changes in mice brain: a 1h MRS and behavioral evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Rana, Poonam; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash; Hemanth Kumar, B.S.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induced CNS injury can be classified as acute, early delayed and late delayed. Most of the studies suggest that acute injury is reversible whereas early delayed and late delayed injury is irreversible leading to metabolic and cognitive impairment. Extensive research has been carried out on cranial radiation induced early and late delayed changes, there are no reports on whole body radiation induced early and delayed changes. The present study was designed to observe early delayed effects of radiation during whole body radiation exposure. A total of 20 C57 male mice were divided in two groups of 10 animals each. One group was exposed to a dose of 5 Gy whole body radiation through Tele 60 Co irradiation facility with source operating at 2.496 Gy/min, while other group served as sham irradiated control. Behavioral and MR spectroscopy was carried out 3 months post irradiation. Behavioral parameters such as locomotor activity and working memory were evaluated first then followed by MR spectroscopy at 7T animal MRI system. For MRS, voxel was localised in the cortex-hippocampus region of mouse brain. MR spectra were acquired using PRESS sequence, FID was processed using LC model for quantitation. The data showed impaired cognitive functions and altered metabolite levels during early delayed phase of whole body radiation induced injury. In behavioural experiments, there was a significant impairment in the cognitive as well as exploratory functions at 3 months post irradiation in irradiated group as compared to controls. MRS results explained changes in mI, glutamine and glx levels in irradiated animals compared to controls. Altered mI level has been found to be associated with reduced cognitive abilities in many brain disorders including MCI and Alzheimer's disease. The findings of this study suggest that whole body radiation exposure may have long lasting effect on the cognitive performance. (author)

  7. Surgical management of radiation injury to the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, R.W.; Fowler, W.C. Jr., Boronow, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Severe injury of the small intestine represents one of the most tragic complications of radiation of the pelvis and abdomen. Not uncommonly, patients die from the radiation or the treatment of its intestinal complications. More commonly, patients become intestinal cripples, secondary to chronic partial obstruction of the small intestine and malnutrition associated with the stagnant loop syndrome, as previously reported by one of us. Management results have been discouraging, usually because of a general lack of clinical recognition and understanding of radiation injury to the intestine. Medical management has not been satisfactory. It may provide temporary relief from symptoms, but not long-lasting. Surgical management, although frequently curative, has been associated with high death and morbidity rates. Many surgical procedures have been used in treating radiation injury to the small intestine. Generally, these fall into two categories: first, intestinal resection with primary anastomosis; and second, enteroenteric or enterocolic bypass. In the literature are reflected advocates for each method of surgical management.

  8. Effects of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianming; Xiao Jiasi

    1996-01-01

    Changes in hemodynamics after radiation, burn and combined radiation burn injury within eight hours post injury were studied. The results indicate: (1) Shock of rats in the combined injury group is more severe than that in the burn group. One of the reasons is that the blood volume in the combined injury group is less than that in the burn group. Radiation injury plays an important role in this effect, which enhances the increase in vascular permeability and causes the loss of plasma. (2) Decrease in cardiac output and stroke work and increase in vascular resistance in the combined radiation burn group are more drastic than those in the burn group, which may cause and enhance shock. Replenishing fluid is useful for recovery of hemodynamics. (3) Rb uptake is increased in the radiation group which indicates that compensated increase of myocardial nutritional blood flow may take place before the changes of hemodynamics and shock. Changes of Rb uptake in the combined injury group is different from that in the radiation groups and in the burn group. The results also suggest that changes of ion channel activities may occur to a different extent after injury. (4) Verapamil is helpful to the recovery of hemodynamics post injury. It is better to combine verapamil with replenishing fluid

  9. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor β immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent

  10. Assessment of radiation injuries: role of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushu, Subhash; Rana, Poonam

    2014-01-01

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation, timely assessment of the radiation exposure is critical for the triage and to facilitate timely and optimal medical care to the effected population. In addition to mild to severe injuries to tissues and organs, radiation injury can also cause cognitive decline, depressive behavior and affective state disturbances following exposure to both high and low doses of radiation. These may be even seen without evident tissue injury within hours to days or months to years after exposure to low doses of radiation. In this study, we exploited the multi-parametric contrast of NMR/MRI and its potential to assess radiation dose absorbed and radiation sickness thereof. High resolution NMR spectroscopy experiments were conducted on urine and serum samples collected from mice irradiated (whole body and focal irradiation) with 3, 5 and 8 Gray of γ-radiation at different time points post irradiation. Irradiated mice serum and urine showed distinct metabolic phenotypes and revealed dose and time dependent clustering of irradiated groups depicting different phases of radiation sickness. Increased concentration of urine metabolites related to gut microflora and energy metabolism were observed during different phases of radiation sickness. On the other hand serum spectra reflected changes associated with lipid, energy and membrane metabolism during radiation sickness. In vivo NMR spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was also performed in different regions of brain post irradiation in animal model, which showed radiation induced metabolite changes in hippocampus region. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) also demonstrated dose related changes in various brain regions which corroborated well with the behavioral parameters. The results of the present work lay a scientific foundation for development of high throughput radiation bio-dosimetry. This could further be useful in development

  11. Comparative evaluation of radiation injuries in skin histological structures under local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchanova, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate quantitatively to what degree the various histologic structures of the skin undergo changes after a radiation injury and during the reparative process, white rats have been used to study these changes in relation to the radiation dose and the time elapsed after exposure. The rats have been locally exposed on a single occasion to long-wave (10.2 keV) x-radiation in doses of 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 R. Greatest changes in histologic structures occured with doses of 250-1000 R on days 96-115 postexposure. With higher doses, these changes are most clearly marked as early as on day 38

  12. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  13. The forecasting of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum in patients with uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharinov, G.M.; Gabelov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency and degree of severity of radiation in unjuries of the urinary bladder and rectum after combined treatment of 725 patients with uterine cercix carcigoma are analysed. A quantitative index was worked out permi-- tting one to give an ob ective evaluation of the degree of early radiation reactions of the ad acent organs. The determination of the ''radiation injuries prognosis index'' (RIPI) makes it possible to forecast the occurence and degree of severity of late radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum. The evaluation of RIPI mean values in the patients' groups provides an opportunity to oompare the damaging effect of different methods and regiment directly in the process of radiation therapy. The above method improves the potentialities of the forecasting of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum in patients with uterine cervix carcinoma

  14. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui [Pudong New Area People' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  15. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  16. Effect of blood transfusion and skin grafting on rats with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of escharectomy and skin grafting at different times on rats with combined radiation-burn injuries (5 Gy total body irradiation plus flash radiation from a 5 kW bromotungstenic lamp to induce a 15% TBSA full thickness burn on back) treated with blood transfusion (BT) were studied. The treatment with BT and escharectomy plus skin grafting at 24, 48, and 72 h after injury showed significant therapeutic effects. In these treated groups, early recovery of WBC counts, the granulocytes and total lymphocytes, T, B-cells, bone marrow cells or CFU-F counts were evident within 30 days after injury. The 30-day survival rates of the skin grafts in the group treated with BT and skin grafting at 24 h after injury was 80%, in the group with skin grafting alone was 50%, while all the skin grafts sloughted within 30 days when the grafting was performed 48 and 72 h after injury. The 30-day survival rate of the recipients treated with skin grafting plus BT was higher than that of the animals with skin grafting alone. The results showed that satisfactory results were achieved with BT plus escharectomy and skin grafting within 24 h after injury, while skin grafting performed at 48 or 72 h after injury was ineffective for the survival of skin grafts

  17. Change in catalase and peroxidase activity in rat blood in case of combined radiation and mechanical injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovaya, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Changes of catalase and peroxide activity of blood in rats in case of irradiation at 2.0 and 7.0 Gy, mechanical injury of animal chest and combined radiation injury were studied. The given data testify to considerable increase of the above enzymes activity in case of all these effects. The less decrease of catalase and peroxide activity was observed after infliction of mechanical injury alone. Aggravating effect of mechanical injury on the irradiated organism leads to more noticeable decrease of catalase activity (at early periods of observation) in comparison with radiation effect. Peroxide changes in case of combined radiation and mechanical injury of rats differ slightly from similar factors observed in case of irradiation alone

  18. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  19. The cellular basis of renal injury by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This review with substantial bibliography summarises renal assay techniques available and discusses the histological and functional studies leading to differing opinions between the belief that vascular injury provides a general explanation of the late effects of radiotherapy and the opposing view that parenchymal cell damage is more important. It is proposed that the link between glomerular and tubular function obscures the primary site of injury and that radiation injury will result in a reduction of functioning nephron mass by primary damage to the tubules or glomeruli. Compensatory renal vasodilation would close a positive feedback loop. Radiation could also cause direct vascular injury; decreased renal perfusion and hypertension would result. Again sensitisation to hypertensive vascular damage would close a feedback loop. (UK)

  20. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

  1. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Han, Bing; Setoyama, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M.; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Galambos, Csaba; Fong, Jason V.; Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A.; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury

  2. Anesthesia for plastic reconstruction surgery of radiation injury of neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yafen; Zhang Junmin; Huang Zhiqin

    1993-01-01

    The management of anesthesia used in the plastic reconstruction of 18 cases of radiation injury of neck is reported. 17 cases were malignant tumor patients. After radiotherapy, their general condition was weak. The injury of neck skin and surrounding tissues was severe. Most operations were excision of the focus and repairing the wound using adjacent flap. The choice of anesthesia depended on the general condition, degree of injury and the procedure. Good pre-operative preparation, close monitoring and satisfactory airway control during operation are very important

  3. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydont, Valerie; Gilliot, Olivier; Rivera, Sofia; Bourgier, Celine; Francois, Agnes; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

  4. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Haemopoietic recovery during radiation disease: Comments on combined-injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The regenerative ability of haemopoietic organs during combined radiation injuries has not been adequately investigated. Interactions among individual factors can critically influence the processes involved in haemopoietic recovery. An overview of radiation injuries is given, and a concept towards a hypothetical mode of action at the cellular level is presented. The influence which interacting factors can have on the concentration of pluripotential haemopoietic stem cells is demonstrated by results from an initial experiment. The importance of synergistic and antagonistic reactions is emphasised and commented upon. (orig.) [de

  7. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Guney, H Zafer; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    Ionising radiation is known one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer but in many thoracic cancers, the total prescribed dose of radiation that can be safely administered to the target volume is limited by the risk of complications arising in the normal lung tissue. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radiation pneumonitis is an acute phase side-effect which generally subsides after a few weeks and is followed by a chronic phase characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, that can develop months or years after irradiation. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine. The exact biological role of carnosine is not totally understood, but several studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage,and promotes wound healing. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, ROS and free radicals scavenging ability . Either its antioxidant or anti-inflammatuar properties, we propose that carnosine ameliorates irradiation-induced lung injury. Thus, supplementing cancer patients to whom applied radiation therapy with carnosine, may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced lung injury. This issue warrants further studies.

  8. Early inflammatory response in rat brain after peripheral thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raul; Wu, Yimin; Lai, Qin; Mrizek, Michael; Berger, Jamie; Jimenez, David F; Barone, Constance M; Ding, Yuchuan

    2006-10-16

    Previous studies have shown that the cerebral complications associated with skin burn victims are correlated with brain damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic thermal injury induces inflammatory responses in the brain. Sprague Dawley rats (n=28) were studied in thermal injury and control groups. Animals from the thermal injury (n=14) and control (n=14) group were anesthetized and submerged to the neck vertically in 85 degrees C water for 6 s producing a third degree burn affecting 60-70% of the animal body surface area. The controls were submerged in 37 degrees C water for 6 s. Early expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), and intracellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) protein levels in serum were determined at 3 (n=7) and 7 h (n=7) by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 in the brain was measured at the same time points with a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An equal animal number was used for controls. Systemic inflammatory responses were demonstrated by dramatic up-regulations (5-50 fold) of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 protein level in serum at 7 h after the thermal injury. However, as early as 3 h after peripheral thermal injury, a significant increase (3-15 fold) in mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and ICAM-1 was observed in brain homogenates, with increased levels remaining at 7 h after injury. This study demonstrated an early inflammatory response in the brain after severe peripheral thermal injury. The cerebral inflammatory reaction was associated with expression of systemic cytokines and an adhesion molecule.

  9. Health risks (early, delayed and genetic) from the present radiation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    A general survey is given of the risks of early, delayed and genetic injuries from present radiation environment. Brief data is presented on some industrial and medical accidents. It is stated that in Norway there are 5-10 incidents per year in industrial radiography, none of which have led to radiation syndrome. Delayed radiation effects are discussed and figures quoted for risk due to mining, industrial and medical radiography and natural sources. Genetic effects are similarly discussed and genetically significant doses from similar sources are quoted. It is concluded that the health risk from the radiation environment is very small compared with other risks. (JIW)

  10. Study of collagen metabolism after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xulan; Wu Shiliang; Zhang Xueguang; Chen Liesong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of collagen metabolism and it's regulation after β radiation. Method: The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 was tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. Results: After exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. Conclusion: The changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 and IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  11. Delayed radiation injury of brain stem after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunli; Liu Yingxin; Xie Dong; Su Danke; Chen Mingzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, MRI findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with radiation induced brain stem injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1991 to January 2001, 24 patients with radiation injury of brain stem were treated, 14 males and 10 females. The latency ranged from 6 to 38 months, with a median of 18 months. The lesions were located in the pons in 10 patients, mesencephalon + pons in 4, pons + medulla oblongata in 5, medulla oblongata in 2 and mesencephalon + pons + medulla oblongata in 3. MRI findings showed that the injury was chiefly presented as hypointensity foci on T 1 WI and hyperintensity foci on T 2 WI. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with dexamethasone in the early phase, with symptoms relieved in 12 patients but unimproved in 6 patients. Eight 44% patients died within the 8-38 months, leaving 16 patients surviving for 0.5 to 6.0 years. Conclusions: Radiation injury of brain stem has a short latency with severe symptoms, signifying poor prognosis. It is suggested that adequate reduction of irradiation volume and dose at the brain stem should be able to lower the incidence of brain stem injury

  12. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2002-01-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Yoshio; Hara, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Jiro; Nakano, Haruo

    1975-01-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Y; Mishima, Y; Hara, K; Tomiyama, J; Nakano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned.

  15. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  16. Radiation therapy of early glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, S.

    1987-01-01

    The control of early glottic cancer is equally satisfactory with either surgical resection or radiation therapy; this last method gives the patient good functional results. During the period from 1/1978 to 12/1985, 73 patients with early glottic carcinoma (T1 N0 M0) were treated in the Institute of Radiotherapy L. Galvani, University of Bologna; 45 were stage T1a (tumor limited to one vocal cord) and 28 were stage T1b (tumor of both vocal cords or involving anterior commissure); radiation treatment utilized a 60 Co machine and 5x5 cm fields; the median dose was 67.2 Gy (range 50-76) with conventional fractionation. Ten patients had local recurrence; the median time of recurrence was 13.4 months; 9/10 were treated by surgery and 2/10 died, so the overall control by radiotherapy with surgery in reserve was 100% in T1a tumers and 90.6% in T1b ones. The 5-years disease free survival rate was 93.1% in T1a tumors and 69% in T1b; lesions involving anterior commissure had the worst prognosis, independent of the dose and time-dose factor (3/10 recurrences in the group treated with TDF less than 110 and 4/18 recurrences in the group with TDF more than 110)

  17. Early endoscopic treatment of blunt traumatic pancreatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Kullman, Eric; Gasslander, Thomas; Sandström, Per

    2015-01-01

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is a rare and challenging situation. In many cases, there are other associated injuries that mandate urgent operative treatment. Morbidity and mortality rates are high and complications after acute pancreatic resections are common. The diagnosis of pancreatic injuries can be difficult and often requires multimodal approach including Computed Tomography scans, Magnetic resonance imaging and Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The objective of this paper is to review the application of endoprothesis in the settings of pancreatic injury. A review of the English literature available was conducted and the experience of our centre described. While the classical recommended treatment of Grade III pancreatic injury (transection of the gland and the pancreatic duct in the body/tail) is surgical resection this approach carries high morbidity. ERCP was first reported as a diagnostic tool in the settings of pancreatic injury but has in recent years been used increasingly as a treatment option with promising results. This article reviews the literature on ERCP as treatment option for pancreatic injury and adds further to the limited number of cases reported that have been treated early after the trauma.

  18. Resilience in mathematics after early brain injury: The roles of parental input and early plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Glenn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life. We find that children with BI, are, on average, slightly behind TD children in both cardinal number knowledge and later mathematical performance, and show slightly slower learning rates than TD children in cardinal number knowledge during the preschool years. We also find that parents’ “number talk” to their toddlers predicts later mathematical ability for both TD children and children with BI. These findings suggest a relatively optimistic story in which neural plasticity is at play in children’s mathematical development following early brain injury. Further, the effects of early number input suggest that intervening to enrich the number talk that children with BI hear during the preschool years could narrow the math achievement gap. Keywords: Plasticity, Early unilateral brain injury, Mathematical skill, Cardinality, Parent input

  19. X-ray and radium gamma radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokkema, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    During the period 1896-1939 a number of maxima could be distinguished in the incidence of X-ray and radium gamma ray injuries in patients. An explanation for these fluctuations is investigated in this study. The first distinguishable maximum in the number of reported cases of X-ray injuries can be found in the period 1896-1897 and mainly concerns skin lesions, caused by the lack of shielding and ignorance of the effects. In the period 1904-1905 there was once again an apparent prevalence of radiation injuries to patients. After 1905 the incidence of radiation injuries decreased due to a wider use of dosimetric methods. The third phase of increased injuries may be subdivided into three components. In diagnostic roentgenology from 1896 to 1926 a number of causes of roentgen burns persisted: multiple or long exposures, the use of a short focus-skin-distance and a lack of suitable dosimetric methods. The reduction of complications after 1923 can be attributed to several factors: systematic training of physics who wished to become roentgenologists, greater care of doctors, the use of an alternative method of radiotherapy according to Coutard's method, the introduction of dosimetry with ionization chambers (after 1924), the consensus reached over the roentgen as a unit of applied dosage (in 1928), and the introduction of absorption curves for radiation quality (in 1933). Around 1920 a high complication rate arose as a result of exposure to radiation emitted by radium. In 1922 the first reliable radium dosimetry method came available. This applied to external radium therapy by regular shaped applicators. After 1938 reliable dosimetry was achieved in the field of interstitial radium therapy (brachytherapy). Injuries from radium therapy, however, persisted till about 1940, caused not only by the delayed availability of radium dosimetry, but also to the use of radium therapy by poorly trained radium therapists. 28 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Significance of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed radiation enteropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junru Wang; Marjan Boerma; Qiang Fu; Martin Hauer-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed intestinal radiation toxicity and discusses various endothelial-oriented interventions aimed at reducing the risk of radiation enteropathy. Studies published in the biomedical literature during the past four decades and cited in PubMed, as well as clinical and laboratory data from our own research program are reviewed. The risk of injury to normal tissues limits the cancer cure rates that can be achieved with radiation therapy. During treatment of abdominal and pelvic tumors, the intestine is frequently a major dose-limiting factor. Microvascular injury is a prominent feature of both early (inflammatory), as well as delayed (fibroproliferative) radiation injuries in the intestine and in many other normal tissues. Evidence from our and other laboratories suggests that endothelial dysfunction, notably a deficiency of endothelial thrombomodulin, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of these radiation responses. Deficient levels of thrombomodulin cause loss of vascular thromboresistance, excessive activation of cellular thrombin receptors by thrombin, and insufficient activation of protein C, a plasma protein with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. These changes are presumed to be critically involved in many aspects of early intestinal radiation toxicity and may sustain the fibroproliferative processes that lead to delayed intestinal dysfunction, fibrosis, and clinical complications. In conclusion, injury of vascular endothelium is important in the pathogenesis of the intestinal radiation response. Endothelial-oriented interventions are appealing strategies to prevent or treat normal tissue toxicity associated with radiation treatment of cancer.

  1. Stem cell, cytokine and plastic surgical management for radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Sadanori; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Akino, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Increasing concern on systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power plant accident, therapeutic irradiation or nuclear terrorism should be treated and prevented properly for life-saving and improved wound management. We therefore reviewed our therapeutic regimens and for local radiation injuries and propose surgical methods reflecting the importance of the systemic and general conditions. For local radiation injuries, after careful and complete debridement, sequential surgeries with local flap, arterialized or perforator flap and to free flap are used when the patients' general conditions allow. Occasionally, undetermined wound margins in acute emergency radiation injuries and the regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and an artificial dermis were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect are tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who are suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. The hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with hMSCs and bFGF over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angio genesis, architected dermal reconstitution and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Even though emergent cases are more often experienced, detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational

  2. Stem cell, cytokine and plastic surgical management for radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Sadanori; Hirano, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nagasaki (Japan); Akino, Kozo [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Dept. of Neuroanatomy; Ohtsuru, Akira [Nagasaki Univ. Hospital (Japan). Takashi Nagai Memorial, International Hibakusha Medical Center; Yamashita, Shunichi [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Institute; World Health Organization (WHO), Nagasaki (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Increasing concern on systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power plant accident, therapeutic irradiation or nuclear terrorism should be treated and prevented properly for life-saving and improved wound management. We therefore reviewed our therapeutic regimens and for local radiation injuries and propose surgical methods reflecting the importance of the systemic and general conditions. For local radiation injuries, after careful and complete debridement, sequential surgeries with local flap, arterialized or perforator flap and to free flap are used when the patients' general conditions allow. Occasionally, undetermined wound margins in acute emergency radiation injuries and the regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and an artificial dermis were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect are tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who are suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. The hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with hMSCs and bFGF over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angio genesis, architected dermal reconstitution and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Even though emergent cases are more often experienced, detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational

  3. Radiation injury to the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.A.; Finn, D.G.; Buchalter, I.H.; Brookler, K.H.; Kimmelman, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. Hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit

  4. Improvement of biological decontamination, protective and repair activity against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Because the protection of human subject from late radiation injury is the final goal of remediation of radioactive contamination of 137 Cs in environment, improvement of DNA-repairing ability and 137 Cs-removal from human body is important. In order to reduce environmental radioactivity in areas exceeding 5 mSv/year in Fukushima prefecture, the cost is estimated to be 118 trillion yen, and there are difficulties in finding place to store 137 Cs-contaminated soils and in 137 Cs-recontamination. The radiation damage of DNA molecule takes place stochastically following linear no threshold model (LNT), but the cancer risk and other late radiation injury from long-term low dose radiation do not follow LNT model if we improve DNA repair and the cell regeneration systems. Indirect effects of radiation damage on DNA mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevented by vitamin C, E, carotenoids including lycopene and phytochemicals. ROS is also removed by superoxide dismutases containing Cu, Mn and Z. Direct effects of radiation damage on DNA are repaired by enzyme systems using folic acid, vitamins B 6 and B 12 . In addition, before the radiation injury, absorption of 137 Cs is prevented by taking pectin etc. and excretion of 137 Cs is accelerated by ingesting more K. Finally, early detection of cancer and its removal by detailed health check of radiation-exposed people is needed. Radiation-protecting diet developed to protect astronauts from about 1 mSv per day, will be useful for many workers of atomic power plant as well as people living in the 137 Cs-contaminated areas. (author)

  5. Radiation risk in the context of liability for injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    2003-01-01

    It is perceived by the man in the street that low-level radiation from a nuclear facility is more dangerous than that from other practices. The radiation protection system, in particular the ALARA principle, leads to concerns that even the smallest exposure to radiation is abnormal and dangerous. Public perception of the radiation risk leads to fear in the minds of the public. A consequence of this fear itself may be damage to health in the form of psychological damage or nervous shock. The paper draws attention to the liability for damages by radiation, in particular under the common law of the UK and US, and how liability, determined by the court, is not necessarily influenced by scientific rationality. A natural conclusion may be that a claimant suffering injury of the type caused by radiation and who had been exposed to radiation, no matter how small a dose, that could be shown to come from a nuclear installation would be awarded damages against the licensee of the site of the installation unless it could be shown that the injury was predominantly caused by another source (radioactive or otherwise)

  6. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan; Wu Shiliang; Qiu Hao; Jiang Zhi; Tu Youbin; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 , IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  7. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  8. Different imaging methods in the assessment of radiation-induced lung injury following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have characterized the radiation-induced lung-injury on serial chest X-rays, CTs and ultralow field MRs and evaluated the clinical value and cost/benefit ratio of the different imaging methods in 30 patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma. Lung injury was severe in all patients, but non-specific and essentially as described in text-books. CT provided no clinically relevant, cost effective diagnostic advantage over conventional X-rays in the detection of early or late radiation-induced lung injury, but it was necessary for the evaluation of the disease status of the mesothelioma. The possible advantage of MR over CT could not be evaluated and needs further studies. Optimal time-points for imaging CTs or MRs to detect early radiation-induced lung injury following high dose hemithorax irradiation were during the latter part of the treatment or very shortly after the end of the irradiation. Late injury or irreversible fibrosis develop rapidly after 6 months and was clearly documented by chest X-rays. The authors recommend serial chest X-rays at 1-2, 6 and 12 months following radiotherapy as a cost-effective method for the detection of radiation-induced lung injury with additional CTs to document the stage of mesothelioma, when needed. (author). 31 refs.; 4 figs

  9. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  10. Late radiation injury to muscle and peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E. L.; Mahler, P. A.; Powers, B. E.; Gillette, S. M.; Vujaskovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Late radiation injury to muscles and peripheral nerves is infrequently observed. However, the success of radiation oncology has led to longer patient survival, providing a greater opportunity for late effects to develop, increase in severity and, possibly, impact the quality of life of the patient. In addition, when radiation therapy is combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy, the risk of late complications is likely to increase. It is clear that the incidence of complications involving muscles and nerves increases with time following radiation. The influence of volume has yet to be determined; however, an increased volume is likely to increase the risk of injury to muscles and nerves. Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the (α(β)) ratio for muscle is approximately 4 Gy and, possibly, 2 Gy for peripheral nerve, indicating the great influence of fractionation on response of these tissues. This is of concern for intraoperative radiation therapy, and for high dose rate brachytherapy. This review of clinical and experimental data discusses the response of muscle and nerves late after radiation therapy. A grading system has been proposed and endpoints suggested

  11. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  12. The protective effect of lycopene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Youko; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the side effects of radiotherapy, radioprotective effects of lycopene on villi and crypts in the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) were examined with administration pre-, continuous and post-radiation. In the lycopene group, the ratio of the villus length to the crypt was significantly increased in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in crypt/total was significantly decreased and the ratio of necrotic cells in villus/total was significantly increased by lycopene administration, which indicated an acceleration of the recovery from the radiation injury with lycopene. Each lycopene administered group showed a significant radioprotective effect, with the pre-radiation administration inducing a smaller effect than that of continuous and post-radiation administration. Radiation induced apoptosis was also decreased by lycopene administration. It is concluded that pre-, continuous and post-radiation administration of lycopene protects against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerate the recovery. (author)

  13. Effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Cheng Tianmin; Li Yuan; Wei Shuqing

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction were studied in rats with combined injury of 3-8 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation plus 15% total body surface area full thickness burn induced by exposure to a 5 kw bromotungsten lamp. The allogeneic skin was transplanted 24 hours after injury. It was found that all the skin grafts failed to survive in 10 days and the immune reaction significantly increased in the early stage of burn injury. But the immune reaction was obviously suppressed by the combined radiation-burn injury. The survival rates of skin grafts were 20% and 30% in the combined injury of burn plus 3 and 4 Gy irradiation respectively. When the radiation doses increased to 5,6 and 8 Gy, the survival rates elevated to 69%, 88% and 100% respectively (in the group of 8 Gy, bone marrow transplantation was conducted before receiving skin graft). At day 30 post-transplantation the survival rates were still 36%, 42% and 100% respectively. Compared with burn group, there was a significant difference in survival rate when the radiation doses were higher than 5 Gy. These results indicate that the survival rate of the allogeneic skin graft increases concurrently with the increase in radiation dose and decreases with the elapse of the post-transplantation time

  14. Main stages in the development of radiation immunology: from immunochemical analysis of injury to monitored radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarilin, A.A.; Kashkin, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research of the radiation action on immunity are presented. The results of immunochemical investigation of radiation tissue injuries are considered. Much attention is given to the problem of radiation injury and repair of the lymphoid system. It is shown that the next stage of development of radiation immunology is immunologic control of radiotherapy of oncologic patients

  15. Possibilities for prognostication of radiation injury in rats by leucocyte nucleic acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, M.; Pantev, T.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities to prognosticate acute radiation injury by the changes in the amount of nucleic acids in the leucocytes was studied. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats, gamma-irradiated with nonlethal and sublethal doses of 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy and lethal dose of 8 Gy (LD 90/30 ). The nucleic acid content and the total leucocyte count were determined at definite intervals on days 1-30. The changes in the nucleic acids in nonlethally and sublethally irradiated animals had phase nature, with a clear-cut abortive increase in their amount on days 7-10. In lethally irradiated animals the phase character of the changes was lost and the abortive peak disappeared. By reducing the effectiveness of the lethal radiation dose survival of the population increased from 10-75% through physical and from 10-70% - through chemical protection. The nucleic acid dynamics showed features typical for an injury with possible survival - appearance of abortive peak and resumption of their normal values. It is assumed that determination of leucocyte nucleic acid content may be used for early prognostication of radiation injury, as it allows keen differentiation of the lethal from nonlethal outcome of radiation sickness. The absence of abortive peak (over 50%) by day 14 post-irradiation is a poor prognostic sign

  16. Possible radiation injury at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, L.C.J.; De Villiers, B.; Van Zyl, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Any injured patient from Koeberg Nuclear Power Station will be treated in the conventional manner as an acute surgical emergency; this has priority over decontamination. The ideal situation is decontamination at Koeberg before ambulance transferral to the Tygerberg Radiation Casualty Facility, but if this is not possible or complete, decontamination can be accomplished by a trained team in the unit. Teamwork is the essence at the place of injury, during transfer, in the decontamination area, in the operating theatre and during the postoperative phase. No surgical management is appropriate or complete without the very necessary guidance and advice from a physicist and the Advisory Group for Radiation Casualties

  17. Resilience in mathematics after early brain injury: The roles of parental input and early plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Dana E; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Gibson, Dominic J; Congdon, Eliza L; Levine, Susan C

    2018-04-01

    Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life. We find that children with BI, are, on average, slightly behind TD children in both cardinal number knowledge and later mathematical performance, and show slightly slower learning rates than TD children in cardinal number knowledge during the preschool years. We also find that parents' "number talk" to their toddlers predicts later mathematical ability for both TD children and children with BI. These findings suggest a relatively optimistic story in which neural plasticity is at play in children's mathematical development following early brain injury. Further, the effects of early number input suggest that intervening to enrich the number talk that children with BI hear during the preschool years could narrow the math achievement gap. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytokines in therapy of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neta, R.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Repeated injections or infusion of hematopoietic growth factors, such as interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), accelerate restoration of hematopoiesis in animals compromised by sublethal doses of cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Previous work by the investigators has shown that IL-1 induced circulating CSF in normal mice and, when used after sublethal irradiation, accelerated the recovery of endogenous splenic colonies. Therefore, IL-1, as well as IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), G-CSF, and GM-CSF, were evaluated as potential therapeutic agents in irradiated C3H-HeN mice. A single intraperitoneal injection, administered within three hours after a lethal dose (LD)95/30 of irradiation that would kill 95% of mice within 30 days, protected in a dose-dependent manner up to 100% of mice from radiation-induced death due to hematopoietic syndrome. Significant therapeutic effects were also achieved with a single dose of IFN-gamma or of TNF. In contrast, GM-CSF and G-CSF, administered shortly after irradiation, had no effect in the doses used on mice survival

  19. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Katoh, Norio; Yonezawa, Morio

    1982-01-01

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  20. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  1. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balner, H.

