WorldWideScience

Sample records for early quench development

  1. Minimum Quench Energy and Early Quench Development in NbTi Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Breschi, M; Boselli, M; Bottura, Luca; Devred, Arnaud; Ribani, P L; Trillaud, F

    2007-01-01

    The stability of superconducting wires is a crucial task in the design of safe and reliable superconducting magnets. These magnets are prone to premature quenches due to local releases of energy. In order to simulate these energy disturbances, various heater technologies have been developed, such as coated tips, graphite pastes, and inductive coils. The experiments studied in the present work have been performed using a single-mode diode laser with an optical fiber to illuminate the superconducting strand surface. Minimum quench energies and voltage traces at different magnetic flux densities and transport currents have been measured on an LHC-type, Cu/NbTi wire bathed in pool boiling helium I. This paper deals with the numerical analysis of the experimental data. In particular, a coupled electromagnetic and thermal model has been developed to study quench development and propagation, focusing on the influence of heat exchange with liquid helium.

  2. Early structural development in melt-quenched polymer PTT from atomistic molecular dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Kang; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2009-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the initial structural development in poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) when quenched below its melting point. The development of local ordering has been observed in our simulations. The thermal properties, such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm), determined from our simulations are in reasonable agreement with experimental values. It is found that, between these two temperatures, the number of local structures quickly increases during the thermal relaxation period soon after the system is quenched and starts to fluctuate afterwards. The formation and development of local structures is found to be driven mainly by the torsional and van der Waals forces and follows the classical nucleation-growth mechanism. The variation of local structures' fraction with temperature exhibits a maximum between Tg and Tm, resembling the temperature dependence of the crystallization rate for most polymers. In addition, the backbone torsion distribution for segments within the local structures preferentially reorganizes to the trans-gauche-gauche-trans (t-g-g-t) conformation, the same as that in the crystalline state. As a consequence, we believe that such local structural ordering could be the baby nuclei that have been suggested to form in the early stage of polymer crystallization.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION: MAKING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES RED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie; Bournaud, Frederic; Teyssier, Romain; Dekel, Avishai

    2009-01-01

    We point out a natural mechanism for quenching of star formation in early-type galaxies (ETGs). It automatically links the color of a galaxy with its morphology and does not require gas consumption, removal or termination of gas supply. Given that star formation takes place in gravitationally unstable gas disks, it can be quenched when a disk becomes stable against fragmentation to bound clumps. This can result from the growth of a stellar spheroid, for instance by mergers. We present the concept of morphological quenching (MQ) using standard disk instability analysis, and demonstrate its natural occurrence in a cosmological simulation using an efficient zoom-in technique. We show that the transition from a stellar disk to a spheroid can be sufficient to stabilize the gas disk, quench star formation, and turn an ETG red and dead while gas accretion continues. The turbulence necessary for disk stability can be stirred up by sheared perturbations within the disk in the absence of bound star-forming clumps. While other quenching mechanisms, such as gas stripping, active galactic nucleus feedback, virial shock heating, and gravitational heating are limited to massive halos, MQ can explain the appearance of red ETGs also in halos less massive than ∼10 12 M sun . The dense gas disks observed in some of today's red ellipticals may be the relics of this mechanism, whereas red galaxies with quenched gas disks could be more frequent at high redshift.

  4. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  5. Development of Quench Detection System for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birus, Dietrich; Rummel, Thomas; Fricke, Marko; Petry, Klaus; Demattio, Horst

    2007-01-01

    The Quench Detection System of W7-X will consist of nearly 400 Quench Detection Units (QDU) for the fast and reliable supervision of the 70 superconducting coils and the 120 superconducting bus bar sections. There will be five control racks with about 80 QDU, a data acquisition unit, an ac-dc power supply with integrated dc UPS unit in each of the racks and a PC based data management system as an overlay structure. Each QDU will have a special analogue input circuit realised as a programmable half bridge front end with different polarity-sensing and limiting functions for suppressing high dynamic voltages. Special filter design is included for noise-suppression and over voltage protection. A reconfigurable control/arithmetic unit offers possibilities of future expansions (e.g. all digital evaluation). The QDU acquires and checks the differential voltages of the superconductors permanently. In case of a quench it triggers the fast discharge of the coils and the storage of the voltage signals on the memory unit. The quench signals are in the mV range and have to be clearly identified within a noisy and a high-voltage background within a few milliseconds. Each QDU transfers the stored signal dates via a high-speed RS485 serial interface with 20 kV optical isolation barrier to an industrial type data acquisition unit. A second optically isolated RS485-network enables interconnection of each QDU in the control rack (Compound-Mode of QDU). The QDU are designed with an internal failsafe, programmable self-test and redundancy feature, broken wire check of the quench detection cables and connectors inside and outside of the cryostat of W7-X. All QDU will be fed via an UPS supported 24 V dc bus through a high voltage isolated dc-dc transformer on each unit. The design of the Quench Detection System allows operation under high voltage levels of up to 8 kV and under magnetic stray field levels up to 30 mT. The front end is very well isolated and the outputs of the QDU are

  6. Development of Quench Detection Units for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birus, D.; Rummel, T.; Fricke, M.; Petry, K.; Demattio, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Quench Detection System of W7-X will consist of nearly 400 Quench Detection Units (QDU) for the fast and reliable supervision of the 70 superconducting coils and the 120 superconducting bus bar sections. There will be five control racks with about 80 QDU, a data acquisition unit, an AC-DC power supply with integrated DC-UPS unit in each of the racks and a PC based data management system as an overlay structure. Each QDU will have a special analogue input circuit realised as a programmable half bridge front end with different polarity-sensing and limiting functions for suppressing high dynamic voltages. Special filter design is included for noise-suppression and over voltage protection. A reconfigurable control/arithmetic unit offers possibilities of future expansions (e.g. all digital evaluation). The QDU acquires and checks the differential voltages of the superconductors permanently. In case of a quench it triggers the fast discharge of the coils and the storage of the voltage signals on the memory unit. The quench signals are in the mV range and have to be clearly identified within a noisy and a high-voltage background within a few milliseconds. Each QDU transfers the stored signal dates via a high-speed RS-485 serial interface with 20 KV optical isolation barrier to the data acquisition unit, an industrial system. A second optically isolated RS-485-network enables interconnection of each QDU in the control rack (Compound-Mode of QDU). The QDU are designed with an internal failsafe, programmable self test and redundancy feature, broken wire check of the quench detection cables and connectors inside and outside of the cryostat of W7-X. All QDU will be fed via an UPS supported 24 V DC bus through a high voltage isolated DC-DC transformer on each unit. The design of the QDU allows operation under high voltage levels of up to 8 kV and under magnetic stray field levels up to 30 mT. The front end is very well isolated and the outputs of the QDU are strictly

  7. Thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the ITER TF system during a quench development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, S.; Lacroix, B.; Bessette, D.; Copetti, R.; Duchateau, J.L.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of the ITER TF magnets, a primary quench detection system has been foreseen, based on voltage detection. In addition, a secondary quench detection could rely on signals of thermo-hydraulic nature. As a matter of fact, the development of a quench in a CICC leads to significant variations of pressure and mass flow at the quenched pancake extremities. Analyses of the quench development have thus been performed using the coupled GANDALF and FLOWER codes. This tool allows to simulate the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of one CICC with a model of the external cryogenic circuit. The study has focused on the first seconds of the quench development, supposing that the quench has not been detected earlier by the primary detector. It is shown that signals regarding pressure, mass flow and temperature reach significant high values especially in the connecting feeder associated with the helium inlet. More detailed studies will be needed to select a secondary detector in this region.

  8. A Conceptual Development of Quench Prediction App build on LSTM and ELQA framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mertik, Matej; Wielgosz, Maciej; Skoczeń, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a development of web application for quench prediction in \\gls{te-mpe-ee} at CERN. The authors describe an ELectrical Quality Assurance (ELQA) framework, a platform which was designed for rapid development of web integrated data analysis applications for different analysis needed during the hardware commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In second part the article describes a research carried out with the data collected from Quench Detection System by means of...

  9. Development of quench protection system for HTS coils by active power method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanato, N.; Tsumiyama, Y.; Kim, S.B.; Murase, S.; Seong, K.-C.; Kim, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, HTS coils have been developed for electric power apparatuses. In superconducting coils, local and excessive joule heating may give damage to the superconducting windings when a quench occurs and therefore it is essential that the quench is detected quickly and precisely so that the coils can be safely discharged. Resistive voltage measurement method is universally used for the quench detection, however, it is vulnerable to an electromagnetic noise which causes insufficient quench detection and at least needs a central voltage tap in windings. In a large superconducting coil, a lead-wire from the central voltage tap may cause a short-circuit when high voltage will be applied. In this paper, we present a quench protection system based on the active power method which detects a quench by measuring the instantaneous active power generated in a superconducting coil. The protection system based on this method is very strong against to the noise and no more needs a central voltage tap. The performance of system developed by us is confirmed by using test coil wound with Bi-2223 HTS tapes

  10. Quench Tests of LHC Magnets with Beam: Studies on Beam Loss development and determination of Quench levels

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Sapinski, M

    The application of superconducting materials in the field of high energy accelerator physics not only opens the doors to the generation of the magnetic fields unattainable to normal conductors but also demands facing new challenges. A transition fromthe superconducting state, which is characterized by a resistance-free flow of the electric current, to the normal conducting state is called quenching. This process might be extremely dangerous and even lead to destruction of amagnet superconducting coil if no protecting actions are taken. Therefore, the knowledge of a magnet quench level, i.e. amount of energy which causes the transition to the resistive state, is crucial for the safety and operational efficiency of the accelerator. Regarding that, specific thresholds are incorporated to dedicated quench prevention systems in order to suppress the origin of detected energy perturbation, for example beam losses, or mitigate the consequences of the quenching process by dissipating the energy stored in the magnetic...

  11. Ferrous arrowheads and their oil quench hardening: Some early Indian evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    A wide variety of ferrous arrowheads were in use in ancient India. Several typical chemical analyses of arrowheads found from archaeological excavation carried out at Kaushambi are reported in this paper. The average carbon content of these arrowheads varied from as low as 0.1 wt.% to approximately 0.9 wt.%. Literary evidence for oil quench hardening of ferrous arrowheads, as reported in famous Sanskrit epics—the Rāmāyana and the Mahābhārata—have been discussed in this paper. This type of quench hardening was intentionally adopted as it helped in preventing distortion and formation of quench cracks in arrowheads. The oil quench-hardened arrowheads were rubbed on stones to sharpen them, which also brought about tempering of martensite due to frictional heat.

  12. Microstructural development during the quenching and partitioning process in a newly designed low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santofimia, M.J., E-mail: m.j.santofimianavarro@tudelft.nl [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Zhao, L. [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Petrov, R. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Kwakernaak, C.; Sloof, W.G.; Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural development of a new quenching and partitioning (Q and P) steel. Q and P treatments, starting from full austenitization, were applied to the developed steel, leading to microstructures containing volume fractions of retained austenite of up to 0.15. The austenite was distributed as films in between the martensite laths. Analysis demonstrates that, in this material, stabilization of austenite can be achieved at significantly shorter time scales via the Q and P route than is possible via a bainitic isothermal holding. The results showed that the thermal stabilization of austenite during the partitioning step is not necessarily accompanied by a significant expansion of the material. This implies that the process of carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite occurs across low-mobility martensite-austenite interfaces. The amount of martensite formed during the first quench has been quantified. Unlike martensite formed in the final quench, this martensite was found to be tempered during partitioning. Measured volume fractions of retained austenite after different treatments were compared with simulations using model descriptions for carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite. Simulation results confirmed that the carbon partitioning takes place at low-mobility martensite-austenite interfaces.

  13. Gas, Dust, and Quenching of Dusty Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Justin Scott

    In this dissertation, I study various aspects related to the gas and star formation in dusty star-forming galaxies in the distant universe. My dissertation is heavily based on observations made by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), observing a sample of gravitationally lensed high-redshift dusty galaxies originally discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). In addition to the introductions to the individual chapters, Chapter 1 provides a broader background to the study of these objects and places them in the overall context of galaxy evolution. In Chapter 2 I describe a technique designed to search for faint molecular lines in the spectrum of high-redshift dusty galaxies. The brightest molecular lines in the spectra of these objects are due to carbon monoxide, but a host of other species are present in the interstellar media. These other molecules trace gas of a wide range of temperatures and densities, but are generally ten times fainter than the brighter CO lines. I detected several other molecular lines, and used them to characterize the conditions of the interstellar gas. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2014). In Chapter 3, I describe a technique for modeling the effects of gravitational lensing which is optimized for data from interferometers such as ALMA. Using these models and data for a large sample of objects from ALMA, I studied the intrinsic properties of the sample such as the source sizes and luminosities. I used these intrinsic properties to revisit topics from the literature which benefit from the additional size information I determined. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2016). In Chapter 4, I use the modeling technique I developed to investigate the relationship between the star formation and the cold molecular gas from which stars form in two objects selected from the SPT sample. Using the models of the source, I was able to determine the mass of molecular gas in these objects using several independent

  14. effects of various effects of various quenching media on quenching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. Evaluation of palm kernel oil, cotton seed oil and olive oil as quenching media of 0.509Wt%C medium carbon steel ... Quenching is an essential element in developing the .... machine, heat treatment furnace, Avery Denison Izod.

  15. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    Quenches can be divided into two categories; conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. A conductor-limited quench occurs when the current in the magnet exceeds the capacity of the superconductor; it is characterized by a strong correlation with temperature. An energy-deposited quench occurs when a disturbance releases enough energy to trigger a quench; the main disturbances during magnet energization are frictional movements of the conductor due to increasing Lorentz forces. The current level of the conductor-limited quenches defines the limit of the magnet performance, and can only be surpassed by lowering the operating temperature; the occurrence of a constant current at quench during the magnetic testing is called a plateau. Usually it takes a few energy-deposited quenches of increasing currents to reach the plateau; these first few steps are called the magnet's training. The goal in designing a magnet is to be able to energize it and to reliably operate it at the design current without training. This can be achieved by optimizing the magnet's operating margin, that is, by designing and building the magnet in such a way that the sizes of the mechanical disturbances needed to trigger a quench are much larger than the achievable mechanical tolerances. (N.K.) 112 refs

  16. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  17. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  18. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  19. Improved rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloys for development of improved-capacity nickel metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Tadashi; Hamamatsu, Takeo; Imoto, Teruhiko; Nogami, Mitsuzo; Nakahori, Shinsuke

    The effects of annealing a rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloy with a stoichiometric ratio of 4.76 were investigated concerning its hydrogen-absorbing properties, crystal structure and electrochemical characteristics. Annealing at 1073 K homogenized the alloy microstructure and flattened its plateau slope in the P-C isotherms. However, annealing at 1273 K segregated a second phase rich in rare earth elements, increased the hydrogen-absorbing pressure and decreased the hydrogen-absorbing capacity. As the number of charge-discharge cycles increases, the particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched alloy became broad due to partial pulverization. However, particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched, annealed, alloy was sharp, since the annealing homogenized the microstructure, thereby improving the cycle characteristics. A high-capacity rectangular nickel metal hydride battery using a rapidly-quenched, annealed, surface-treated alloy for the negative electrode and an active material coated with cobalt compound containing sodium for the positive electrode was developed. The capacity of the resulting battery was 30% greater than that of a conventional battery.

  20. Development of Industrially Produced Composite Quench Heaters for the LHC Superconducting Lattice Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Szeless, Balázs; Calvone, F

    1996-01-01

    The quench heaters are vital elements for the protection of the LHC superconducting lattice magnets in the case of resistive transitions of the conductor. The basic concept of magnet protection and technical solutions are briefly presented. The quench heater consists of partially copper clad stainless steel strips sandwiched in between electric insulating carrier foils with electrical and mechanical properties such as to withstand high voltages, low temperatures, pressures and ionizing radiation. Testing of some commercial available electric insulation foils, polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketon (PEEK) and polyarylate (PA) and combinations of adhesive systems which are suitable for industrial processing are described. Possible industrial methods for series production for some 80 km of these composite quench heaters are indicated.

  1. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  2. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  3. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10 -10 cm 2 which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  4. The LHC quench protection system

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new quench protection system (QPS) has the crucial roles of providing an early warning for any part of the superconducting coils and busbars that develop high resistance, as well as triggering the switch-off of the machine. Over 2000 new detectors will be installed around the LHC to make sure every busbar segment between magnets is monitored and protected. One of the major consolidation activities for the LHC is the addition of two new detectors to the quench protection system. A magnet quench occurs when part of the superconducting cable becomes normally-conducting. When the protection system detects an increased resistance the huge amount of energy stored in the magnet chains is safely extracted and ‘dumped’ into specially designed resistors. In the case of the main dipole chain, the stored energy in a single LHC sector is roughly the same as the kinetic energy of a passenger jet at cruising speed. The first new detector is designed to monitor the superconducting...

  5. Architecture of a software quench management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy M. Nogiec et al.

    2001-01-01

    Testing superconducting accelerator magnets is inherently coupled with the proper handling of quenches; i.e., protecting the magnet and characterizing the quench process. Therefore, software implementations must include elements of both data acquisition and real-time controls. The architecture of the quench management software developed at Fermilab's Magnet Test Facility is described. This system consists of quench detection, quench protection, and quench characterization components that execute concurrently in a distributed system. Collaboration between the elements of quench detection, quench characterization and current control are discussed, together with a schema of distributed saving of various quench-related data. Solutions to synchronization and reliability in such a distributed quench system are also presented

  6. Development of radiation tolerant components for the Quench Protection System at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterling, O.; Denz, R.; Steckert, J.; Uznanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation campaigns with the high resolution Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) ADS1281. This ADC will be used as part of a revised quench detection circuit for the 600 A corrector magnets at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . To verify the radiation tolerance of the ADC an irradiation campaign using a proton beam, applying doses up to 3,4 kGy was conducted. The resulting data and an analysis of the found failure modes is discussed in this paper. Several mitigation measures are described that allow to reduce the error rate to levels acceptable for operation as part of the LHC QPS.

  7. Development of radiation tolerant components for the Quench Protection System at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterling, O.; Denz, R.; Steckert, J.; Uznanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation campaigns with the high resolution Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) ADS1281. This ADC will be used as part of a revised quench detection circuit for the 600 A corrector magnets at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . To verify the radiation tolerance of the ADC an irradiation campaign using a proton beam, applying doses up to 3,4 kGy was conducted. The resulting data and an analysis of the found failure modes is discussed in this paper. Several mitigation measures are described that allow to reduce the error rate to levels acceptable for operation as part of the LHC QPS

  8. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  9. Development and characterisation of silicon photomultipliers with bulk-integrated quench resistors for future applications in particle and astroparticle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrysik, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development and characterisation of a novel silicon photomultiplier concept with bulk-integrated quench resistors. The approach allows the realisation of a free entrance window and high fill factors, which leads to an improvement of the detection efficiency. With first prototype productions a proof of concept was possible. A full characterisation provided promising results, in particular with respect to the photon detection efficiency. By customising the simulation tools, a reliable description of the devices was achieved. In addition, conceptual studies of the next device generation demonstrated the possibility of single cell readout, expanding the application range of those detectors to particle tracking.

  10. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  11. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  12. Quench Simulation Studies: Program documentation of SPQR

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnemann, F

    2001-01-01

    Quench experiments are being performed on prototypes of the superconducting magnets and busbars to determine the adequate design and protection. Many tests can only be understood correctly with the help of quench simulations that model the thermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic processes during a quench. In some cases simulations are the only method to scale the experimental results of prototype measurements to match the situation of quenching superconducting elements in the LHC. This note introduces the theoretical quench model and the use of the simulation program SPQR (Simulation Program for Quench Research), which has been developed to compute the quench process in superconducting magnets and busbars. The model approximates the heat balance equation with the finite difference method including the temperature dependence of the material parameters. SPQR allows the simulation of longitudinal quench propagation along a superconducting cable, the transverse propagation between adjacent conductors, heat transfer i...

  13. Development of quench detection/protection system based on active power method for superconducting magnet by using capacitor circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanato, N.; Otsuka, T.; Hesaka, S.; Murase, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The authors have presented an active power method for quench detection. ► A method for improving its characteristics using a capacitor circuit was proposed. ► Quench detection/protection test for a Bi2223 superconducting coil was carried out. ► The proposed method was more useful than the conventional one. -- Abstract: When a quench occurs in a superconducting magnet, excessive joule heating in normal region may damage the magnet. It is necessary to detect the quench as soon as possible and discharge magnetic energy stored in the magnet. The authors have presented a quench detection/protection system based on an active power method which detects the quench regardless of a self-inductive and mutual-inductive voltages and electromagnetic noise. In the conventional active power method, the inductive voltages are removed by cancel coils. In this paper, the authors propose a method to cancel an inductive voltage using a capacitor circuit. The quench detection/protection system becomes more precise and smaller than the conventional system through the capacitor circuit

  14. Quenched chiral logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1992-04-01

    I develop a diagrammatic method for calculating chiral logarithms in the quenched approximation. While not rigorous, the method is based on physically reasonable assumptions, which can be tested by numerical simulations. The main results are that, at leading order in the chiral expansion, (a) there are no chiral logarithms in quenched f π m u = m d ; (b) the chiral logarithms in B K and related kaon B-parameters are, for m d = m s the same in the quenched approximation as in the full theory (c) for m π and the condensate, there are extra chiral logarithms due to loops containing the η', which lead to a peculiar non-analytic dependence of these quantities on the bare quark mass. Following the work of Gasser and Leutwyler, I discuss how there is a predictable finite volume dependence associated with each chiral logarithm. I compare the resulting predictions with numerical results: for most quantities the expected volume dependence is smaller than the errors. but for B V and B A there is an observed dependence which is consistent with the predictions

  15. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  16. Computational quench model applicable to the SMES/CICC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Cesar A.; Chang, Chih-Lien; Partain, Kenneth D.

    1994-07-01

    A computational quench model accounting for the hydraulic peculiarities of the 200 kA SMES cable-in-conduit conductor has been developed. The model is presented and used to simulate the quench on the SMES-ETM. Conclusions are drawn concerning quench detection and protection. A plan for quench model validation is presented.

  17. Magnet Quench 101

    OpenAIRE

    Bottura, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a broad summary of the physical phenomena associated with the quench of a superconducting magnet. This paper gives a broad summary of the physical phenomena associated with the quench of a superconducting magnet.

  18. Quenches after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweij, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I will give an overview of the different types of quenches that occur in the LHC, followed by an estimate of the number of quenches that we can expect after LS1. Beam-induced quenches and false triggering of the QPS will be the main cause of those quenches that cause a beam dump. Possibly in total up to 10-20 per year. After consolidation of the 13 kA joints, the approach for the BLM settings can be less conservative than in 2010-2012 in order to maximize beam time. This will cause some quenches but, anyhow, a beam.induced quench is not more risky than a quench provoked by false triggering. It is not easy to predict the number of BLM triggered beam dumps, needed to avoid magnet quenches, because it is not sure how to scale beam losses and UFO's from 3.5 TeV to 6.5 TeV, and it is not sure if the thresholds at 3.5 TeV are correct. Quench events will be much more massive (ex: RB quench at 6 kA → 2 MJ, RB quench at 11 kA → 6-20 MJ), and as a result cryo recuperation much longer. There will also be more ramp induced quenches after a FPA in other circuits due to higher ramp rates and smaller temperature margins (mutual coupling)

  19. Fuel rod quenching with oxidation and precursory cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidi, A.; Elias, E.; Olek, S.

    1999-01-01

    During a loss-of-coolant-accident in LWR fuel rods may be temporarily exposed thus reaching high temperature levels. The injection of cold water into the core, while providing the necessary cooling to prevent melting may also generate steam inducing exothermal oxidation of the cladding. A number of high temperature quenching experiments [I] have demonstrated that during the early phase of the quenching process, the rate of hydrogen generation increased markedly and the surface temperatures rose rapidly. These effects are believed to result from thermal stresses breaking up the oxide layer on the zircalloy cladding, thus exposing the inner surface to oxidizing atmosphere. Steam reacts exothermally with the metallic components of the newly formed surface causing temporarily local temperature escalation. The main objective of this study is to develop and assess a one-dimensional time-dependent rewetting model to address the problem of quenching of hot surfaces undergoing exothermic oxidation reactions. Addressing a time-dependent problem is an important aspect of the work since it is believed that the progression of a quench-front along a hot oxidizing surface is an unsteady process. Several studies dealing with time-dependent rewetting problems have been published, e.g. [2]-[5], but none considers oxidation reactions downstream of the quench-front. The main difficulty in solving time-dependent rewetting problems stems from the fact that either the quench-front velocity or the quench-front positions constitute a time-dependent eigenvalue of the problem. The model is applied to describe the interrelated processes of cooling and exothermic steam-metal reactions at the vapor zirconium-cladding interface during quenching of degraded fuel rods. A constant heat transfer coefficient is assumed upstream of the quenching front whereas the combined effect of oxidation and post dry-out cooling is described by prescribing a heat flux distribution of general form downstream. The

  20. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  1. Quench antenna for superconducting particle accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Devred, A.; Kim, K.

    1993-10-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and test of an assembly of stationary pickup coils which can be used to localize quench origins. After describing the pickup coils configuration, we develop a simple model of current redistribution which allows interpretation of the measured voltages and determination of the turn of the magnet coil in which the quench started. The technique is illustrated by analyzing the data from a quench of a 5-cm-aperture, 15-m-long SSC dipole magnet prototype

  2. Porous debris behavior modeling of QUENCH-02, QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-09 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Kobelev, G.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-up, melting, relocation, hydrogen generation phenomena, relevant for high-temperature stages both in a reactor case and small-scale integral tests like QUENCH, are governed in particular by heat and mass transfer in porous debris and molten pools which are formed in the core region. Porous debris formation and behavior in QUENCH experiments (QUENCH-02, QUENCH-03, QUENCH-09) plays a considerable role and its adequate modeling is important for thermal analysis. In particular, the analysis of QUENCH experiments shows that the major hydrogen release takes place in debris and melt regions formed in the upper part of the fuel assembly. The porous debris model was implemented in the Russian best estimate numerical code RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST developed for modelling thermal hydraulics and severe accident phenomena in a reactor. The original approach for debris evolution is developed in the model from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The debris model is based on the system of continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations, which consider the dynamics of volume-averaged velocities and temperatures of fluid, solid and gaseous phases of porous debris. The model is used for calculation of QUENCH experiments. The results obtained by the model are compared to experimental data concerning different aspects of thermal behavior: thermal hydraulics of porous debris, radiative heat transfer in a porous medium, the generalized melting and refreezing behavior of materials, hydrogen production. (author)

  3. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  4. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  5. Development and validation of a new spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of some beta-blockers through fluorescence quenching of eosin Y. Application to content uniformity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derayea Sayed M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, sensitive and economic spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of some β-adrenergic blocking agents namely; betaxolol hydrochloride (BTX, carvedilol (CAR, labetalol hydrochloride (LBT, nebivolol hydrochloride (NEB and propranolol hydrochloride (PRO. The method is based on the quenching effect of the cited drugs on the fluorescence intensity of eosin Y at pH 3.4 (acetate buffer. The fluorescence quenching is due to the formation of an ion-pair complex and was measured without extraction at 545 nm (λex. 301.5 nm. The factors affecting the formation of the ion-pair complex were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges for the relationship between the fluorescence quenching value and the concentration of the investigated drugs were 100-2500, 150-2500 and 50-2250 ng mL-1 for (BTX, CAR, (LBT, NEB and (PRO respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and was applied for determination of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms with excellent recoveries. In addition, content uniformity testing of some commercial dosage forms was checked by the proposed method.