    1977-01-01

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  2. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-07-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  3. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  4. Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition and Genetic Deficiency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, Rym; Francois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Crandall, David L.; Milliat, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) genetic deficiency and pharmacological PAI-1 inhibition with PAI-039 in a mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy. Methods and Materials: Wild-type (Wt) and PAI-1 -/- knockout mice received a single dose of 19 Gy to an exteriorized localized intestinal segment. Sham and irradiated Wt mice were treated orally with 1 mg/g of PAI-039. Histological modifications were quantified using a radiation injury score. Moreover, intestinal gene expression was monitored by real-time PCR. Results: At 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 abolished the radiation-induced increase in the plasma active form of PAI-1 and limited the radiation-induced gene expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), CTGF, PAI-1, and COL1A2. Moreover, PAI-039 conferred temporary protection against early lethality. PAI-039 treatment limited the radiation-induced increase of CTGF and PAI-1 at 2 weeks after irradiation but had no effect at 6 weeks. Radiation injuries were less severe in PAI-1 -/- mice than in Wt mice, and despite the beneficial effect, 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 had no effects on microscopic radiation injuries compared to untreated Wt mice. Conclusions: A genetic deficiency of PAI-1 is associated with amelioration of late radiation enteropathy. Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 by PAI-039 positively impacts the early, acute phase increase in plasma PAI-1 and the associated radiation-induced gene expression of inflammatory/extracellular matrix proteins. Since PAI-039 has been shown to inhibit the active form of PAI-1, as opposed to the complete loss of PAI-1 in the knockout animals, these data suggest that a PAI-1 inhibitor could be beneficial in treating radiation-induced tissue injury in acute settings where PAI-1 is elevated.

  5. Contribution to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury to large arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidar, Nina; Ferluga, Dusan; Hvala, Asta; Popovic, Mara; Soba, Erika

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of a 35-year-old man who died of a brain infarct 20 months after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with metastases to the cervical lymph nodes. Histology revealed mild atherosclerosis, necrotizing vasculitis, and occlusive thrombosis of the internal carotid artery. Significant changes were observed in the vasa vasorum; swelling and detachment of the endothelium, subendothelial oedema, hyaline change, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel walls with mononuclear cellular infiltration, accompanied by focal haemorrhages and chronic inflammation in the periadventitial soft tissue. We believe that these changes of the vasa vasorum and necrotizing vasculitis are causally related and that vasculitis represents focal ischaemic necroses with inflammatory reaction. Our findings support the hypothesis, based on experimental studies, that injury to the vasa vasorum is an important mechanism in the development of radiation-induced vasculopathy of large arteries. They also suggest an evolution of the injury to the vasa vasorum and periadventitial tissue from the early lesions described in our patient, to late stages resulting in dense periadventitial fibrosis as reported previously. We suggest that injury to the vasa vasorum and the consequent ischaemic lesions of the arterial wall are morphological features distinguishing radiation-induced arterial injury from spontaneous atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  7. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, I.B.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.) [de

  8. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  9. Andrographolide protects against radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yahui; Wang Jinfeng; Zhang Qu; Huang Guanhong; Ma Jianxin; Yang Baixia; He Xiangfeng; Wang Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of andrographolide against radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Eighty C57BL mice were randomly divided into four groups: un-irradiated and normal saline-treated group (n = 20, control group), un-irradiated and andrographolide-treated group (n = 20, drug group), radiation plus normal saline-treated group (n = 20, radiation group) and radiation plus andrographolide-treated group (n = 20, treatment group). Before radiation, the mice in drug group and treatment group were administered daily via gavage with andrographolide (20 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 )) for 30 d, while the same volume of normal saline solution was given daily in the control and radiation groups. The model of RILI in C57BL mice was established by irradiating whole mouse chest with a single dose of 15 Gy of 6 MV X-rays. The pathological changes of the lung stained with HE/Masson were observed with a light microscope. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissues were examined by corresponding kits. Results: Compared with radiation group, there was an obvious amelioration in pathological injury of lung tissue in the treatment group. The lung coefficient, the activities of lung tissue MDA, the content of Hyp, the serum content of hydroxide free radical, and the serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in radiation group at 24 th week, (t lung coefficient = 1.60, t MDA = 7.06, t Hyp = 17.44, t TGF-β1 = 16.67, t TNF-α = 14.03, P < 0.05), while slightly higher than those in control group. The activity of SOD was significantly higher in the treatment group than that in radiation group (t = 60.81, P < 0.05), while lower than those in control group and drug group. There were no

  10. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  11. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2013-10-15

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  13. Expression and significance of Bax protein in model of radiation injury in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yizhong; Mo Yahong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study is to find some valuable criteria for diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury in skin. Methods: The expression of Bax protein was studied by SP immunohistochemistry in 40 cases of model of radiation injury in mouse skin. Their relationship relating to radiation dose was also investigated. Results: The expression rates of Bax were 30%, 30%, 70%, 70% in 5 Gy group, 15 Gy group, 30 Gy group, 45 Gy group respectively. There was no significant correlation between the expression of Bax and radiation groups. Conclusions: The experiment shows that radiation can increase the expression of Bax protein which might be related to poor healing in radiation skin injury

  14. EARLY MEDICAL REHABILITATION OF THE PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Demšar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early medical rehabilitation (EMR of the patients with spinal cord injury is discussed in this article.For successful rehabilitation adequate surgical treatment, which enables early verticalisation, is compulsory.Predictable respiratory, vascular, intestinal and urologic complications, contractures and bed sores are described and algorhytms of EMR in the period of spinal shock and after, until transferring the patient to the IRSR, are presented.Respiratory therapy, thromboprophylaxis, kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation as well as the methods of early bladder and bowel control, contractures and bed sores prevention, as procedures of EMR are fully presented.With special importance early verticalisation from the 5th post operative day with help of the tilt table is presented as the key point of EMR.Conclusions. With aggressive EMR the paraplegic patient is able to gain erect posture from the 5th post operative day, sits in a wheel chair from 10th to 14th day and stands in the paralel bar from 15th day on.

  15. Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    After an organism has suffered a radiation insult, knowledge of the dose and localization of the exposure is of the greatest importance for the treatment of any radiation damage. Supplementary to the information obtained from physical dosimetry, data obtained by biochemical indicators can, on the basis of metabolic changes in the irradiated organism, help in making early diagnosis, in assessing the extent of the radiation injury, and making a prognosis. Biochemical tests under optimal conditions would not depend on the quality and distribution of the dose in the body and would also reflect the sensitivity of the individual organisms. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization convened a joint scientific meeting on Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man in Paris-Le Vésinet, France, from 22 to 26 June 1970. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss recent problems in determining which biochemical and metabolic changes occurring in irradiated organisms could be used as indicators of radiation injury and its extent, and could thus be of help in planning the proper treatment of the injured persons. During the meeting the results obtained with various biochemical indicators, and experimental techniques and laboratory methods used in this field, were evaluated and compared. Both research workers and clinicians were invited to participate at the meeting. They discussed the possible value of several tests, used successfully in experimental animals, for clinical application; ways of standardizing suitable tests; and mutual collaboration between laboratories and clinics. The outcome of their discussions is summarized in the conclusions and recommendations which are included in these Proceedings together with the papers presented

  16. Changes of intermediary taurine and tryptophan metabolism after combined radiation-thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Novoselova, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of changes of the taurine and tryptophane concentration in blood serum of rats has been studied during 30 days after 3b degree burn of 15% of body surface after total even exposure to radiation in doses of 3 and 6 Gy, and after combined radiation thermal injury. Combined radiation-thermal injury was found to be characterized by reduced concentration of taurine but an increase of the tryptophane level from the second-third day after the injury

  17. Use of early tactile stimulation in rehabilitation of digital nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A S

    2000-01-01

    Digital nerves are the most frequently injured peripheral nerve. To improve the recovery of functional sensibility of digital nerve injuries, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to see the effect of using early tactile stimulation in rehabilitation of digital nerve injuries. Two specific tactile stimulators were made and prescribed for patients with digital nerve-injury. Twenty-four participants with 32 digital nerve injuries received the prescribed tactile stimulators (experimental group), and another 25 participants with 33 digital nerve injuries received only routine conventional therapy (control group). A significant difference (p sensibility in digital nerve injuries without combined nerve, tendon, and bone injuries.

  18. Reduction of radiation-induced early skin damage (mouse foot) by 0-(β-hydroxyaethyl)-rutoside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz-Niggli, H.; Froehlich, E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a bioflavonoid, 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (HR) on early radiation-induced skin damage was examined, using the mouse foot system; the response to radiation is not species specific and comparison with the clinical situation is therefore possible. The aim was to see whether HR, which is highly effective in protecting against late damage, is also able to reduce early effects. Early reactions were considered to be erythema, swelling and ulceration and occurring up to 30 days after irradiation. It was found that HR significantly reduces early damage, both after a single dose and after fractionated irradiation with low doses. A single pre-treatment dose of HR and pre-treatment together with 30 days post-treatment administration were both found to be effective. The protective effect became more marked with increasing radiation dose (single irradiation). Reduction of late effects is produced iptimally by an interval of 0.25 hours between application of HR and irradiation, and this is also true for early skin damage. The early effects are partly reversible, but there is possibly an interesting correlation between these and irreversible late effects (such as loss of toes); a similar mechanism, presumably affecting the vascular system, may therefore be postulated. The protective action of this well tolesated, highly effective substance, which apparently protects normal tissues from early and late injury, is discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Surgical treatment of radiation injuries after radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, J P.S.; Yarnold, J R; Slack, W W [Middlesex Hospital, London (UK)

    1981-01-01

    The outcome of serious radiation injuries to the pelvic viscera in 400 patients treated by radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus between January 1974 and December 1978 has been reviewed. Twenty-eight instances of serious radiation damage have been found, 13 of predominantly small bowel damage, 11 of predominantly large bowel damage and 4 of bladder damage. Many patients had involvement at multiple sites. Fourteen patients have died, and 9 survivors have artificial abdominal stomas. Leaking anastomoses and progressive sepsis were major problems in the postoperative period and could be related either to inadequate resection of irradiated bowel or to damage to other organs at operation. The possibilities of earlier diagnosis and better surgical procedures are discussed.

  20. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms

  1. The Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System of Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hardware design, the development of the software and the use of the Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (TEWERMS) of Cyprus. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of radiation injury with electrical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterman, K Sunshine; Hoopes, P Jack; De Lorenzo, Christine; Gladstone, David J; Paulsen, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    A detailed understanding of non-targeted normal tissue response is necessary for the optimization of radiation treatment plans in cancer therapy. In this study, we evaluate the ability of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to non-invasively determine and quantify the injury response in soft tissue after high dose rate (HDR) irradiation, which is characterized by large localized dose distributions possessing steep spatial gradients. The HDR after-loading technique was employed to irradiate small volumes of muscle tissue with single doses (26-52 Gy targeted 5 mm away from the source). Impedance measurements were performed on 29 rats at 1, 2 and 3 month post-irradiation, employing 31 frequencies in the 1 kHz to 1 MHz range. Over the first 3 months, conductivity increased by 48% and 26% following target doses of 52 Gy and 26 Gy 5 mm from the HDR source, respectively. Injury, assessed independently through a grid-based scoring method showed a quadratic dependence on distance from source. A significant injury (50% of cells atrophied, necrotic or degenerating) in 1.2% of the volume, accompanied by more diffuse injury (25% of cells atrophied, necrotic or degenerating) in 9% of the tissue produced a conductivity increase of 0.02 S m -1 (8% over a baseline of 0.24 S m -1 ). This was not statistically significant at p 0.01. Among treatment groups, injury differences in 22% of the volume led to statistically significant differences in conductivity of 0.07 S m -1 (23% difference in conductivity). Despite limitations, the success of EIS in detecting responses in a fraction of the tissue probed, during these early post-irradiation time-points, is encouraging. Electrical impedance spectroscopy may provide a useful metric of atrophy and the development of fibrosis secondary to radiation that could be further developed into a low-cost imaging method for radiotherapy monitoring and assessment

  3. Effect of collagen type IV, MMPs and TIMPs on remodeling of radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Ruiying; Song Liangwen; Wang Shaoxia; Yin Jiye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) on early remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: Right lungs of rats were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20 Gy to induce radiation pulmonary injury, and the lung specimens were taken at weeks 1, 2, 4 after irradiation. Quantitative analysis was performed on pulmonary collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 at the level of gene expression and protein synthesis using real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene detection using real-time PCR: gene expression of collagen type IV increased at week 1 and decreased at week 2 after irradiation; MMP-2 reached peak at week 2 in which an opposed alteration trend was displayed; MMP-9 appeared a significant trend of elevation, then decrease and elevation again which was similar to those of collagen type IV; expression of TIMP-1 was lower, and there was no marked difference among all time points; TIMP-2 displayed a trend of slight elevation, then decrease and elevation again, which was opposed to MMP-2. Immunohistochemistry-image analysis: Pulmonary collagen type IV obviously increased at week 1, and began to decrease at week 2; MMP-2 decreased at week 2 and then increased; an opposed alteration trend to that of collagen type IV was displayed; alteration trend of MMP-9 was similar to that of collagen type IV but the extent was higher; gene expression of TIMP-1 slightly increased at 2 week and an opposed trend to of MMP-9 was displayed. Conclusions: Collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors were involved in ineffective remodeling in the early radiation pulmonary injury; MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in degradation of collagen type IV; Disturbance of collagen type IV degradation might have relationship with the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  4. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  5. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Shapiro, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  6. Early rehabilitation and participation in focus - a Danish perspective on patients with severe acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Helle Rønn; Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can b...

  7. Early Brain Injury Associated with Systemic Inflammation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarraj, Jude; Parsha, Kaushik; Hergenroeder, Georgene; Ahn, Sungho; Chang, Tiffany R; Kim, Dong H; Choi, H Alex

    2018-04-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is defined as brain injury occurring within 72 h of aneurysmal rupture. Although EBI is the most significant predictor of outcomes after aSAH, its underlying pathophysiology is not well understood. We hypothesize that EBI after aSAH is associated with an increase in peripheral inflammation measured by cytokine expression levels and changes in associations between cytokines. aSAH patients were enrolled into a prospective observational study and were assessed for markers of EBI: global cerebral edema (GCE), subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score (SEBES), and Hunt-Hess grade. Serum samples collected at ≤ 48 h of admission were analyzed using multiplex bead-based assays to determine levels of 13 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pairwise correlation coefficients between cytokines were represented as networks. Cytokine levels and differences in correlation networks were compared between EBI groups. Of the 71 patients enrolled in the study, 17 (24%) subjects had GCE, 31 (44%) subjects had SEBES ≥ 3, and 21 (29%) had HH ≥ 4. IL-6 was elevated in groups with GCE, SEBES ≥ 3, and HH ≥ 4. MIP1β was independently associated with high-grade SEBES. Correlation network analysis suggests higher systematic inflammation in subjects with SEBES ≥ 3. EBI after SAH is associated with increased levels of specific cytokines. Peripheral levels of IL-10, IL-6, and MIP1β may be important markers of EBI. Investigating systematic correlations in addition to expression levels of individual cytokines may offer deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms related to EBI.

  8. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G; Cionini, L; Porciani, S; Fallai, C; Pirtoli, L [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands.

  9. Effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.-P.; Cheng, T.-M.; Guo, C.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Qu, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To observe the effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury, burn injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Methods Rats were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy γ-ray of 60Co, combined with 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) generated under a 5 KW bromo-tungsten lamp for 25 s. Lavage fluid from the peritoneum was collected 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury. Then the lavage fluid was added to the culture media of erythrocyte progenitor cells (CFU-E, BFE-E) or of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) at 40 mg/ml final concentration. Results The formed clones of CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM of the lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury or combined radiation-burn injury at 3h, 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h time points were significantly higher than those from normal. They reached their peaks at 24h after injury (215.7%, 202.3%, or 241.2% from burned rats and 188.1%, 202.3% or 204.6% from rats inflected with combined radiation-burn injury as compared with those from normal rats). However, few CFU-E, BFU-E or CFU-GM clones were found after addition of lavage fluid from irradiated rats. Conclusion Peritoneal lavage fluid from rats with burn injury or combined radiation-burn injury enhances the growth of erythrocytes and granulocyte progenitor cells. On the contrary, the lavage fluid from irradiated rats shows inhibitory effects

  10. A case of early-onset radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoko; Den, Seika; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a 27-year-old male early caused by radiation retinopathy five months after radiotherapy (51 Gy) for astrocytoma. The retinopathy was the proliferative retinopathy, with several dot and blot hemorrhages, hard and soft exudate, increased capillary permeability, macula edema and avasucular areas. So it was treated with panretial photocoagulation like diabetic retinopathy. Now hemorrhage, exudate, edema and avascular areas were improved. Photocoagulation treatment is effective to stop the progression of radiation retinopathy. Radiation retinopathy is sometimes early caused, therefore long-term follow up is recommended on starting radiotherapy. (author)

  11. A case of early-onset radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoko; Den, Seika; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We encountered a 27-year-old male early caused by radiation retinopathy five months after radiotherapy (51 Gy) for astrocytoma. The retinopathy was the proliferative retinopathy, with several dot and blot hemorrhages, hard and soft exudate, increased capillary permeability, macula edema and avasucular areas. So it was treated with panretial photocoagulation like diabetic retinopathy. Now hemorrhage, exudate, edema and avascular areas were improved. Photocoagulation treatment is effective to stop the progression of radiation retinopathy. Radiation retinopathy is sometimes early caused, therefore long-term follow up is recommended on starting radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Hyperspectral Imaging as an Early Biomarker for Radiation Exposure and Microcirculatory Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Chin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure can lead to detrimental effects in skin microcirculation. The precise relationship between radiation dose received and its effect on cutaneous perfusion still remains controversial. Previously, we have shown that hyperspectral imaging (HSI is able to demonstrate long-term reductions in cutaneous perfusion secondary to chronic microvascular injury. This study characterizes the changes in skin microcirculation in response to varying doses of ionizing radiation and investigates these microcirculatory changes as a possible early non-invasive biomarker that may correlate with the extent of long-term microvascular damage.METHODS: Immunocompetent hairless mice (n=66 were exposed to single fractions of superficial beta-irradiation in doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 35, or 50 Gy. A HSI device was utilized to measure deoxygenated hemoglobin levels in irradiated and control areas. HSI measurements were performed at baseline before radiation exposure and for the first three days post-irradiation. Maximum macroscopic skin reactions were graded, and histological assessment of cutaneous microvascular densities at four weeks post-irradiation was performed in harvested tissue by CD31 immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: CD31 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant correlation (r=0.90, p<0.0001 between dose and vessel density reduction at four weeks. Using HSI analysis, early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin levels were observed during the first three days post-irradiation in all groups. These deoxygenated hemoglobin changes varied proportionally with dose (r=0.98, p<0.0001 and skin reactions (r=0.98, p<0.0001. There was a highly significant correlation (r= 0.91, p<0.0001 between these early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin and late vascular injury severity assessed at the end of four weeks.CONCLUSIONS: Radiation dose is directly correlated with cutaneous microvascular injury severity at four weeks in our model. Early post

  13. Volume effect on the radiation injury of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Y.-C.; Kutcher, Gerald J.; Ling, Clifton C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the likelihood of radiation-induced kidney injury in treating tumors, the relationship of tolerance dose and irradiated volume of kidney should be known. We have used a rat model to determine the dose-response relationship when various volumes of the kidney are irradiated. Methods and Materials: Anesthetized adult male rats (CD, 10-12 week old) were irradiated with 250 KV x-rays. The kidney was exteriorized and placed in a jig designed to shield all other tissues. Graded single doses were delivered to each of four volumes: 1/4V (half of one kidney), 1/2V (one whole kidney, or half of each kidney), 3/4V (one and a half kidneys) and 1V, where V is the volume of both kidneys. In addition, to compare radiation injury and surgery, partial nephrectomy was performed for 1/4V, 1/2V and 3/4V. Four to sixteen rats were used for each dose-volume point. The rats have been followed up for 540 days. The endpoints for the damage were: lethality, anemia, glomerular filtration rate, effective renal flow, and histology. Results: We found that: (1) There was a threshold volume for radiation damage; injury did not occur if the volume irradiated was ≤ 1/2V, depending on the endpoints. (2) Median survival times did not depend on the dose when a small volume (i.e., 1/4V or 1/2V) was irradiated. (3) The LD 50 (and the 95% confidence limits) at 450 days were 11.35 (8.08 to 12.13) Gy for 1V, 12.38 (11.08 to 13.40) Gy for 3/4V, 21.16 (17.21 to 26.56) Gy for 1/2V, and 28.80 (21.11 to 65.00) Gy for 1/4V. (4) The ED 50 for animals with hematocrit level ≤0.36 at 365 days was 10.98 (4.96 to 13.67) Gy for 1.0V, and 13.82 (6.16 to 17.97) Gy for 3/4V. For 1/2V, only the 80% confidence limits could be derived, giving ED 50 +40.14 (27.98 to ∞) Gy. (5) The results for all other endpoints were similar to those for hematocrit. (6) The dose response was the same whether to half of each kidney or one whole kidney was irradiated. (7) While the threshold volume for radiation injury

  14. Rationale for methods of prevention and treatment of toxic infections complications of combined radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugov, R.S.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Makarov, G.F.; Ul'yanova, L.P.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the results of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTI) helped single out the factors aggravating the outcomes of such injuries. Potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of bacterial enteroendotoxicosis and early toxemia associated with burns is the principal factor augmenting the disorders in the reactivity of radiosensitive systems in CRTI. The authors' findings evidence the efficacy of enterosorption, of methods enhancing the gastrointestinal motoricity, and of a number of modifiers of biologic reactions and heterologous immunoglobulins for the prevention and treatment of toxic infectious complications of CRTI

  15. Early effects of 16O radiation on neuronal morphology and cognition in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Hannah; Alexander, Tyler C.; Groves, Thomas; Kiffer, Frederico; Wang, Jing; Price, Elvin; Boerma, Marjan; Allen, Antiño R.

    2018-05-01

    Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. The aim of the current study is to assess whether behavior, glutamate receptor gene expression, and dendritic structure in the hippocampus are altered in mice after early exposure to 16O radiation in mice. Two weeks post-irradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Y-maze. During Y-maze testing, mice exposed to 0.1 Gy and 0.25 Gy radiation failed to distinguish the novel arm, spending approximately the same amount of time in all 3 arms during the retention trial. Exposure to 16O significantly reduced the expression of Nr1 and GluR1 in the hippocampus and modulated spine morphology in the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammon 1 within the hippocampus. The present data provide evidence that 16O radiation has early deleterious effects on mature neurons that are associated with hippocampal learning and memory.

  16. Narrative discourse in children with early focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J S; Bates, E A; Marchman, V A

    1998-02-15

    Children with early brain damage, unlike adult stroke victims, often go on to develop nearly normal language. However, the route and extent of their linguistic development are still unclear, as is the relationship between lesion site and patterns of delay and recovery. Here we address these questions by examining narratives from children with early brain damage. Thirty children (ages 3:7-10:10) with pre- or perinatal unilateral focal brain damage and their matched controls participated in a storytelling task. Analyses focused on linguistic proficiency and narrative competence. Overall, children with brain damage scored significantly lower than their age-matched controls on both linguistic (morphological and syntactic) indices and those targeting broader narrative qualities. Rather than indicating that children with brain damage fully catch up, these data suggest that deficits in linguistic abilities reassert themselves as children face new linguistic challenges. Interestingly, after age 5, site of lesion does not appear to be a significant factor and the delays we have witnessed do not map onto the lesion profiles observed in adults with analogous brain injuries.

  17. Use of combutec 2 for the treatment of patients with radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, L.G.; Barabanova, A.V.; Adamyan, A.A.; Drobysh, S.V.; Kochergina, L.D.; Chechetkin, P.I.; Golovanova, N.M.; Makarova, L.R.; Tuzova, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    A high activity of combutec 2, prepared on the basis of soluble collagen, was demonstrated in patients with radiation injuries of the skin after the accident at Chernobyl. Combutec 2 can be recommended for local therapy of patients with skin radiation injuries in all periods of development of these changes

  18. Effects of low dose radiation pretreatment on radiation injuried brain's free radicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fuqi; Wang Cheng; Xie Hong; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose radiation pretreatment on radiation in- juried brain's free radicle to provide some useful data of brain radiation injury protection. Methods: One hundred mGy was selected as the pretreatment does, 25 Gy was selected as the challenge does. Experiment rats were divided into three groups randomly, group one as simple group:the group irradiated without exposing to pre-irradiation; group two as 6 h-group: the group irradiated with LDR pretreatment 6 h before exposing to 25 Gy irradiation; group three as 24 h-group:the group irradiated with LDR pretreatment 24 h before 25 Gy irradiation. The observation was done 6 hour's after irradiation, the effect of LDR pretreatment on increasing activity of the superoxide dismutase(SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) after the brain tissue homogenate were detected. Results: Com- pared with the simple group, the group with LDR pretreatment showed increasing of SOD and decreasing of MDA at the 6th hour after 25Gy irradiation. In addition, there was no difference between the 6 h-group and the 24 h-group. Conclusion: LDR pretreatment can increase SOD and decrease MDA in some period. It could infer that the suitable LDR pretreatment could play a protective role in the brain radiation injury. (authors)

  19. Radiated-induced brain injury: advance of molecular mechanisms and neuroprotection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Bo; Wang Xuejian

    2007-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of radiated-induced brain injury (RBI) remain incompletely clear. Pathophysiological data indicate that the development of RBI involves complex and dynamic interactions between neurons, glia, and vascular endothelial cells within thecentral nervous system (CNS). Radiated-induced injury in the CNS can be modulated by the therapies directed at altering steps in the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of normal tissue injury. Some neuroprotective strategies are also addressed in the review. (authors)

  20. Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0681 TITLE: Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0681Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated...effects, urinary morbidity, rectal injury, sexual dysfunction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  1. Radiation pancreatic death. A new radiation injury and its pathologic physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu [Fukui Medical School, Fukui (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    In lethal radiation injury, the organ which is responsible for gastrointestinal death was sought from the relationship between radiation dose and survival length of hamsters. In this research, a new plateau was found in the range of radiation dose from 30,000 to 60,000 rad. Histological examination revealed that the organ responsible to the survival of the animals in the plateau was Langerhans's (L.'s) island of the pancreas. Acute necrotic changes of L.'s islands was disclosed by blood glucose level, changes in granules of ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. cells, atrophy of L.'s islands, and by deficiency of blood insulin. The death of hamsters in the plateau is probably due to diabetic syndrome which was induced by the necrosis of L.'s island.

  2. Radiation diagnosis of pelvic ring damages in acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dytalov, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on 58 victims with multifocal damages to the pelvic ring were used to examine the diagnostic potentialities of different radiation diagnostic techniques and to compare their resolving power. The later was 65.1, 83.3 and 94.7% in plain and multidimensional X-ray studies, and computed tomography, respectively. Complex of signs is described closed sacral fractures on the plain and oblique pelvic inlet (caudal) radiograms proposed, which could improve the diagnosis of fractures by 8.8 times, and an original orthopedic gauze-plate for the detection and estimation of invisible pelvic bone displacement, and an original procedure for pelvic X-ray study with target load in acute injury. This all can improve the quality of examination of casualties substantially and define indications for different treatments more precise [ru

  3. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of occult injury of optic radiation following optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhu, Lijun; Li, He; Lu, Ziwen; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is easily detected by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is not possible to detect early or occult lesions in MS by routine MRI, and this may explain the inconsistency between the severity of the lesions found by MRI and the degree of clinical disability of patients with MS. The present study included 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 10 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent routine 3.0 T MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Optic nerve and optic radiation were analyzed by DTI and DTT. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ // , and λ ┴ values were measured. In the 10 patients with MS, 7 optic nerves were affected, and 13 optic nerves were not affected. Cranial MRI showed that optic nerve thickening and hyperintensity occurred in 2 patients with MS. In the directionally encoded color maps, a hypointensive green signal in the optic nerve was observed in 3 patients with MS. The FA values were significantly lower and the MD, λ // , and λ ┴ values were significantly higher in the affected and unaffected optic nerves and optic radiations in patients with MS in comparison with controls (P0.05). Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive in the detection of occult injury of the optic nerve and optic radiation following optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor imaging may be a useful tool for the early diagnosis, treatment and management of MS.