  6. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  8. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  9. Oil quenched malleable iron, the strength of an old material in a “green cast” development and a new future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis J. van Ettinger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malleable iron lost the interest and the development stopped in the turbulent seventies of tremendous developments of new technologies. The personal computer, emission spectrometer, thermal analysis, cold-box core system and automatic vertical moulding were introduced into the foundry industry. Experience shows that these new technologies do not always match up with malleable iron. Solidification and mould filling simulation programs are not always capable to handle a low carbon equivalent iron like malleable iron. Recent developments show however by using these new technologies and combined with practical experience, it is possible to increase the casting yield of malleable iron to the same level as ductile iron. The mechanical properties, especially the yield strength of malleable iron according to the standard are equivalent to those of ductile iron, however the yield strength of oil quenched malleable iron is significantly higher than that of ductile iron. An extensive investigation is made between ductile iron, air quenched and oil quenched malleable irons based on the properties of more than 350 test bars produced under the same conditions. The results are compared with the existing international standards and discussed. Other properties like fatigue strength and response to surface treatments as induction hardening are also discussed. The costs of malleable iron are reviewed and compared with other ferro alloys. These recent developments in increasing the casting yield, the understanding of the strength, makes malleable iron competitive with ductile iron and cheaper than the first grade of ausferritic ductile iron, or steel qualities. It is possible to design lighter and save weight which is essential in the automotive industry. An example of “green cast” development for typical applications, used in automotive transmissions and engines are shown.

  10. Quenching experiments on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirtlich, I.A.; Schultz, H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart

    1980-01-01

    High-purity niobium wire specimens have been quenched in superfluid helium from near the melting point in order to obtain information on vacancies in this material. The quenched-in resistivity Δsub(pQ) for a quench from 2600 K was very small (approximately 0.3 x 10 -12 Ω m) and near the limit of detection. It is assumed that large quenching losses are responsible for the small quenched-in resistance. From the experimental cooling curve estimates have been made for the formation and migration enthalpies (Hsub(1V)sup(F), Hsub(1V)sup(M)), where Hsub(1V)sup(M)+Hsub(1V)sup(F)=Qsub(1V)sup(SD)=3.62 ev. For Ssub(1V)sup(F), the formation entropy, two different values were assumed. (author)

  11. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  12. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  13. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  14. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...

  15. Quenches in the superconducting magnet CELLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-01-01

    The superconducting magnet CELLO was tested with currents up to 3200 A at Saclay and has been installed at DESY in Hamburg where it will be used for particle physics experiments requiring colliding beams of electrons and positrons. The testing of this unique, large, one-layer solenoid provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate the theory of quench propagation under adiabatic conditions, that is, in a coil in which the conductors are not in direct contact with helium. In an early test of this coil, quenches that occurred, gives the details of the damaged conductor, and includes an analysis of the quenches. Observed axial quench velocities are compared to the calculated values based on both measurements and calculations of the thermal conductivity of the fabricated coil

  16. Characterization of plasma current quench at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V; Barabaschi, P; Sugihara, M

    2005-01-01

    Eddy currents generated during the fastest disruption current decays represent the most severe design condition for medium and small size in-vessel components of most tokamaks. Best-fit linear and instantaneous plasma current quench rates have been extracted for a set of recent JET disruptions. Contrary to expectations, the current quench rate spectrum of high and low thermal energy disruptions is not substantially different. For most of the disruptions with the highest instantaneous current quench rate an exponential fit of the early phase of the current decay provides a more accurate estimate of the maximum current decay velocity. However, this fit is only suitable to model the fastest events, for which the current quench is dominated by radiation losses rather than the plasma motion

  17. Quench simulation of SMES consisting of some superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, S.; Oga, Y.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A chain of quenches may be caused by a quench of one element coil when SMES is consists of many element coils. To avoid the chain of quenches, the energy stored in element coil has to be quickly discharged. The cause of the chain of the quenches is the short time constant of the decreasing current of the quenched coil. In recent years, many HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) systems are investigated and designed. They usually consist of some superconducting element coils due to storing excessively high energy. If one of them was quenched, the storage energy of the superconducting element coil quenched has to be immediately dispersed to protect the HTS-SMES system. As the result, the current of the other element coils, which do not reach to quench, increases since the magnetic coupling between the quenched element coil and the others are excessively strong. The increase of the current may cause the quench of the other element coils. If the energy dispersion of the element coil quenched was failed, the other superconducting element coil would be quenched in series. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES after quenching one or more element coils. To protect a chain of quenches, it is also important to investigate the time constant of the coils. We have developed a simulation code to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES. By the quench simulation, it is indicated that a chain of quenches is caused by a quench of one element coil.

  18. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  20. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  1. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  2. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  3. The Quench Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  4. Polyethylenimine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles effectively quench fluorescent DNA, which can be developed as a novel platform for protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Sun, Nana; Zhang, Jinyan; Tu, Chunhao; Cao, Xiuqi; Duan, Demin; Diao, Aipo; Man, Shuli

    2017-11-23

    We report a novel assembly of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and the fluorescence of the dye labeled in the DNA is remarkably quenched. In the presence of a target protein, the protein-DNA aptamer mutual interaction releases the ssDNA from this assembly and hence restores the fluorescence. This feature could be adopted to develop an aptasensor for protein detection. As a proof-of-concept, for the first time, we have used this proposed sensing strategy to detect thrombin selectively and sensitively. Furthermore, simultaneous multiple detection of thrombin and lysozyme in a complex protein mixture has been proven to be possible.

  5. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  6. Quench detection, protection and simulation studies on SST-1 magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aashoo N.; Khristi, Yohan; Pradhan, Subrata; Doshi, Kalpesh; Prasad, Upendra; Banaudha, Moni; Varmora, Pankaj; Praghi, Bhadresh R.

    2015-01-01

    Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is India's first tokamak with superconducting toroidal field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) magnets. These magnets are made with NbTi based Cable-In-Conduit-Conductors. The quench characteristic of SST-1 CICC has been extensively studied both analytically and using simulation codes. Dedicated experiments like model coil test program, TF coil test program and laboratory experiments were conducted to fully characterize the performance of the CICC and the magnets made using this CICC. Results of quench experiments performed during these tests have been used to design the SST-1 quench detection and protection system. Simulation results of TF coil quenches and slow propagation quench of TF busbars have been used to further optimize these systems during the SST-1 tokamak operation. Redundant hydraulic based quench detection is also proposed for the TF coil quench detection. This paper will give the overview of these development and simulation activities. (author)

  7. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  8. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  9. Quench propagation and quench detection in the TF system of JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Benoit; Duchateau, Jean-Luc; Meuris, Chantal; Ciazynski, Daniel; Nicollet, Sylvie; Zani, Louis; Polli, Gian-Mario

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The JT-60SA primary quench detection system will be based on voltage measurements. • The early quench propagation was studied in the JT-60SA TF conductor. • The impact of the conductor jacket on the hot spot criterion was quantified. • The detection parameters were investigated for different quench initiations. -- Abstract: In the framework of the JT-60SA project, France and Italy will provide to JAEA 18 Toroidal Field (TF) coils including NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors. During the tokamak operation, these coils could experience a quench, an incidental event corresponding to the irreversible transition from superconducting state to normal resistive state. Starting from a localized disturbance, the normal zone propagates along the conductor and dissipates a large energy due to Joule heating, which can cause irreversible damages. The detection has to be fast enough (a few seconds) to trigger the current discharge, so as to dump the stored magnetic energy into an external resistor. The JT-60SA primary quench detection system will be based on voltage measurements, which are the most rapid technology. The features of the detection system must be adjusted so as to detect the most probable quenches, while avoiding inopportune fast safety discharges. This requires a reliable simulation of the early quench propagation, performed in this study with the Gandalf code. The conductor temperature reached during the current discharge must be kept under a maximal value, according to the hot spot criterion. In the present study, a hot spot criterion temperature of 150 K was taken into account and the role of each conductor component (strands, helium and conduit) was analyzed. The detection parameters were then investigated for different hypotheses regarding the quench initiation

  10. Holographic Jet Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    on these results, we develop a phenomenological model of light quark energy loss and use it compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of light quarks in an expanding plasma. Comparison with the LHC pion suppression data shows that, although RAA has the right qualitative structure, the overall magnitude is too low, indicating that the predicted jet quenching is too strong. In the last part of the thesis we consider a novel idea of introducing finite momentum at endpoints of classical (bosonic and supersymmetric) strings, and the phenomenological consequences of this proposal on the energy loss of light quarks. We show that in a general curved background, finite momentum endpoints must propagate along null geodesics and that the distance they travel in an AdS5-Schwarzschild background is greater than in the previous treatments of falling strings. We also argue that this leads to a more realistic description of energetic quarks, allowing for an unambiguous way of distinguishing between the energy in the dual hard probe and the energy in the color fields surrounding it. This proposal also naturally allows for a clear and simple definition of the instantaneous energy loss. Using this definition and the "shooting string" initial conditions, we develope a new formula for light quark energy loss. Finally, we apply this formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC, which, after the inclusion of the Gauss-Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry, shows a reasonably good agreement with the recent data.

  11. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  12. Application of Best Estimate Approach for Modelling of QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Kaliatka

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 experiments are modelled using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes. For the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, SUSA3.5 and SUNSET tools were used. The article demonstrates that applying the best estimate approach, it is possible to develop basic QUENCH input deck and to develop the two sets of input parameters, covering maximal and minimal ranges of uncertainties. These allow simulating different (but with the same nature tests, receiving calculation results with the evaluated range of uncertainties.

  13. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  14. Reflood completion report: Volume 1. A phenomenological thermal-hydraulic model of hot rod bundles experiencing simultaneous bottom and top quenching and an optimization methodology for closure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A. Jr.; Pimentel, D.A.; Jolly-Woodruff, S.; Spore, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a phenomenological model of simultaneous bottom-up and top-down quenching is developed and discussed. The model was implemented in the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code. Two sets of closure relationships were compared within the study, the Absolute set and the Conditional set. The Absolute set of correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations utilize their original coefficients as suggested by the developer. The Conditional set is a modified set of correlations with changes to the correlation coefficient only. Results for these two sets indicate quite similar results. This report also summarizes initial results of an effort to investigate nonlinear optimization techniques applied to the closure model development. Results suggest that such techniques can provide advantages for future model development work, but that extensive expertise is required to utilize such techniques (i.e., the model developer must fully understand both the physics of the process being represented and the computational techniques being employed). The computer may then be used to improve the correlation of computational results with experiments

  15. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  16. Quench detection and behaviour in case of quench in the ITER magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coatanea-Gouachet, M.

    2012-02-01

    The quench of one of the ITER magnet system is an irreversible transition from superconducting to normal resistive state, of a conductor. This normal zone propagates along the cable in conduit conductor dissipating a large power. The detection has to be fast enough to dump out the magnetic energy and avoid irreversible damage of the systems. The primary quench detection in ITER is based on voltage detection, which is the most rapid detection. The very magnetically disturbed environment during the plasma scenario makes the voltage detection particularly difficult, inducing large inductive components in the coils and voltage compensations have to be designed to discriminate the resistive voltage associated with the quench. A conceptual design of the quench detection based on voltage measurements is proposed for the three majors magnet systems of ITER. For this, a clear methodology was developed. It includes the classical hot spot criterion, the quench propagation study using the commercial code Gandalf and the careful estimation of the inductive disturbances by developing the TrapsAV code. Specific solutions have been proposed for the compensation in the three ITER magnet systems and for the quench detection parameters, which are the voltage threshold (in the range of 0.1 V - 0.55 V) and the holding time (in the range of 1-1.4 s). The selected values, in particular the holding time, are sufficiently high to ensure the reliability of the system and avoid fast safety discharges not induced by a quench, which is a classical problem. (author)

  17. Heat transfer to a dispersed two-phase flow and detailed quench front velocity research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, T.C. de; Molen, S.B. van der

    1985-01-01

    A programme to obtain a data base for 'Boildown and Reflood' computer code development and to obtain information on the influence of non-uniform temperature and/or power profile on the quench front velocity and prequench heat transfer, including unheated wall and grid effects, has been undertaken. It is in two parts. In the first (for the tube, annulus and a 4-rod bundle) an early wetting of the unheated shroud is shown. This leads to an increase in quench front velocity and in liquid transport downstream from the quench front. For the inverted annular flow regime the extended Bromley correlation gives good agreement with the experimental data. In the second part (36-rod bundle reflood test programme) the wall-temperature differences in the radial direction gives rise to heat transfer processes which are described and explained. (U.K.)

  18. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  19. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  1. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  2. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  3. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  4. The early research and development of ebselen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of quench propagation in a superconducting window frame magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinger, J.; Carroll, A.; Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Leonhardt, M.; Prodell, A.; Stoehr, R.

    1981-01-01

    During the testing of a meter long, superconducting window frame magnet, information from many spontaneously generated quenches have been recorded by an on-line computer system. Nearly every layer in an eleven layer dipole had a voltage tap and for some layers this subdivided into two halves. This allowed us to study development of the quenches in some detail. Knowledge of the resistances throughout the magnet also allowed the temperature distributions in the superconducting windings to be determined. A qualitative picture of the quench was developed and quantitative values of quench propagation velocities were compared to heat transfer calculations

  6. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Simulation of the Quench-06 experiment with Scdapsim; Simulacion del experimento Quench-06 con Scdapsim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, E. del; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan No. 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: edangelm@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes the pattern of the called Quench installation developed and used by the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) for their participation in the International Standard Problem 45 (ISP), organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The exercise consisted on the simulation of the denominated experiment Quench-06 carried out in the experimental installation Quench located in the Forschungszentrum laboratory in Karlsruhe, Germany. The experiment Quench-06 consisted on simulating the sudden and late injection of water in a fuel assemble for a pressurized reactor (PWR). The CNSNS uses the version bd of the SCDAPSIM code developed by the company Innovative Software Systems (ISS) to simulate this experiment. The obtained results showed that the code is able to predict the experiment partially when overestimating the hydrogen production and of the partial fused of some fuel pellets, but predicting correctly the damage in the shroud. (Author)

  8. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  9. Developing early algebraic reasoning in a mathematical community of inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jodie Margaret Roberta

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the development of early algebraic reasoning in mathematical communities of inquiry. Under consideration is the different pathways teachers take as they develop their own understanding of early algebra and then enact changes in their classroom to facilitate algebraic reasoning opportunities. Teachers participated in a professional development intervention which focused on understanding of early algebraic concepts, task development, modification, and enactment, and clas...

  10. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing, others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching, thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching.

  11. Quantum quenches with integrable pre-quench dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the unitary time evolution of a one-dimensional quantum system which is in a stationary state for negative times and then undergoes a sudden change (quench) of a parameter of its Hamiltonian at t = 0. For systems possessing a continuum limit described by a massive quantum field theory we investigate in general perturbative quenches for the case in which the theory is integrable before the quench. (fast track communication)

  12. Quantum quenches with integrable pre-quench dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the unitary time evolution of a one-dimensional quantum system which is in a stationary state for negative times and then undergoes a sudden change (quench) of a parameter of its Hamiltonian at t=0. For systems possessing a continuum limit described by a massive quantum field theory we investigate in general perturbative quenches for the case in which the theory is integrable before the quench.

  13. Self-quenching streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Potter, D.

    1982-01-01

    Self quenching streamers in drift tubes have been observed both optically and electronically. The streamers of 150-200 μm width extend out from the anode wire to 1.5 to 3 mm at atmospheric pressures. Electronic measurements at a two atomsphere pressure show pulses into a 50 Ω load with a rise time of 5 ns, a decay time of 40 ns, and an amplitude of 30 mV. Details of the experiments are discussed. There was no detectable residue on an anode wire after exposing it to 2x10 9 streamers for a 1 mm section. (orig.)

  14. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  15. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  16. Quench protection in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajii, A.; Freidberg, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this obviously non-plasma physics research is to demonstrate that many of the powerful and sophisticated theoretical techniques widely used by the plasma physics community can be applied to engineering problems of direct interest to the magnetic fusion program. Quench protection is such a problem. If a sudden pulse of energy is delivered (usually by accident) to a small section of a superconducting magnet, it may go normal. Under such conditions, the magnet current flows in the surrounding copper matrix, which is essentially in parallel with the superconductor. Although the copper is a good conductor, it still dissipates ohmic power, further adding to the energy input. It is important to detect the quench as early as possible in order to shut off the current, thereby preventing irreversible damage to the conductor. This a non-trivial problem since the cables comprising a coil can be as long as one kilometer. The theory presented here starts with a set of multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes and heat transport equations for the coupled system of helium coolant, superconducting/copper cable, and surrounding jacket. A combination of multiple time scale expansions and asymptotic analysis reduces the problem to a nonlinear fourth order system of 1-D plus time equations. A code has been written whose numerical results are in excellent agreement with more complex engineering codes. There is at least an order of magnitude savings in CPU over the existing codes where a typical run requires one hour Cray CPU. By investigating a number of different cases the authors have been able to introduce further analytic approximations which reduce the problem to quasi-analytic form, a set of three ODE's in time. The results here too are in excellent agreement with the engineering code and requires only several seconds of CPU time. More important, the critical dimensionless parameters have been identified, as well as practical scaling information for the magnet design

  17. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  18. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  19. Jet quenching at ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    RHIC results on leading hadron suppression indicate that the jets produced in hard processes are strongly quenched by the dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Most of the energy lost by the leading parton remains within the jet cone, but several questions on the medium modification of the jet structure have not been addressed. These include the longitudinal and transverse structures of the quenched jet, the associated radiation observables, and the dependence on the parton flavor. These topics will be studied by ALICE thanks to both the robustness of its tracking and the charged particle identification system. Large medium effects are expected in both the low pt and in the high pt regions. To make ALICE better suited for jet physics, the performances on high p t particles and jets can be significantly improved by completing the present set-up with a large Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EmCal). This will significantly improve the resolution on the jet energy and on the particle composition (with the detection of both charged and neutral particles). It will also allow to calibrate the jet energy by measuring the high energy photon emitted in the opposite direction. EmCal will be used to trigger on the jet energy itself, thus allowing a significant improvement of the statistics achievable for jets of high energy. Finally, due too both the γ/π 0 and the electron/hadron discrimination, EmCal will enhance the ALICE capabilities at high p t for direct photons and heavy quarks measurements

  20. Quench simulations for superconducting elements in the LHC accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, F.; Schmidt, R.

    2000-08-01

    The design of the protection system for the superconducting elements in an accelerator such as the large Hadron collider (LHC), now under construction at CERN, requires a detailed understanding of the thermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic processes during a quench. A numerical program (SPQR - simulation program for quench research) has been developed to evaluate temperature and voltage distributions during a quench as a function of space and time. The quench process is simulated by approximating the heat balance equation with the finite difference method in presence of variable cooling and powering conditions. The simulation predicts quench propagation along a superconducting cable, forced quenching with heaters, impact of eddy currents induced by a magnetic field change, and heat transfer through an insulation layer into helium, an adjacent conductor or other material. The simulation studies allowed a better understanding of experimental quench data and were used for determining the adequate dimensioning and protection of the highly stabilised superconducting cables for connecting magnets (busbars), optimising the quench heater strip layout for the main magnets, and studying quench back by induced eddy currents in the superconductor. After the introduction of the theoretical approach, some applications of the simulation model for the LHC dipole and corrector magnets are presented and the outcome of the studies is compared with experimental data.

  1. Deciphering jet quenching with JEWEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In heavy ion collisions jets arising from the fragmentation of hard quarks and gluons experience strong modifications due to final state re-scattering. This so-called jet quenching is related to the emergence of collectivity and equilibration in QCD. I will give an introduction to jet quenching and its modeling in JEWEL, a Monte Carlo implementation of a dynamical model for jet quenching. I will then discuss examples highlighting how JEWEL can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms relevant for jet quenching.  

  2. Smooth and fast versus instantaneous quenches in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    We examine in detail the relationship between smooth fast quantum quenches, characterized by a time scale δ t, and instantaneous quenches, within the framework of exactly solvable mass quenches in free scalar field theory. Our earlier studies [1, 2] highlighted that the two protocols remain distinct in the limit δ t → 0 because of the relation of the quench rate to the UV cut-off, i.e., 1 /δ t ≪ Λ always holds in the fast smooth quenches while 1 /δ t ˜ Λ for instantaneous quenches. Here we study UV finite quantities like correlators at finite spatial distances and the excess energy produced above the final ground state energy. We show that at late times and large distances (compared to the quench time scale) the smooth quench correlator approaches that for the instantaneous quench. At early times, we find that for small spatial separation and small δ t, the correlator scales universally with δ t, exactly as in the scaling of renormalized one point functions found in earlier work. At larger separation, the dependence on δ t drops out. The excess energy density is finite (for finite mδ t) and scales in a universal fashion for all d. However, the scaling behaviour produces a divergent result in the limit mδ t → 0 for d ≥ 4, just as in an instantaneous quench, where it is UV divergent for d ≥ 4. We argue that similar results hold for arbitrary interacting theories: the excess energy density produced is expected to diverge for scaling dimensions Δ > d/2.

  3. Smooth and fast versus instantaneous quenches in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine in detail the relationship between smooth fast quantum quenches, characterized by a time scale δt, and instantaneous quenches, within the framework of exactly solvable mass quenches in free scalar field theory. Our earlier studies http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.171601 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)167 highlighted that the two protocols remain distinct in the limit δt→0 because of the relation of the quench rate to the UV cut-off, i.e., 1/δt≪Λ always holds in the fast smooth quenches while 1/δt∼Λ for instantaneous quenches. Here we study UV finite quantities like correlators at finite spatial distances and the excess energy produced above the final ground state energy. We show that at late times and large distances (compared to the quench time scale) the smooth quench correlator approaches that for the instantaneous quench. At early times, we find that for small spatial separation and small δt, the correlator scales universally with δt, exactly as in the scaling of renormalized one point functions found in earlier work. At larger separation, the dependence on δt drops out. The excess energy density is finite (for finite mδt) and scales in a universal fashion for all d. However, the scaling behaviour produces a divergent result in the limit mδt→0 for d≥4, just as in an instantaneous quench, where it is UV divergent for d≥4. We argue that similar results hold for arbitrary interacting theories: the excess energy density produced is expected to diverge for scaling dimensions Δ>d/2.

  4. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  5. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  6. Infrared Quenched Photoinduced Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, J. F.; Chew, D.; Guttierez-Solana, J.; Molina, G.; Savin, W.; Wilber, W.

    1996-03-01

    Persistant photoconductivity (PPC) and photoinduced superconductivity (PISC) in oxygen deficient YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x have received recent attention. It has been suggested that oxygen vacancy defects play an important role in the PISC/PPC mechanism.(J. F. Federici, D. Chew, B. Welker, W. Savin, J. Gutierrez-Solana, and T. Fink, Phys. Rev. B), December 1995 Supported by National Science Foundation In this model, defects trap photogenerated electrons so that electron-hole recombination can not occur thereby allowing photogenerated holes to contribute to the carrier density. Nominally, the photoinduced state is long-lived, persisting for days at low temperature. Experiment results will be presented demonstrating that the photoinduced superconductivity state can be quenched using infrared radiation. Implications for the validity of the PISC/PCC defect model will be discussed.

  7. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  8. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  9. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  10. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  11. LHC magnet quench protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  12. LHC magnet quench protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-01-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called ''cold diode'' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements--so called ''cold diodes''. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a ''natural'' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages

  13. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  15. Microstructure development and mechanical properties of quenching and partitioning (Q and P) steel and an incorporation of hot-dipping galvanization during Q and P process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Yu, Hao, E-mail: yhzhmr@126.com

    2013-12-01

    The “quenching and partitioning” (Q and P) process has recently been substantiated to be a unique technological route for the production of high strength steels with significant amounts of retained austenite, and thus to provide better combination of strength and ductility. In this work, intercritically annealed specimens followed by Q and P treatment have been applied to low-carbon steel with chemical composition typical for conventional TRIP-assisted steels. Microstructure of the steel treated by the Q and P process was characterized by means of optical microscope, SEM, TEM and XRD. The study suggests that microstructure is mainly composed of ferrite, lath martensite, martensite–austenite islands, retained austenite and a small amount of bainite formed during partitioning. The fraction of bainite formed during partitioning is proportional to quenching temperature. The mechanical property of specimen treated by the Q and P process exhibits an improved combination of strength and ductility than that of the Q and T process. Two schemes of hot-dipping galvanization processes were designed. The results indicate that both hot-dip galvanizing schemes present a limited reduction in tensile strength and a slight enhancement of ductility. The scheme of galvanizing and partitioning after the quenching progress shows a better combination of strength and ductility.

  16. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    Objectives The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  17. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  18. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  19. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  20. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  1. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  2. Calculating Quench Propagation with ANSYS(regsign)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.; Hinkins, R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Prestemon, S.

    2002-01-01

    A commercial Finite-Element-Analysis program, ANSYS(reg s ign), is widely used in structural and thermal analysis. With the program's ability to include non-linear material properties and import complex CAD files, one can generate coil geometries and simulate quench propagation in superconducting magnets. A 'proof-of-principle' finite element model was developed assuming a resistivity that increases linearly from zero to its normal value at a temperature consistent with the assumed B magnetic field. More sophisticated models could easily include finer-grained coil, cable, structural, and circuit details. A quench is provoked by raising the temperature of an arbitrary superconducting element above its T c . The time response to this perturbation is calculated using small time-steps to allow convergence between steps. Snapshots of the temperature and voltage distributions allow examination of longitudinal and turn-to-turn quench propagation, quench-front annihilation, and cryo-stability. Modeling details are discussed, and a computed voltage history was compared with measurements from a recent magnet test.

  3. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  4. ECR-MAPK Regulation in Liver Early Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ju Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  5. Apoptotic cell elimination during early tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Chovancová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 34 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : tooth development Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  6. EARLY POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from a 50:50 ratio (53/47 per cent). Minimum ... back became progressively darker and the vibrissae lengthened to about 8-9 mm. On day 6 ... of grey developed around the eyes by day 8, when the belly had a slight white tinge from the short ...