  5. Capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts in vitro from mice with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F) from mice with combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: Mice were treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray radiation alone, 15% total body surface area (TBSA) III degree burn alone or combined radiation-burn. The numbers of CFU-Fs were assayed by Dexter's method. Results: The numbers of CFU-Fs from mice with radiation and combined radiation-burn injury were significantly decreased, compared with those of controls and mice with burn injury alone (P<0.05-0.01). conclusion: The results reveal that the repairing process of bone marrow stromal cells from mice with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury is slow, and the combined radiation-burn injury inflicted on the stromal cells possesses the characteristic of radiation injury

  6. Effects of early nerve repair on experimental brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Gráinne; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2018-03-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury refers to injury observed at the time of delivery, which may lead to major functional impairment in the upper limb. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of early nerve repair following complete brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats was examined. Brachial plexus injury induced 90% loss of spinal motoneurons and 70% decrease in biceps muscle weight at 28 days after injury. Retrograde degeneration in spinal cord was associated with decreased density of dendritic branches and presynaptic boutons and increased density of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells. Early repair of the injured brachial plexus significantly delayed retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and reduced the degree of macrophage/microglial reaction but had no effect on muscle atrophy. The results demonstrate that early nerve repair of neonatal brachial plexus injury could promote survival of injured motoneurons and attenuate neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

  7. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  8. Mitotic delay of irradiated cells and its connection with quantity of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Fominykh, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    The study is dedicated to development of mathematical approach to interpret radiation-induced mitosic delay. An assumption is made that mitotic delay is conditioned by discrete injuries distributed in cells according to stochasticity of interaction of radiation and target substance. It is supposed to consider the problem on injuries nature causing mitotic delay and to use the developed method for accounting the effect of radiation-induced mitotic delay on registered chromosomal aberration yield. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Lithium stimulates the recovery of granulopoiesis following acute radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, V S; Chen, M G; Watts, T D; Gamba-Vitalo, C

    1983-07-01

    Lithium (Li) is a known stimulator of steady-state granulopoiesis, influencing both pluripotential (CFUS) and granulocyte-macrophage committed stem cell (CFUGM) populations. Li has therefore been suggested to be an effective agent to reduce the neutropenia that often is seen after either cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy protocols. In this report, we have examined bone marrow and spleen cells for their recovery patterns of CFUS, CFUGM, CFUE, BFUE and 59Fe-incorporation, along with the usual peripheral blood indices (packed red cell volume, WBC and differential) from mice administered Li after receiving 200 rad whole body irradiation. Li increased granulopoietic recovery as measured by significant elevations in both marrow and spleen derived CFUGM compared to those values obtained from radiation controls. Significant elevation in the WBC, consisting mainly of neutrophils, was also observed. Bone marrow and splenic derived erythroid stem cells (CFUE, BFUE) and % 59Fe-incorporation measured from peripheral blood, femur and spleen were all slightly reduced, but not to a significant degree to alter the packed red cell volume. The CFUS populations from both irradiated groups (control and Li-treated) were depressed when compared to normal non-irr controls and this degree of suppression was greater in the Li-treated group. These results document the ability of Li to stimulate the recovery of granulopoiesis after radiation-induced hematopoietic injury and suggest Li may be useful in ameliorating the neutropenia that can often develop after routine radiotherapy protocols.

  10. Lithium stimulates the recovery of granulopoiesis following acute radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.; Gamba-Vitalo, C.

    1983-07-01

    Lithium (Li) is a known stimulator of steady-state granulopoiesis, influencing both pluripotential (CFUS) and granulocyte-macrophage committed stem cell (CFUGM) populations. Li has therefore been suggested to be an effective agent to reduce the neutropenia that often is seen after either cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy protocols. In this report, bone marrow and spleen cells have been examined for their recovery patterns of CFUS, CFUGM, CFUE, BFUE and 59Fe-incorporation, along with the usual peripheral blood indices (packed red cell volume, WBC and differential) from mice administered Li after receiving 200 rad whole body irradiation. Li increased granulopoietic recovery as measured by significant elevations in both marrow and spleen derived CFUGM compared to those values obtained from radiation controls. Significant elevation in the WBC, consisting mainly of neutrophils, was also observed. Bone marrow and splenic derived erythroid stem cells (CFUE, BFUE) and % 59Fe-incorporation measured from peripheral blood, femur and spleen were all slightly reduced, but not to a significant degree to alter the packed red cell volume. The CFUS populations from both irradiated groups (control and Li-treated) were depressed when compared to normal non-irradiated controls and this degree of suppression was greater in the Li-treated group. These results document the ability of Li to stimulate the recovery of granulopoiesis after radiation-induced hematopoietic injury and suggest Li may be useful in ameliorating the neutropenia that can often develop after routine radiotherapy protocols.

  11. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Feng, Q.-F.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Amin, Khalid; Samulski, Thaddeus S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Haroon, Zishan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  12. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  13. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 1. Knowledge about radiation exposure and anxiety about radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation exposure in correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140), nurses (n=496) and the general public (n=236). Thirty-three percent of medical doctors, 53% of nurses and the general public did not know who is legally allowed to irradiate the human body. Forty-five percent of doctors, 63% of nurses and 48% of the general public complained of anxiety about radiation injury. Fifty-six percent of patients did not ask medical doctors or nurses for an explanation of the risk of exposure. Moreover, 64% of doctors did not explain the risk to patients. In addition, 21% of doctors, 46% of nurses and the general public incorrectly understood that x-rays remain in the examination room. Twenty-seven percent of doctors, 49% of nurses and 80% of the general public did not know the t en-day rule . In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire indicated that basic knowledge about radiation exposure was not adequate. To protect against medical radiation exposure, personnel who are licensed to irradiate to the human body should be well recognized by medical staff and the general public. It is also important that informed consent for radiological examinations be based on fundamental knowledge about radiation exposure. Therefore, to reach a general consensus on radiological examinations and to reduce individual exposure, general public education regarding radiation protection is required. Postgraduate education on radiation protection for medical doctors and nurses is also strongly recommended. (author)

  14. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Koichi; Mukawa, Jiro; Mekaru, Susumu; Harakuni, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Tominaga, Daisuke; Nakasone, Susumu.

    1996-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  15. Imaging of rare radiation injuries after radiosurgery for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Yoshimura, Masaki; Iwai, Yoshiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) is generally an effective and safe treatment for brain metastases. We report 3 rare complicated cases after GKS due to radiation injury including image findings. Case 1: A 58-year-old man received whole brain radiation therapy for right occipital brain metastasis from lung cancer. However, local recurrence was noted and GKS was carried out 5 months later (size 28 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Four years later, a cyst appeared and the patient developed apraxia and visual disturbance. Surgery was performed and the histopathology showed necrosis. Case 2: A 51-year-old woman received GKS for 4 brain metastases from breast cancer. The right occipital lobe lesion was treated with marginal dose of 18 Gy (size 24 mm, 50% isodose). Thirty-one months later, she developed left homonymous hemianopsia and MR imaging and CT scan showed intracerebral hemorrhage with cyst formation. An operation was performed and the histology revealed necrosis. Case 3: A 37-year-old man received GKS for left temporal brain metastasis from lung cancer (size 14 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Twelve months later, the lesion increased in size again, so we carried out a second GKS on the same lesion (size 15 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Thirty-five months later, massive peritumoral edema appeared and the patient developed left oculomotor palsy. An emergency operation was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was cavernous malformation that was thought to be induced by radiosurgery. Although the incidence is low, rare complications associated with radiation therapy can also occur by radiosurgery. (author)

  16. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Huaien; Cheng Tianmin; Yan Yongtang

    1994-01-01

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy γ-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  17. Age peculiarities of postraumatic repair of open fractures in case of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantyr', V.I.; Korzh, A.A.; Frenkel', L.A.; Kazitskij, V.M.; Lan'ko, A.I.; Yakovenko, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of investigation of recovery in rabbit soft tissues (skin, muscle tissue) and in bones following bone fractures and whole-body X-irradiation are presented. Heavier damages developed in connective tissue in adolescent than in adult rabbits in conditions of combined radiation injuries. Normalization of connective tissue in skin and muscles was observed by 90 day in adolescent rabbits, where as connective tissue remained inferior in adult animals. Bone tissue recovery remained unfinished by 90 day in adolescent and adult rabbits in conditions of combined radiation injuries. The main reason for slowing-down of recovery of damaged tissues in case of open fracture is radiation injury in the irradiated organism

  18. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, W.F. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Ossetrova, N.I.; Manglapus, G.L.; Salter, C.A.; Levine, I.H.; Jackson, W.E.; Grace, M.B.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Sandgren, D.J.; Ledney, G.D. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin{sup -1}). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3{+-}3.27- and 2.6{+-}0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased ({<=}15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9({+-}0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13({+-}2.66)- and 4.23({+-}0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty.

  19. Nurses' knowledge to identify early acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Roseli Aparecida Matheus do; Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar; Silva, João Manoel; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Carvalho, Taysa Martindo de; Lima, Emerson Quintino; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledgeof nurses on early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care, emergency and hospitalization units. A prospective multi-center study was conducted with 216 nurses, using a questionnaire with 10 questions related to AKI prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. 57.2% of nurses were unable to identify AKI clinical manifestations, 54.6% did not have knowledge of AKI incidence in patients admitted to the ICU, 87.0% of the nurses did not know how to answer as regards the AKI mortality rate in patients admitted to the ICU, 67.1% answered incorrectly that slight increases in serum creatinine do not have an impact on mortality, 66.8% answered incorrectly to the question on AKI prevention measures, 60.4% answered correctly that loop diuretics for preventing AKI is not recommended, 77.6% answered correctly that AKI does not characterize the need for hemodialysis, and 92.5% said they had no knowledge of the Acute Kidney Injury Networkclassification. Nurses do not have enough knowledge to identify early AKI, demonstrating the importance of qualification programs in this field of knowledge. Avaliar o conhecimento do enfermeiro na identificação precoce da Injúria Renal Aguda (IRA) em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Unidade de Internação e Emergência. Estudo multicêntrico, prospectivo.Participaram do estudo 216 enfermeiros,por meio de questionário com 10 questões relacionadas à prevenção, ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento da IRA. 57,2% não souberam identificar as manifestações clínicas da IRA, 54,6% não têm conhecimento da incidência de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 87,0% dos enfermeiros não souberam responder ao índice de mortalidade de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 67,1% responderam incorretamente que aumentos discretos da creatinina sérica não têm impacto na mortalidade, 66,8% responderam incorretamente à questão sobre as medidas de prevenção da IRA, 60,4% acertaram quando responderam que não

  20. Therapy of combined radiation injuries with hemopoietic growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Oulianova, L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents of the 5-7 th levels according to IAEA scale lead to life-threatening acute radiation syndrome and many patients will probably suffer from additional thermal burns. These combined injuries (CI) will be among the most difficult to achieve survival. Present therapeutic means need to augment with new approaches to stimulate host defence mechanisms, blood system recovery and to enhance survival. The evaluation of therapeutic properties of human recombinant G-CSF, IL-1,IL-2 and other so called 'biological response modifiers' on survival and blood recovery after CI was the purpose of this work. Experiments carried out with mice CBA x C57BL6 receiving 7 Gy total body irradiation followed by a full-thickness thermal bum of 10% of body surface. It established that G-CSF does not exhibit a positive modifying action on the damage level and on hematopoietic recovery. I.p two-four/fold infusion of IL-2 during the initial 2 days has provided a significant statistically survival increase from 40% (untreated mice with CI) to 86%. Single s.c IL-1 injection resulted in abrupt deterioration of the outcome when dealing with CI; three/fold administration of IL-1 in 2,4 and 6 days after CI did not increase survival. Extracellular yeast polysaccharides resulted only a 15 to 30% increase in survival it given 1 h after CI. The best results obtained when mixture of heat-killed L.acidophilus injected s.c immediately alter CI - survival has increased from 27% (untreated mice) to 80%. Revealed beneficial effects of IL-2 and biological response modifiers did not accompany by a corresponding correction of depressed hematological parameters

  1. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  3. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  4. Early prediction of favourable recovery 6 months after mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Werf, S.P. van der; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is notoriously difficult. Although it is recognised that milder head injuries do not necessarily mean better outcomes, less is known about the factors that do enable early identification of patients who are likely to recover

  5. Injuries in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Levy, Susan E.; Sabourin, Katherine R.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven; Lee, Li-Ching; Moody, Eric; Schieve, Laura A.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined caregiver-reported medically-attended injuries among 30-68 month old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population (POP) and non-ASD developmental disorders (DD) controls in the Study to Explore Early Development. Injuries were common in ASD cases (32.3%) as well as POP (30.2%) and DD (27.8%)…

  6. Early amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring neonates at high risk for brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous results and demonstrates the utility of amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring brain function and predicting early outcome in the studied groups of infants at high risk for brain injury.

  7. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, S.A.; Gutin, P.H.; Davis, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 ( 125 I) and iridium-192 ( 192 Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  8. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  9. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  10. Early Sport Specialization: Effectiveness and Risk of Injury in Professional Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. Purpose: To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players’ careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players’ current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specializ...

  11. Injury to the central nervous system after high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    To date, clinical experiments with high LET irradiation have used fast neutrons, π-mesons, and heavy ions. The data for all of these modalities will be reviewed here, but by far the greatest body of information is for fast neutrons. Boron neutron capture therapy work for brain tumors, and interesting area in its own right, will not be discussed. In the paper, the author considered separately the brain and the spinal cord in terms of radiation effects. Most of the information on the brain comes from the treatment of high-grade gliomas and so the effects of the tumor and its surrounding edema must be folded in. There is, however, some information relating to the treatment of tumors lying adjacent to the brain. The spinal cord data come primarily from the treatment of head and neck tumors and intrathoracic tumors. Because the majority of these tumors were quite advanced, they often caused the patient's early death, and many patients may not have survived long enough to show the effects of radiation damage even if doses were given that exceeded cord tolerance

  12. Clinical and experimental investigation on small intestinal injury following radiation therapy for carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Midori

    1977-01-01

    Radiation injury of the small bowel was observed in 6 of 460 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix who were treated by radiation between April 1966 and December 1973 at Tokyo Women's Medical College, Department of Radiology. Three of these 6 patients were treated conservatively and the other 3 others underwent surgery but died subsequently. Clinically and surgically these 6 patients showed marked adhesions of intestinal loops, which may be accounted for by the radiation injury of the small bowel. Clinical experience has shown that it is necessary to use a small radiation field to decrease small bowel injury from radiation. An experiment using abdominal radiation in mice confirmed that LD sub(50/30) is larger with a center split, maintaining equal integral doses. In adult dogs, severe small bowel obstruction was observed with over 4000 rad irradiation. Small bowel injury was milder in case with center split, intracavitary irradiation, and small radiation field. It was concluded that center split is one of the methods of preventing radiation injury of the small bowel. (Evans, J.)

  13. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of conifer injury using thematic mapper satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Ustin, S.L.; Sadowski, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Eight images acquired between 22 April 1986 and 15 May 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to indirectly derive the dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and timing of these effects permitted the development of an integrated dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix, to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed to combine remote-sensing analyses and the estimates of source term release with the known radiation effects on conifers represent a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to reactor safety

  14. [Experimental model of severe local radiation injuries of the skin after X-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Moroz, B B; Nasonova, T A; Dobrynina, O A; LIpengolz, A A; Gimadova, T I; Deshevoy, Yu B; Lebedev, V G; Lyrschikova, A V; Eremin, I I

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of severe local radiation injuries skin under the influence of a relatively soft X-rays on a modified device RAP 100-10 produced by "Diagnostica-M" (Russia) was proposed. The model can be used as pre-clinical studies in small experimental animals in order to improve the treatment of local radiation injuries, especially in the conditions of application of cellular therapy.

  15. management of open achilles tendon injury: primary repair and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is attributable to increase in both competitive and recreational sports. In most of the literature written on Achilles tendon injuries there were rarely any information about open Achilles tendon ... The most common aetiology was motorbike spoke.

  16. IL-6 is a potential marker for radiation pneumonitis: a prospective clinical study of circulating cytokines in predicting radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Rubin, Philip; McDonald, Sandra; Finkelstein, Jacob; Smudzin, Therese; Hernady, Eric; Williams, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The use of radiotherapy in eradicating thoracic malignancy is limited by the normal lung tissue tolerance to ionizing radiation. Subacute and late radiation pulmonary toxicity manifests as radiation pneumonitis and ultimately lung fibrosis. Recently, the addition of chemotherapy or a biologic response modifier to radiation has become the standard therapy for inoperable lung cancer. The radiosensitizing effect of these agents is associated with an increased risk of radiation pulmonary injury and treatment related mortality. The search for a serum marker for predicting radiation pulmonary injury will help us understand the mechanism leading to such events and find possible interventions to prevent the adverse outcome. Unpublished data from our laboratory suggested that following a single dose of radiation, there was a dose-related elevation in IL-6 protein levels in the lung of radiation fibrosis prone mice. Based on this information, a prospective clinical study of circulating cytokine levels and its application to predict radiation induced pulmonary injury was conducted at University of Rochester. Preliminary results revealed promising information in identifying a circulating cytokine as a predictor for radiation pneumonitis. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients receiving thoracic irradiation for primary thoracic malignancy were registered in the study. Radiation pneumonitis was determined by subjective respiratory symptoms assessed according to RTOG morbidity scoring criteria. Pretreatment and serial post-therapy chest X-ray, chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests were obtained. Radiation fibrosis was determined by radiographic changes in irradiated normal lung using a scoring system which quantified the extent of loss of air content, degree of opacification, anatomic extent of involvement, air bronchogram, pleural thickening, or effusion. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), transforming growth factor

  17. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  18. Use of ethonium in the treatment of late radiation injuries of the skin, radiation cystitis and rectitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Petrik, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    Conducted has been investigation of therapeutic effectiveness of ethonium in 71 patients of late radiation injuries of the skin, urinary bladder and rectum. Local radiation injuries developed after radiotherapy of malignant tumours. Shown is comparatively low effectiveness of application of 0.5-2 % aqueous solutions and 2 % ethonium ointment in the expressed necrotic-inflammatory process in radiation ulcer of skin and its expressed effectiveness at granulating late radiation ulcers of skin. Application of 0.02-0.05 % ethonium solution in the form of microclusters and suppositories of 0.05 g of the preparation proved to be effective at catarrhal rectitis and rectosigmoids. An attempt to treat radiation cyctitis aroused aggravation of the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane off the ucinary bladder

  19. Early Sport Specialization: Effectiveness and Risk of Injury in Professional Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John

    2017-09-01

    The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players' careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players' current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specialize early to play at the professional level. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 102 current professional baseball players anonymously completed a 7-question written survey. Early sport specialization was defined as "single-sport participation prior to high school." Injury was defined as "a serious injury or surgery that required the player to refrain from sports (baseball) for an entire year." Chi-square tests were used to investigate the risk of injury in those who specialized early in baseball versus those who did not. Independent-sample t tests were used to compare injury rates based on current player position. Fifty (48%) baseball players specialized early. The mean age at initiation of sport specialization was 8.91 years (SD, 3.7 years). Those who specialized early reported more serious injuries (mean, 0.54; SD, 0.838) during their professional baseball career than those who did not (mean, 0.23; SD, 0.425) ( P = .044). Finally, 63.4% of the queried players believed that early sport specialization was not required to play professional baseball. Our study demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of serious injury during a baseball player's professional career in those players who specialized early. Most current professional baseball players surveyed believed that sport specialization was not required prior to high school to master the skills needed to play at the professional level. Our findings demonstrate an increased incidence of serious injuries in professional baseball

  20. Inhibitory effect of MgSO4 on calcium overload after radiation-induced brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Yu; Zhou Yuying; Wang Lili

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the neuroprotective effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: A total of 60 mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental therapy group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental therapy group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electrons. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental therapy group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points (24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 30 days after irradiation), the brain tissue was taken. Plasma direct reading spectrography was used to measure the contents of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ in brain tissue, and the percentage of brain water content was calculated with the wet-dry weight formula. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the percentage of brain water and content of Ca 2+ in brain of the experimental control group increased markedly (P 2+ decreased significantly (P 2+ in brain of the experimental therapy group were significantly lower than those of the experimental control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate used in the early stage after irradiation can inhibit the calcium overload in rat brain , and attenuate brain edema and injuries. (authors)

  1. Early humoral-mediated graft injuries in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, M; Shimizu, A; Ishii, Y; Kudo, S; Horita, S; Nakajima, I; Fuchinoue, S; Teraoka, S

    2010-04-01

    Acute humoral rejection is the most important risk factor for early graft loss in ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) renal transplantation (RTx) and is present from the early period after RTx. However, the characteristics of early humoral-mediated graft injury are pathologically uncertain. To analyze tissue from 10 protocol graft biopsies performed in 10 patients within 30 days post-RTx to clarify the pathologic features of early humoral-mediated graft injuries in ABO-i RTx. Pathologic findings were examined using light and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies for C4d. Protocol biopsies were performed within 30 days after RTx in the absence of an episode of dysfunction (creatinine concentration 1.21-1.81 mg/dL). The immunofluorescence study demonstrated C4d deposition in peritubular and glomerular capillaries. Acute glomerulitis with infiltration of mononuclear cells and neutrophils was observed in 3 patients. Furthermore, glomerulitis was accompanied by endothelial cell injuries, widening of subendothelial spaces with a double-contoured glomerular basement membrane, and mesangiolysis. In ABO-i RTx, early humoral-mediated graft injuries were observed in approximately 30% of patients despite normal graft function. They were characterized by C4d deposition and glomerular capillary injury. These findings suggest that renal glomeruli are the first site of graft injury by anti-A or anti-B blood type antibody with complement activation in ABO-i RTx.

  2. Radiation pneumonitis: a complication resulting from combined radiation and chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gez, E.; Sulkes, A.; Isacson, R.; Catane, R.; Weshler, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a patient with early breast carcinoma who developed clinical radiation pneumonitis during primary radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy that included prednisone. This syndrome developed three days following abrupt steroid withdrawal. Retrieval of steroids brought complete resolution of the clinical and radiological findings. Although this syndrome is rare, it is recommended that steroid therapy in a patient previously irradiated to the chest be avoided

  3. Molecular analysis of radiation injury in rat taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, K.; Abe, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A critical adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer is the resulting decreased sense of taste, which greatly impairs patients' quality of life. Irradiation of the head and neck area decreases the sense of taste within one or two weeks and recovery takes about one month. Although taste bud cells are intimately involved in these manifestations, few basic studies in this area have been reported. Here, we investigate the injury and recovery process of taste bud tissue after irradiation, at the molecular and cellular levels. Rat tongues were selectively irradiated once with 15 Gy of 6 MV X-rays. Immediately thereafter and at periods up to 30 days samples were collected for HE staining, BrdU labelling, p21 and p53 immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. Six days after irradiation, morphologically-identified taste bud cells, as well as the surrounding epithelial tissue, were no longer visible. Immature bud cells reappeared ten days after irradiation, and looked morphologically normal at 13 to 15 days.BrdU labelling revealed DNA synthesis arrest in of epithelial cells 10 days after irradiation. Cells in the basal layer expressed p21 four hours after irradiation. Prior to that, it, p53 accumulation was observed in the nucleus. Expression of p21 was no longer detectable by on the sixth day or later, and DNA synthesis resumed around the eighth day. No apoptosis was detected at any time. The disappearance and reappearance of taste bud cells after a single 15-Gy irradiation dose can be explained by temporary cell cycle arrest in taste bud stem cells, which is regulated by p21

  4. The communications in early warning network for radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyoun, M.B.; Al-Hussin, Mohamad; Fares, Adnan; Al-Oulabi, Yasser; Othman, Ibrahim

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of early warning network are: The determination of gamma radiation (background) levels in air which depend on location and time, evaluation of any situation resulting from radiation or nuclear accident out of boarder, and after that reporting the emergency situation to relevant authorities on the national and international levels. Monitoring stations were installed using Gm tubes to cover boarder lines from south to north and east to west as follows: Damascus, Darra, Latakia, Tartous, Aleppo, Kamishly, Ragaa, and Qunitra. The following modes of communication: Telephone line, leased line, direct connection, and Syrian data network were used in the Syrian early network. This project was carried out in cooperation with IAEA under project no. RER/9/003. (author). 22 figs., 1 tab

  5. Predictive factors for early failure of transarterial embolization in blunt hepatic injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-H.; Wu, C.-H.; Wang, L.-J.; Wong, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-W.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, B.-C.; Hsu, Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the early success of transarterial embolization (TAE) in patients with traumatic liver haemorrhage and to determine independent factors for its failure. Materials and methods: From January 2009 to December 2012, TAE was performed in 48 patients for traumatic liver haemorrhage. Their medical charts were reviewed for demographic information, pre-TAE vital signs and laboratory data, injury grade, type of contrast medium extravasation (CME) at CT, angiography findings, and early failure. “Early failure” was defined as the need for repeated TAE or a laparotomy for hepatic haemorrhage within 4 days after TAE. Variables were compared between the early success and early failure groups. Variables with univariate significance were also analysed using multivariate logistic regression for predictors of early failure. Results: Among 48 liver TAE cases, nine (18.8%) were early failures due to liver haemorrhage. Early failure was associated with injury grade (p = 0.039), major liver injury (grades 4 and 5; p = 0.007), multiple CMEs at angiography (p = 0.031), incomplete TAE (p = 0.002), and elevated heart rate (p = 0.026). Incomplete embolization (OR = 8; p = 0.042), and heart rate >110 beats/min (bpm; OR = 8; p = 0.05) were independent factors for early failure of TAE in the group with major liver injuries. Conclusion: Major hepatic injury is an important factor in early failure. Patients with a heart rate >110 bpm and incomplete embolization in the major injury group have an increased rate of early failure. The success rate of proximal TAE was comparable to that of the more time-consuming, superselective, distal TAE. - Highlights: • Early failure of TAE is associated with a higher grade of liver injury. • Incomplete embolization is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • A heart rate greater than 110 bpm is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • We recommend proximal embolization to prevent early failure of TAE

  6. SU-F-R-55: Early Detection of Treatment Induced Bone Marrow Injury During Chemoradiation Therapy Using Quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Song, Y; Erickson, B; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Acute hematologic toxicity associated with bone marrow injury is a common complication of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pelvic malignancies. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using quantitative CT to detect bone marrow injury during CRT. Methods: Daily CTs were acquired during routine CT-guided radiation therapy using a CT-on-rails for 15 cervical cancer patients. All patients treated with a radiation dose of 45.0 to 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction along with chemotherapy. For each patient, the contours of bone marrow were generated in L4, L5 and sacrum on the first daily CT and then populated to other daily CTs by rigid registration using MIM (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH) with manual editing if possible. A series of CT texture parameters, including Hunsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, entropy, energy, in bone marrow contours were calculated using MATLAB on each daily CT and were correlated with the completed blood counts (CBC) collected weekly for each patient. The correlations were analyzed with Pearson correlation tests. Results: For all patient data analyzed, mean HU in bone marrow decreased during CRT delivery. From the first to the last fraction the average mean HU reduction is 58.1 ± 13.6 HU (P<0.01). This decrease can be observed as early as after first 5 fractions and is strongly associated with the changes of most CBC quantities, such as the reductions of white and blood cell counts (r=0.97, P=0.001). The reduction of HU is spatially varied. Conclusion: Chemoradiation induced bone marrow injury can be detected during the delivery of CRT using quantitative CT. Chemoradiation results in reductions in mean HU, which are strongly associated with the change in the pretrial blood cell counts. Early detection of bone marrow injury with commonly available CT opens a door to improve bone marrow sparing, reducing risk of hematologic toxicity.

  7. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Ingersoll, J.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone?, a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory

  8. Health Visitor's Role in Prediction of Early Childhood Injuries and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Janet G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the role of the health visitor in the prediction of early childhood injuries, abuse, and failure to thrive--based on a three-year study of the relationship between early maternal attitudes and subsequent child health. Journal availability: Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, OX3 OBW England. (DLS)

  9. Capabilities for Clinical Management of Radiation Injuries of the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (EMERCOM of Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanin, S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the capabilities for clinical management of radiation injuries available at the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (NRCERM) of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). NRCERM is a federal state budgetary institution and the Russian Federation's head organization for providing medical assistance for persons overexposed to ionizing radiation, responders to radiation emergencies and people evacuated from radiation contaminated areas. As the WHO Collaborating Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Accident Recovery Workers of Nuclear and Other Disasters and a member of the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN), NRCERM is prepared to provide assistance and technical support in case of a radiation accident. For this purpose, NRCERM hospitals are equipped with technologically advanced facilities and possess well-trained specialist staff. (authors)

  10. An experimental study of radiation injury on oral tissue at young age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Youichi

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of studying radiation injury on mandibles at growth stage, the mandibles of young adult dogs were irradiated with X-ray of 200 kVp, and the irradiated intraoral tissues such as gingival membrane, teeth and mandibles were investigated macroscopically and the teeth and mandibles radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. As the injury on irradiated skin, partial epilation began two days after irradiation and ulceration (4 out of 16 cases) formed at 79 days and worsened further, and necrosis was seen in all subjects at 195 days. 2. As the injury on the intraoral tissue, pigment loss in the gingival membrane began four days after irradiation. Ulceration of gingiva (2 out of 16) formed at 30 days and worsened, and exposure of the alveolar bone was observed at 208 days. At 220 days, bone fracture (6 out of 16) was observed. 3. Formation of necrosis in the gingiva leading to necrosis of the skin corresponding to the third premolar was found in four cases. Formation of necrosis in the skin corresponding to the third premolar leading to necrosis of the gingival membrane was found in 12 cases. 4. In radiological findings, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, disappearance of lamina dura (6 out of 16), and resporption of the alveolar crest (6 out of 16) began in the subjects at 1 month. Worsening began with bone destruction (10 out of 16), bone destruction accompanied by osteosclerosis, and erosion of inferior border of the cortical bone (8 out of 16) in the subjects at 3 months. Formation of sequestrum (4 out of 16) at 6 months and bone fracture (6 out of 16) at 8 months were observed. 5. In radiological findings for the subjects with formation of ulceration, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, and resorption of the alveolar crest were the early findings and lamina dura image around the bone destruction image followed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  12. Solar Radiation as Driving Force In Early Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has provided an evolutionary challenge to life on Earth in that it is both an agent of mutation and as well as a selective force. Today surface fluxes of UVR vary diurnally, seasonally, etc. Still, the UVR flux was probably substantially higher during the early phases of evolution, suggesting that its role in evolution was even more prominent during this time. In this presentation, the creative role of UVR in evolution is discussed, specifically in connection with the role that UVR may have played in the evolution of early microbial ecosystems. The presentation will include discussions of the direct influence of UVR on such processes as photosynthesis and genetic damage, as well as the indirect influence of UVR as mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological effects of UVR will be viewed against the backdrop of the physical nature of the early Earth, surely a very different place then than now.