  7. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  8. Pharmacometrics in early clinical drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacometrics, the science of quantitative clinical pharmacology, has been recognized as one of the main research fields able to improve efficiency in drug development, and to reduce attrition rates on the route from drug discovery to approval. This field of drug research, which builds heavily on

  9. Simulation of quenches in SSC magnets with passive quench protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1985-06-01

    The relative ease of protecting an SSC magnet following a quench and the implications of quench protection on magnet reliability and operation are necessary inputs in a rational magnet selection process. As it appears likely that the magnet selection will be made prior to full scale prototype testing, an alternative means is required to ascertain the surviveability of contending magnet types. This paper attempts to provide a basis for magnet selection by calculating the peak expected quench temperatures in the 3 T Design C magnet and the 6 T Design D magnet as a function of magnet length. A passive, ''cold diode'' protection system has been assumed. The relative merits of passive versus active protection systems have been discussed in a previous report. It is therefore assumed that - given the experience gained from the Tevatron system - that an active quench protection system can be employed to protect the magnets in the eventuality of unreliable cold diode function

  10. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Post CHF heat transfer and quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Condie, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes quantitatively new mechanisms in the post-CHF regime which provide understanding and predictive capability for several current two-phase forced convective heat transfer problems. These mechanisms are important in predicting rod temperature turnaround and quenching during the reflood phase of either a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or the FLECHT and Semiscale experiments. The mechanisms are also important to the blowdown phase of a LOCA or the recent Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) experiments L2-2 and L2-3, which were 200% cold leg break transients. These LOFT experiments experienced total core quenching in the early part of the blowdown phase at high (1000 psia) pressures. The mechanisms are also important to certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) operational transients where the reactor may operate in the post-CHF regime for short periods of time. Accurate prediction of the post-CHF heat transfer including core quench during these transients is of prime importance to limit maximum cladding temperatures and prevent cladding deformation

  12. Behavior-Based Early Language Development on a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varshavskaya, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    We are exploring the idea that early language acquisition could be better modelled on an artificial creature by considering the pragmatic aspect of natural language and of its development in human infants...

  13. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quench start localization in full-length SSC R ampersand D dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Chapman, M.; Cortella, J.; Desportes, A.; Kaugerts, J.; Kirk, T.; Mirk, K.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.C.; Turner, J.; Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.C.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peoples, J.; Strait, J.; Tool, G.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.; Meuser, R.; Peters, C.; Rechen, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    1989-04-01

    Full-length SSC R ampersand D dipole magnets instrumented with four voltage taps on each turn of the inner quarter coils have been tested. These voltage taps enable accurate location of the point at which the quenches start and detailed studies of quench development in the coil. Attention here is focused on localizing the quench source. After recalling the basic mechanism of a quench (why it occurs and how it propagates), the method of quench origin analysis is described: the quench propagation velocity on the turn where the quench occurs is calculated, and the quench location is then verified by reiterating the analysis on the adjacent turns. Last, the velocity value, which appears to be higher than previously measured, is discussed

  15. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  16. ITER Side Correction Coil Quench model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicollet, S.; Bessette, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Gauthier, F.; Lacroix, B.

    2016-12-01

    Previous thermohydraulic studies performed for the ITER TF, CS and PF magnet systems have brought some important information on the detection and consequences of a quench as a function of the initial conditions (deposited energy, heated length). Even if the temperature margin of the Correction Coils is high, their behavior during a quench should also be studied since a quench is likely to be triggered by potential anomalies in joints, ground fault on the instrumentation wires, etc. A model has been developed with the SuperMagnet Code (Bagnasco et al., 2010) for a Side Correction Coil (SCC2) with four pancakes cooled in parallel, each of them represented by a Thea module (with the proper Cable In Conduit Conductor characteristics). All the other coils of the PF cooling loop are hydraulically connected in parallel (top/bottom correction coils and six Poloidal Field Coils) are modeled by Flower modules with equivalent hydraulics properties. The model and the analysis results are presented for five quench initiation cases with/without fast discharge: two quenches initiated by a heat input to the innermost turn of one pancake (case 1 and case 2) and two other quenches initiated at the innermost turns of four pancakes (case 3 and case 4). In the 5th case, the quench is initiated at the middle turn of one pancake. The impact on the cooling circuit, e.g. the exceedance of the opening pressure of the quench relief valves, is detailed in case of an undetected quench (i.e. no discharge of the magnet). Particular attention is also paid to a possible secondary quench detection system based on measured thermohydraulic signals (pressure, temperature and/or helium mass flow rate). The maximum cable temperature achieved in case of a fast current discharge (primary detection by voltage) is compared to the design hot spot criterion of 150 K, which includes the contribution of helium and jacket.

  17. The η' signal from partially quenched Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, Harmut; Lippert, Th.; Negelec, J.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present new results from our ongoing study of flavor singlet pseudoscalar mesons in QCD. Our approach is based on (a) performing truncated eigenmode expansions for the hairpin diagram and (b) incorporating the ground state contribution for the connected meson propagator. First, we explain how the computations can be substantially improved by even-odd preconditioning. We extend previous results on early mass plateauing in the η' channel of two-flavor full QCD with degenerate sea and valence quarks to the partially quenched situation. We find that early mass plateau formation persists in the partially quenched situation

  18. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  19. Modelling of QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 Experiments Using RELAP/SCDAPSIM and ASTEC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Kaliatka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent total meltdown of the uncovered and overheated core, the reflooding with water is a necessary accident management measure. Because these actions lead to the generation of hydrogen, which can cause further problems, the related phenomena are investigated performing experiments and computer simulations. In this paper, for the experiments of loss of coolant accidents, performed in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 are modelled using RELAP5/SCDAPSIM and ASTEC codes. The performed benchmark allowed analysing different modelling features. The recommendations for the model development are presented.

  20. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures

  1. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  2. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  3. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  4. Quench propagation in coated conductors for fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, F.; Perez, S.; Therasse, M.; Dutoit, B.; Sirois, F.; Decroux, M.; Antognazza, L.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the quench phenomenon is crucial in the future design and operation of high temperature superconductors based fault current limiters. The key parameter that quantifies the quenching process in superconductors is the normal zone propagation (NZP) velocity, which is defined as the speed at which the normal zone expands into the superconducting volume. In the present paper, we used numerical models developed in our group recently to investigate the quench propagation in coated conductors. With our models, we have shown that the NZP in these tapes depends strongly on the substrate properties.

  5. A fluorescence quenching test for the detection of flavonoid transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, L; Braune, A; Blaut, M

    2001-11-13

    A novel fluorescence quenching test for the detection of flavonoid degradation by microorganisms was developed. The test is based on the ability of the flavonoids to quench the fluorescence of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Several members of the anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, dihydroflavanones, chalcones, dihydrochalcones and catechins were tested with regard to their quenching properties. The anthocyanidins were the most potent quenchers of DPH fluorescence, while the flavanones, dihydroflavanones and dihydrochalcones, quenched the fluorescence only weakly. The catechins had no visible impact on DPH fluorescence. The developed test allows a quick and easy differentiation between flavonoid-degrading and flavonoid-non-degrading bacteria. The investigation of individual reactions of flavonoid transformation with the developed test system is also possible.

  6. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Quench simulations for superconducting elements in the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnemann, F

    2000-01-01

    The design of he protection system for he superconducting elements in an accel- erator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),now under construction at CERN, requires a detailed understanding of the hermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic pro- cesses during a quench.A numerical program (SPQR -Simulation Program for Quench Research)has been developed o evaluate temperature and voltage dis ri- butions during a quench as a func ion of space and ime.The quench process is simulated by approximating the heat balance equation with the finite di fference method in presence of variable cooling and powering conditions.The simulation predicts quench propagation along a superconducting cable,forced quenching with heaters,impact of eddy curren s induced by a magnetic field change,and heat trans- fer hrough an insulation layer in o helium,an adjacen conductor or other material. The simulation studies allowed a better understanding of experimental quench data and were used for determining the adequ...

  8. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  9. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  10. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  11. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  12. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  13. Quench Protection Studies of 11T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Models for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN

    2014-07-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  14. Simulation of the Quench-06 experiment with Scdapsim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, E. del; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R.

    2003-01-01

    The present work describes the pattern of the called Quench installation developed and used by the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) for their participation in the International Standard Problem 45 (ISP), organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The exercise consisted on the simulation of the denominated experiment Quench-06 carried out in the experimental installation Quench located in the Forschungszentrum laboratory in Karlsruhe, Germany. The experiment Quench-06 consisted on simulating the sudden and late injection of water in a fuel assemble for a pressurized reactor (PWR). The CNSNS uses the version bd of the SCDAPSIM code developed by the company Innovative Software Systems (ISS) to simulate this experiment. The obtained results showed that the code is able to predict the experiment partially when overestimating the hydrogen production and of the partial fused of some fuel pellets, but predicting correctly the damage in the shroud. (Author)

  15. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...... are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early...

  16. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  17. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  18. Effects of quenching and partial quenching on penguin matrix elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2001-01-01

    In the calculation of non-leptonic weak decay rates, a "mismatch" arises when the QCD evolution of the relevant weak hamiltonian down to hadronic scales is performed in unquenched QCD, but the hadronic matrix elements are then computed in (partially) quenched lattice QCD. This mismatch arises

  19. The role of quench rate in colloidal gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, C Patrick; Malins, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between colloidal particles have hitherto usually been fixed by the suspension composition. Recent experimental developments now enable the control of interactions in situ. Here we use Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of controlling interactions upon gelation, by "quenching" the system from an equilibrium fluid to a gel. We find that, contrary to the normal case of an instantaneous quench, where the local structure of the gel is highly disordered, controlled quenching results in a gel with a much higher degree of local order. Under sufficiently slow quenching, local crystallisation is found, which is strongly enhanced when a monodisperse system is used. The higher the degree of local order, the smaller the mean squared displacement, indicating an enhancement of gel stability.

  20. Reliability analysis for the quench detection in the LHC machine

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R; Vergara-Fernández, A

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will incorporate a large amount of superconducting elements that require protection in case of a quench. Key elements in the quench protection system are the electronic quench detectors. Their reliability will have an important impact on the down time as well as on the operational cost of the collider. The expected rates of both false and missed quenches have been computed for several redundant detection schemes. The developed model takes account of the maintainability of the system to optimise the frequency of foreseen checks, and evaluate their influence on the performance of different detection topologies. Seen the uncertainty of the failure rate of the components combined with the LHC tunnel environment, the study has been completed with a sensitivity analysis of the results. The chosen detection scheme and the maintainability strategy for each detector family are given.

  1. Quench dynamics in SRF cavities: can we locate the quench origin with 2nd sound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximenko, Yulia; Segatskov, Dmitri A.

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed method of locating quenches in SRF cavities by detecting second-sound waves has been gaining popularity in SRF laboratories. The technique is based on measurements of time delays between the quench as determined by the RF system and arrival of the second-sound wave to the multiple detectors placed around the cavity in superfluid helium. Unlike multi-channel temperature mapping, this approach requires only a few sensors and simple readout electronics; it can be used with SRF cavities of almost arbitrary shape. One of its drawbacks is that being an indirect method it requires one to solve an inverse problem to find the location of a quench. We tried to solve this inverse problem by using a parametric forward model. By analyzing the data we found that the approximation where the second-sound emitter is a near-singular source does not describe the physical system well enough. A time-dependent analysis of the quench process can help us to put forward a more adequate model. We present here our current algorithm to solve the inverse problem and discuss the experimental results.

  2. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  3. The quench detector on magnetic modulator for the UNK quench protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, I.M.; Enbaev, A.V.; Erokhin, A.N.; Gridasov, V.I.; Priyma, M.V.; Sychev, V.A.; Vasiliev, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    When designing and constructing superconducting high energy accelerators, the development of the Quench Detection System (QDS) for superconducting (SC) magnets becomes an important and critical problem. At present there is experience in developing such systems for the Tevatron (FNAL, USA) and HERA (Hamburg, Germany). The machines for more than 3 TeV-the UNK (Russia) and SSC (USA), which are presently under construction, have very large circumferences, 21 and 87 km, respectively. The QDS's, similar to those of the Tevatron, require a larger part of the active components of the electronic equipment be placed in the machine tunnel close to the magnets, and protected from irradiation or additional surface buildings will have to be constructed. In either case the cost of such a QDS increases. In addition the former ones reliability decreases and maintenance becomes more difficult. For such machines, a QDS in which the quench signal, in each superconducting magnet (SCM) or groups of SCM'S, is extracted with the help of a bridge circuit (BC) appears to be more suitable. The half coils of SCM's are connected as two arms of the bridge and the resistors placed in the vacuum vessels of the magnet cryostats are connected to the other two. The off-balance signal of each BC is enhanced with the help of magnetic amplifiers. This note describes the experimental prototype of a bridge-type Quench Detector (QD) based on a magnetic amplifier Magnetic Modulator (MM) type, allowing one not only to detect a quench in a SCM, but also making feasible a wider system capability, namely: to record the signals from all SC elements during a quench for further analysis of its causes; to check the presence of short circuits of the ring electromagnet bus relative to the cryostats and to localize their position

  4. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  6. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  7. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  8. Early development and larval behaviour of a minnow, Barbus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chubbyhead barb, Barbus anoplus, underwent a population explosion in the early phases of filling of Lake be Roux on the Orange River. This successful colonization was possibly related to the survival strategy of the young stages of this minnow. It is suggested that some of the development traits of B. anoplus enabled ...

  9. Nutrition, Health and Safety in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...

  10. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  11. Early Journals and Their Influences on the Development of Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Lorraine; Carter, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This examination of early gerontology journals identifies the multidisciplinary backgrounds of contributors, methods of investigation, nascent theory development, and formative themes and controversies. Through use of content, thematic, and critical analyses of second year issues of "The Gerontologist," "Educational Gerontology," "Research on…

  12. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  13. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  14. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  15. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  16. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  17. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  18. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  19. Psychologically Inspired Sensory-Motor Development in Early Robot Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by results from developmental psychology. Behavioural acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behaviour changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints.

  20. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  1. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  2. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  3. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  4. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  5. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  6. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  7. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24?32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed...

  8. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  9. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorenscence Quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-10

    fluorescence is observed. Thus, ’ the enzymes (in this case phosphorylase C) which can hydrolyze the lecithin , can be determined by measuring the released...encapsulated in lecithin liposomes. In this manner the fluorescence is self-quenched. When the liposomes are disrupted, the dye is released and

  10. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  12. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  13. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  14. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  15. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  16. Networking and professional development among teachers of Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mérida Serrano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.

  17. First experience with the new Coupling Loss Induced Quench system

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Dudarev, A V; Kirby, G; Sperin, K A; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A new protection system called Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ) was recently, developed and tested at CERN. This method provokes a fast change in the magnet transport current by means of a capacitive discharge. The resulting change in the local magnetic field induces inter-filament and inter-strand coupling losses which heat up the superconductor and eventually initiate a quench in a large fraction of the coil winding pack. The method is extensively tested on a Nb-Ti single-wire test solenoid magnet in the CERN Cryogenic Laboratory in order to assess its performance, optimize its operating parameters, and study new electrical configurations. Each parameter is thoroughly analyzed and its impact on the quench effi...

  18. The quench detection system of Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birus, Dietrich; Schneider, Matthias; Rummel, Thomas; Fricke, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The Quench Detection System of Wendelstein W7-X has been developed, pretested and manufactured during the last four years. This safety subsystem of the superconducting magnet power supply will guarantee the safe operating of the whole magnet system. The main targets of the Quench Detection System are the complete data acquisition of all the voltages along the superconducting components, i.e. non planar and planar coils, and bus bars, the evaluation of this data and the control of the magnet system safety discharges. The Quench Detection System is generating control commands for the magnet power supply control system and the electrical status of the superconducting components of W7-X. The Quench Detection System consists of nearly 580 Quench Detection Units (QDU) located in 10 QD-subsystems, 8 racks in each, one host system and two special interfaces for evaluation of the quench control commands and the failure signals. The operating software suite of the QD System allows the configuration, the operation and the maintenance of the whole system.

  19. Quench/reflood modeling in MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntt, R.O.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe the reactor accident simulation model MELCOR. It comprises hydrodynamic investigations on reactor core quenching, hydrogen generation in the reactor core vessel, quench front advances. Preliminary comparisons to data are reasonable but need further validation. (uke)

  20. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  1. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  2. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2006-06-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it were cultured in PES medium, incubated at 18 °C, 10±2 μmol/(m2·s1) in 12∶12h (light: dark). The observation and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  4. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  5. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  6. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  7. Quenching gases for limited-streamer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, P

    1986-04-01

    Charge spectra and efficiencies of the limited-streamer mode are presented as a function of quencher fraction and high voltage for several gas mixes. The goal was to find a working gas of low hydrocarbon content in order to relieve safety concerns about the flammability of the large gas volume contained in the hadron calorimeter of the OPAL detector at LEP. No suitable low-hydrocarbon quenching mix is found. The charge spectra from these quenchers develop secondary peaks and long tails as full efficiency is approached, leading to catastrophic breakdown near the onset of full efficiency.

  8. Quenching gases for limited-streamer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, P

    1986-04-01

    Charge spectra and efficiencies of the limited-streamer mode are presented as a function of quencher fraction and high voltage for several gas mixes. The goal was to find a working gas of low hydrocarbon content in order to relieve safety concerns about the flammability of the large gas volume contained in the hadron calorimeter of the OPAL detector at LEP. No suitable low-hydrocarbon quenching mix is found. The charge spectra from these quenchers develop secondary peaks and long tails as full efficiency is approached, leading to catastrophic breakdown near the onset of full efficiency. (orig.).

  9. A simple holographic scenario for gapped quenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Esperanza; Bosch, Guillermo Milans del [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-24

    We construct gravitational backgrounds dual to a family of field theories parameterized by a relevant coupling. They combine a non-trivial scalar field profile with a naked singularity. The naked singularity is necessary to preserve Lorentz invariance along the boundary directions. The singularity is however excised by introducing an infrared cutoff in the geometry. The holographic dictionary associated to the infrared boundary is developed. We implement quenches between two different values of the coupling. This requires considering time dependent boundary conditions for the scalar field both at the AdS boundary and the infrared wall.

  10. Passive quench arrest by a chimney induced deluge at every quench front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoriak, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a magnet in which a growing quench stops itself spontaneously within a fraction of one winding turn because vapor in quench-heated channels generates a progressively increasing downflow of liquid in advance of each of the quench fronts. The downflow eventually becomes a deluge as the quench grows. The design of the multiple arrested quench magnet is discussed. It is shown how to construct a magnet so that if an arrested quench arises when it is at its highest operating current, peak nucleate boiling will exist in all quenching channels

  11. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  12. Quenching effects in photon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.

    1989-01-01

    Contraints on the photon production calculated by kinetic approaches are studied by means of sum-rules a finite temperature for simple quantum system. For the square-well potential the exact production rate is compared with its semi-classical limit in order to introduce the principle problem. For the scattering of hard spheres the photon production cross section is derived exactly by partial wave expansion. This serves to study the more realistic example of a gas of hard spheres. The corresponding kinetic photon production rates are found to violate the sum-rules, due to a singular behaviour at small gamma energies. Thus the hypothesis of incoherent free scattering is not valid in that range because of destructive interferences which quench the production rates significantly. For the application to nuclear collisions at intermediate energies these quenching effects are found to be important for gamma energies even up to a few hundred MeV. (orig.)

  13. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  14. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J

    2017-05-01

    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable.

  16. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Achermann, Sheila; Marciszko, Carin; Lindskog, Marcus; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks—involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition—and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants’ performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life. PMID:27765900

  17. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  19. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  20. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  2. Quench detection system of the EURATOM coil for the Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noether, G.; Gauss, S.; Maurer, W.; Siewerdt, L.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuechner, F.

    1989-01-01

    A special quench detection system has been developed for the EURATOM Large Coil Task (LCT) coil. The system is based on a bridge circuit which uses a special 'two in hand' winding technique for the pancakes of the EURATOM LCT coil. The electronic circuit was designed in a fail safe way to prevent failure of the quench detector due to failure of one of its components. A method for quick balancing of the quench detection system in a large toroidal magnet system was applied. The quench detection system worked very reliably during the experimental phase of the LCT and was within the quench detection level setting of 50 mV, i.e. the system was not sensitive to poloidal field transients at or below this level. Non-electrical methods for quench detection were also investigated. (author)

  3. Fathers’ Sensitive Parenting and the Development of Early Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers’ sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children’s early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children’s early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers’ and mothers’ sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24-months predicted children’s executive functioning at 3-years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7-months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children’s executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. PMID:25347539

  4. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  5. Quench protection analysis of the Mu2e production solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikhin, Vadim; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nikolai; Lamm, Michael; Nicol, Thomas; Orris, Darryl; Page, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Muon-to-Electron conversion experiment (Mu2e), under development at Fermilab, seeks to detect direct muon to electron conversion to provide evidence for a process violating muon and electron lepton number conservation that cannot be explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. The Mu2e magnet system consists of three large superconducting solenoids. In case of a quench, the stored magnetic energy is extracted to an external dump circuit. However, because of the fast current decay, a significant fraction of the energy dissipates inside of the cryostat in the coil support shells made of structural aluminum, and in the radiation shield. A 3D finite-element model of the complete cold-mass was created in order to simulate the quench development and understand the role of the quench-back. The simulation results are reported at the normal and non-standard operating conditions

  6. Quench protection analysis of the Mu2e production solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikhin, Vadim; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nikolai; Lamm, Michael; Nicol, Thomas; Orris, Darryl; Page, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Muon-to-Electron conversion experiment (Mu2e), under development at Fermilab, seeks to detect direct muon to electron conversion to provide evidence for a process violating muon and electron lepton number conservation that cannot be explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. The Mu2e magnet system consists of three large superconducting solenoids. In case of a quench, the stored magnetic energy is extracted to an external dump circuit. However, because of the fast current decay, a significant fraction of the energy dissipates inside of the cryostat in the coil support shells made of structural aluminum, and in the radiation shield. A 3D finite-element model of the complete cold-mass was created in order to simulate the quench development and understand the role of the quench-back. The simulation results are reported at the normal and non-standard operating conditions.

  7. The quantum defect: Early history and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term open-quotes quantum defectclose quotes does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. We present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments. copyright 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers

  8. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Richard Kin Ting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  9. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  10. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  11. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  12. Quench detection of superconducting magnet by dual-core optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Kawai, K.; Kokubun, Y.; Takao, T.

    1988-01-01

    A quench-detecting technique using two single-mode optical cores in one fiber has been developed. The technique can detect quench from a temperature rise of 1.0 K at 4.2 K. An electromagnetic force-stress to the fiber did not deteriorate quench detection sensitivity. A quench detector using this method was immune from electromagnetic noise and free from troubles caused by high voltage tension. Problems arising when applying this method to a large scale magnet and possible improvements in the instrumentation are discussed

  13. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  14. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    2010-07-01

    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  15. Determinants of early child development in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Ingeborg G; Svensen, Erling; Lyngmo, Britt A; Mduma, Estomih; Hinderaker, Sven G

    2018-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania. This cohort study is part of the MAL-ED (The Interactions of Malnutrition & Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development) multi-country consortium studying risk factors for ill health and poor development in children. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analyses were performed. Associations between nutritional status, socio-economic status, and home environment at 6 months of age and cognitive outcomes at 15 months of age were studied. The third edition of the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development was used to assess cognitive, language and motor development. There were 262 children enrolled into the study, and this present analysis included the 137 children with data for 15-month Bayley scores. Univariate regression analysis, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months were significantly associated with 15-month Bayley gross motor score, but not with other 15-month Bayley scores. Length-for-age z-scores at 6 months were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. The socio-economic status, measured by a set of assets and monthly income was significantly associated with 15-month Bayley cognitive score, but not with language, motor, nor total 15-month Bayley scores. Other socio-economic variables were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. No significant associations were found between the home environment and 15-month Bayley scores. In multivariate

  16. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  17. Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva, Marina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account, whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

  18. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  19. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  20. Quenching behaviour of hot zircaloy tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchole, A.S.; Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The quenching process plays a very important role in case of safety of nuclear reactors. During large break Loss of Coolant Accident in a nuclear reactor, the cooling water from the system is lost. Under this condition, cold water is injected from emergency core cooling system. Quenching behaviour of such heated rod bundle is really complex. It is well known that nanofluids have better heat removal capability and high heat transfer coefficient owing to enhanced thermal properties. Alumina nano-particles result in better cooling abilities compared with the traditionally used quenching media. In this paper, the authors have carried out experiments on quenching behaviour of hot zircaloy tube with demineralized water and nanofluids. It was observed that, the tube got quenched within few seconds even with the presence of decay heat and shows slightly reduced quenching time compared with DM water. (author)

  1. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Zlobin, AV; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil ...

  2. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, AV; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  3. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  4. Controlled beta-quench treatment of fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckel, Andreas; Cremer, Ingo; Kratzer, Anton; Walter, Dirk; Perkins, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend towards higher fuel assembly discharge burnups poses new challenges for fuel channels in terms of their dimensional behavior and corrosion resistance. Beta-quenching of fuel channels has been applied by the nuclear industry to improve the dimensional stability of this component. This led AREVA NP to develop a new technique for beta quenching of fuel channels that combines the effect of beta-quenching with the optimization of the microstructure in order to improve the dimensional behavior of fuel channels by randomizing the crystallographic texture, while maintaining the excellent corrosion behavior of the fuel channels by providing intermetallic phase particles of optimum average size. The first fuel channels with these optimized material properties have been placed in the core of a German boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant in spring of 2004. Some more channels will follow in 2007 to broaden in-pile experience and to receive irradiation feedback from two other nuclear power plants. (authors)

  5. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  6. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power ampersand Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis

  7. Whole cell quenched flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ya-Yu; Haeri, Sina; Gizewski, Carsten; Stewart, Joanna D; Ehrhard, Peter; Shrimpton, John; Janasek, Dirk; West, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    This paper describes a microfluidic quenched flow platform for the investigation of ligand-mediated cell surface processes with unprecedented temporal resolution. A roll-slip behavior caused by cell-wall-fluid coupling was documented and acts to minimize the compression and shear stresses experienced by the cell. This feature enables high-velocity (100-400 mm/s) operation without impacting the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition, rotation generates localized convection paths. This cell-driven micromixing effect causes the cell to become rapidly enveloped with ligands to saturate the surface receptors. High-speed imaging of the transport of a Janus particle and fictitious domain numerical simulations were used to predict millisecond-scale biochemical switching times. Dispersion in the incubation channel was characterized by microparticle image velocimetry and minimized by using a horizontal Hele-Shaw velocity profile in combination with vertical hydrodynamic focusing to achieve highly reproducible incubation times (CV = 3.6%). Microfluidic quenched flow was used to investigate the pY1131 autophosphorylation transition in the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). This predimerized receptor undergoes autophosphorylation within 100 ms of stimulation. Beyond this demonstration, the extreme temporal resolution can be used to gain new insights into the mechanisms underpinning a tremendous variety of important cell surface events.

  8. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K + channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from CaMKII activation

  9. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: dawon@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  10. Quench simulation in the thin superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaka, T.; Takasaki, M.; Wake, M.; Yamada, R.