  13. Radioprotectors effect on the efficiency of combined treatment of radiation injuries (review of the literature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshatov, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Therapeutic efficiency of radioprotector action (cystamine, in particular) under isolated and combined (in combination with burns, mechanical injuries of skull, brain, limbs internal organs etc.) radiation affection is discussed on the basis of experiment data, obtained by different authors. The conclusion is drawn, that under combined radiation affections with leading radial component, radioprotectors provide for approximately the same protection effect as under isolated radioactive irradiation by a corresponding dose. In combination with radial and nonradial injury means they can sufficiently reduce lethality and create better conditions for favourable course of burn deseases and mechanical injuries. It is pointed out, that preliminary protection gains decisive value in cases, when under combined radiation affection the radial component prevails. In this case radiosensitive tissue protection becomes necessary condition for the victim's life preservation, complication frequency reduction and improvement of treatment results. Advisability of inclusion of medical protection means into the step-by-step treatment system, wile foreseeing both isolated and combined radiation affections, is shown

  14. The use dibunol therapy for radiation injuries of the skin and mucous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, G.B.; Barsel', V.A.; Sarkisyan, Yu.Kh.; Terekhova, G.S.; Podlyashchuk, E.L.; Ustinova, V.F.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki)

    1983-01-01

    There are presented the results of the use of dibunol in the form of liniment (1-10%) for the treatment of radiation cystitis and rectitis resulting from radiation therapy of small pelvic tumors, epidermitis and epithelitis that develop in the course of treatment of skin and lower lip tumors. A high efficacy of the drug in the therapy of radiation injury has been shown in 212 patients

  15. Use dibunol therapy for radiation injuries of the skin and mucous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, G.B.; Barsel' , V.A.; Sarkisyan, Yu.Kh.; Terekhova, G.S.; Podlyashchuk, E.L.; Ustinova, V.F. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR); AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki)

    1983-04-01

    There are presented the results of the use of dibunol in the form of liniment (1-10%) for the treatment of radiation cystitis and rectitis resulting from radiation therapy of small pelvic tumors, epidermitis and epithelitis that develop in the course of treatment of skin and lower lip tumors. A high efficacy of the drug in the therapy of radiation injury has been shown in 212 patients.

  16. Gustatory tissue injury in man: radiation dose response relationships and mechanisms of taste loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this report dose response data for gustatory tissue damage in patients given total radiation doses ranging from 3000 to 6000 cGy are presented. In order to evaluate direct radiation injury to gustatory tissues as a mechanism of taste loss, measurements of damage to specific taste structures in bovine and murine systems following radiation exposure in the clinical range are correlated to taste impairment observed in radiotherapy patients. (author)

  17. In vivo evidence for an endothelium-dependent mechanism in radiation-induced normal tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, Emilie; François, Agnès; Toullec, Aurore; Guipaud, Olivier; Buard, Valérie; Tarlet, Georges; Mintet, Elodie; Jaillet, Cyprien; Iruela-Arispe, Maria Luisa; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism involved in side effects of radiation therapy, and especially the role of the endothelium remains unclear. Previous results showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) contributes to radiation-induced intestinal injury and suggested that this role could be driven by an endothelium-dependent mechanism. We investigated whether endothelial-specific PAI-1 deletion could affect radiation-induced intestinal injury. We created a mouse model with a specific deletion of PAI-1 in the endothelium (PAI-1KOendo) by a Cre-LoxP system. In a model of radiation enteropathy, survival and intestinal radiation injury were followed as well as intestinal gene transcriptional profile and inflammatory cells intestinal infiltration. Irradiated PAI-1KOendo mice exhibited increased survival, reduced acute enteritis severity and attenuated late fibrosis compared with irradiated PAI-1flx/flx mice. Double E-cadherin/TUNEL labeling confirmed a reduced epithelial cell apoptosis in irradiated PAI-1KOendo. High-throughput gene expression combined with bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative involvement of macrophages. We observed a decrease in CD68+cells in irradiated intestinal tissues from PAI-1KOendo mice as well as modifications associated with M1/M2 polarization. This work shows that PAI-1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury by an endothelium-dependent mechanism and demonstrates in vivo that the endothelium is directly involved in the progression of radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:26510580

  18. Radiation induced early onset of neuro-cognitive changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Gupta, Mamta; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations has been shown to cause many detrimental effects. Primarily, the effects observed are broadly classified into hematopoietic syndrome at lower doses, gastrointestinal syndrome and central nervous system dysfunctions at high doses. However, recent studies reported that even at lower doses, there is an effect seen on the nervous system which can be observed as a decline in cognitive abilities. This has been reported in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The cognitive decline, especially in young patients affects development and has been shown to persist for years after the therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to study and consolidate the early effects of radiation exposure which result in behavioural alterations and cognitive decline. Since, radiation-induced early changes in behavioural functions are poorly understood, therefore, the present investigation aimed to conceptualize and design behavioural test batteries in order to systematically study the immediate alterations in behavioural function following irradiation with a-rays. The behavioural alterations were correlated to changes in the different area of brain like hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and corpus callosum using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies. Present study reported profound changes in behaviour, as well as alterations in the morphology of the brain tissue as perceived by DTI, 48 hours after exposure to ionizing radiations. These changes need to be correlated and clarified further to understand the mechanisms behind the cognitive dysfunctions occurring immediately after radiation exposure as well as to find out a therapeutic window to counteract or reduce the effect of long term cognitive changes following irradiation. (author)

  19. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Gong, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Dae; Heo, Kyu; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Mo

    2011-01-01

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  20. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording][Radiation injuries following an accident at a nuclear power plant, 1986. Medical aspects of Chernobyl, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail.

  1. Lung pathology in case of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    Results of pathomorphological studies of 27 patients exposed to total external γ- and β-radiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident and lost due to the acute radiation disease in the first weeks following radiation exposure are discussed. Dose range is 3.7-13.7 Gy. Two groups of pathological changes in lungs are revealed, those are: infection (bacterial, viral and fungous) ones caused by acute radiation disease and signs of respiratory distress-syndrome in adults [ru

  2. Thermal injury lowers the threshold for radiation-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Jonathan D; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry; Olschowka, John A

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of radiation exposure alone are relatively well understood, but in the wake of events such as the World War II nuclear detonations and accidents such as Chernobyl, other critical factors have emerged that can substantially affect patient outcome. For example, ~70% of radiation victims from Hiroshima and Nagasaki received some sort of additional traumatic injury, the most common being thermal burn. Animal data has shown that the addition of thermal insult to radiation results in increased morbidity and mortality. To explore possible synergism between thermal injury and radiation on brain, C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to either 0 or 5 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. Irradiation was immediately followed by a 10% total-body surface area full thickness thermal burn. Mice were sacrificed 6 h, 1 week or 6 month post-injury and brains and plasma were harvested for histology, mRNA analysis and cytokine ELISA. Plasma analysis revealed that combined injury synergistically upregulates IL-6 at acute time points. Additionally, at 6 h, combined injury resulted in a greater upregulation of the vascular marker, ICAM-1 and TNF-α mRNA. Enhanced activation of glial cells was also observed by CD68 and Iba1 immunohistochemistry at all time points. Additionally, doublecortin staining at 6 months showed reduced neurogenesis in all injury conditions. Finally, using a novel object recognition test, we observed that only mice with combined injury had significant learning and memory deficits. These results demonstrate that thermal injury lowers the threshold for radiation-induced neuroinflammation and long-term cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Radiation injury of the skin following diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, T.R.; Wagner, L.K.; Mettler, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many radiation injuries to the skin, resulting from diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures, have been reported in recent years. In some cases skin damage was severe and debilitating. We analyzed 72 reports of skin injuries for progression and location of injury, type and number of procedures, and contributing patient and operator factors. Most cases (46) were related to coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A smaller number was documented after cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation (12), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement (7), neuroradiological interventions (3) and other procedures (4). Important factors leading to skin injuries were long exposure times over the same skin area, use of high dose rates, irradiation through thick tissue masses, hypersensitivity to radiation, and positioning of arms or breasts into the radiation entrance beam. Physicians were frequently unaware of the high radiation doses involved and did not recognize the injuries as radiation induced. Based on these findings, recommendations to reduce dose and improve patient care are provided. (author)

  4. Avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures, ICRP Publication 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2000-01-01

    Interventional radiology (fluoroscopically-guided) techniques are being used by an increasing number of clinicians not adequately trained in radiation safety or radiobiology. Many of these interventionists are not aware of the potential for injury from these procedures or the simple methods for decreasing their incidence. Many patients are not being counselled on the radiation risks, nor followed up when radiation doses from difficult procedures may lead to injury. Some patients are suffering radiation-induced skin injuries and younger patients may face an increased risk of future cancer. Interventionists are having their practice limited or suffering injury, and are exposing their staff to high doses. In some interventional procedures, skin doses to patients approach those experienced in some cancer radiotherapy fractions. Radiation-induced skin injuries are occurring in patients due to the use of inappropriate equipment and, more often, poor operational technique. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. Acute radiation doses (to patients) may cause erythema at 2 Gy, cataract at 2 Gy, permanent epilation at 7 Gy, and delayed skin necrosis at 12 Gy. Protracted (occupational) exposures to the eye may cause cataract at 4 Gy if the dose is received in less than 3 months, at 5.5 Gy if received over a period exceeding 3 months. Practical actions to control dose to the patient and to the staff are listed. The absorbed dose to the patient in the area of skin that receives the maximum dose is of priority concern. Each local clinical protocol should include, for each type of interventional procedure, a statement on the cumulative skin doses and skin sites associated with the various parts of the procedure. Interventionists should be trained to use information on skin dose and on practical techniques to control dose. Maximum cumulative absorbed doses that appear to approach or exceed 1 Gy (for procedures that may be

  5. Avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures, ICRP Publication 85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2000-06-01

    Interventional radiology (fluoroscopically-guided) techniques are being used by an increasing number of clinicians not adequately trained in radiation safety or radiobiology. Many of these interventionists are not aware of the potential for injury from these procedures or the simple methods for decreasing their incidence. Many patients are not being counselled on the radiation risks, nor followed up when radiation doses from difficult procedures may lead to injury. Some patients are suffering radiation-induced skin injuries and younger patients may face an increased risk of future cancer. Interventionists are having their practice limited or suffering injury, and are exposing their staff to high doses. In some interventional procedures, skin doses to patients approach those experienced in some cancer radiotherapy fractions. Radiation-induced skin injuries are occurring in patients due to the use of inappropriate equipment and, more often, poor operational technique. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. Acute radiation doses (to patients) may cause erythema at 2 Gy, cataract at 2 Gy, permanent epilation at 7 Gy, and delayed skin necrosis at 12 Gy. Protracted (occupational) exposures to the eye may cause cataract at 4 Gy if the dose is received in less than 3 months, at 5.5 Gy if received over a period exceeding 3 months. Practical actions to control dose to the patient and to the staff are listed. The absorbed dose to the patient in the area of skin that receives the maximum dose is of priority concern. Each local clinical protocol should include, for each type of interventional procedure, a statement on the cumulative skin doses and skin sites associated with the various parts of the procedure. Interventionists should be trained to use information on skin dose and on practical techniques to control dose. Maximum cumulative absorbed doses that appear to approach or exceed 1 Gy (for procedures that may be

  6. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  7. Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki A; Catroppa, Cathy; Dudgeon, Paul; Morse, Sue A; Haritou, Flora; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school-age children; however, recovery in early childhood is less well understood. Some argue that such injuries should lead to good outcome, because of the plasticity of the developing brain. Other purport that the young brain is vulnerable, with injury likely to result in a substantial impairment (H. G. Taylor & J. Alden, 1997). The aim of this study was to examine outcomes following TBI during early childhood, to plot recovery over the 30 months postinjury, and to identify predictors of outcome. The study compared 3 groups of children sustaining mild, moderate, and severe TBI, ages 2.0 to 6.11 years at injury, with healthy controls. Groups were comparable for preinjury adaptive and behavioral function, psychosocial characteristics, age, and gender. Results suggested a strong association between injury severity and outcomes across all domains. Further, 30-month outcome was predicted by injury severity, family factors, and preinjury levels of child function. In conclusion, children with more severe injuries and lower preinjury adaptive abilities, and whose families are coping poorly, are at greatest risk of long-term impairment in day-to-day skills, even several years postinjury.

  8. Xenon ventilation-perfusion lung scans. The early diagnosis of inhalation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, G.L.; McDonald, H.D.; Carr, L.B.; Capozzi, A.

    1978-01-01

    The use of xenon Xe-133 ventilation-perfusion lung scans for the early diagnosis of inhalation injury was evaluated in 67 patients with acute thermal burns. Study results were interpreted as normal if there was complete pulmonary clearance of the radioactive gas by 150 seconds. Thirty-two scans were normal, 32 abnormal, and three technically inadequate. There were three true false-positive study results and one false-negative study result. Good correlation was found between the scan results and various historical, physical, and laboratory values currently used to evaluate inhalation injury. The scans appeared to be the most sensitive method for the detection of early involvement, often being abnormal several days before the chest roentgenogram. Xenon lung scanning is a safe, easy, accurate, and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of inhalation injury and has important therapeutic and prognostic implications as well

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerma, Marjan; Roberto, Kerrey A.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and α-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and α-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 ± 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 ± 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and α-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 ± 7; late treatment: 53 ± 6). PTX and α-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 ± 0.2 μm 2 per 100 μm 2 ; early treatment: 2.7 ± 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 ± 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 ± 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 ± 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 ± 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and α-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD

  10. Impact of Early Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolism and Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Casaer, Michaël P.; Hermans, Greet; Wouters, Pieter J.; Dubois, Jasperina; Claes, Kathleen; Schetz, Miet; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-01-01

    A poor nutritional state and a caloric deficit associate with increased morbidity and mortality, but a recent multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition increases morbidity in the intensive care unit, including prolonging the duration of renal replacement therapy, compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week. Whether early versus late parenteral nutrition impacts the incidence and recovery of AKI is ...

  11. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Bianco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  12. Early tracheostomy in severe traumatic brain injury: evidence for decreased mechanical ventilation and increased hospital mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; Cutrona, Anthony F; Gruber, Brian S; Calderon, Javier E; Ransom, Kenneth J; Flowers, Laurie L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the past, the authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of early tracheostomy on severe brain injury outcomes. The search produced only two trials, one by Sugerman and another by Bouderka. Subjects and methods: The current authors initiated an Institutional Review Board-approved severe brain injury randomized trial to evaluate the impact of early tracheostomy on ventilator-associated pneumonia rates, intensive care unit (ICU)/ventilator days, and hospital mortality. Current study results were compared with the other randomized trials and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Early tracheostomy pneumonia rates were Sugerman-48.6%, Bouderka-58.1%, and current study-46.7%. No early tracheostomy pneumonia rates were Sugerman-53.1%, Bouderka-61.3%, and current study-44.4%. Pneumonia rate meta-analysis showed no difference for early tracheostomy and no early tracheostomy (OR 0.89; p = 0.71). Early tracheostomy ICU/ventilator days were Sugerman-16 ± 5.9, Bouderka-14.5 ± 7.3, and current study-14.1 ± 5.7. No early tracheostomy ICU/ventilator days were Sugerman-19 ± 11.3, Bouderka-17.5 ± 10.6, and current study-17 ± 5.4. ICU/ventilator day meta-analysis showed 2.9 fewer days with early tracheostomy (p = 0.02). Early tracheostomy mortality rates were Sugerman-14.3%, Bouderka-38.7%, and current study-0%. No early tracheostomy mortality rates were Sugerman-3.2%, Bouderka-22.6%, and current study-0%. Randomized trial mortality rate meta-analysis showed a higher rate for early tracheostomy (OR 2.68; p = 0.05). Because the randomized trials were small, a literature assessment was undertaken to find all retrospective studies describing the association of early tracheostomy on severe brain injury hospital mortality. The review produced five retrospective studies, with a total of 3,356 patients. Retrospective study mortality rate meta-analysis demonstrated a larger mortality for early

  13. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  14. Twist2 Is Upregulated in Early Stages of Repair Following Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Grunz-Borgmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aging kidney is a marked by a number of structural and functional changes, including an increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that aging male Fischer 344 rats (24 month are more susceptible to apoptosis-mediated injury than young counterparts. In the current studies, we examined the initial injury and early recovery phases of mercuric chloride-induced AKI. Interestingly, the aging kidney had decreased serum creatinine compared to young controls 1 day following mercuric chloride injury, but by day 4, serum creatinine was significantly elevated, suggesting that the aging kidney did not recover from injury. This conclusion is supported by the findings that serum creatinine and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1 gene expression remain elevated compared to young controls at 10 days post-injury. To begin to elucidate mechanism(s underlying dysrepair in the aging kidney, we examined the expression of Twist2, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that may mediate renal fibrosis. Interestingly, Twist2 gene expression was elevated following injury in both young and aged rats, and Twist2 protein expression is elevated by mercuric chloride in vitro.

  15. Expression of Angiotensin II and Aldosterone in Radiation-induced Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shuo; Wu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is the most common, dose-limiting complication in thoracic malignancy radiotherapy. Considering its negative impact on patients and restrictions to efficacy, the mechanism of RILI was studied. Methods Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 0, 16, and 20 Gy to the right half of the lung to establish a lung injury model. Two and six months after irradiation, the right half of the rat lung tissue was removed, and the concentration...

  16. Organization of medical aid and treatment of victims of mass ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Burenin, P.I.; Barabanova, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    General organization points on medical aid and treatment of mass ionizing radiation injuries in population are presented. Characteristic of losses and structure of injuries induced by a nuclear explosion are given. Destructions in a town caused by a nuclear explosion and medical aid conditions for patients are analysed. Main information about structure of medical surveillance of civil defence and criteria of medical classification and evacuation of the injured are presented

  17. Clinical evaluation of dose-volume-effect relationship in radiation injury of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mari

    1990-01-01

    Radiation brain injury, including functional disturbances or morphological changes (brain atrophy, periventricular lucencies or ventricular dilatation), were studied by CT in patients with primary intracranial neoplasms who were followed-up for at least 5 months after receiving radiotherapy. Each of 33 patients with medulloblastoma, pinealregion tumor or malignant lymphoma received a total dose of 40-61 Gy by conventional fractionation using a whole brain irradiation field boosted by a localized field. Of these patients, 19 (58%) developed radiation brain injury. It was concluded that the volume-dose was one of the most important factors influencing the development of radiation brain injury. Age at the time of radiotherapy and time of follow-up after the treatment were also considered to be important factors. (author)

  18. Effects of different components of serum after radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on inward rectifier potassium channel of myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianmin; Xiao Jiasi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of different components of serum in rats inflicted with radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on inward rectifier potassium channel of cultured myocardial cells. Method: Using patch clamp method to study the action of single ion channel. Results: The low molecular and lipid components of serum after different injuries models could all activate the inward rectifier potassium channel in cultured myocardial cells. The components of serum after combined radiation-burn injury showed the most significant effect, and the way of this effect was different from that from single injury. Conclusion: The serum components post injury altered the electric characteristic of myocardial cells, which may play a role in the combined effect of depressed cardiac function after combined radiation-burn injury

  19. A Radiation-Induced Hippocampal Vascular Injury Surrogate Marker Predicts Late Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, Reza [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pramanik, Priyanka; Aryal, Madhava P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chapman, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to develop a hippocampal vascular injury surrogate marker for early prediction of late neurocognitive dysfunction in patients receiving brain radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females, 31-80 years of age) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective longitudinal study. Patients received diagnoses of low-grade glioma or benign tumor and were treated by (3D) conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4-59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Six dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18-month post-RT, and quantified for vascular parameters related to blood-brain barrier permeability, K{sup trans}, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, V{sub p}. The temporal changes in the means of hippocampal transfer constant K{sup trans} and V{sub p} after starting RT were modeled by integrating the dose effects with age, sex, hippocampal laterality, and presence of tumor or edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose response in hippocampi was correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction at 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The mean K{sup trans} Increased significantly from pre-RT to 1-month post-RT (P<.0004), which significantly depended on sex (P<.0007) and age (P<.00004), with the dose response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose response in the left hippocampus of females correlated significantly with changes in memory function at 6 (r=−0.95, P<.0006) and 18-months (r=−0.88, P<.02) post-RT. Conclusions: The early hippocampal vascular dose response could be a predictor of late neurocognitive dysfunction. A personalized hippocampus sparing strategy may be considered in the future.

  20. A Radiation-Induced Hippocampal Vascular Injury Surrogate Marker Predicts Late Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, Reza; Pramanik, Priyanka; Aryal, Madhava P.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Chapman, Christopher H.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to develop a hippocampal vascular injury surrogate marker for early prediction of late neurocognitive dysfunction in patients receiving brain radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females, 31-80 years of age) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective longitudinal study. Patients received diagnoses of low-grade glioma or benign tumor and were treated by (3D) conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4-59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Six dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18-month post-RT, and quantified for vascular parameters related to blood-brain barrier permeability, K"t"r"a"n"s, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, V_p. The temporal changes in the means of hippocampal transfer constant K"t"r"a"n"s and V_p after starting RT were modeled by integrating the dose effects with age, sex, hippocampal laterality, and presence of tumor or edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose response in hippocampi was correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction at 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The mean K"t"r"a"n"s Increased significantly from pre-RT to 1-month post-RT (P<.0004), which significantly depended on sex (P<.0007) and age (P<.00004), with the dose response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose response in the left hippocampus of females correlated significantly with changes in memory function at 6 (r=−0.95, P<.0006) and 18-months (r=−0.88, P<.02) post-RT. Conclusions: The early hippocampal vascular dose response could be a predictor of late neurocognitive dysfunction. A personalized hippocampus sparing strategy may be considered in the future.

  1. Early rise in postoperative creatinine for identification of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Keyvan; Rao, Vivek; Chan, Christopher T; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially serious complication of cardiac surgery. Treatment strategies are unlikely to prove efficacious unless patients are identified and treated soon after the onset of injury. In this observational study, we determined and validated the ability of an early rise in postoperative serum creatinine to identify patients who suffer AKI during cardiac surgery. The relationship between an early rise in creatinine (immediate postoperative / preoperative creatinine) and AKI (> 50% increase in creatinine by postoperative calendar days 1or 2) was determined by logistic regression modelling. Existing databases were used for model development (n = 4,820; one institution) and validation (n = 6,553; 12 institutions). Acute kidney injury occurred in 9.1% (n = 437) and 9.8% (n = 645) of patients in the development and validation sets, respectively. An early rise in creatinine was related to AKI (P 1.30 (n = 127), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for AKI in the development set were 20% (95% CI, 16 to 24), 99% (95% CI, 99 to 99), 68% (95% CI, 59 to 76), and 93% (95% CI, 92 to 93), respectively. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an early rise in postoperative creatinine is a useful marker for the early identification of AKI patients. This could allow inclusion of such patients in clinical trials of promising therapeutic strategies that need to be initiated soon after the onset of injury.

  2. Early urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina; Brophy, Patrick D; Giannone, Peter J; Joshi, Mandar S; Bauer, John A; RamachandraRao, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal intensive care setting is multifactorial and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the utility of novel urinary biomarkers to predict the development and/or severity AKI in preterm infants. We performed a case-control study on a prospective cohort of preterm infants (<32 wk), to compare seven urine biomarkers between 25 infants with AKI and 20 infants without AKI. Infants with AKI had significantly higher neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (median, control (CTRL) vs. AKI; 0.598 vs. 4.24 µg/ml; P < 0.0001). In contrast, urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels were significantly lower in infants who developed AKI compared to controls (median, CTRL vs. AKI; 0.016 vs. 0.006 µg/ml; P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for NGAL for prediction of stage I AKI on the day prior to AKI diagnosis (day-1) was 0.91, and for the prediction of stage II/III, AKI was 0.92. Similarly, urine EGF was a predictor of renal injury on day -1 (AUC: 0.97 for stage I and 0.86 for stage II/III AKI). Urinary biomarkers may be useful to predict AKI development prior to changes in serum creatinine (SCr) in preterm infants.

  3. Study of cell cycle and apoptosis after radiation with electron linear accelerator injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lan; Zhou Yinghui; Shi Ning; Peng Miao; Wu Shiliang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cell cycle and apoptosis of the injured cells after radiation with the electron linear accelerator. Methods: NIH 3T3 cells were irradiated by the radiation with the electron linear accelerator. In the experiment the condition of the cell cycle and apoptosis of the injured cells were measured. The expression of p53 was also tested. Results: After exposure to radiation, the number of apoptotic cells as well as the expression of p53 increased. Conclusion: The electron linear accelerator radiation injury can induce cell apoptosis

  4. First Patagonian Course on 'Diagnosis and Therapy of Injuries Induced by Ionizing Radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellotti, Mariela I.

    2013-01-01

    In Patagonia there are academic centers, health and industrial facilities that use ionizing radiations in its usual practices. However, they do not have protocols that respond to local needs. For this reason was held from October 5 to November 10, 2012 in Bariloche Atomic Center, a training course for health personnel. The range of topics covered ranged from the definition of dosimetry quantities, types of radiation and biological dosimetry, biological effects, radiation acute syndrome, radiation-induced cutaneous syndrome, internal contamination, screening in radiological emergencies, etc.The course provided a theoretical and practical guide about how to recognize and treat people exposed to radiations, guidelines for acting in radiological emergencies and a perception of the psychosocial impact of the radiation accidents.The result was a pocket book for health personnel that will be used in case of having a patient with radiation induced injury

  5. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  6. Detection of radiation induced lung injury in rats using dynamic hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Matthew S.; Ouriadov, Alexei; Hegarty, Elaine; Thind, Kundan; Wong, Eugene; Hope, Andrew; Santyr, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation induced lung injury (RILI) is a common side effect for patients undergoing thoracic radiation therapy (RT). RILI can lead to temporary or permanent loss of lung function and in extreme cases, death. Combining functional lung imaging information with conventional radiation treatment plans may lead to more desirable treatment plans that reduce lung toxicity and improve the quality of life for lung cancer survivors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the lung following inhalation of hyperpolarized 129 Xe may provide a useful nonionizing approach for probing changes in lung function and structure associated with RILI before, during, or after RT (early and late time-points). Methods: In this study, dynamic 129 Xe MR spectroscopy was used to measure whole-lung gas transfer time constants for lung tissue and red blood cells (RBC), respectively (T Tr-tissue and T Tr-RBC ) in groups of rats at two weeks and six weeks following 14 Gy whole-lung exposure to radiation from a 60 Co source. A separate group of six healthy age-matched rats served as a control group. Results: T Tr-tissue values at two weeks post-irradiation (51.6 ± 6.8 ms) were found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.05) with respect to the healthy control group (37.2 ± 4.8 ms). T Tr-RBC did not show any significant changes between groups. T Tr-tissue was strongly correlated with T Tr-RBC in the control group (r = 0.9601 p < 0.05) and uncorrelated in the irradiated groups. Measurements of arterial partial pressure of oxygen obtained by arterial blood sampling were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the two-week group (54.2 ± 12.3 mm Hg) compared to those from a representative control group (85.0 ± 10.0 mm Hg). Histology of a separate group of similarly irradiated animals confirmed the presence of inflammation due to radiation exposure with alveolar wall thicknesses that were significantly different (p < 0.05). At six weeks post-irradiation, T Tr-tissue returned to values (35

  7. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury.

  8. Protective effect of Hongxue tea mixture against radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chun; Zhang Xuehui; Wang Qi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop health food of anti-radiation among biological source in Yunnan. Methods: Screening test was done of the health food of biological source of anti-radiation injury in mice. It is indicated that Hong-Xue Tea Mixture among the biological source has the effect against radiation injury, observing experiment of dose-effect of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture was done. Micronuclei in the bone marrow polychromatophilic erythrocytes in each dose group of mice were examined, leucocytes number and 30 day survival rate of mice following whole-body 5.0 Gy γ irradiation were also determined. Results: Research showed that Hong-Xue Tea Mixture and Spirulina Platensis Mixture among the biological source have protective effect against radiation injury in mice. Observing experiment of dose-effect of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture show that low, medium and high dose of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture can significantly decrease bone marrow PECMN rate of mice, increase leucocytes number and 30 day survival rate. Conclusion: Hong-Xue Tea Mixture has potent protective effects against radiation injury in mice. (authors)

  9. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-11-20

    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of an angiotensin analogue in treating thermal and combined radiation injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin Suresh

    Background: In recent years there has been a growing concern regarding the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. Such incidents in the past have shown that radiation exposure is often accompanied by other forms of trauma such as burns, wounds or infection; leading to increased mortality rates among the affected individuals. This increased risk with combined radiation injury has been attributed to the delayed wound healing observed in this injury. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) has emerged as a critical regulator of wound healing. Angiotensin II (A-II) and Angiotensin (1-7) [A(1-7)] have been shown to accelerate the rate of wound healing in different animal models of cutaneous injury. Nor-Leu3-Angiotensin (1-7) [Nor-Leu3-A (1-7)], an analogue of A(1-7), is more efficient than both A-II and A(1-7) in its ability to improve wound healing and is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Aims: The three main goals of this study were to; 1) Develop a combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI) model and a radiation-induced cutaneous injury model to study the pathophysiological effects of these injuries on dermal wound healing; 2) To treat thermal and CRBI injuries using Nor-Leu 3-A (1-7) and decipher the mechanism of action of this peptide and 3) Develop an in-vitro model of CRBI using dermal cells in order to study the effect of CRBI on individual cell types involved in wound healing. Results: CRBI results in delayed and exacerbated apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation in injured skin as compared to thermal injury by itself. Radiation-induced cutaneous injury shows a radiation-dose dependent increase in inflammation as well as a chronic inflammatory response in the higher radiation exposure groups. Nor-Leu3-A (1-7) can mitigate thermal and CRBI injuries by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage while increasing the rate of proliferation of dermal stem cells and re-epithelialization of injured skin. The in

  11. Detection of radiation brain injury of malignant glioma by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mao; Jin Haiguo; Sun Shuquan; Bu Mingwei; Su Qingxiu; Liu Guigang; Sun Baosheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) method, to evaluate the difference of radiation brain injury between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in patients with postoperative glioma after radiation therapy. Methods: 24 patients with malignant glioma (WHOII-IV grade glioma) confirmed with clinical surgery were selected, among them 12 patients were treated with VMAT technique, and another 12 patients with 3DCRT technique, all received DT60-66GY/30-33F dose prescriptions. 1 H-MRS examination was performed to analyze the change of metabolites in the brain tissues of region of interest (ROI) before and after radiotherapy,and the ratios of NAA/ Cr, Cho / Cr, NAA / Cho were computed. Results: The dose distribution of VMAT group was superior to 3DCRT group, the NAA/Cr in two groups after radiation were decreased compared with before radiation, there was a statistically difference in NAA/Cr after radiation between two groups (P<0.01). The Cho / Cr and NAA / Cho in two groups were increased compared with before radiation;after radiation, only NAA/Cho had a statistical difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: VMAT technique is superior to 3DCTR to reduce radiation brain injury in patients with postoperative glioma. (authors)

  12. PAI-1-dependent endothelial cell death determines severity of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Abderrahmani

    Full Text Available Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1 was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 -/- mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 -/- compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 -/- mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 -/- mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  13. Soft tissue injuries of the face: early aesthetic reconstruction in polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveta, Achille; Casati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Facial injuries are often accompanied by soft tissue injuries. The complexity of these injuries is represented by the potential for loss of relationships between the functional and the aesthetic subunits of the head. Most reviews of craniofacial trauma have concentrated on fractures. With this article, we want to emphasize the importance of early aesthetic reconstruction of the face in polytrauma patients. We present 13 patients with soft tissue injuries of the face, treated in our emergency department in the 'day one surgery", without "second look"procedures. The final result always restored a sense of normalcy to the face. The face is the first most visible part of the human anatomy, so, in emergency, surgeons must pay special attention also to the reconstruction of the face, in polytrauma patients.