    1983-07-01

    The propagation velocities of a normal zone were calculated for a 1 mdiameter x 1 m superconducting solenoid and for a 3 mdiameter x 5 m thin solenoid based on a simple model using the one-dimensional thermal equation. The quench back effect can be observed in certain conditions. The quench of the large thin solenoid was also simulated by using the computer program 'QUENCH'. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of the laminar hydrogen flame in the presence of a quenching mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudriakov, S.; Studer, E.; Bin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of J.H. Song et al., and S.Y. Yang et al. have been concentrated on mitigation measures against hydrogen risk. The authors have proposed installation of quenching meshes between compartments or around the essential equipment in order to contain hydrogen flames. Preliminary tests were conducted which demonstrated the possibility of flame extinction using metallic meshes of specific size. Considerable amount of numerical and theoretical work on flame quenching phenomenon has been performed in the second half of the last century and several techniques and models have been proposed to predict the quenching phenomenon of the laminar flame system. Most of these models appreciated the importance of heat loss to the surroundings as a primary cause of extinguishment, in particular, the heat transfer by conduction to the containing wall. The supporting simulations predict flame-quenching structure either between parallel plates (quenching distance) or inside a tube of a certain diameter (quenching diameter). In the present study the flame quenching is investigated assuming the laminar hydrogen flame propagating towards a quenching mesh using two-dimensional configuration and the earlier developed models. It is shown that due to a heat loss to a metallic grid the flame can be quenched numerically. (authors)

  12. QUENCH-LOCA program at KIT and results of the QUENCH-L0 bundle test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckert, J.; Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Steinbrueck, M.; Walter, M.

    2012-01-01

    The current LOCA criteria and their safety goals are applied worldwide with minor modifications since the USNRC release in 1973. The criteria are given as limits on peak cladding temperature (T PCT ≤ 1200 C) and on oxidation level ECR (equivalent cladding reacted) calculated as a percentage of cladding oxidized (ECR ≤ 17% calculated using Baker-Just oxidation correlation). These two rules constitute the criterion of cladding embrittlement due to oxygen uptake. The results elaborated worldwide in the 1980s and 1990s on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding tubes behavior (oxidation, deformation and bundle coolability) under LOCA conditions constitute a detailed data base and an important input for the safety assessment of LWRs. In-pile test data (with burn-up up to 35 MWd/kgU) were consistent with the out-of-pile data and did not indicate an influence of the nuclear environment on cladding deformation. At high burn-up, fuel rods fabricated from conventional Zry-4 often exhibit significant oxidation, hydriding, and oxide spallation. Thus, many fuel vendors have proposed the use of recently developed cladding alloys, such as M5 registered , ZIRLO trademark and other. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety margins for high burn-up fuel and fuel claddings with new alloys. Due to long cladding hydriding period for the high fuel burn-up, post-quench ductility is strongly influenced not only by oxidation but also hydrogen uptake. The 17% ECR limit is inadequate to ensure post-quench ductility at hydrogen concentrations higher than ∼500 wppm. Due to so called secondary hydriding (during oxidation of inner cladding surface after burst), which was firstly observed in JAEA, the hydrogen content can reach 4000 wppm in Zircaloy cladding regions around burst. To investigate the influence of these phenomena on the applicability of the embrittlement criteria for the German nuclear reactors it was decided to perform the QUENCH-LOCA bundle test series at the Karlsruhe Institute

  13. QUENCH-LOCA program at KIT and results of the QUENCH-L0 bundle test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckert, J.; Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Steinbrueck, M.; Walter, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The current LOCA criteria and their safety goals are applied worldwide with minor modifications since the USNRC release in 1973. The criteria are given as limits on peak cladding temperature (T{sub PCT} {<=} 1200 C) and on oxidation level ECR (equivalent cladding reacted) calculated as a percentage of cladding oxidized (ECR {<=} 17% calculated using Baker-Just oxidation correlation). These two rules constitute the criterion of cladding embrittlement due to oxygen uptake. The results elaborated worldwide in the 1980s and 1990s on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding tubes behavior (oxidation, deformation and bundle coolability) under LOCA conditions constitute a detailed data base and an important input for the safety assessment of LWRs. In-pile test data (with burn-up up to 35 MWd/kgU) were consistent with the out-of-pile data and did not indicate an influence of the nuclear environment on cladding deformation. At high burn-up, fuel rods fabricated from conventional Zry-4 often exhibit significant oxidation, hydriding, and oxide spallation. Thus, many fuel vendors have proposed the use of recently developed cladding alloys, such as M5 {sup registered}, ZIRLO trademark and other. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety margins for high burn-up fuel and fuel claddings with new alloys. Due to long cladding hydriding period for the high fuel burn-up, post-quench ductility is strongly influenced not only by oxidation but also hydrogen uptake. The 17% ECR limit is inadequate to ensure post-quench ductility at hydrogen concentrations higher than {approx}500 wppm. Due to so called secondary hydriding (during oxidation of inner cladding surface after burst), which was firstly observed in JAEA, the hydrogen content can reach 4000 wppm in Zircaloy cladding regions around burst. To investigate the influence of these phenomena on the applicability of the embrittlement criteria for the German nuclear reactors it was decided to perform the QUENCH-LOCA bundle test series at the

  14. Quenching reactions of electronically excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setser, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The two-body, thermal quenching reactions of electronically excited atoms are reviewed using excited states of Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms as examples. State-specific interstate relaxation and excitation-transfer reactions with atomic colliders are discussed first. These results then are used to discuss quenching reactions of excited-state atoms with diatomic and polyatomic molecules, the latter have large cross sections, and the reactions can proceed by excitation transfer and by reactive quenching. Excited states of molecules are not considered; however, a table of quenching rate constants is given for six excited-state molecules in an appendix

  15. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  16. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  17. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  19. Born a bit too early: A study of early planned birth and child development at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bentley

    2017-04-01

    Early (<39 weeks gestation planned birth is associated with an increased risk of poor development in children starting school. Given the timing of planned birth is modifiable, delaying birth for an additional week or more may improve child development. Strategies and interventions to inform more judicious decision making, weighing all the risks and benefits for early planned birth are required to ensure optimal child health and development.

  20. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  2. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  3. Transient quenching of superheated debris beds during bottom reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Ginsberg, T.; Klein, J.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental data suggest that for small liquid supply rate and low initial particle temperature, the bed quench process is a one-dimensional frontal phenomenon. The bed heat flux is constant during most of the duration of the quench period. The range of conditions which display one-dimensional frontal cooling characteristics is identified as the deep bed regime of bed quenching, and a limiting mathematical model was developed to describe the observed behavior. For large liquid supply rate and high initial bed temperature, the bed quench process is a complex phenomenon. Under these conditions, the bed heat flux displays a nonuniform time dependence. In order to characterize this shallow bed regime, it was necessary to develop a detailed transient model of the coolant-debris interaction. This model, while developed for the shallow bed regime, also applies to the deep bed regime. Numerical computations clearly demonstrate the importance of developing a general reliable model for the solid-fluid heat transfer coefficients

  4. MD290: Q4 IP6 Quench Level

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, Mateusz Jakub; Lechner, Anton; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The detailed program proposed for the LHC Machine Development concerning a quench induced by fast losses on the MQY.4L6 quadrupole is presented. The merit of the MD, the necessary modifications of the machine protection systems are presented together with a preliminary analysis of the MD results.

  5. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  6. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  7. The origin of ultra diffuse galaxies: stellar feedback and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. K.; Kereš, D.; Wetzel, A.; Hopkins, P. F.; Faucher-Giguère, C.-A.; El-Badry, K.; Garrison-Kimmel, S.; Boylan-Kolchin, M.

    2018-05-01

    We test if the cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated galaxies from the FIRE project reproduce the properties of ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs). We show that outflows that dynamically heat galactic stars, together with a passively aging stellar population after imposed quenching, naturally reproduce the observed population of red UDGs, without the need for high spin halos, or dynamical influence from their host cluster. We reproduce the range of surface brightness, radius and absolute magnitude of the observed red UDGs by quenching simulated galaxies at a range of different times. They represent a mostly uniform population of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies with M* ˜ 108 M⊙, low metallicity and a broad range of ages; the more massive the UDGs, the older they are. The most massive red UDG in our sample (M* ˜ 3 × 108M⊙) requires quenching at z ˜ 3 when its halo reached Mh ˜ 1011 M⊙. Our simulated UDGs form with normal stellar-to-halo ratios and match the central enclosed masses and the velocity dispersions of the observed UDGs. Enclosed masses remain largely fixed across a broad range of quenching times because the central regions of their dark matter halos complete their growth early. If our simulated dwarfs are not quenched, they evolve into bluer low-surface brightness galaxies with M/L similar to observed field dwarfs. While our simulation sample covers a limited range of formation histories and halo masses, we predict that UDG is a common, and perhaps even dominant, galaxy type around M* ˜ 108 M⊙, both in the field and in clusters.

  8. Spectral analysis of colour-quenched and chemically quenched C 14 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Scott Guillearrd, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Pairs of pulse height distribution curves, of C-14 samples, colour quenched and chemically quenched were obtained. The possibility to choose a counting window in order to obtain the counting efficiency curves, for both type of quenching was studied. (author). 7 figs., 7 refs

  9. Spectral analysis of colour-quenched and chemically quenched C-14 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P. E.; Grau, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper pairs of pulse height distribution curves, of C-14 samples, colour-quenched and chemically quenched was obtained. The possibility to choose a counting window in order to obtain the counting efficiency curves, for both type of quenching was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  10. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  11. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Development of global cortical networks in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Otobe, Takayuki; Nakano, Tamami; Go, Tohshin; Konishi, Yukuo; Taga, Gentaro

    2010-04-07

    Human cognition and behaviors are subserved by global networks of neural mechanisms. Although the organization of the brain is a subject of interest, the process of development of global cortical networks in early infancy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we explored developmental changes in these networks from several days to 6 months after birth by examining spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. We set up 94 measurement channels over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions of the infant brain. The obtained signals showed complex time-series properties, which were characterized as 1/f fluctuations. To reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of continuous signals between all the pairs of measurement channels. We found that the cortical network organization showed regional dependency and dynamic changes in the course of development. In the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, connectivity increased between homologous regions in the two hemispheres and within hemispheres; in the frontal regions, it decreased progressively. Frontoposterior connectivity changed to a "U-shaped" pattern within 6 months: it decreases from the neonatal period to the age of 3 months and increases from the age of 3 months to the age of 6 months. We applied cluster analyses to the correlation coefficients and showed that the bilateral organization of the networks begins to emerge during the first 3 months of life. Our findings suggest that these developing networks, which form multiple clusters, are precursors of the functional cerebral architecture.

  14. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  15. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, José M.; Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure

  16. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, José M., E-mail: josemanuel.torralba@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 - Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain); Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure.

  17. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  18. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral

  19. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  20. Quenching and recovery experiments on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, K.D.; Siegel, R.W.; Schultz, H.

    1976-01-01

    A short summary is given of new results concerning transmission electron microscopy and resistivity measurements on quenched tungsten. These results give evidence for the first time that the quenching and annealing of high purity tungsten leads to vacancy--defect clustering resulting in small voids observable in the electron microscope. 21 references

  1. Heating the quenched Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the Eguchi-Kawaii reduction, in the momentum-quenched prescription, of the SU(N) lattice gauge theory for N -> infinite and address the problem of how finite temperature might be incorporated. This is of interest in order to establish quark deconfinement at high temperatures. We also show that different quenching procedures may be inequivalent. (orig.)

  2. Heating the quenched Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkhamer, F.R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Sterrewacht)

    1983-05-30

    We consider the Eguchi-Kawaii reduction, in the momentum-quenched prescription, of the SU(N) lattice gauge theory for N -> infinite and address the problem of how finite temperature might be incorporated. This is of interest in order to establish quark deconfinement at high temperatures. We also show that different quenching procedures may be inequivalent.

  3. Quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Olsen, Jesper V

    2007-01-01

    Technical limitations have prevented proteomic analyses of events occurring less than 30 s after signal initiation. We developed an automated, continuous quench-flow system allowing quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events (qPACE) with a time resolution of 1 s...

  4. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Water Resources Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. P. T.; Chen, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Signs of impending drought are often vague and result from hydrologic uncertainty. Because of this, determining the appropriate time to enforce water supply restrictions is difficult. This study proposes a drought early warning index (DEWI) that can help water resource managers to anticipate droughts so that preparations can be made to mitigate the impact of water shortages. This study employs the expected-deficit-rate of normal water supply conditions as the drought early warning index. An annual-use-reservoir-based water supply system in southern Taiwan was selected as the case study. The water supply simulation was based on reservoir storage at the evaluation time and the reservoir inflow series to cope with the actual water supply process until the end of the hydrologic year. A variety of deficits could be realized during different hydrologic years of records and assumptions of initial reservoir storage. These deficits are illustrated using the Average Shortage Rate (ASR) and the value of the ASR, namely the DEWI. The ASR is divided into 5 levels according to 5 deficit-tolerance combinations of each kind of annual demand. A linear regression model and a Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique model were employed to estimate the DEWI using selected factors deduced from supply-demand traits and available information, including: rainfall, reservoir inflow and storage data. The chosen methods mentioned above are used to explain a significant index is useful for both model development and decision making. Tests in the Tsengwen-Wushantou reservoir system showed this DEWI to perform very well in adopting the proper mitigation policy at the end of the wet season.