  14. Proximal Tubular Injury in Medullary Rays Is an Early Sign of Acute Tacrolimus Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Cosner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus (FK506 is one of the principal immunosuppressive agents used after solid organ transplantations to prevent allograft rejection. Chronic renal injury induced by tacrolimus is characterized by linear fibrosis in the medullary rays; however, the early morphologic findings of acute tacrolimus nephrotoxicity are not well characterized. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 is a specific injury biomarker that has been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of mild to severe acute tubular injury on renal biopsies. This study was motivated by a patient with acute kidney injury associated with elevated serum tacrolimus levels in whom KIM-1 staining was present only in proximal tubules located in the medullary rays in the setting of otherwise normal light, immunofluorescent, and electron microscopy. We subsequently evaluated KIM-1 expression in 45 protocol and 39 indicated renal transplant biopsies to determine whether higher serum levels of tacrolimus were associated with acute segment specific injury to the proximal tubule, as reflected by KIM-1 staining in the proximal tubules of the cortical medullary rays. The data suggest that tacrolimus toxicity preferentially affects proximal tubules in medullary rays and that this targeted injury is a precursor lesion for the linear fibrosis seen in chronic tacrolimus toxicity.

  15. Mothers report more child-rearing disagreements following early brain injury than do fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendikas, Emily A; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate differences between mother's and father's perceptions of marital relationship quality, child rearing disagreements, and family functioning over the initial 18 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood relative to an orthopedic-injury comparison group. Participants included 147 parent-dyads of children with TBI (n = 53) and orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 94) who were between the ages of 3 and 7 years at injury. Family functioning, marital quality, and child-rearing disagreements were assessed shortly after injury and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-ups, with ratings at the initial assessment completed to reflect preinjury functioning. Mixed model analyses were used to examine mother and father's reports of family functioning, marital quality, and child-rearing disagreements over time as a function of injury severity and parent gender. We found a significant Group x Gender interaction for ratings of love and parenting disagreements. As hypothesized, mothers of children with severe TBI rated the relationship as significantly less loving than did their partners, and mothers of children with both moderate and severe TBI endorsed more parenting disagreements than did their partners. However, fathers reported higher levels of family dysfunction than their partners, regardless of injury type or severity. Implications for treatment based on differences in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of family and marital functioning, and future directions for research, are discussed.

  16. Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Contain miRNAs and are Released as Early Biomarkers for Cardiac Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deddens, Janine C; Vrijsen, Krijn R; Colijn, Johanna M; Oerlemans, Marish; Metz, Corina H G; van der Vlist, Els J; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; den Ouden, Krista; Jansen of Lorkeers, SJ; van der Spoel, TIG; Koudstaal, Stefan; Arkesteijn, Ger J; Wauben, Marca H M; van Laake, Linda W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-circulating microRNAs have been implicated as novel early biomarkers for myocardial infarction (MI) due to their high specificity for cardiac injury. For swift clinical translation of this potential biomarker, it is important to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics upon MI.

  17. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging versus transcranial ultrasound in early identification of cerebral injuries in neonatal encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A.Sh. Genedi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: TCUS is an effective screening tool in detecting the etiology of NE in suspected cases; it is sometimes crucial in critically sick neonates; however, early MRI is mandatory as it can detect precisely the extent of brain injury compared with TCUS alone.

  19. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  20. Effect of age on radiation-induced early changes of rat rectum. A histological time sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsen-van Acht, Manouk J.J.; Hooije, Christel M.C. van; Aardweg, Gerard J.M.J. van den; Levendag, Peter C.; Velthuysen, Marie Louise F. van

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation treatment of the elderly (>75 years) is often modified due to an assumed decrease in normal tissue tolerance in this age group. Since more radiobiological data concerning normal tissue toxicity as a function of age are needed, a histological study of age-related radiation changes of the rectum was performed. Materials and methods: The rectum of young and old female Wistar rats (12 and 78 weeks, respectively) was irradiated with single doses of 22 and 39 Gy. The field size was 1.5x2.0 cm. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 and 10 weeks after treatment. To evaluate radiation damage, 12 histological parameters were scored in four areas of the rectum. A total radiation injury score was calculated. The number of proliferative epithelial cells was evaluated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Results: Some age-related histological differences were observed; especially, the incidence of ulceration and vascular occlusion was higher in the older group. In the low dose group of the older animals, 60% showed ulceration, which was 0% for the young low dose animals. Severe vascular changes occurred early and were more extensive in older animals (4 weeks) than in the younger group (10 weeks). In the area adjacent to the treatment field, cell proliferation increased significantly in older rats at 1 week after 22 Gy, which did not occur in the young group. Conclusions: Discrete radiation-induced histological differences were observed between the rectum of young and old Wistar rats, especially in the development of ulceration and vascular changes. Although the survival of these Wistar rats in earlier studies was not affected by age, the impact of the observed histological differences for their importance in the long-term is currently being investigated

  1. Sphincter-saving procedure for radiation-injuried rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Yasuo; Hojo, Keiichi

    1982-01-01

    Up to this time the sigmoid colostomy has been widely accepted and conventional treatment for radiation-injured rectum, but patients without residual malignancy strongly desire to live without colostomy. We have tried to remove the involved rectal segments by sphincter-saving procedures. Four patients underwent these procedures, pull-through procedure in three and low anterior resection in one. Among sphincter-saving procedures, pull-through procedure was most adequate. Provided the following five conditions are fulfilled, pull-through procedure should be considered for severe radiation-injured rectum. (1) No recurrence of initial malignancy in the pelvis. (2) More than 2 cm intact rectal segment above dentate line may be preserved. (3) No radiation-injured segment in upper sigmoid. (4) No severe radiation damage in small intestine. (5) Patients under 70 year-old, with normal tonus of anal sphincter. (author)

  2. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I.; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J.; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  3. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  4. Intestinal microbiota-derived metabolomic blood plasma markers for prior radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on radiation-induced skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chuanjun; Meng Xingjun; Xie Ling; Chen Qing; Zhou Jundong; Zhang Shuyu; Wu Jinchang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the acute radiation-induced skin injury by gene transfer. Methods: Thirty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups as PBS-injected group, Ad-EGFP-injected group and Ad-HO-1-injected group (n=11). In each group, three rats were used for determining the expression of target gene and the other rats were irradiated on the buttock skin with 40 Gy electron beam generated by a linear accelerator. Immediately after irradiation, rats were administered with a subcutaneous injection of PBS, Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO-1, respectively. Subsequently, the skin reactions were measured twice a week using the semi-quantitative skin injury scale. Results: The strong positive expression of HO-1 was observed in subcutaneous dermal tissue after injection of Ad-HO-1. Compared to the PBS-injected group or the Ad-EGFP-injected group, a significant mitigation of skin injury was observed in Ad-HO-1-injected mice 14 d after irradiation (q=0.000-0.030, P<0.05). Conclusions: HO-1 could significantly mitigate radiation-induced acute skin injury and Ad-HO-1 could be used to treat radiation-induced skin injury. (authors)

  6. Long-term follow-up of testicular function following radiation therapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Trivette, G.; Rowland, J.; Sorace, R.; Miller, R.; Fraass, B.; Steinberg, S.M.; Glatstein, E.; Sherins, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen male patients with pathological staged I-IIIA1 Hodgkin's disease were followed prospectively for radiation damage to the testes from low-dose scattered irradiation. During conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, the testicular dose ranged from 6 to 70 cGy. Testicular function was measured in a prospective fashion by repeated analyses (every 6 to 12 months) of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. Patients were also followed by serial semen analyses and by a questionnaire on fertility. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 7 years after completion of radiation therapy. In patients receiving greater than or equal to 20 cGy, there was a dose-dependent increase in serum FSH values following irradiation, with the maximum difference at 6 months compared with pretreatment levels. All patients showed a return to normal FSH values within 12 to 24 months following irradiation. No significant changes in LH and testosterone were observed in this patient group. Eight patients with a normal pretreatment semen analysis provided serial semen samples and two patients showed transient oligospermia with complete recovery by 18 months following treatment. Four patients have fathered normal offspring following radiation therapy. We conclude that low doses (greater than 20 cGy) of scatter irradiation during treatment for Hodgkin's disease can result in transient injury to the seminiferous tubule as manifested by elevations of FSH for 6 to 24 months following treatment. Below 20 cGy, FSH values remained in the normal range. No evidence of Leydig cell injury (using LH and testosterone) was seen in this dose range (up to 70 cGy). Thus, patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can be treated with radiation therapy with little to no risk of irreversible testicular injury. Radiation treatment techniques to shield the testes are discussed

  7. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXII. Protective effects of methanol extracts of various Taiwan crude drugs on radiation injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C M; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1990-11-01

    This study is to investigate radioprotective effects of 23 Taiwan crude drugs on X-ray induced bone marrow death and skin injury in mice. Each methanol extract of these Taiwan crude drugs was injected intraperitoneally into ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age before irradiation. Mice were whole-body irradiated with a soft X-ray generator. Radiation factors of the two screening tests used were as follows: 70 kVp, 10 mA, 10 mm acrylate filter, 70R/min, 2100R for survival test, and 30 kVp, 10 mA, 190R/min, 1100R for protective test on skin injury. As a result of these studies, the survival effect was recognized in Solani Incani Herba and Orthosiphi Aristati Herba. On the other hand, Mimosae Herba, Canarii Radix, Bombacis Radix, Arecae Fructus, Hedyotidis Diffusae Herba and Cynomorii Caulis were shown to have significant protective potency on skin injury.

  8. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Redekop, Gary [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Haw, Charles [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (Canada); Toyota, Brian [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martin, Montgomery [Department of Medical Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  9. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Christopher; Moiseenko, Vitali; McKenzie, Michael; Redekop, Gary; Hsu, Fred; Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt; Haw, Charles; Lee, Andrew; Toyota, Brian; Martin, Montgomery

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log–rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V x for doses ≥8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p 5 cm 3 and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p 12 also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V 12 was 3 and 53.2% if >28 cm 3 (log–rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  10. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  11. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions

  12. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  13. Surgical therapy for injuries of bowels by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Oomori, Naofumi; Hamano, Kyoichi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro

    1980-01-01

    A group of patients with damage of the GI tract by therapeutic irradiation for intra-abdominal neoplasma such as the carcinoma of uterus and rectum has been presented. With regard to the location of radiation damage, 32 cases of them are limited in the recto-sigmoid colon, 3 cases in the small bowel and 4 cases in both bowels. Among 19 cases who underwent an operation, radiation damage was found in the colon of 12 cases. Colostomy was made in all cases and in 2 cases colon resection was also performed. If radiation damage is noticed only in the rectum, colostomy is good indicated except for the cases in which a massive bleeding is seen. As to small bowel damages, if the symptoms of patient do not respond to the conservative treatment, operative intervention is necessary. At operation, the surgeon should be aware of the risks involved in performing adhesiolysis. (author)

  14. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Ducey, Elizabeth J.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60 Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. (author)

  15. The Urine Proteome as a Biomarker of Radiation Injury: Submitted to Proteomics- Clinical Applications Special Issue: "Renal and Urinary Proteomics (Thongboonkerd)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2008-06-18

    Terrorist attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation, and early biomarkers of radiation injury would be critical for triage, treatment and follow-up of such individuals. However, no such biomarkers have yet been proven to exist. We tested the potential of high throughput proteomics to identify protein biomarkers of radiation injury after total body X-ray irradiation in a rat model. Subtle functional changes in the kidney are suggested by an increased glomerular permeability for macromolecules measured within 24 hours after TBI. Ultrastructural changes in glomerular podocytes include partial loss of the interdigitating organization of foot processes. Analysis of urine by LC-MS/MS and 2D-GE showed significant changes in the urine proteome within 24 hours after TBI. Tissue kallikrein 1-related peptidase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C and oxidized histidine were found to be increased while a number of proteinase inhibitors including kallikrein-binding protein and albumin were found to be decreased post-irradiation. Thus, TBI causes immediately detectable changes in renal structure and function and in the urinary protein profile. This suggests that both systemic and renal changes are induced by radiation and it may be possible to identify a set of biomarkers unique to radiation injury.

  16. Radiation Combined Injury: DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    TLR signaling, cytokine concentrations, bacterial infection, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cyto- plasm . These alterations lead to...eject electrons from their outer orbits. In considering the effects of radiation on biological systems, it is important to distinguish the different

  17. Combined Injury Modeling: Radiation and Burn Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    the effects manifest from 6-12 months post exposure, which is later than the lung and GI effects. Liver effects may also play a prominent role...when radiation exposure is combined with burn. For instance, in the Chernobyl accident, hepatic encephalopathy was a major cause of death in patients

  18. Ultrasound appearance of radiation-induced hepatic injury. Correlation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garra, B.S.; Shawker, T.H.; Chang, R.; Kaplan, K.; White, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrasound findings in three cases of radiation-induced hepatic injury are described and compared with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Fatty infiltration of the liver was present in two of the cases in which concurrent chemotherapy was being administered. On ultrasound B-scans, the regions of radiation injury were hypoechoic relative to the remainder of the liver. This finding was more obvious in the patients with fatty livers. CT scans on the patients with fatty infiltrated livers showed higher attenuation in the irradiated region than in unexposed liver. In the patient where no fatty infiltration was present, the radiated section of liver had lower attenuation consistent with previous reports. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased signal in the exposed areas on T1 weighted images

  19. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries. Biologicheskaya dozimetriya pri kombinirovannykh radiatsionnykh porazheniyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, V G; Teslenko, V M

    1990-11-01

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method.

  20. An experimental microangiographic study on radiation injury: Microangiography in radiation-injured rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Chung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yoo, Seong Yul; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Chu Wan

    1980-01-01

    Microangiography may be defined as a branch of radiology which deals with the production and study of roentgenograms of thin sections of tissue for evaluation of microvasculatures. Its main advantage is that it permits study of a vascular system in continuity so that the pattern and overall architecture can be appreciated. Authors performed the microangiography to study the irradiation changes of kidney in 30 rabbits. Following local irradiation of 2,000 rads to one kidney of each rabbit, both normal and irradiated kidneys of each rabbit were studied. The results are as follows; 1. In the normal kidneys there is good filling of interiobular arteries, afferent arterioies, glomeruli and efferent arterioies. 2. In the early stage 91 month) after irradiation there appears to be no identifiable abnormal findings except slightly poor filling of glomeruli in the irradiated kidneys. 3. 5 months after irradiation the radiation-injured kidneys reveal intense curling and spralling of interlobular arterials and afferent arterioles with poor filling of glomeruli. 4. Microangiography, as expected, proved to be of good value in evaluation of the microvasculature of the kidney.

  1. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Department of Plastic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy & Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewah Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  2. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  3. Radioprotective effect of hematopoietic growth factor gene therapy regulated by Egr-1 promoter on radiation injury of SCID mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Nan; Pei Xuetao; Luo Chengji; Su Yongping; Cheng Tianmin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the radioprotective effect of the expression of hematopoietic growth factors regulated by radio-inducible promoter on radiation injury. Methods: The human FL cDNA and EGFP cDNA were linked together with an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and then inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI-neo with the Egr-1 promoter (Egr-EF), and further transduced into bone marrow stromal cell lines HFCL (HFCL/EF). The HFCL/EF and CD34 + cells from human umbilical cord blood were transplanted i.v. one after the other into sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The number of peripheral blood WBC and human cells engrafted in recipient mice were detected by flow cytometry and CFU-GM assay. Results: In contrast to two control groups (HFCL and HFCL/F), HFCL/EF (the Egr-1 regulatory element-driven expression of FL gene therapy) resulted in a proportionally obvious increase in the number of the WBC at early stage after irradiation. Significant differences were found for CD45 + , CD34 + , CFU-GM, and nucleated cells in the bone marrow. Conclusion: Hematopoietic growth factor gene therapy regulated by radio-inducible promoter has radioprotective effect on radiation hematopoietic injury

  4. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  5. Early Primary Endoscopic Realignment of Posterior Urethral Injury- Evaluation and Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of complete orpartial posterior urethral disruption is contro-versial and much debate continues regarding theimmediate, early and delayed definitive therapy.Objective: We report our institutional experi-ence and long term result of early endoscopicrealignment of traumatic posterior urethral in-jury. Method and Materials: Between Septem-ber 1996 and March 2012, ninety six men witheither complete (84 or partial (12 posteriorurethral injury secondary to blunt trauma (11or pelvic fractures (85, presented to our insti-tution and these patients underwent immediatesuprapubic cystostomy followed by early pri-mary endoscopic realignment done 3-8 daysafter injury. Result: Seventy four patients(92.5% were continent after catheter removal.Urethral stricture was seen in seventy two pa-tients (90% of which fifty patients (69.4%had simple urethral stricture who were managedby urethral dilatation on outpatient basis. Four-teen patients (19.4% developed short stric-tures which were successfully treated with vi-sual internal urethrotomy. Eight patients(11.1% required anastomotic urethroplasty fordense stricture. Potency was retained in sev-enty five patients (93.75%. Urinary flow mea-surements at follow-up evaluation were satis-factory.Conclusion:Early primary endoscopic realign-ment in our experience reduces time to spon-taneous voiding, decrease the need for majorreconstructive surgery and long term supra pub-lic urinary diversion.

  6. Therapy of radiation injuries of the rat marginal periodontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, W.; Stahlberg, N.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of different consistencies of food and of ionizing radiations on the marginal periodontium of female Wistar rats was studied. Microorganisms play an important part in the development of inflammatory histological reactions. Chlorhexidine and metronidazole treatment, resp., revealed a favourable effect on the inflammatory alterations of the periodontium. The evaluation was based on semiquantitative identification of plaques as well as on histological investigations of the interdental col and of the subepithelial connective tissue

  7. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1986-01-01

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, rho-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc.

  8. Early predictors of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (UPFRONT): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Naalt, Joukje; Timmerman, Marieke E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; Jacobs, Bram; Hageman, Gerard; Yilmaz, Tansel; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2017-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at risk for incomplete recovery at 6 months. In particular, we investigated additional indicators of emotional distress and coping style at 2 weeks above early predictors measured at the emergency department. The UPFRONT study was an observational cohort study done at the emergency departments of three level-1 trauma centres in the Netherlands, which included patients with mTBI, defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and either post-traumatic amnesia lasting less than 24 h or loss of consciousness for less than 30 min. Emergency department predictors were measured either on admission with mTBI-comprising injury severity (GCS score, post-traumatic amnesia, and CT abnormalities), demographics (age, gender, educational level, pre-injury mental health, and previous brain injury), and physical conditions (alcohol use on the day of injury, neck pain, headache, nausea, dizziness)-or at 2 weeks, when we obtained data on mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), emotional distress (Impact of Event Scale), coping (Utrecht Coping List), and post-traumatic complaints. The functional outcome was recovery, assessed at 6 months after injury with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We dichotomised recovery into complete (GOSE=8) and incomplete (GOSE≤7) recovery. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the predictive value of patient information collected at the time of admission to an emergency department (eg, demographics, injury severity) alone, and combined with predictors of outcome collected at 2 weeks after injury (eg, emotional distress and coping). Between Jan 25, 2013, and Jan 6, 2015, data from 910 patients with mTBI were collected 2 weeks after injury; the final

  9. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. METHODS Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. RESULTS The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly more deaths, infectious complications, pleural drainage, acute renal failures, and pancreatitis in OM and more pseudocysts in SAE. Six prognostic factors were statistically significant for one or more adverse events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. CONCLUSION Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury. PMID:26081719

  10. Interphase death and repair of radiation injuries to thoracic aorta endothelium of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbova, E.N.; Ivanov, Yu.V.

    1978-01-01

    Using the method of plane preparations injury to the thoracic aorta endothelium of guinea-pigs, rats and rabbits exposed to various doses of γ-rays ( 60 Co) has been studied. The value of the threshold dose, tested by diminution of the endothelial cell quantity, has been found to be 250 R for guinea-pigs, 830 R, for rats and 880 R, for rabbits. It has been shown by means of the fractionated irradiation model that the interphase endothelial cells of guinea-pigs and rats can recover from sublethal radiation injuries

  11. Early versus Late Decompression for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yousefifard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the vast number of surveys, no consensus has been reached on the optimum timing of spinal decompression surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of early and late spinal decompression surgery on neurologic improvement and post-surgical complications in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Methods: Two independent reviewers carried out an extended search in electronic databases. Data of neurological outcome and post-surgery complication were extracted. Finally, pooled relative risk (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was reported for comparing of efficacy of early and late surgical decompression.Results: Eventually 22 studies were included. The pooled RR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89 for at least one grade neurological improvement, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92 for at least two grade improvement. Pooled RR for surgical decompression performed within 12 hours after the injury was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.13-0.52; p<0.001, while it was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.90; p=0.002 when the procedure was performed within 24 hours, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.76-1.14; p=0.48 when it was carried out in the first 72 hours after the injury. Surgical decompression performed within 24 hours after injury was found to be associated with significantly lower rates of post-surgical complications (RR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.86; p<0.001.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that early spinal decompression surgery can improve neurologic recovery and is associated with less post-surgical complications. The optimum efficacy is observed when the procedure is performed within 12 hours of the injury.

  12. Late intellectual and academic outcomes following traumatic brain injury sustained during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S; Baumgartner, James; Fletcher, Stephen; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia; Zhang, Xiaoling; Swank, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Although long-term neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained early in life are generally unfavorable, the effect of TBI on the development of academic competencies is unknown. The present study characterizes intelligence quotient (IQ) and academic outcomes an average of 5.7 years after injury in children who sustained moderate to severe TBI prior to 6 years of age. Twenty-three children who suffered inflicted or noninflicted TBI between the ages of 4 and 71 months were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Their mean age at injury was 21 months; their mean age at assessment was 89 months. The authors used general linear modeling approaches to compare IQ and standardized academic achievement test scores from the TBI group and a community comparison group (21 children). Children who sustained early TBI scored significantly lower than children in the comparison group on intelligence tests and in the reading, mathematical, and language domains of achievement tests. Forty-eight percent of the TBI group had IQs below the 10th percentile. During the approximately 5-year follow-up period, longitudinal IQ testing revealed continuing deficits and no recovery of function. Both IQ and academic achievement test scores were significantly related to the number of intracranial lesions and the lowest postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale score but not to age at the time of injury. Nearly 50% of the TBI group failed a school grade and/or required placement in self-contained special education classrooms; the odds of unfavorable academic performance were 18 times higher for the TBI group than the comparison group. Traumatic brain injury sustained early in life has significant and persistent consequences for the development of intellectual and academic functions and deleterious effects on academic performance.

  13. Nicaraven attenuates radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Kawakatsu

    Full Text Available Nicaraven, a chemically synthesized hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs. We investigated whether nicaraven can attenuate radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which is the conmen complication of radiotherapy and one of the major causes of death in sub-acute phase after accidental exposure to high dose radiation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1 Gy γ-ray radiation daily for 5 days in succession (a total of 5 Gy, and given nicaraven or a placebo after each exposure. The mice were sacrificed 2 days after the last radiation treatment, and the protective effects and relevant mechanisms of nicaraven in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with radiation-induced damage were investigated by ex vivo examination. We found that post-radiation administration of nicaraven significantly increased the number, improved the colony-forming capacity, and decreased the DNA damage of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. The urinary levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA oxidation, were significantly lower in mice that were given nicaraven compared with those that received a placebo treatment, although the levels of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the bone marrow cells did not differ significantly between the two groups. Interestingly, compared with the placebo treatment, the administration of nicaraven significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma of mice. Our data suggest that nicaraven effectively diminished the effects of radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which is likely associated with the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of this compound.

  14. Late radiation injury of the colon and rectum. Surgical management and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimose, H.H.; Fischer, L.; Spjeldnaes, N.; Wara, P.

    1989-01-01

    After a median latency of 2 years, the initial late colorectal radiation injuries in 182 patients were: stricture (37 percent), minor lesions (36 percent), rectovaginal fistula (22 percent), and gangrene or other fistulas (5 percent). Due to progression, new colorectal injuries, primarily stricture (55 percent) and fistula (42 percent), occurred in 68 patients (37 percent). Resection provided the best results. However, the resectability rate was low (46 percent) and resection was primarily performed in patients with a circumscript well-defined stricture of the proximal rectum or sigmoid colon with an anastomotic leakage rate of 5 percent. The prevailing management of 78 patients with fistula or stricture with synchronous fistula was defunctioning colostomy, primarily end-sigmoidostomy, providing fair results in half of the patients. Stomal complications occurred in 15 percent. The radiation-induced colorectal mortality was 8 percent. Colorectal fistula and associated radiation injuries of the urinary tract, and especially of the small bowel, were the major determinants of fatal outcome, yielding an overall radiation-induced mortality of 25 percent. After a median observation time of 13 years, half of the patients were alive at follow-up; 56 percent of these had a fair outcome whereas the remaining patients continued to have mild symptoms responding to conservative measures (34 percent) or disabling symptoms (10 percent)

  15. Development of a guinea pig cutaneous radiation injury model using low penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathleen E; Tan, Alick; Kim, Lila; Espinoza, Theresa; Meeks, Christopher; Johnston, William; Maulhardt, Holly; Donald, Melissa; Hill, Colin; diZerega, Gere S

    2016-08-01

    A guinea pig skin model was developed to determine the dose-dependent response to soft X-ray radiation into the dermis. X-ray exposure (50 kVp) was defined to a 4.0 × 4.0 cm area on the lateral surface of a guinea pig using lead shielding. Guinea pigs were exposed to a single fraction of X-ray irradiation ranging from 25-79 Gy via an XRAD320ix Biological Irradiator with the collimator removed. Gross skin changes were measured using clinical assessments defined by the Kumar scale. Skin contracture was assessed, as well as histological evaluations. Loss of dermal integrity was shown after a single dose of soft X-ray radiation at or above 32 Gy with the central 2.0 × 2.0 cm of the exposed site being the most affected. Hallmarks of the skin injury included moist desquamation, ulceration and wound contracture, as well as alterations in epithelium, dermis, muscle and adipose. Changes in the skin were time- and radiation dose-dependent. Full-thickness injury occurred without animal mortality or gross changes in the underlying organs. The guinea pig is an appropriate small animal model for the short-term screening of countermeasures for cutaneous radiation injury (CRI).

  16. Explanation of the law on radiation injury prevention for mechanical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    Generally to the facilities in which radioisotopes are treated, the Law on Radiation Injury Prevention is applied, but this law was revised in May, 1988, and enforced on April 1, 1989. As to the retroaction to existing facilities, the delay till March 31, 1991 is granted. In this report, by rearranging the system of contents so as to suit to mechanical engineers, the procedure of application and the standard for exhaust facilities and drainage facilities, which seem to be necessary matters, are described. In addition, the standard for facilities related to architecture which seems useful for design and construction if it is known as the basic matter and the standard for the control of the exposure of human bodies, surface contamination and measurement, related to the RI contamination in the air are referred to. The main points of revision in terms, unit and the law are shown. The Law on Radiation Injury Prevention is composed of the Law on Prevention of Radiation Injuries Due to Radioisotopes and Others, the enforcement ordinance, the enforcement regulation and the notice on determining the quantity of isotopes emitting radiation. (K.I.)

  17. Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. (author)

  18. Long-term outcome after early repair of iatrogenic bile duct injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling, Nicolaj M; Fristrup, Claus; Wettergren, André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the peri-operative and long-term outcome after early repair with a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). METHODS: Between 1995 and 2010, a nationwide, retrospective multi-centre study was conducted. All iatrogenic bile duct injury (BDI) sustained...... during a cholecystectomy and repaired with HJ in the five Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary centres in Denmark were included. RESULTS: In total, 139 patients had an HJ repair. The median time from the BDI to reconstruction was 5 days. A concomitant vascular injury was identified in 26 cases (19%). Post...... with BDI repaired by early HJ we found a considerable risk of long-term complications (e.g. 30% stricture rate) and mortality in both the short- and the long-term perspective....

  19. Injuries to embryo and foetus from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of experimental and clinical evidence for tetatological effects of ionising radiation, against the background of general teratology. International and national recommendations and regulations for the protection of the conceptus are quoted. As to interruption of a pregnancy following an unintended exposure, it is pointed out that much of the present evidence points to a dose in the order of 0.1Gy (10 rads) as a dose which may be considered as a practical threshold for the induction of congenital defects. (Auth.)

  20. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.; Kumar, S.; Whitnall, M.

    2002-01-01

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1β, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  1. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Kumar, S.; Whitnall, M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Casualty Management] [and others

    2002-12-01

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1{beta}, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  2. Symptomatic hypoglycemia causing brain injury in a term breast fed newborn following early discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Ashish; Gathwala, Geeta

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral metabolism and functioning depends upon an adequate blood glucose supply which provides for majority of the brain's energy requirement. Studies from the past have shown that neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with acute and long term neurological sequelae. Early discharge without adequately established breast feeding may lead to feeding problems, post discharge hypoglycemia and its associated neurological complications. The authors describe one such case of an exclusively breast fed term newborn who presented on day 3 with symptomatic hypoglycemia and associated neurological injury.

  3. Chemoprotection against fractionated radiation exposures with WR-2721: skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echols, F.S.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    These studies extend the analysis of the potential application of WR-2721 [S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid] to radiation therapy by determining the ability of the drug to protect mice against hair loss induced by multiple exposures to radiation. In the two mouse strains tested, RFM and BALB/c, the relatively low drug dose used (200 mg/kg) protected the mice against hair loss from single exposures by factors of 1.67 and 1.73. The dose necessary to produce a given level of hair loss (ED 50 ) increases with increasing number of fractions. The ED 50 increases as N/sup 0.52/ and N/sup 0.59/ in the two strains of mice when they are not drug-treated, but as N/sup 0.39/ and N/sup 0.50/ in mice that are drug-treated. Thus, the protective effectiveness of WR-2721 decreases with increasing numbers of fractions, but the drug is still able to give a dose-modifying factor of about 1.25 when the total exposure is given as a series of 9 or 10 fractions. WR-2721 appears to offer the possibility of improving the efficiency of radiotherapy under clinical conditions

  4. Apoptosis and mitosis in the small intestine at radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Junichiro; Ito, Masahiro; Onizuka, Shinya; Sekine, Ichiro; Uchida, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    A single whole body irradiation was given at a dose rate of 0.298 Gy/min in 6-week-old male mice. Intestinal crypt apoptosis and mitosis cells were determined by delivering radiation doses of 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Gy. The incidence of apoptosis was linearly increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 5.0 Gy, and thereafter, it was gradually decreased. There was a decreased tendency for mitosis with delivering higher radiation doses. The incidence of apoptosis rapidly increased 2 hours after irradiation with either 0.6 Gy or 2.0 Gy, and reached to the peak 4 hours later. It brought about a 18-fold and 28-fold increase for 0.6 Gy and 2.0 Gy, respectively, relative to that before irradiation. Mitosis cells decreased by half one hour after irradiation with 0.6 Gy, and then returned to the pre-irradiation value through synchronization 24 hours later. The number of cells positive to BrdU was 776 in the group of mice without irradiation and 479 in the group of mice irradiated with 2.0 Gy. (N.K.)

  5. Antiangiogenic Treatment Diminishes Renal Injury and Dysfunction via Regulation of Local AKT in Early Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin...

  6. Early biomarkers and potential mediators of ventilation-induced lung injury in very preterm lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Peter G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is closely associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in very preterm infants. The greatest risk of VILI may be in the immediate period after birth, when the lungs are surfactant deficient, still partially filled with liquid and not uniformly aerated. However, there have been very few studies that have examined this immediate post-birth period and identified the initial injury-related pathways that are activated. We aimed to determine if the early response genes; connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, cysteine rich-61 (CYR61 and early growth response 1 (EGR1, were rapidly induced by VILI in preterm lambs and whether ventilation with different tidal volumes caused different inflammatory cytokine and early response gene expression. Methods To identify early markers of VILI, preterm lambs (132 d gestational age; GA, term ~147 d were resuscitated with an injurious ventilation strategy (VT 20 mL/kg for 15 min then gently ventilated (5 mL/kg for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min (n = 4 in each. To determine if early response genes and inflammatory cytokines were differentially regulated by different ventilation strategies, separate groups of preterm lambs (125 d GA; n = 5 in each were ventilated from birth with a VT of 5 (VG5 or 10 mL/kg (VG10 for 135 minutes. Lung gene expression levels were compared to levels prior to ventilation in age-matched control fetuses. Results CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 lung mRNA levels were increased ~25, 50 and 120-fold respectively (p CTGF, CYR61, EGR1, IL1-β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels compared to control levels. CTGF, CYR61, IL-6 and IL-8 expression levels were higher in VG10 than VG5 lambs; although only the IL-6 and CYR61 mRNA levels reached significance. Conclusion CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 may be novel early markers of lung injury and mechanical ventilation from birth using relatively low tidal volumes may be less injurious than using higher tidal volumes.

  7. The scientific foundations and associated injury risks of early soccer specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-12-01

    Early specialisation is characterised by formal participation in a single sport at the exclusion of others. Limited data are available to support this approach in the development of soccer players who attain elite status later in life. Of growing concern is the associated increased risk of injury and suggestions that single sport specialisation is a risk factor independent of age, growth, biological maturation and training volumes. In the United Kingdom, elite soccer organisations have recently adopted an early sport specialisation approach following the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan. A key tenet of this programme is increased opportunities for training through a marked rise in the specified on-pitch hours per week. The accumulation of high training hours may be less of a relevant marker for success, and the impact of such a significant increase in training volume for young athletes who are experiencing a range of growth and maturational processes is currently unknown. This critical commentary includes an evidence-based discussion of the effectiveness of early sport specialisation and the potential injury risks associated with such programmes placing a specific focus on elite male youth soccer players. Available data indicate that modifications to the existing Elite Player Performance Plan framework could enhance players' development and reduce injury risk. Proposed alterations include reduced volume of soccer-specific training at key stages of growth and maturation and guidelines for the provision of a greater variety of physical activities that are integrated within other programme components.

  8. Radiation-induced skin injury in the animal model of scleroderma: implications for post-radiotherapy fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanath; Kolozsvary, Andrew; Kohl, Robert; Lu, Mei; Brown, Stephen; Kim, Jae Ho

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy is generally contraindicated for cancer patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) such as scleroderma due to an increased risk of fibrosis. The tight skin (TSK) mouse has skin which, in some respects, mimics that of patients with scleroderma. The skin radiation response of TSK mice has not been previously reported. If TSK mice are shown to have radiation sensitive skin, they may prove to be a useful model to examine the mechanisms underlying skin radiation injury, protection, mitigation and treatment. The hind limbs of TSK and parental control C57BL/6 mice received a radiation exposure sufficient to cause approximately the same level of acute injury. Endpoints included skin damage scored using a non-linear, semi-quantitative scale and tissue fibrosis assessed by measuring passive leg extension. In addition, TGF-β1 cytokine levels were measured monthly in skin tissue. Contrary to our expectations, TSK mice were more resistant (i.e. 20%) to radiation than parental control mice. Although acute skin reactions were similar in both mouse strains, radiation injury in TSK mice continued to decrease with time such that several months after radiation there was significantly less skin damage and leg contraction compared to C57BL/6 mice (p < 0.05). Consistent with the expected association of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) with late tissue injury, levels of the cytokine were significantly higher in the skin of the C57BL/6 mouse compared to TSK mouse at all time points (p < 0.05). TSK mice are not recommended as a model of scleroderma involving radiation injury. The genetic and molecular basis for reduced radiation injury observed in TSK mice warrants further investigation particularly to identify mechanisms capable of reducing tissue fibrosis after radiation injury

  9. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  10. Repair of radiation injury by transplantation of hemopoietic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: endogenous repair of tissue by surviving cells; exogenous repair by transplantation of tissue from unirradiated donor; repair of hematopoietic tissue following sublethal exposure or exposure in the LD 1 to LD 100 range; early studies on regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in x-irradiated dogs by giving bone marrow; hypotheses as to how bone marrow injections result in regeneration of blood-forming tissue; effects of rat bone marrow transplants on survival of lethally irradiated mice; and effect of tissue transplants on dose-response curve

  11. Early-onset acute kidney injury is a poor prognostic sign for allogeneic SCT recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingai, N; Morito, T; Najima, Y; Kobayashi, T; Doki, N; Kakihana, K; Ohashi, K; Ando, M

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) following stem-cell transplantation (SCT) contributes to a poor prognosis, yet its impact may vary depending on the timing of AKI onset. A prospective cohort study was performed to understand the significance of the onset timing in 103 allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) recipients. AKI prior to stem-cell engraftment was defined as early AKI and subsequently occurring AKI as late AKI. Propensity score (PS) for early AKI was calculated using a logistic regression model to reduce confounding effects related to differences in clinical background between the early and late AKI groups. The cumulative incidences of early and late AKI were 22.3% and 54.9%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 39.1% and 7.0%, and overall survival (OS) was 56.5% and 90.9% in early and late AKI at 100 days after AKI, respectively (PSCT was 41.5% and 19.1% in early and late AKI, respectively (P=0.048). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for the PS showed that early AKI was significantly associated with OS (odds ratio (95% confidence interval); 4.63 (1.15-21.4), P=0.031) but with neither NRM (1.25 (0.28-5.33), P=0.766) nor CKD (1.85 (0.41-8.60), P=0.422). In conclusion, early AKI may portend a poor survival for allo-SCT recipients.

  12. Surgical treatment of radiation injuries of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1983, radiation-induced proctitis was diagnosed proctoscopically in 720 patients at the Mayo Clinic. Sixty-two patients with severe colorectal symptoms were treated surgically. The interval from cessation of radiotherapy to onset of symptoms ranged from 3 weeks to 24 months (mean 33 months). The 62 patients underwent a total of 143 operations with 8 operative deaths (13 percent), and 40 patients (65 percent) had 61 complications. The morbidity rate was lower after colostomy alone (44 percent in 27 patients) than after more aggressive operations (80 percent in 35 patients). Transverse loop colostomy and descending colostomy were safer than sigmoid colostomy. The dissection adhesions, opening of tissue planes, and careless manipulation of intestine may result in necrosis and perforation of the intestine, bladder, or vaginal wall; these were the main causes of fecal and other internal fistulas in our study

  13. External radiation therapy in early stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is controversial. Numerous options are available, however, comparison of results is difficult in view of the insufficiency of phase III randomized trials comparing alternative treatment strategies. These options include such strategies as no curative therapy (so-called watchful waiting), radiotherapy (external and/or internal), cryotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. Clearly, a broad spectrum of clinical approaches. When reported experiences involving radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are compared, surgical patients tend to be younger, of earlier stage, of higher performance status, and have lower pre-therapy PSA. These prognostic factors influence the probability of disease control, and since patient selection can have a profound impact on results reporting, these issues need to be carefully controlled. A review of patients who are potentially candidates for surgery at the University of Michigan treated with conformal therapy external beam treatment, indicates that these relatively early patients are doing well. These issues will be elaborated upon further during the presentation

  14. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  15. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-05-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated at 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned.

  17. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  18. Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, B.C.; Masson, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    We report our experiences in treating chronic radiation injury about the shoulder, a complication of radiation after mastectomy. Left untreated, these can result in chronic infection and/or amputation. The coverage of a large shoulder area presents certain unique problems, which severely limit the usefulness of traditional procedures. We have found that the remarkable size and versatility of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap enables one to use it with relative simplicity and safety. A further great advantage is that it brings new permanent blood supply into this ischemic area, thus favoring rapid healing and durable coverage

  19. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  20. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...

  1. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu

    2011-01-01

    Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components...

  2. A novel radiation responsive cis-acting element regulates gene induction and mediates tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kuchibahtla, Jaya

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) binds and activates inflammatory cells and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. To characterize a model for radiation-induction of tissue injury, we studied radiation-mediated lung injury in mice deficient in the ICAM-1 gene. To study the mechanisms of x-ray mediated ICAM induction, we studied transcriptional activation of the ICAM promoter and nuclear protein binding to the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to study the histologic pattern of ICAM expression in irradiated tissue. The ICAM-1 knockout mice were bred with wild type mice to create heterozygous mice with attenuated ICAM expression. ICAM -/-, ICAM+/- and ICAM +/+ mice were treated with thoracic irradiation and lung sections were stained for leukocyte common antigen (CD45) to study inflammation. To study the mechanism of x-ray induction of ICAM, we linked the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene to the luciferase reporter gene and delated DNA segments from the promoter to determine which elements are required for induction. We performed electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of nuclear proteins from irradiated endothelial cells to study transcription factor activation. Results: Immunohistochemistry showed dose and time dependent increases in ICAM protein expression in irradiated lungs which was prolonged as compared to endothelial cells in vitro. The histologic pattern of ICAM expression was in the capillary endothelium and was distinct from the pattern of expression of other radiation-inducible adhesion molecules. ICAM knockout mice had no ICAM expression and no inflammatory cell accumulation in the irradiated lung. ICAM+/+ mice developed leukocyte adhesion to irradiated endothelium within hours of irradiation and radiation pneumonitis 5 to 6 weeks later. The DNA sequence between -981 and -769 (relative to start codon) contains two 16-base pair repeats, each

  3. Potential renal toxicity bio-markers indicating radiation injury after 177Lu-octreotate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, J.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Westberg, E.; Toernqvist, M.; Svedborn, L.; Barregaerd, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The kidneys are one of the most exposed non-tumor tissues and regarded as one of the main dose-limiting organs in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). [ 177 Lu-DOTA0, Tyr3]-octreotate ( 177 Lu-octreotate) has shown promising results in the treatment of somatostatin receptor over-expressing neuroendocrine tumors, but optimization is still needed. The ability to give each patient as much 177 Lu-octreotate as possible without inducing nephrotoxicity is necessary for an efficient treatment. However, due to large inter-individual differences in uptake and retention in the kidneys, there is a need for efficient methods that can indicate renal injury early. A possible way is to identify bio-markers for high risk of radiation nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using urinary retinol binding protein (RBP), and blood valinhydantoin (VH) as bio-markers of nephrotoxicity on adult mice after 177 Lu-octreotate treatment. BALB/c nude mice (n=6/group) were i.v. injected with 60 MBq or 120 MBq of 177 Lu-octreotate. The control group was mock treated with saline. Spot urine samples were collected before injection, and 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after injection. Analysis of RBP4 and creatinine was performed using Mouse RBP4 ELISA kit and Creatinine kit from R/D Systems, respectively. Erythrocytes were separated from whole blood samples collected 90 days after injection, and analysed for VH by LC-MS/MS. The ratio between VH and a volumetric standard was calculated. The RBP/creatinine level increased with time in both groups given 177 Lu-octreotate, with earlier and higher response for the 120 MBq group. No clear change in VH level between the different groups was observed. The results show that RBP may be a promising new bio-marker for radiation induced kidney toxicity. The presently used method based on VH was not sensitive enough to be used as kidney toxicity marker. Further studies on mice are ongoing to

  4. STUDIES IN WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION AND RADIATION INJURY. VOLUME III, A REPORT ON IONIZING RADIATION RECORD KEEPING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATION OF THE PERMISSIBLE LEVEL CONCEPT OF RADIATION CONTROL NECESSARILY ENTAILS A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM UNDER WHICH EXPOSURE MUST BE RECORDED AND EMPLOYEES NOTIFIED OF THEIR EXPOSURE HISTORY. IN AN INVESTIGATION OF RECORD KEEPING NECESSARY TO PROCESS RADIATION CLAIMS, QUESTIONNAIRES OR LETTERS WERE RECEIVED FROM 45 STATE AGENCIES…

  5. Application of Multivariate Modeling for Radiation Injury Assessment: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate radiation injury estimation algorithms were formulated for estimating severe hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS injury (i.e., response category three or RC3 in a rhesus monkey total-body irradiation (TBI model. Classical CBC and serum chemistry blood parameters were examined prior to irradiation (d 0 and on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 25 after irradiation involving 24 nonhuman primates (NHP (Macaca mulatta given 6.5-Gy 60Co Υ-rays (0.4 Gy min−1 TBI. A correlation matrix was formulated with the RC3 severity level designated as the “dependent variable” and independent variables down selected based on their radioresponsiveness and relatively low multicollinearity using stepwise-linear regression analyses. Final candidate independent variables included CBC counts (absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets in formulating the “CBC” RC3 estimation algorithm. Additionally, the formulation of a diagnostic CBC and serum chemistry “CBC-SCHEM” RC3 algorithm expanded upon the CBC algorithm model with the addition of hematocrit and the serum enzyme levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Both algorithms estimated RC3 with over 90% predictive power. Only the CBC-SCHEM RC3 algorithm, however, met the critical three assumptions of linear least squares demonstrating slightly greater precision for radiation injury estimation, but with significantly decreased prediction error indicating increased statistical robustness.

  6. Radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract in Hodgkin's disease: the role of exploratory laparotomy and fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallez-Marchal, D.; Fayolle, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Rougier, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Out of 134 patients irradiated below the diaphragm to a dose of 40 Gy for Hodgkin's disease at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, 19 (14%) were subsequently found to present with radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract. Since five patients presented with two different injuries, 24 radiolesions were observed. Most of them (17 out of 24) were gastric or duodenal. Twelve (out of 24) were ulcers. Nine patients required surgery. A complete cure of the radiation injuries was obtained in 15 out of 19 patients. Sex, age, stage, histology or initial chemotherapy were not found to play a role in the occurrence of radiation damage. On the contrary, the role of a previous exploratory laparotomy appeared important; for the patients who underwent laparotomy and irradiation, the complication rate was 23%. For the patients treated by irradiation alone, the complication rate was 7% (p < 0.01). Fractionation was found to be another important parameter: for 52 patients treated using 3 weekly fractions of 3.3 Gy, the complication rate was 25% compared to 8% (p < 0.01) for 76 patients treated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy. Combining these two factors, the authors found a 42% complication rate for the group of patients who underwent laparotomy and who were treated by means of 3 fractions of 3.3 Gy per week, whereas patients irradiated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy, without any previous laparotomy, has only a 5% complication risk (p < 0.001). (Auth.)

  7. The primary study on protective effects of vallinin derivative on cell injury induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Wang Siying; Yan Yuqian; Wang Lin; Xu Qinzhi; Cong Jianbo; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the protective effects of vallinin derivative VND3207 on cell injury induced by radiation were studied by the methods of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay (MTT) and electron spin resonance (ESR). At first, MTF method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of vallinin derivatives (VND3202-VND3209) in HFS cells. Then, MTT method was used to measure the proliferation activity of HeLa cells with 2 Gy irradiation treated with vallinin derivatives and measure the proliferation of AHH-1 cells treated with VND3207 before exposed to 4 Gy irradiation. And ESR detected the antioxidation activity of vallinin and VND3207. The results showed that VND3207 and VND3206 presented no toxin within 50 panol/L, and VND3207 and VND3209 had no proliferous effects on HeLa cells while VND3206 could expedite the tumor cell proliferation at 30 μmol/L, and by comrades VND3208 showed increased radiosensitivity of the HeLa cells. For the AHH1 cells exposed to 4 Gy irradiation, VND3207 presented the protective effects against radiation injury. ESR results also suggested that VND3207 could clean out free radicals. Its effect was far more potent than that of vanillin. From this study we primarily screened out the vallinin derivative VND3207 which has protective effects on cell injury induced by radiation and provided data for future research work. (authors)

  8. Effect of radiation-induced heart injury on content of cardiac troponin I and endothelin-1 in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiuhong; Gao Yaoming; Zhang Junning; Li Xinli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of radiation-induced heart injury (RIHD) on cardiac endothelin-1 (ET-1) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in SD rats, and the possibility regarding ET-1 and cTnI as biomarker of RIHD was also explored. Methods: Healthy female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (C) and irradiation group (R). The rats in R group were irradiated with linear accelerator at a single dose of 25 Gy. Five milliliters blood was collected from the inferior vena cava on the 5th, 15th, 30th, 60th day after radiation. Blood was centrifuged and serum was collected. Content of ET-1 and cTnI in blood serum were detected by ELISA kits. Results: The content of ET-1 in the R group was always higher than that in the C group (P<0.01) during the whole process, and the difference between two groups had statistical significance only on the 5th day (P<0.01) and 15th day (P<0.05) after radiation. However, the content of cTnI in R group was higher than that in the C group within 30 days after radiation, then decreased, and only on the 15th day (P<0.05) and the 30th day (P<0.01) after radiation, there was statistical difference between two groups. Conclusion: The content of ET-1 and cTnI in blood serum increase obviously after receiving RIHD, so these two indicators can be used as markers to diagnose early RIHD sensitively and specifically. (authors)

  9. Thioredoxin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health. Hematopoietic injury is one of the major manifestations of acute radiation sickness. Protection and/or mitigation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from radiation injury is an important goal in the development of medical countermeasure agents (MCM. We recently identified thioredoxin (TXN as a novel molecule that has marked protective and proliferative effects on HSCs. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of TXN in rescuing mice from a lethal dose of total body radiation (TBI and in enhancing hematopoietic reconstitution following a lethal dose of irradiation. Methods We used in-vivo and in-vitro methods to understand the biological and molecular mechanisms of TXN on radiation mitigation. BABL/c mice were used for the survival study and a flow cytometer was used to quantify the HSC population and cell senescence. A hematology analyzer was used for the peripheral blood cell count, including white blood cells (WBCs, red blood cells (RBCs, hemoglobin, and platelets. Colony forming unit (CFU assay was used to study the colongenic function of HSCs. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the bone marrow cellularity. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay was used for cell senescence. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the DNA damage and senescence protein expression. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of γ-H2AX foci for DNA damage. Results We found that administration of TXN 24 h following irradiation significantly mitigates BALB/c mice from TBI-induced death: 70% of TXN-treated mice survived, whereas only 25% of saline-treated mice survived. TXN administration led to enhanced recovery of peripheral blood cell counts, bone marrow cellularity, and HSC population as measured by c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin– (KSL cells, SLAM + KSL cells and CFUs. TXN treatment reduced cell senescence and radiation

  10. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Hao, Liang; Dong, Fei; Mao, Jian-Shan; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Ding, Wen-Hong

    2009-01-01

    0.21, P = 0.037; Pi: LDS-control group vs LDS-severe group, 0.74 ± 0.18 vs 0.43 ± 0.14, P = 0.013; pathological control group vs pathological severe group, 0.74 ± 0.18 vs 0.43 ± 0.14, P = 0.005) according to LDS grading and pathological grading, respectively. (c) PDE; there were no significant differences among groups according to LDS grading, and no significant differences between the control group and experimental groups according to pathological grading. (2) The ratio of relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites: significant differences (P < 0.05) (LDS-moderate group and LDS-severe group vs LDS-control group and LDS-mild group, 1.94 ± 0.50 and 1.96 ± 0.72 vs 1.43 ± 0.31 and 1.40 ± 0.38) were only found in PDE/ATP between the moderate injured group, the severe injured group and the control group, the mild injured group. No significant difference was found in other ratios of relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites. CONCLUSION: 31P MRS is a useful method to evaluate early acute hepatic radiation injury. The relative quantification of hepatic ATP levels, which can reflect the pathological severity of acute hepatic radiation injury, is correlated with LDS. PMID:19522022

  11. Notification determining technical standards concerning prevention of radiation injuries by electron capture detectors for gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, the ordinance and the regulation for the execution of the law. This rule is applied to electron capture detectors for gas chromatography under the law. Basic terms are defined, such as detector radiation source, detector container and carrier gas. The detectors shall consist of detector radiation sources and containers, and the containers must be such that the radiation sources can not be easily taken away and never cause the danger to fall off. The induction and discharge mouths of the detector containers shall be shut tightly with caps, etc. The main structures and radiation sources of detectors shall be made of materials, which are difficult to corrode, and do not melt and easily cause chemical change below 800 deg. C. Detector radiation sources shall be made of metals plated with nickel 63 less than 20 milli-curie. The radiation dose rate on the surface of a detector shall be shielded to less than 0.06 milli-rem an hour. The temperature of detectors and carrier gas shall not exceed 350 deg. C. Corrosive gas shall not be used as carrier gas. The period of effective indication is 5 years. The method of washing, and the conditions of leak, heat-resistance and shock-resistance examinations are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  12. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus [Central Inst. of Radiology, Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Herkstroeter, Markus [Radiotherapeutic Practice at the Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  13. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, Reinhard; Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus; Herkstroeter, Markus; Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of early thrombus dynamics in a humanized mouse laser injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Lindsey, John P; Chen, Jianchun; Diacovo, Thomas G; King, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Platelet aggregation and thrombus formation at the site of injury is a dynamic process that involves the continuous addition of new platelets as well as thrombus rupture. In the early stages of hemostasis (within minutes after vessel injury) this process can be visualized by transfusing fluorescently labeled human platelets and observing their deposition and detachment. These two counterbalancing events help the developing thrombus reach a steady-state morphology, where it is large enough to cover the injured vessel surface but not too large to form a severe thrombotic occlusion. In this study, the spatial and temporal aspects of early stage thrombus dynamics which result from laser-induced injury on arterioles of cremaster muscle in the humanized mouse were visualized using fluorescent microscopy. It was found that rolling platelets show preference for the upstream region while tethering/detaching platelets were primarily found downstream. It was also determined that the platelet deposition rate is relatively steady, whereas the effective thrombus coverage area does not increase at a constant rate. By introducing a new method to graphically represent the real time in vivo physiological shear stress environment, we conclude that the thrombus continuously changes shape by regional growth and decay, and neither dominates in the high shear stress region.

  15. The first concussion crisis: head injury and evidence in early American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present.

  16. The influence of infrared radiation on short-term ultraviolet-radiation-induced injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Witkowski, T.A.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because heat has been reported to influence adversely short- and long-term ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced skin damage in animals, we investigated the short-term effects of infrared radiation on sunburn and on phototoxic reactions to topical methoxsalen and anthracene in human volunteers. Prior heating of the skin caused suppression of the phototoxic response to methoxsalen as evidenced by an increase in the threshold erythema dose. Heat administered either before or after exposure to UV radiation had no detectable influence on sunburn erythema or on phototoxic reactions provoked by anthracene

  17. Effects of Berberine Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghui; Zhang Yaping; Tang Jinliang; Chen Zhengtang; Hu Yide; Wei Hong; Li Dezhi; Hao Ping; Wang Donglin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced intestinal injury is a significant clinical problem in patients undergoing abdominal radiotherapy (RT). Berberine has been used as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antimotility agent. The present study investigated the protective effect of berberine against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: The mice were administrated berberine or distilled water. A total of 144 mice underwent 0, 3, 6, 12, or 16 Gy single session whole-abdominal RT and 16 mice underwent 3 Gy/fraction/d for four fractions of fractionated abdominal RT. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, diamine oxidase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, malonaldehyde, and apoptosis were assayed in the mice after RT. The body weight and food intake of the mice receiving fractionated RT were recorded. Another 72 mice who had undergone 12, 16, or 20 Gy abdominal RT were monitored for mortality every 12 h. Results: The body weight and food intake of the mice administered with distilled water decreased significantly compared with before RT. After the same dose of abdominal RT, tumor necrosis factor-α, diamine oxidase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in plasma and malonalhehyde and apoptosis of the intestine were significantly greater in the control group than in the mice administered berberine (p < .05-.01). In contrast, interleukin-10 in the mice with berberine treatment was significantly greater than in the control group (p < .01). A similar result was found in the fractionated RT experiment and at different points after 16 Gy abdominal RT (p < .05-.01). Berberine treatment significantly delayed the point of death after 20 Gy, but not 16 Gy, abdominal RT (p < .01). Conclusion: Treatment with berberine can delay mortality and attenuated intestinal injury in mice undergoing whole abdominal RT. These findings could provide a useful therapeutic strategy for radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  18. Study on the protective effect of MgSO4 on the radiation-induced neural stem cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Tu Yu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the neuroprotective effect of magnesium sulfate on radiation induced neural stem cell injury. Methods: Brain tissue was obtained from new-born sprague-dawley rats within 24 hours, and the cerebral hemisphere was dissociated to culture the neural stem cells. After being identified by immunofluorescence method, the neural stem cells were randomly divided into 3 groups as blank control group, experimental control group and experimental group. The neural stem cells of experimental control group and experimental group were irradiated with 2 or 4 Gy of gamma rays. The proliferation and the cell cycle of neural stem cells were detected at different time-points ranging from 24 h,48 h, 72 h after irradiation with CCK-8 and FCM. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the proliferation rate of experimental control group was significantly reduced (t=5.33-8.44, P<0.05 ), and the G 1 phase arrest of experimental control group was significantly enhanced (t=30.60-71.22, P<0.05).Compared with the experimental control group, the proliferation of experimental group significantly increased excluding that of 24 h (t=2.45-4.71, P<0.05), the apoptosis rate of experimental group significantly decreased (t=6.73-41.12, P<0.05), which was closer to the blank control group.Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate can alleviate the injury of proliferation and decrease the cell apoptosis in the early stage after irradiation. (authors)

  19. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients.Fifty eight NPC patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN were recruited in the study. Duplex ultrasonography was used to scan bilateral carotid arterials to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT and occurrence of plaque formation. Flow velocities of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, internal carotid arteries (ICAs and basal artery (BA were estimated through Transcranial Color Doppler (TCD. The results were compared with data from 33 patients who were free from radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis after radiotherapy and 29 healthy individuals.Significant differences in IMT, occurrence of plaques of ICAs and flow velocities of both MCAs and ICAs were found between patients after radiotherapy and healthy individuals (p<0.05. IMT had positive correlation with post radiation interval (p = 0.049. Compared with results from patients without radiation-induced TLN, the mean IMT was significantly thicker in patients with TLN (p<0.001. Plaques were more common in patients with TLN than patients without TLN (p = 0.038. In addition, flow velocities of MCAs and ICAs in patients with TLN were much faster (p<0.001, p<0.001. Among patients with unilateral TLN, flow velocity of MCAs was significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the lesion (p = 0.001.Thickening of IMT, occurrence of plaque formation and hemodynamic abnormality are more common in patients after radiotherapy, especially in those with TLN, compared with healthy individuals.

  20. Abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools.

  1. The abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools. (orig.) [de

  2. Urine Biochemistry in the Early Postoperative Period after Cardiac Surgery: Role in Acute Kidney Injury Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Toledo Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently suggested that sequential urine electrolyte measurement in critically ill patients may be useful in monitoring kidney function. Cardiac surgery is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU. In this paper, we describe the sequential behavior of urine electrolytes in three patients in the early (first 60 hours postoperative period after cardiac surgery according to AKI status: no AKI, transient AKI, and persistent AKI. We have found that the patient with no AKI had stable and high concentrations of sodium (NaU and chloride (ClU in sequential spot samples of urine. AKI development was characterized in the other two patients by decreases in NaU and ClU, which have started early after ICU admission. Transient AKI was marked by also transient and less severe decreases in NaU and ClU. Persistent AKI was marked by the less favorable clinical course with abrupt and prolonged declines in NaU and ClU values. These electrolytes in urine had a behavior like a “mirror image” in comparison with that of serum creatinine. We suggest that sequential urine electrolytes are useful in monitoring acute kidney injury development in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery.

  3. Early Treatment of radiation-Induced Heart Damage in Rats by Caffeic acid phenethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    The study designed to determine the therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimising radiation-induced injuries in rats. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy γ-rays, 30 minutes later; rats were injected with CAPE (10μmol/ kg body, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed at 8 and 15 days after starting the experiment. Gamma-irradiation induced significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrate (NO (x)) level and glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) activities in heart tissue and augmented activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Irradiated rats early treated with CAPE showed significant decrease in MDA, XO and ADA and significant increase in group. Cardiac enzymes were restored. Conclusion, CAPE could exhibits curable effect on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac-oxidative impairment in rats. (Author)

  4. Multidimensional Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Impairment in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabray, Marc C.; Whetstone, William D.; Dhall, Sanjay S.; Phillips, David B.; Pan, Jonathan Z.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.; Haefeli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Literature examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on cervical SCI. Reproducible systems have been developed for MRI-based grading; however, it is unclear how they apply to thoracic SCI. Our hypothesis is that MRI measures will group as coherent multivariate principal component (PC) ensembles, and that distinct PCs and individual variables will show discriminant validity for predicting early impairment in thoracic SCI. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 25 patients with acute thoracic SCI who underwent MRI on admission and had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) assessment at hospital discharge. Imaging variables of axial grade, sagittal grade, length of injury, thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), maximum canal compromise (MCC), and maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were collected. We performed an analytical workflow to detect multivariate PC patterns followed by explicit hypothesis testing to predict AIS at discharge. All imaging variables loaded positively on PC1 (64.3% of variance), which was highly related to AIS at discharge. MCC, MSCC, and TLICS also loaded positively on PC2 (22.7% of variance), while variables concerning cord signal abnormality loaded negatively on PC2. PC2 was highly related to the patient undergoing surgical decompression. Variables of signal abnormality were all negatively correlated with AIS at discharge with the highest level of correlation for axial grade as assessed with the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score. A multiple variable model identified BASIC as the only statistically significant predictor of AIS at discharge, signifying that BASIC best captured the variance in AIS within our study population. Our study provides evidence of convergent validity, construct validity, and clinical predictive validity for the sampled MRI measures of SCI when applied in acute thoracic and thoracolumbar SCI. PMID:26414451

  5. Influence of Dopamine-Related Genes on Neurobehavioral Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury during Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Wade, Shari L; Martin, Lisa J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3.5 and 7 years after injury. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine-related genes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], solute carrier family 6 member 3 [SLC6A3], solute carrier family 18 member A2 [SLC18A2], catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT], and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1]) were examined in association with short- and long-term executive function and behavioral adjustment, as well as their trajectories over time. After controlling for premorbid child functioning, genetic variation within the SLC6A3 (rs464049 and rs460000) gene was differentially associated with neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time following TBI relative to OI, with rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. In addition, genetic variation within the ANKK1 (rs1800497 and rs2734849) and SLC6A3 (rs464049, rs460000, and rs1042098) genes was differentially associated with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery following TBI, with rs460000 and rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. The findings provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in genes involved in DRD2 expression and density (ANKK1) and dopamine transport (SLC6A3) plays a role in neurobehavioral recovery following pediatric TBI.

  6. Early biomarkers of doxorubicin-induced heart injury in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kwekel, Joshua C.; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tao [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac troponins, which are used as myocardial injury markers, are released in plasma only after tissue damage has occurred. Therefore, there is a need for identification of biomarkers of earlier events in cardiac injury to limit the extent of damage. To accomplish this, expression profiling of 1179 unique microRNAs (miRNAs) was performed in a chronic cardiotoxicity mouse model developed in our laboratory. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX; an anti-cancer drug), or saline once a week for 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were euthanized a week after the last dose. Cardiac injury was evidenced in mice exposed to 18 mg/kg and higher cumulative DOX dose whereas examination of hearts by light microscopy revealed cardiac lesions at 24 mg/kg DOX. Also, 24 miRNAs were differentially expressed in mouse hearts, with the expression of 1, 1, 2, 8, and 21 miRNAs altered at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg DOX, respectively. A pro-apoptotic miR-34a was the only miRNA that was up-regulated at all cumulative DOX doses and showed a significant dose-related response. Up-regulation of miR-34a at 6 mg/kg DOX may suggest apoptosis as an early molecular change in the hearts of DOX-treated mice. At 12 mg/kg DOX, up-regulation of miR-34a was associated with down-regulation of hypertrophy-related miR-150; changes observed before cardiac injury. These findings may lead to the development of biomarkers of earlier events in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity that occur before the release of cardiac troponins. - Highlights: • Upregulation of miR-34a before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury • Apoptosis might be an early event in mouse heart during doxorubicin treatment. • Expression of miR-150 declined before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury.

  7. Radiation sensitivity and the acute and chronical radiation injury of the liver. Strahlenempfindlichkeit und die akute und chronische Strahlenschaedigung der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, R [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Experimentelle Pathologie

    1976-01-01

    The extended German version of the contribution 'Radiation-induced injury of the liver' from the manual of experimental pharmacology, volume XVI, part 5 (p. 227-304), Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1976, is dealt with here. Following a brief presentation of the radiation-induced change of the human liver by external and internal radiation source, experimental results in the latter case of the radiation effect on the regeneration behaviour of the liver particularly regarding the nucleic acid synthesis are indicated especially using findings after thorotrast application. Furthermore, effects on the metabolic activities and on the liver function with combined radiation drug application on test animals is shown.

  8. Functional Outcomes in Individuals Undergoing Very Early (Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of Neurological Improvement from the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiassich, Georg; Gollwitzer, Maria; Gaderer, Franz; Blocher, Martina; Osti, Michael; Lill, Markkus; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Haider, Thomas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert; Aschauer-Wallner, Stephanie

    2017-12-15

    Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU). Of the 49 enrolled patients with acute CSCI, 33 underwent surgical decompression within 5 h (mean 3.2 h ± 1.1 h; very early group) after injury, and 16 underwent surgical decompression between 5 and 24 h (mean 8.6 h ± 5.5 h; early group). Significant neurological improvement was observed among the entire study population between the preoperative assessment and the FU. We identified a significant difference in the AIS grade at the last FU between the groups the using Jonckheere-Terpstra test for doubly ordered crosstabs (p = 0.011) and significantly different AIS improvement rates in the early group (Poisson model, p = 0.018). Improvement by one AIS grade was observed in 31% and 42% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.54). Improvement by two AIS grades was observed in 31% and 6% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-35). Improvement by three AIS grades was observed in 6% and 3% of patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Decompression of the spinal cord within 24 h after SCI was associated with an improved neurological outcome. No additional neurological benefit was observed in patients who underwent decompression within 5 h of injury.

  9. Development and Characterization of VEGF165-Chitosan Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiang Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced skin injury, which remains a serious concern in radiation therapy, is currently believed to be the result of vascular endothelial cell injury and apoptosis. Here, we established a model of acute radiation-induced skin injury and compared the effect of different vascular growth factors on skin healing by observing the changes of microcirculation and cell apoptosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was more effective at inhibiting apoptosis and preventing injury progression than other factors. A new strategy for improving the bioavailability of vascular growth factors was developed by loading VEGF with chitosan nanoparticles. The VEGF-chitosan nanoparticles showed a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells, improved the local microcirculation, and delayed the development of radioactive skin damage.

  10. Social Environmental Moderators of Long-term Functional Outcomes of Early Childhood Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child's home, school, and hospital, including 3 children's hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67% of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P authoritarian (mean CAFAS of 56.45, 41.80, 54.90, and 17.12 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI, respectively, with significant difference between severe TBI and OI [difference = 39.33; P parenting or with fewer home resources (mean CAFAS of 69.57, 47.45, 49.00, and 23.81 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI

  11. Interdisciplinary facilitation of the minimal participation of patients with severe brain injury in early rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the study was to shed light on the participatory aspect of early rehabilitation, when contact, communication and interaction between the patients and the professionals is minimal, because of the patients’ severe brain injury and complex conditions. Methodology...... of hospital charts and memos. The data were analyzed using a four-step phenomenological analysis and NVivo 10. Major findings: Participation comes into play in various practices around the patient. Three main themes seem to be important: (1) The dynamic interplay of the multidisciplinary team as an element...

  12. Early nerve repair in traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults: treatment algorithm and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondaag, Willem; van Driest, Finn Y; Groen, Justus L; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment. The result of biceps muscle reanimation was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS Five of the 36 patients were referred within 2 weeks after trauma and were eligible for early surgery. Nerve ruptures and/or avulsions were found in all early cases of surgery. The advantages of early surgery are as follows: no scar formation, easy anatomical identification, and gap length reduction. Disadvantages include less-clear demarcation of vital nerve tissue and unfamiliarity with the interpretation of frozen-section examination findings. All 5 early-treatment patients recovered a biceps force rated Medical Research Council grade 4. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results of nerve repair within 2 weeks of ATBPI are encouraging, and the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. The authors propose a decision algorithm to select patients eligible for early surgery. Referral standards for patients with ATBPI must be adapted to enable early surgery.

  13. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical

  14. Early alterations in extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor β gene expression in mouse lung indicative of late radiation fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, J.N.; Johnston, C.J.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The expression of late radiation injury can be found immediately after irradiation by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance. To determine if extracellular matrix mRNA and transforming growth factor beta abundance was affected acutely after irradiation, the authors measured mRNA levels of collagen I (CI), collagen III (CIII), collagen IV (CIV), fibronectin (FN), and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 ) in mouse lungs on day 1 and day 14 after graded doses of radiation. C57BL/6 female mice were irradiated with a single dose to the thorax of 5 or 12.5 Gy. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabelled cDNA probes for CI, CIII, CIV, FN, TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 and a control probe encoding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to GAPDH. Changes in the expression of CI, CIII, CIV, FN and TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 were observed as early as 1 day after exposure. Through 14 days, changes in mRNA up to 5-fold were seen for any one dose. Dose related changes as high as 10-fold were also evident. The CI:CIII ratio increased gradually for the 5 Gy dose at 14 days postirradiation while the CI:CII ratio for the 12.5 Gy dose decreased by approximately 4-fold as compared to the control. These studies suggest that alterations in expression of extracellular matrix and TGFβ mRNA occur very early after radiation injury even at low doses and may play a role in the development of chronic fibrosis. 37 refs., 6 figs

  15. The protective effects of resveratral on acute radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Wang Hui; Zhang Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective function of resveratrol on radiation-induced small intestine injury and lethal effect in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into three groups: irradiation (IR) control, IR only, and IR+ resveratrol. 15 mice each group were irradiated on abdomen with 7.2 Gy γ-rays for cell lethal assay and 8 mice each group were irradiated with 6.5 Gy for small intestine injury assay. For the IR+ resveratrol group, the mouse was given resveratrol by intragastric administration 24 h before irradiation and then was fed with resveratrol daily for 5 days. The control and IR alone groups were fed with placebo. After 30 days of IR, mouse survival rate was detected. For small intestine injury experiments, 24 h after IR, the mice were terminated and the small intestines were treated with HE and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Compared with the irradiation group, resveratrol increased mouse survival by 33.3%, decreased apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells (t = 17.35, P < 0.05), and increased Ki67 expression (t = 13.62, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Resveratrol could protect small intestine injury from ionizing irradiation. (authors)

  16. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Matsuzawa, T

    1975-06-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140 to 300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200 to 300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma.

  17. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140-300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200-300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma. (author)

  19. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-01-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm 2 field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated

  20. Elemental diet as prophylaxis against radiation injury. Histological and ultrastructural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, A.H.; Wittnich, C.; Freeman, C.R.; Duguid, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated whether elemental diet feeding would protect the intestine from radiation injury. Five dogs were fed an elemental diet for three days before receiving pelvic irradiation (500 rad/day for four days) and were maintained on the diet during the days of irradiation. These dogs were compared with five dogs that were fed normal kennel ration, but were treated similarly otherwise. One day and five days following completion of the radiation treatment, the dogs were anesthetized and a biopsy specimen of terminal ileum was taken for histologic and electron microscopic studies. In the dogs fed the elemental diet, there was no significant damage to the intestine seen on histological examination, and electron microscopy disclosed elongated microvilli and no organelle damage. However, both histological and electron microscopic examination of the intestine from dogs maintained on normal kennel ration showed that severe damage had occurred from the irradiation procedure. It seems, therefore, that the feeding of an elemental diet to dogs as a prophylaxis can afford protection to the intestine from the acute phase of radiation injury

  1. Collections of laws and ordinances concerning radiation injury prevention as of July 24, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takao

    1981-01-01

    There are laws, government and ministerial ordinances and notifications, each of them bears a definite role, and the contents of the legal regulation on a certain range of matter are determined by their close interrelation and mutual supplementation. Many laws and ordinances concerning atomic energy also form a legal system under such mutual relation. The Atomic Energy Act is positioned at its top, and the main part related to radiation injury prevention comprises a law, two ordinances, a regulation and a notification. Such relationship of individual laws and ordinances is mostly shown in lower rank laws and ordinances. In Chapter 1 of this book, the Atomic Energy Act and the government ordinance concerning the definition of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials, nuclear reactors and radiation are described. In Chapter 2, the law concerning prevention of radiation injuries due to radiactive isotopes and others, the ordinances and eight notifications closely related to them are collected. In Chapter 3, other related laws and ordinances are gathered. To understand the laws and ordinances synthetically and systematically, the provisions of different laws and ordinances, which are mutually related, are arranged together showing their relation. (Kako, I.)

  2. Expression of Angiotensin II and Aldosterone in Radiation-induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Wu, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is the most common, dose-limiting complication in thoracic malignancy radiotherapy. Considering its negative impact on patients and restrictions to efficacy, the mechanism of RILI was studied. Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 0, 16, and 20 Gy to the right half of the lung to establish a lung injury model. Two and six months after irradiation, the right half of the rat lung tissue was removed, and the concentrations of TGF-β1, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical differences were observed in the expression levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone between the non-irradiation and irradiation groups. Moreover, the expression level of the angiotensin II-aldosterone system increased with increasing doses, and the difference was still observed as time progressed. Angiotensin II-aldosterone system has an important pathophysiological function in the progression of RILI.

  3. Expression of Angiotensin II and Aldosterone in Radiation-induced Lung Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Wu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is the most common, dose-limiting complication in thoracic malignancy radiotherapy. Considering its negative impact on patients and restrictions to efficacy, the mechanism of RILI was studied. Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 0, 16, and 20 Gy to the right half of the lung to establish a lung injury model. Two and six months after irradiation, the right half of the rat lung tissue was removed, and the concentrations of TGF-β1, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical differences were observed in the expression levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone between the non-irradiation and irradiation groups. Moreover, the expression level of the angiotensin II-aldosterone system increased with increasing doses, and the difference was still observed as time progressed. Angiotensin II-aldosterone system has an important pathophysiological function in the progression of RILI

  4. Opportunity for Collaboration Between Radiation Injury Treatment Network Centers and Medical Toxicology Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlantes, Elizabeth; Shartar, Samuel; Venero, Jennifer; Steck, Alaina; Langston, Amelia; Kazzi, Ziad N

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) comprises >50 centers across the United States that are poised to care for victims of a radiation emergency. The network is organized around bone marrow transplant centers because these facilities excel in both radiation medicine and the care of patients with severe bone marrow depression. A radiation emergency may cause not only irradiation from an external source but also internal contamination with radioactive material. Because medical toxicologists are trained in radiation injury management and have expertise in the management of internal contamination, RITN centers may benefit from partnerships with medical toxicology resources, which may be located at academic medical centers, hospital inpatient clinical services, outpatient clinics, or poison control centers. We determined the locations of existing RITN centers and assessed their proximity to various medical toxicology resources, including medical toxicology fellowship programs, inpatient toxicology services, outpatient toxicology clinics, and poison control centers. Data were derived from publicly available Internet sources in March 2015. The majority of RITN centers do not have a medical toxicology fellowship, an inpatient toxicology service, or an outpatient toxicology clinic within the same institution. Fifty-seven percent of RITN centers have at least one of these resources located in the same city, however, and 73% of centers have at least one of these resources or a poison control center within the same city. Ninety-five percent of RITN centers have at least one medical toxicology resource within the state. Most RITN centers are located in the same city as at least one medical toxicology resource. Establishing relationships between RITN centers and medical toxicologists needs to be explored further.

  5. Mitigation of radiation induced hematopoietic injury via regulation of Nrf-2 and increasing hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.S.; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that can be delivered to tumors are restricted due to radiation induced damage to surrounding normal tissues thereby limiting the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Strategies to develop agents that selectively protect normal cells yielded limited success in the past. There is pressing need to develop safe, syndrome specific and effective radiation countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the harmful consequences of radiation exposure. Survival of bone marrow stem cells (HSCs) play a key role in protecting against IR induced hematopoietic injury. Many studies have shown manipulation of HSC frequency and/or survival as principal mechanism of radioprotection. It is known that, Nrf-2 plays crucial role in HSC survival and maintenance under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we have investigated the radioprotective ability of a flavonoid baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in Oriental medicine. There are numerous reports showing anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and neuroprotective properties of baicalein. Based on these reports, we have investigated the ability of baicalein to protect against radiation induced hematopoietic injury. Baicalein administration to mice protected against WBI induced mortality. Interestingly, the stem cell frequency increased in bone marrow cells obtained from baicalein administered mice as compared to vehicle treated mice. Baicalein treatment led to increased phospho-Nrf-2 levels in lineage negative BM-MNC. Administration of mice with Nrf-2 inhibitor prior to baicalein treatment led to significant abrogation of radioprotective ability of baicalein. This result suggests that, Nrf-2 may be playing a key role in baicalein mediated radioprotection. Here, we have shown that baicalein administration augments stem cell frequency, induces

  6. Anaemia worsens early functional outcome after traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litofsky, N Scott; Miller, Douglas C; Chen, Zhenzhou; Simonyi, Agnes; Klakotskaia, Diana; Giritharan, Andrew; Feng, Qi; McConnell, Diane; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2018-01-01

    To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume. Functional outcome was assessed by beam-walking test and open field test (after pre-injury training) on post-injury days 3 and 7. After functional assessment, brains removed from sacrificed animals were pathological reviewed with haematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet, Luxol Fast Blue, and IBA-1 immunostains. Beam-walking was similar between animals with TBI and TBI+anaemia (p = 0.9). In open field test, animals with TBI+anaemia walked less distance than TBI alone or sham animals on days 3 (p < 0.001) and 7 (p < 0.05), indicating less exploratory and locomotion behaviours. No specific pathologic differences could be identified. Anaemia associated with TBI from CCI is associated with worse outcome as measured by less distance travelled in the open field test at three days than if anaemia is not present.

  7. Urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 early predict acute kidney injury after major surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gocze

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of the urinary biomarkers IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI in high-risk surgical patients.Postoperative AKI is associated with an increase in short and long-term mortality. Using IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 for early detection of cellular kidney injury, thus allowing the early initiation of renal protection measures, may represent a new concept of evaluating renal function.In this prospective study, urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] was measured in surgical patients at high risk for AKI. A predefined cut-off value of [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] >0.3 was used for assessing diagnostic accuracy. Perioperative characteristics were evaluated, and ROC analyses as well as logistic regression models of risk assessment were calculated with and without a [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test.107 patients were included in the study, of whom 45 (42% developed AKI. The highest median values of biomarker were detected in septic, transplant and patients after hepatic surgery (1.24 vs 0.45 vs 0.47 ng/l²/1000. The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC for the risk of any AKI was 0.85, for early use of RRT 0.83 and for 28-day mortality 0.77. In a multivariable model with established perioperative risk factors, the [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test was the strongest predictor of AKI and significantly improved the risk assessment (p<0.001.Urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test sufficiently detect patients with risk of AKI after major non-cardiac surgery. Due to its rapid responsiveness it extends the time frame for intervention to prevent development of AKI.

  8. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb

  9. The effect of patient-specific factors on radiation-induced regional lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garipagaoglu, Melahat; Munley, Michael T.; Hollis, Donna; Poulson, Jean M.; Bentel, Gunilla C.; Sibley, Gregory; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Fan Ming; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Coleman, R. Edward; Marks, Lawrence B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of patient-specific factors on radiation (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion. Methods: Fifty patients (32 lung carcinoma, 7 Hodgkin's disease, 9 breast carcinoma and 2 other thoracic tumors) had pre-RT and ≥24-week post-RT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion images to assess the dose dependence of RT-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion. The SPECT data were analyzed using a normalized and non-normalized approach. Furthermore, two different mathematical methods were used to assess the impact of patient-specific factors on the dose-response curve (DRC). First, DRCs for different patient subgroups were generated and compared. Second, in a more formal statistical approach, individual DRCs for regional lung injury for each patient were fit to a linear-quadratic model (reduction = coefficient 1 x dose + coefficient 2 x dose 2 ). Multiple patient-specific factors including tobacco history, pre-RT diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), chemotherapy exposure, disease type, and mean lung dose were explored in a multivariate analysis to assess their impact on the coefficients. Results: None of the variables tested had a consistent impact on the radiation sensitivity of regional lung (i.e., the slope of the DRC). In the formal statistical analysis, there was a suggestion of a slight increase in radiation sensitivity in the dose range >40 Gy for nonsmokers (vs. smokers) and in those receiving chemotherapy (vs. no chemotherapy). However, this finding was very dependent on the specific statistical and normalization method used. Conclusion: Patient-specific factors do not have a dramatic effect on RT-induced reduction in regional lung perfusion. Additional studies are underway to better clarify this issue. We continue to postulate that patient-specific factors will impact on how the summation of regional injury translates into whole organ injury

  10. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  11. Relationship between red cell distribution width and early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Jian, Liguo; Ding, Tongbin; Liu, Shichao

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that red cell distribution width was related to adverse cardiovascular events. However, few studies reported the relationship between red cell distribution width and early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional design, 334 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled according to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. Demographic and clinical examination data were collected. Depended on the urine albumin, study population were divided into case group (n = 118) and control group (n = 216). Compared with control group, the case group tend to be higher red cell distribution width level (13.6 ± 0.9 vs.12.5 ± 0.6, p gestational diabetes mellitus patients. The elevated red cell distribution width level might be a predictor of early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. As an easy and routine examination index, red cell distribution width may provide better clinical guidance when combined with other important indices.

  12. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CdlU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant

  13. Radiation and the lung: a reevaluation of the mechanisms mediating pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Graeme W.; Breit, Samuel N.

    1995-01-01

    scan uptake in patients studied before and 4 to 6 weeks after strictly unilateral lung irradiation. This is suggestive of a hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which gives rise to an 'out-of-field' response to localized lung irradiation and hence more accurately describes the clinical picture of radiation pneumonitis. Reevaluation of the mechanisms of pulmonary injury from irradiation suggest that (a) a new term, sporadic radiation pneumonitis, should be introduced to describe the clinical picture of radiation pneumonitis, which is not adequately explained by the classical description and is quite clearly an entirely different process; and (b) that the chronic response to localized lung irradiation that leads to pulmonary fibrosis is largely mediated through the induction and release of tissues cytokines

  14. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C., E-mail: prabhat-goswami@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  15. The burning issues of motor vehicle radiator scald injuries revisited - a fresh review and changing prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J N; Tan, A; Frew, Q; Dziewulski, P

    2016-12-31

    A preventable subgroup of burn injuries is scalds sustained from motor vehicle radiators. This study was to determine changes in trends in epidemiology of such injuries and to discuss whether current and other prevention efforts proposed previously require reinforcement. We conducted a retrospective study (February 2007-August 2015) of all motor vehicle-related burn referrals to our regional burns service. 68 cases of motor vehicle radiator burns were identified. Male to female ratio was 65:3. Mean age was 35.1 (range = 9-71). Most cases occurred in the summer months (22/68 = 32.4%). 65 cases (95.6%) involved car radiators. 66% of injuries resulted from actively removing the pressure cap of an overheated radiator in the motor vehicle. Mean total burn surface area (%TBSA) was 2.1% (range = 0.5- 11%). The depths of burn injuries were mostly superficial partial thickness. Face, chest and upper limbs were the most common sites of injury. Mean healing time was 14.2 days (range = 4-60). Following the introduction of safety measures by vehicle manufacturers, motor vehicle radiator burns in this era are mostly minor injuries and can be potentially managed conservatively as an outpatient. This contrasts with findings from previous studies over a decade ago of larger, more significant injuries requiring admission and surgery. Whilst manufacturers have installed safety measures into the design of radiator caps, our findings suggest that re-educating the public to allow a period of cooling prior to opening caps should be reinforced.

  16. The burning issues of motor vehicle radiator scald injuries revisited – a fresh review and changing prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J.N.; Tan, A.; Frew, Q.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A preventable subgroup of burn injuries is scalds sustained from motor vehicle radiators. This study was to determine changes in trends in epidemiology of such injuries and to discuss whether current and other prevention efforts proposed previously require reinforcement. We conducted a retrospective study (February 2007-August 2015) of all motor vehicle-related burn referrals to our regional burns service. 68 cases of motor vehicle radiator burns were identified. Male to female ratio was 65:3. Mean age was 35.1 (range = 9-71). Most cases occurred in the summer months (22/68 = 32.4%). 65 cases (95.6%) involved car radiators. 66% of injuries resulted from actively removing the pressure cap of an overheated radiator in the motor vehicle. Mean total burn surface area (%TBSA) was 2.1% (range = 0.5- 11%). The depths of burn injuries were mostly superficial partial thickness. Face, chest and upper limbs were the most common sites of injury. Mean healing time was 14.2 days (range = 4-60). Following the introduction of safety measures by vehicle manufacturers, motor vehicle radiator burns in this era are mostly minor injuries and can be potentially managed conservatively as an outpatient. This contrasts with findings from previous studies over a decade ago of larger, more significant injuries requiring admission and surgery. Whilst manufacturers have installed safety measures into the design of radiator caps, our findings suggest that re-educating the public to allow a period of cooling prior to opening caps should be reinforced. PMID:28289357

  17. The surgical treatment of radiation injuries after radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.P.S.; Yarnold, J.R.; Slack, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    The outcome of serious radiation injuries to the pelvic viscera in 400 patients treated by radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus between January 1974 and December 1978 has been reviewed. Twenty-eight instances of serious radiation damage have been found, 13 of predominantly small bowel damage, 11 of predominantly large bowel damage and 4 of bladder damage. Many patients had involvement at multiple sites. Fourteen patients have died, and 9 survivors have artificial abdominal stomas. Leaking anastomoses and progressive sepsis were major problems in the postoperative period and could be related either to inadequate resection of irradiated bowel or to damage to other organs at operation. The possibilities of earlier diagnosis and better surgical procedures are discussed. (author)

  18. Parenteral nutrition in experimental acute radiation injury of the abdominal cavity organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdov, S.P.; Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Kendysh, I.N.; Vasilevskaya, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities of metabolism in rats after partial body irradiation of the abdomen in a high dose and the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) with various compositions of diagrams on metabolic indexes with the aim of explaining diagram under conditions of intensive radiation injury of gastrointestinal tract, are investigated. Experiments have been carried out on male rats of the Vistar line, subjected to partial-body X-ray irradiation of the abdomen with the dose of 1400 R. It is shown that under conditions of radiation effect with predominnt unjury of the abdomen, considerable suppression of oxidation processes limits metabolism of nutritious substances. A decrease of glucose and amino acid content in PN produces a pronounced therapeutic effect under these conditions. The increase of lipid component in the PN composition and retabolile introduction increases PN therapeutic effect [ru

  19. Some effects of radiation therapy during early childhood on facial growth and tooth development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.P.; Nortje, C.J.; Lucchesi, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Case histories of the dental examinations of 2 children who were treated by radiation therapy for retinoblastomas in early childhood are discussed. The evidence presented here seems to indicate that in both patients early irradiation of the orbits and, as a result thereof, the jaws, could be partly responsible for the underdevelopment of this region

  20. Environmental exposure to low-doses of ionizing radiation. Effects on early nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés, Montserrat; Gonzalo, Sergio; Serra, Noemí; Esplugas, Roser; Arenas, Meritxell; Domingo, José Luis; Linares, Victoria

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear accidents of tremendous magnitude, such as those of Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011), mean that individuals living in the contaminated areas are potentially exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the dose-response relationship for effects of low doses of radiation is not still established. The present study was aimed at investigating in mice the early effects of low-dose internal radiation exposure on the kidney. Adult male (C57BL/6J) mice were divided into three groups. Two groups received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of cesium ( 137 Cs) with activities of 4000 and 8000Bq/kg bw. A third group (control group) received a single s.c. injection of 0.9% saline. To evaluate acute and subacute effects, mice (one-half of each group) were euthanized at 72h and 10 days post-exposure to 137 Cs, respectively. Urine samples were collected for biochemical analysis, including the measurement of F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) levels. Moreover, the concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of oxidative DNA damage, were measured in renal tissue. Urinary excretion of total protein significantly increased at 72h in mice exposed to Cs4000. Uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased significantly at both times post-exposure in animals exposed to Cs8000. After 72h and 10d of exposure to Cs4000, a significant increase in the γ-glutamil transferase (GGT) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities was observed. In turn, F2-IsoP levels increased -mainly in the Cs4000 group- at 72h post-exposure. Following irradiation ( 137 Cs), the highest level of KIM-1 was corresponded to the Cs4000 group at 72h. Likewise, the main DNA damage was detected in mice exposed to Cs4000, mainly at 10d after irradiation. The alterations observed in several biomarkers suggest an immediate renal damage following exposure to low doses of IR (given as 137 Cs). Further investigations are required to clarify the

  1. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Ohtsuru, A.; Hirano, A.; Yamashita, S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6±14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0±35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6±1.3 x 10 7 cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6±3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9±0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  2. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, S; Yoshimoto, H [Div. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical and Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan); Ohtsuru, A [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Hirano, A [Div. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical and Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamashita, S [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Inst., Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6{+-}14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0{+-}35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6{+-}1.3 x 10{sup 7} cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6{+-}3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9{+-}0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  3. Transforming growth factor alpha is a critical mediator of radiation lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; Horton, Jason A; White, Ayla; Scroggins, Bradley T; Vaswani, Shiva; Citrin, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Radiation fibrosis of the lung is a late toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has previously been implicated in radiation lung injury. We hypothesized that TGF-α, an EGF receptor ligand, plays a key role in radiation-induced fibrosis in lung. Mice deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-α(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6J (C57-WT) mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation in 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy. Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n ≥ 5 per group) and tissue collection (n = 3 per strain and time point). Collagen accumulation in irradiated lungs was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining and analysis of hydroxyproline content. Cytokine levels in lung tissue were assessed with ELISA. The effects of TGF-α on pneumocyte and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in vitro. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and activity were measured in vitro and in vivo. Irradiated C57-WT mice had a median survival of 24.4 weeks compared to 48.2 weeks for irradiated TGF-α(-/-) mice (P = 0.001). At 20 weeks after irradiation, hydroxyproline content was markedly increased in C57-WT mice exposed to radiation compared to TGF-α(-/-) mice exposed to radiation or unirradiated C57-WT mice (63.0, 30.5 and 37.6 μg/lung, respectively, P = 0.01). C57-WT mice exposed to radiation had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 20 weeks after exposure, whereas the lungs of irradiated TGF-α (-/-) mice were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Lung tissue concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β and EGF at multiple time points after irradiation were similar in C57-WT and TGF-α(-/-) mice. TGF-α in lung tissue of C57-WT mice rose rapidly after irradiation and remained elevated through 20 weeks. TGF-α(-/-) mice had lower basal LOX expression than C57-WT mice. Both LOX expression and LOX activity were increased after irradiation in all mice but to a lesser degree in TGF-α(-/-) mice. Treatment of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts with TGF

  4. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein

  5. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates

  6. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high

  7. Thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor as markers of radiation-induced endothelial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quansheng; Zhao Yimin; Li Peixia; Bai Xia; Ruan Changgeng

    1992-02-01

    Cultured confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were irradiated in vitro by 60 Co-gamma ray at doses from 0 to 50 Gy. After irradiation Thrombomodulin in the supernatants of endothelial cell culture medium, on the surface of the cells and within the cells was measured at different times over six days. At twenty-four hours after irradiation, an increase in the release of Thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor from irradiated endothelial cells and an increase in the number of molecules and the activity of Thrombomodulin on the surface of the cells were observed, which were radiation-dose dependent. The capacity of the cells to produce and release Thrombomodulin was decreased from two to six days after exposure to 60 Co-gamma ray. Our data indicate that radiation can injure endothelial cells and that Thrombomodulin may be as a marker of radiation-induced endothelial cell injury. The relationship between dysfunction of irradiated endothelial cells and the pathological mechanisms of acute radiation sickness are discussed

  8. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  9. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  10. Primary observation on adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in mice post combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping; Deng Xuecai

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: The expression of cell adhesion molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), fibro-connection (Fn), laminin (Ln) and collagen type IV (Col IV) on bone marrow stromal cells cultured in vitro was detected by flow cytometry and the binding capacity of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer was tested by cell binding assay and cell binding blocking assay respectively from mice treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray 15% of total body surface area (TBSA), third-degree burn injury and combined irradiation-burn injury, respectively. Results: 1. The expression levels of molecules mentioned above in burn-injured mice were the highest. The molecules levels in control mice were greater than those in radiation-injured mice, which were lower than those in mice with combined radiation-burn injury. 2. The binding capacity of stromal cell adherence layer in burn-injured mice was greater than that in control mice, and significantly increased from 3 to 7 days post injury as compared with that in controls, radiation-injured mice and combined radiation-burn-injured mice, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01). Contrarily, the capacity of binding in the radiation-injured and combined radiation-burn-injured mice was the lowest from 3 to 7 days post injury. 3. The binding rate of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer descended in different degrees after pre-treatment with monoclonal antibodies directed to VCAM-1, Fn, Ln, or Col IV respectively or VCAM-1 combined with anti-Fn, anti-Ln or anti-Col IV, respectively, in stromal cell adherence layer. Conclusion: The damage of cell adherent function for bone marrow hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury might be one of the important factors in hematopoietic disorder in combined radiation-burn injury

  11. Three-dimensional dose-response models of risk for radiation injury carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computer graphics in conjunction with three-dimensional models of dose-response relationships for chronic exposure to ionizing radiation dramaticly clarifies the separate and interactive roles of competing risks. The three dimensions are average dose rate, exposure time, and risk. As an example, the functionally injurious and carcinogenic responses after systemic uptake of Ra-226 by beagles, mice and people with consequent alpha particle irradiation of the bone are represented by three-dimensional dose-rate/time/response surfaces that demonstrate the contributions with the passage of time of the competing deleterious responses. These relationships are further evaluated by mathematical stripping with three-dimensional illustrations that graphically show the resultant separate contribution of each effect. Radiation bone injury predominates at high dose rates and bone cancer at intermediate dose rates. Low dose rates result in spontaneous deaths from natural aging, yielding a type of practical threshold for bone cancer induction. Risk assessment is benefited by the insights that become apparent with these three-dimensional models. The improved conceptualization afforded by them contributes to planning and evaluating epidemiological analyses and experimental studies

  12. The experimental study of radiation injury on bile duct and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guiwen; Wang Bin; Sun Yequan; Shao Xueye; Ning Houfa; Sui Shouguang; Wang Xiuchun; Bai Xuming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety, acceptance and the effective extent of 192 Ir-internal irradiation, providing theoretical guidelines for HC. Methods: Sixteen male healthy hybrid dogs enrolled in the experiment were divided into 4 groups of 4 each. The brachytherapy applicator was introduced from gall bladder into the convergence of cystic duct with common hepatic duct during the operation and a small chip of 1 cm 3 liver tissue was cut off and taken for control later on. The animals in group A-D were irradiated by 192 Ir-internal irradiation with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy arid 60 Gy at the correlative dose points respectively. Animals were put to death after 10 days subsequently, with sampling specimens obtained from radiation cystic duct and the in between liver tissue with the distant cystic duct. The radiation injury of the cystic duct and liver tissue near bile ducts were observed and studied by light microscope and transmission election microscope. Results: By the limit of the safest endurance dose(50 Gy) of Bile duct, unreversed injury of the nuclei of liver cells occurred at 0 to 15 mm from bile duct revealed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. The whole biliary duct wall would be undergone necrosis with irradiation dose over 60 Gy. Conclusions: Normal bile duct possesses good endurance to 192 Ir-internal irradiation. Within the safest endurance limit of 50 Gy the effective irradiation field could reach 15 mm from the involved bile duct. (authors)

  13. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Nomura, T.; Kojima, S.

    2000-01-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted α-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O 2 - to H 2 O 2 , the question as to whether the resultant H 2 O 2 is further detoxicated into H 2 O and O 2 or not must still be evaluated. Hence, we studied

  14. Social Environmental Moderators of Long-term Functional Outcomes of Early Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child’s home, school, and hospital, including 3 children’s hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67%of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). RESULTS Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P authoritarian (mean CAFAS of 56.45, 41.80, 54.90, and 17.12 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI, respectively, with significant difference between severe TBI and OI [difference = 39.33; P < .001], moderate TBI and OI [difference = 24

  15. Radiation-included brachial plexus injury; Follow-up of two different fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, S.; Cooke, J.; Parsons, C. (Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-07-01

    All 449 breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy to the breast and lymph nodes between 1982 and 1984 have been followed for 3-5.5 years. In this group two different fractionation schedules were used, one five times a fortnight and one daily, both over 6 weeks. The calculated dose to the brachial plexus was 45 Gy in 15 fractions or 5e Gy in 30 fractions. These schedules are equivalent doses using the standard NSD formula. The diagnosis of a brachial plexus injury was made clinically and computed tomography from recurrent disease. The actuarial incidence of a radiation-induced brachial plexus injury for the whole group was 4.9% at 5.5 years. No cases were seen in the first 10 months following radiotherapy. The incidence rises between 1 and 4 years and then starts to plateau. When the large fraction size group is compared with the small fraction size group the incidence at 5.5 years is 5.9% and 1.0%, respectively (p 0.09). Two different treatment techniques were used in this group but were not found to contribute to the probability of developing a brachial plexud injury. It is suggested that radiation using large doses per fraction are less well tolerated by the brachial plexus than small doses per fraction; a commonly used fractionation schedule such as 45 Gy in 15 fractions may give unacceptably high brachial plexus morbidity; and the of small doses per fraction or avoiding lymphatic irradiation is advocated. (author). 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  16. Pathology of experimental radiation pancarditis, 1. Observation on radiation-induced heart injuries following a single dose of x-ray irradiation to rabbit heart with special reference to its pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, S [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced heart injuries were morphologically studied by using the rabbits irradiated with a single dose of 3,000R (group I) or 300R X-ray (group II) from 1 hour until 6 months. There was no essential difference in the lesions of the hearts from group I and that of group II. Acute epicarditis was found as early as 1 hour after irradiation and it became maximum in severity at 1 - 2 days. In the myocardium, there were degeneration and resolution of the myocardial cell, various architectural changes of mitochondria, and disorganization of the intercalated disc. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and endothelial injuries of the capillaries occurred in the interstitial tissue. In addition, endocarditis with or without thrombus formation was often found. Acute inflammation was seen in the myocardium of group II rather later than that of group I, but it disappeared earlier. In the later stage, fibrosis finally occurred in the epicardium and endocardium. Glycoprotein degeneration of the muscle cells and fibrosis appeared in the myocardium. The pathogenesis of radiation pancarditis is thought to be dependent not only on the disturbance of microcirculation caused by endothelial cell damage of the capillaries, but also on alterations of the myocardial mitochondria as a result of direct injury.

  17. Administration of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Early Brain Injury via Akt Pathway Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI device. Using western blotting, we first examined TBI-induced changes in the expression levels of GRP78, an ER stress marker, p-PERK, PERK, p-eIF2a, eIF2a, ATF4, p-Akt, Akt, Pten, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-12 and CHOP, as well as changes in the mRNA levels of Akt, GRP78, Caspase-12 and CHOP using RT-PCR. Neuronal cell death was assessed by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL assay, and CHOP expression in neuronal cells was detected by double-immunofluorescence staining. Neurological and motor deficits were assessed by modified neurological severity scores (mNSS and beam balance and beam walking tests, and brain water content was also assessed. Our results indicated that ER stress peaked at 72 h after TBI and that TUDCA abolished ER stress and inhibited p-PERK, p-eIF2a, ATF4, Pten, Caspase-12 and CHOP expression levels. Moreover, our results show that TUDCA also improved neurological function and alleviated brain oedema. Additionally, TUDCA increased p-Akt expression and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. However, the administration of the Akt inhibitor MK2206 or siRNA targeting of Akt abolished the beneficial effects of TUDCA. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA may attenuate early brain injury via Akt pathway activation.

  18. An evaluation of the effect that the implementation of the NICE rules may have on a diagnostic imaging department for the early management of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Harvey, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Guidelines by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) for the early management of minor head injuries initiate the use of computed tomography (CT) for patients who may be at risk of developing intracranial haematoma. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effect the implementation of the NICE guidelines would have on the diagnostic imaging department of a local district general hospital. The main objective was to establish if there would be an increase in the number of CT head referrals for patients with minor head injuries. Secondly to assess how the implementation of these guidelines would affect the workload to the diagnostic imaging department in terms of cost and time, and to discuss the issue of radiation dose to patients. Method: A sample of 100 patients who were referred from the Accident and Emergency department (A and E) for plain skull radiographs, over a 4-month period were selected. The clinical information on each of these patients' was then extracted and a data collection sheet was to assess each patient according to the NICE criteria. Results and conclusion: The study found an 18% (n = 100) increase in the referral rate for CT heads for patients presenting with minor head injuries. It was also found that the use of these guidelines would mean a decrease in cost to the diagnostic imaging department of Pounds 324. Furthermore a saving of 10 h of radiographers' time was established, although the effective radiation dose to patients would be increased by 29 mSv. The NICE guidelines have proved efficient in identifying patients with intracranial damage although this coincides with an 18% (n = 100) increase in referral rates for CT and increased radiation dose to patients. However, the use of these guidelines would reduce workload to the diagnostic imaging department in terms of cost and time

  19. Results of primary radiation therapy in early vocal cord cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.A.; Sarkar, S.; Mehta, M.S.; Marfatia, P.T.; Choudhary, A.J.; Mehta, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of 74 patients treated by primary radiation therapy with curative intent at the Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1980 and December 1984 are reported. Thirty three (44.6%) were classified as TlaNO, twenty five (33.8%) as TlbNO, ten (13.5%) as T2NO and six(8.1%) as TisNO. The 5-year actuarial survival was 92% and disease-free survival was 85%. Thirteen patients (17.5%) failed locally, seven (53.8%) of whom were salvaged by surgery. Radiation side-effects were minimal and there were no long term complications. Anterior commissure involvement did not affect the local recurrence rates. (author). 19 refs., 1 tabs

  20. S-Adenosylmethionine attenuates bile duct early warm ischemia reperfusion injury after rat liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Chu, Hongpeng; Cao, Guojun; Du, Xiaolong; Min, Xiaobo; Wan, Chidan

    2018-03-01

    Warm ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a key role in biliary complication, which is a substantial vulnerability of liver transplantation. The early pathophysiological changes of IRI are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate that modulates inflammatory reactions; however, its role in bile duct warm IRI is not known. In this study, male rats were treated with or without SAM (170 μmol/kg body weight) after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation. The histopathological observations showed that bile duct injury in the IRI group was more serious than in the SAM group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) levels in the serum of the IRI group were significantly increased compared to the SAM group (P liver and bile duct tissues, down-regulated TNF-α levels and up-regulated IL-10 expression in bile duct tissues compared to the IRI group (P livers were much higher compared to those in SAM-treated rats at 24 h after liver transplantation (P bile ducts against warm IRI by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells after liver transplantation.α. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The lazaroid U74389G protects normal brain from stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buatti, John M.; Friedman, William A.; Theele, Daniel P.; Bova, Francis J.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To test an established model of stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury with pretreatments of either methylprednisolone or the lazaroid U74389G. Methods and Materials: Nine cats received stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator using an animal radiosurgery device. Each received a dose of 125.0 Gy prescribed to the 84% isodose shell to the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. One animal received no pretreatment, two received citrate vehicle, three received 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and three received 5 mg/kg of U74389G. After irradiation, the animals had frequent neurologic examinations, and neurologic deficits developed in all of them. Six months after the radiation treatment, the animals were anesthetized, and had gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scans, followed by Evans blue dye perfusion, euthanasia, and brain fixation. Results: Magnetic resonance scans revealed a decrease in the size of the lesions from a mean volume of 0.45 ± 0.06 cm 3 in the control, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated animals to 0.22 ± 0.14 cm 3 in the U74389G-treated group. The scans also suggested the absence of necrosis and ventricular dilatation in the lazaroid-treated group. Gross pathology revealed that lesions produced in the untreated, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated cats were similar and were characterized by a peripheral zone of Evans blue dye staining with a central zone of a mature coagulative necrosis and focal hemorrhage. However, in the U74389G-treated animals, the lesions were found to have an area of Evans blue dye staining, but lacked discrete areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Conclusion: These results suggest that the lazaroid U74389G protects the normal brain from radiation injury produced by stereotactic radiosurgery

  2. Early estimates of UK radiation doses from the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Clarke, R.H.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The plume of radioactive material from the Chernobyl reactor accident passed over the United Kingdom and will increase the radiation dose to the population in the coming year. The increase above the normal annual dose from natural radiation, averaged over persons of all ages, will be about 15% in the north and 1% in the south of the country. Averaged over all ages and areas, the increase will be about 4%. This excess dose will decrease substantially in subsequent years. The accident at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, near Kiev, on or after 26 April 1986, led to substantial quantities of radioactive material being released to the atmosphere. Wind initially transported the material towards northern and western Europe. Activity was first detected in the southern United Kingdom, some ∼ 2,000 km away, on 2 May. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the operators of nuclear installations and the regulating authorities, had anticipated this eventuality and had intensified their normal programmes of environmental monitoring. During the following days many measurements were made and a considerable amount of data was generated throughout the country. NRPB was assigned responsibility for collating and evaluating these results; the initial information is used here to make a preliminary estimate of the radiation doses to the population of the United Kingdom

  3. New clade of enigmatic early archosaurs yields insights into early pseudosuchian phylogeny and the biogeography of the archosaur radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Sullivan, Corwin; Ezcurra, Martín D; Liu, Jun; Lecuona, Agustina; Sookias, Roland B

    2014-06-10

    The origin and early radiation of archosaurs and closely related taxa (Archosauriformes) during the Triassic was a critical event in the evolutionary history of tetrapods. This radiation led to the dinosaur-dominated ecosystems of the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and the high present-day archosaur diversity that includes around 10,000 bird and crocodylian species. The timing and dynamics of this evolutionary radiation are currently obscured by the poorly constrained phylogenetic positions of several key early archosauriform taxa, including several species from the Middle Triassic of Argentina (Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum) and China (Turfanosuchus dabanensis, Yonghesuchus sangbiensis). These species act as unstable 'wildcards' in morphological phylogenetic analyses, reducing phylogenetic resolution. We present new anatomical data for the type specimens of G. stipanicicorum, T. dabanensis, and Y. sangbiensis, and carry out a new morphological phylogenetic analysis of early archosaur relationships. Our results indicate that these three previously enigmatic taxa form a well-supported clade of Middle Triassic archosaurs that we refer to as Gracilisuchidae. Gracilisuchidae is placed basally within Suchia, among the pseudosuchian (crocodile-line) archosaurs. The approximately contemporaneous and morphologically similar G. stipanicicorum and Y. sangbiensis may be sister taxa within Gracilisuchidae. Our results provide increased resolution of the previously poorly constrained relationships of early archosaurs, with increased levels of phylogenetic support for several key early pseudosuchian clades. Moreover, they falsify previous hypotheses suggesting that T. dabanensis and Y. sangbiensis are not members of the archosaur crown group. The recognition of Gracilisuchidae provides further support for a rapid phylogenetic diversification of crown archosaurs by the Middle Triassic. The disjunct distribution of the gracilisuchid clade in China and Argentina demonstrates that early

  4. Permanent hypopituitarism is rare after structural traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha L; Jefferies, Craig; Hofman, Paul L; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine; Kelly, Patrick; Hamill, James K M; Jones, Rhys G; Rowe, Deborah L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine the incidence of permanent hypopituitarism in a potentially high-risk group: young children after structural traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted a cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up. Dynamic tests of pituitary function (GH and ACTH) were performed in all subjects and potential abnormalities critically evaluated. Puberty was clinically staged; baseline thyroid function, prolactin, IGF-I, serum sodium, and osmolality were compared with age-matched data. Diagnosis of GH deficiency was based on an integrated assessment of stimulated GH peak (hypopituitarism were recorded. Permanent hypopituitarism is rare after both inflicted and accidental structural TBI in early childhood. Precocious puberty was the only pituitary hormone abnormality found, but the prevalence did not exceed that of the normal population.

  5. Detection of radiation induced lung injury in rats using dynamic hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ouriadov, Alexei; Hegarty, Elaine [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Thind, Kundan [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, N6C 2R6 (Canada); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2M9 (Canada); Santyr, Giles E., E-mail: gsantyr@robarts.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Radiation induced lung injury (RILI) is a common side effect for patients undergoing thoracic radiation therapy (RT). RILI can lead to temporary or permanent loss of lung function and in extreme cases, death. Combining functional lung imaging information with conventional radiation treatment plans may lead to more desirable treatment plans that reduce lung toxicity and improve the quality of life for lung cancer survivors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the lung following inhalation of hyperpolarized{sup 129}Xe may provide a useful nonionizing approach for probing changes in lung function and structure associated with RILI before, during, or after RT (early and late time-points). Methods: In this study, dynamic{sup 129}Xe MR spectroscopy was used to measure whole-lung gas transfer time constants for lung tissue and red blood cells (RBC), respectively (T{sub Tr-tissue} and T{sub Tr-RBC}) in groups of rats at two weeks and six weeks following 14 Gy whole-lung exposure to radiation from a {sup 60}Co source. A separate group of six healthy age-matched rats served as a control group. Results: T{sub Tr-tissue} values at two weeks post-irradiation (51.6 ± 6.8 ms) were found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.05) with respect to the healthy control group (37.2 ± 4.8 ms). T{sub Tr-RBC} did not show any significant changes between groups. T{sub Tr-tissue} was strongly correlated with T{sub Tr-RBC} in the control group (r = 0.9601 p < 0.05) and uncorrelated in the irradiated groups. Measurements of arterial partial pressure of oxygen obtained by arterial blood sampling were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the two-week group (54.2 ± 12.3 mm Hg) compared to those from a representative control group (85.0 ± 10.0 mm Hg). Histology of a separate group of similarly irradiated animals confirmed the presence of inflammation due to radiation exposure with alveolar wall thicknesses that were significantly different (p < 0.05). At six weeks post

  6. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEENAN, KATE; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; STEPP, STEPHANIE D.; WROBLEWSKI, KRISTEN

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13–14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist

  7. Early Autologous Cranioplasty after Decompressive Hemi-Craniectomy for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasmi, S. A.; Ghaffar, A.; Hussain, Z.; Mushtaq, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of early replacement of autologous bone flap for decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury patients. Methods: The observational cross-sectional prospective study was conducted at the Neurosurgical Unit of the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from July 2011, to June 2014, and comprised patients who underwent cranioplasty after decompressive hemicraniectomy for trauma. Patients over 20 years of age and of either gender were included. Cranioplasty was timed in all these patients using native bone flap preserved in the abdominal wall after decompressive craniectomy. Parameters recorded were mortality, wound infection, subdural collection, wound dehiscence, ventriculomegaly, bone resorption, cosmetic deformity and neurological outcome. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 30 patients in the study, 28(93.3 percent) were males. The overall mean age was age 32.03±8.01 years (range: 20-48 years). Mean cranioplasty time was 66.2±11.50 days (range: 44-89 days). Major infection necessitating bone flap removal was found in 1(3.33 percent) patient, while minor scalp wound infections, treated with antibiotics and dressings were found in 2(6.66 percent). Cosmetic18 deformity was seen in 3(10 percent). Improved neurological outcome was noted in 21(70 percent) patients; 6(20 percent) survived with a moderate to severe disability and 3(10 percent) remained in a vegetative state. No mortality was found after the procedure. Conclusion: Early autologous bone replacement for decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury patients offered cost-effective, acceptable surgical and improve dneurological outcome. (author)

  8. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  9. Radiation combined injury models to study the effects of interventions and wound biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Janice A; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D; Kaffes, Caterina C; Sabek, Omaima M; Afshar, Solmaz F; Young, Daniel A; Yang, Yunzhi; Gaber, M Waleed

    2014-12-01

    In the event of a nuclear detonation, a considerable number of projected casualties will suffer from combined radiation exposure and burn and/or wound injury. Countermeasure assessment in the setting of radiation exposure combined with dermal injury is hampered by a lack of animal models in which the effects of interventions have been characterized. To address this need, we used two separate models to characterize wound closure. The first was an open wound model in mice to study the effect of wound size in combination with whole-body 6 Gy irradiation on the rate of wound closure, animal weight and survival (morbidity). In this model the addition of interventions, wound closure, subcutaneous vehicle injection, topical antiseptic and topical antibiotics were studied to measure their effect on healing and survival. The second was a rat closed wound model to study the biomechanical properties of a healed wound at 10 days postirradiation (irradiated with 6 or 7.5 Gy). In addition, complete blood counts were performed and wound pathology by staining with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, CD68 and Ki67. In the mouse open wound model, we found that wound size and morbidity were positively correlated, while wound size and survival were negatively correlated. Regardless of the wound size, the addition of radiation exposure delayed the healing of the wound by approximately 5-6 days. The addition of interventions caused, at a minimum, a 30% increase in survival and improved mean survival by ∼9 days. In the rat closed wound model we found that radiation exposure significantly decreased all wound biomechanical measurements as well as white blood cell, platelet and red blood cell counts at 10 days post wounding. Also, pathological changes showed a loss of dermal structure, thickening of dermis, loss of collagen/epithelial hyperplasia and an increased density of macrophages. In conclusion, we have characterized the effect of a changing wound size in combination with radiation

  10. Radiation injury of the developing immune system in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Fetal lymphoid organs of the beagle dog were studied to determine if the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60 Co gamma exposures to 200R or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation; 35, 40, or 45 days postcoitus. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gy. Half the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at five days and half at ten days postirradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymus lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at five and ten days PI as compared to age matched controls. Radiation damage in the developing immune system was expressed in the lymphocyte populations of fetal lymphoid organs and in thymus epithelium. Damage was qualitatively and quantitatively more severe following irradiation earlier in gestation, confirming that the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity. Prenatal radiation injury to the developing lymphoid system could compromise postnatal immunologic function and could alter immunoregulation

  11. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  12. Early reionization by decaying particles and cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuya, S.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the reionization scenario in which ionizing UV photons emitted from decaying particle, in addition to usual contributions from stars and quasars, ionize the universe. It is found that the scenario is consistent with both the first year data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the fact that the universe is not fully ionized until z∼6 as observed by Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Likelihood analysis revealed that rather broad parameter space can be chosen. This scenario will be discriminated by future observations, especially by the EE polarization power spectrum of cosmic microwave background radiation

  13. The results of radiation therapy for early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michinori; Hada, Yoshihiro; Shirane, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    To analyze various parameters affect local control, we reviewed the results of radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma. Between 1977 and 1997, 64 patients with untreated early glottic carcinoma and four patients with recurrent early glottic carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. All tumors were classified as follows; T1 (n=56), T2 (n=12); well differentiated (n=33), moderately (n=25), poorly (n=1), unknown (n=9); very small tumor (VST) (n=46), small tumor (ST) (n=22). All patients were treated utilizing a cobalt-60 unit to a total dose that ranged from 56 Gy to 64 Gy (mean 60 Gy). The mean treatment time was 44 days (range 38-49). The local control rates at 2 years and 5 years for all patients were 85% and 78%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size (p=0.0146) and recurrent or untreated tumor (p=0.0226) affected local control. On multivariate analysis, tumor size (p=0.0273) and recurrent or untreated tumor (p=0.0495) were also significant factors that affected local control. (author)

  14. Abdominal trauma in infants and children: prompt identification and early management of serious and life-threatening injuries. Part II: Specific injuries and ED management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, S G; Green, S M; Morgan, R

    2000-06-01

    Evaluation of children with suspected abdominal trauma could be a difficult task. Unique anatomic and physiologic features render vital sign assessment and the physical examination less useful than in the adult population. Awareness of injury patterns and associations will improve the early diagnosis of abdominal trauma. Clinicians must have a complete understanding of common and atypical presentations of children with significant abdominal injuries. Knowledge of the utility and limitations of available laboratory and radiologic adjuncts will assist in accurately identifying abdominal injury. While other obvious injuries (eg, facial, cranial, and extremity trauma) can distract physicians from less obvious abdominal trauma, an algorithmic approach to evaluating and managing children with multisystem trauma will improve overall care and help to identify and treat abdominal injuries in a timely fashion. Finally, physicians must be aware of the capabilities of their own facility to handle pediatric trauma. Protocols must be in place for expediting the transfer of children who require a higher level of care. Knowledge of each of these areas will help to improve the overall care and outcome of children with abdominal trauma.

  15. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  16. Early detection of consciousness in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Chatelle, Camille; Spencer, Camille A; Chu, Catherine J; Bodien, Yelena G; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Hirschberg, Ronald E; Hochberg, Leigh R; Giacino, Joseph T; Rosenthal, Eric S; Wu, Ona

    2017-09-01

    See Schiff (doi:10.1093/awx209) for a scientific commentary on this article. Patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury may recover consciousness before self-expression. Without behavioural evidence of consciousness at the bedside, clinicians may render an inaccurate prognosis, increasing the likelihood of withholding life-sustaining therapies or denying rehabilitative services. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography techniques have revealed covert consciousness in the chronic setting, but these techniques have not been tested in the intensive care unit. We prospectively enrolled 16 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute severe traumatic brain injury to test two hypotheses: (i) in patients who lack behavioural evidence of language expression and comprehension, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography detect command-following during a motor imagery task (i.e. cognitive motor dissociation) and association cortex responses during language and music stimuli (i.e. higher-order cortex motor dissociation); and (ii) early responses to these paradigms are associated with better 6-month outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on post-injury Day 9.2 ± 5.0 and electroencephalography on Day 9.8 ± 4.6. At the time of imaging, behavioural evaluation with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised indicated coma (n = 2), vegetative state (n = 3), minimally conscious state without language (n = 3), minimally conscious state with language (n = 4) or post-traumatic confusional state (n = 4). Cognitive motor dissociation was identified in four patients, including three whose behavioural diagnosis suggested a vegetative state. Higher-order cortex motor dissociation was identified in two additional patients. Complete absence of responses to language, music and motor imagery was only observed in coma patients. In patients with behavioural evidence

  17. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Farhat, Maha R; Sajjad, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web ...

  18. Early detection of skeletal muscle injury by assay of creatine kinase MM isoforms in serum after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apple, F. S.; Hellsten, Ylva; Clarkson, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    We could detect skeletal muscle injury early after an acute exercise bout by measuring creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) MM isoforms in serum. Eleven men performed 120 alternating-arm, eccentric (muscle lengthening) biceps contractions with the intensity of each contraction being 110% of maximal...

  19. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also result