  6. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  7. Delays in early neuropsychic development: Approaches to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population frequency of neuropsychic developmental delays in infants is estimated at nearly 10%; that of global intellectual disability (mental retardation is at 1-3%. Delayed development is denned as a substantial retardation as compared to the standard indicators in any of the basic spheres: motor, communicative, cognitive, adaptive-behavioral, and socioemotional ones. Global developmental delay is characterized by a significant lag in two or more spheres. The use of current diagnostic techniques, such as the Bayley or Griffiths scales, can provide an objective quantitative assessment of both an infant's overall development and indicators in individual spheres. At the preliminary examination stage, it is expedient to carry out a Denver developmental screening test that may be directly used in a doctor's consulting room. The causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability in infants may be perinatal central nervous system (CNS lesions; brain malformations; intrauterine infections; intrauterine intoxications; early-onset psychoneurological diseases (neuroinfections, CNS injuries, epilepsies, autism spectrum disorders, etc.; congenital hypothyroidism; genetic diseases. Among all genetic causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability, there are chromosomal anomalies (25-30%, monogenic diseases (metabolic diseases, neuroectodermal syndromes, diseases with predominant grey and white matter involvement. The diagnostic possibilities of current genetic methods are considered.

  8. Fluorescence turn-on detection of target sequence DNA based on silicon nanodot-mediated quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Ning, Xinping; Mao, Guobin; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new enzyme-free method for target sequence DNA detection based on the dynamic quenching of fluorescent silicon nanodots (SiNDs) toward Cy5-tagged DNA probe. Fascinatingly, the water-soluble SiNDs can quench the fluorescence of cyanine (Cy5) in Cy5-tagged DNA probe in homogeneous solution, and the fluorescence of Cy5-tagged DNA probe can be restored in the presence of target sequence DNA (the synthetic target miRNA-27a). Based on this phenomenon, a SiND-featured fluorescent sensor has been constructed for "turn-on" detection of the synthetic target miRNA-27a for the first time. This newly developed approach possesses the merits of low cost, simple design, and convenient operation since no enzymatic reaction, toxic reagents, or separation procedures are involved. The established method achieves a detection limit of 0.16 nM, and the relative standard deviation of this method is 9% (1 nM, n = 5). The linear range is 0.5-20 nM, and the recoveries in spiked human fluids are in the range of 90-122%. This protocol provides a new tactic in the development of the nonenzymic miRNA biosensors and opens a promising avenue for early diagnosis of miRNA-associated disease. Graphical abstract The SiND-based fluorescent sensor for detection of S-miR-27a.

  9. Quenching and recovery experiments on molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirtlich, I.A.; Schultz, H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart

    1980-01-01

    Quenching experiments in superfluid helium have been performed on high-purity wire specimens obtained from a Mo single crystal with a residual resistance ratio of 40 000. Quenching from various temperatures near the melting point to 1.5 K resulted in quenched-in resistivities which are interpreted in terms of quenched-in vacancies. The following parameters were derived: Hsub(1V)sup(F) = 3.2 eV (formation enthalpy of monovacancies) and Ssub(1V)sup(F) = 1.5 k (formation entropy). The recovery of the quenched-in resistivity showed a recovery stage at 520 K, which is compatible with a migration enthalpy of Hsub(1V)sup(M) = 1.35 eV. The results are compared with recently published positron annihilation data. (author)

  10. Quench propagation in the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.; Snitchler, G.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of quench propagation are modeled in 40mm and 50mm diameter collider dipole magnet designs. A comparative study of the cold diode (passive) and quench heater (active) protection schemes will be presented. The SSCQ modeling program accurately simulates the axial quench velocity and uses phenomenological time delays for turn-to-turn transverse propagation. The axial quench velocity is field dependent and consequently, each conductor's quench profile is tracked separately. No symmetry constraints are employed and the distribution of the temperatures along the conductor differs from the adiabatic approximation. A single magnet has a wide margin of self protection which suggests that passive protection schemes must be considered. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Concentration quenching in Nd-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokowski, S.E.; Cook, L.; Mueller, H.; Weber, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorescence from trivalent Nd in solids is unfortunately quenched by interactions between Nd ions. Thus, laser materials with high Nd concentrations have reduced efficiencies because of this self-quenching, also known as concentration quenching. Nd self-quenching in different crystals and glasses varies considerably. We are therefore investigating this effect in a large number of materials in an effort to: (1) find those materials with long Nd fluorescent lifetimes at high Nd concentrations; and (2) elucidate the basic mechanisms of quenching and how the material structure controls its magnitude. We have concentrated on Nd-doped glasses because they provide a rich variety of structures, albeit complicated by Nd site inhomogeneities, and are easily and quickly made

  12. Development of an Infection-Responsive Fluorescent Sensor for the Early Detection of Urinary Catheter Blockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Scarlet; Acosta, Florianne B; Hathaway, Hollie J; Wallace, Laura A; Thet, Naing T; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2018-03-23

    Formation of crystalline biofilms following infection by Proteus mirabilis can lead to encrustation and blockage of long-term indwelling catheters, with serious clinical consequences. We describe a simple sensor, placed within the catheter drainage bag, to alert of impending blockage via a urinary color change. The pH-responsive sensor is a dual-layered polymeric "lozenge", able to release the self-quenching dye 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in response to the alkaline urine generated by the expression of bacterial urease. Sensor performance was evaluated within a laboratory model of the catheterized urinary tract, infected with both urease positive and negative bacterial strains under conditions of established infection, achieving an average "early warning" of catheter blockage of 14.5 h. Signaling only occurred following infection with urease positive bacteria. Translation of these sensors into a clinical environment would allow appropriate intervention before the occurrence of catheter blockage, a problem for which there is currently no effective control method.

  13. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  14. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  15. Quenched QED in the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermark, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    The main goal in this project has been to understand, through analytical methods, whether there could be a continuum limit for QED. This possibility is motivated by recent lattice simulations on quenched QED which apparently exhibit a chiral phase transition at strong coupling in the chiral limit. Another goal is to develop a novel perturbation expansion which may also be usefully applied to other theories. The author begins with the general expression for the chiral order parameter, (bar ψψ), in the quenched limit of euclidean QED, where the number of fermion flavors goes to zero, using the path integral formulation. A cutoff scale, Λ, is introduced into the photon propagator and a new expansion, the open-quotes wormhole expansion,close quotes in powers of Λ 2 /m 2 , where m is the fermion mass, is derived. Graphical rules for the wormhole expansion of left-angle bar ψψ right-angle are described in detail. The author then devises algorithms to generate recursively the graphs at each successive order and to perform the loop momentum integral and γ matrix trace involved in the evaluation of each graph. These algorithms are implemented in Mathmatica and the left-angle bar ψψ right-angle expansion is carried out to order (Λ 2 / m 2 ) 6 . The author employs pade techniques to extrapolate this expansion to the chiral limit (Λ 2 /m 2 → ∞) and looks for a singularity at strong coupling to signal a phase transition. Indications have been found that there may be a phase transition but apparently there are not enough terms in the wormhole expansion to attain stability in our pade analysis. The author therefore cannot conclude that there is a chiral phase transition, although the results are consistent with the existence of one

  16. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood (7–8 years old and early adolescence (11–12 years old constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across

  17. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  18. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  19. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.X. Horváth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  20. On the O2(a1Δ) quenching by vibrationally excited ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    The development of a discharge oxygen iodine laser (DOIL) requires efficient production of singlet delta oxygen (O2(a)) in electric discharge. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which O2(a) is quenched in these devices. To gain understanding of this mechanisms quenching of O2(a) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a --> X transition. Fast quenching of O2(a) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  1. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, D.X., E-mail: esoxluciuslinne@gmail.com [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Sotiriadis, S., E-mail: sotiriad@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Takács, G., E-mail: takacsg@eik.bme.hu [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  2. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  3. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. [ 32 P] labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development

  4. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Zhen YAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%. Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation.

  5. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  6. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  7. Design and operation of the quench protection system for the Fermilab tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of a superconducting accelerator, in addition to cryogenic requirements, introduces a new complexity not present in a conventional accelerator. A method is required for protecting the magnets from possible overheating or overvoltage conditions in the event that some magnets quench, that is, are elevated in temperature so that they are no longer superconducting. The development of that system is the topic of this chapter. Any quench protection system has two very important ingredients. First, it must be designed with sufficient integrity to remain functional even under abnormal circumstances. The magnets must be protected during power failures, for example. Quenches involving a large number of components can also be hazardous because of the redistribution of voltages during the quench. Some of the system integrity can be achieved through redundancy. Frequent testing of critical elements of the system also assures the overall integrity. Second, the quench protection system must protect against damage from quenches regardless of their location or the excitation current at the time. It is not sufficient to protect just the magnet coils; either the leads between magnets must be fully stabilized or the quench protection system must protect them. The next section presents a brief discussion of the basic properties of superconductors and the phenomenon of quench propagation. 10 references, 13 figures

  8. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Dong, Qi; Niu, Haijing

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood (7-8 years old) and early adolescence (11-12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development. Copyright

  9. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    of the POA by prenatal EDC exposures is already evident as early as the day after birth, effects that may change the trajectory of postnatal development and compromise adult reproductive function.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2018-04-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  11. Boiling and quenching heat transfer advancement by nanoscale surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Ziegler, Kirk J; Chung, J N

    2017-07-21

    All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements. As compared to a conventional aluminum surface, the current research reports a substantial enhancement of the CHF by 112% and an increase of the LPT by 40 K using an aluminum surface with anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous texture finish. These heat transfer enhancements imply that the power density would increase by more than 100% and the quenching efficiency would be raised by 33%. A theory that links the nucleation potential of the surface to heat transfer rates has been developed and it successfully explains the current finding by revealing that the heat transfer modification and enhancement are mainly attributed to the superhydrophilic surface property and excessive nanoscale nucleation sites created by the nanoporous surface.

  12. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  13. Heater induced quenches in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] model dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1986-10-01

    A 1-m long SSC dipole constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory was subjected to a series of heater induced quenches to determine: axial quench propagation velocities, transverse quench propagation, and conductor temperature rise. Quenches were produced by 3 heaters at different locations in the magnet and at several currents. The results of these studies are described and are compared to previously published theoretical studies of quenches on the SSC dipoles. These results are shown to be in agreement with the calculations of the program ''QUENCH'', which includes an increase of the quench velocity during the first few milliseconds of the quench

  14. Quark contributions to baryon magnetic moments in full, quenched, and partially quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, Derek B.

    2004-01-01

    The chiral nonanalytic behavior of quark-flavor contributions to the magnetic moments of octet baryons is determined in full, quenched and partially quenched QCD, using an intuitive and efficient diagrammatic formulation of quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. The technique provides a separation of quark-sector magnetic-moment contributions into direct sea-quark loop, valence-quark, indirect sea-quark loop and quenched valence contributions, the latter being the conventional view of the quenched approximation. Both meson and baryon mass violations of SU(3)-flavor symmetry are accounted for. Following a comprehensive examination of the individual quark-sector contributions to octet baryon magnetic moments, numerous opportunities to observe and test the underlying structure of baryons and the nature of chiral nonanalytic behavior in QCD and its quenched variants are discussed. In particular, the valence u-quark contribution to the proton magnetic moment provides the optimal opportunity to directly view nonanalytic behavior associated with the meson cloud of full QCD and the quenched meson cloud of quenched QCD. The u quark in Σ + provides the best opportunity to display the artifacts of the quenched approximation

  15. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity

  16. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  17. Analysis of the early development in first and backcross generations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the performance difference of reciprocal hybrids and backcrosses between Paralichthys olivaceus and Paralichthys dentatus. The fertilization and hatching rates, combined fitness measure, early developmental characteristics and chromosome number were analyzed. The crosses of P. olivaceus ...

  18. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  19. Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pasa C., Hatamoto-Zervoudakis L.K., Zervoudakis J.T. & Soares L. [Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development.] Suplementos minerais quelatados para vacas Nelore: qualidade e desenvolvimento embrionário inicial. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:29-34, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78060-900, Brasil. E-mail: pasa_camila@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and early development of embryos produced with oocytes of cows supplemented with copper, zinc and selenium in a non-chelated and chelated. The experiment was conducted in Cuiabá-MT during the months April to July 2009. We used 24 adult Nellore multiparous, aged, average weights of the initial 36 months, 395 kg and mean body condition score 4.8, respectively randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (CG, supplemented with conventional mineral and Supplemented Group (GS, animals supplemented with zinc, copper and selenium chelated. Each group was kept in a paddock of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu received 1 kg of animal per day. chelated mineral supplementation (GS and conventional mineral (GC delivered via the protein supplement was given during a period of 99 days with daily average 1kg/cabeça. During the experimental period were two follicular aspirations, one to 59 days and another at 99 days of supplementation. Every two weeks the animals were weighed and ECC evaluated. oocytes viable (grades I, II and III were used for in vitro production of embryos. The experiment was completely randomized and data were analyzed by ANOVA and a significance level of 10%. There was no effect (p> 0.10 of supplementation with chelated minerals on the percentage of cleaved oocytes, total embryos produced, percentage of produced

  20. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  1. Early successful orchidopexy does not prevent from developing azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hadziselimovic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Ad spermatogonia (stem cells for fertility was assessed in 20 cryptorchid patients, all of whom had a successful orchidopexy in childhood but developed azoospermia following puberty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 231 patients who had a semen analysis following successful orchidopexy 20 patients (9% had azoospermia. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the time of surgery: A = < 21 months of age (n = 5, mean = 10.7 ± 8.6 months and B = during childhood (n = 15, mean = 10.1 ± 3 years. Nine of the 20 patients (45% had bilateral cryptorchidism: A = 1 and B = 8. Testicular biopsies were performed during orchidopexy and analyzed with semi-thin technique. The number of Ad spermatogonia and entire number of germ cells was determined. The patients' semen analyses were evaluated at least twice; FSH and testosterone plasma values were estimated. RESULTS: In group A, all patients had germ cells at the time of surgery (mean = 1.04 ± 1.4 germ cells per tubular cross section; only 6 patients in group B (40% had no germ cells (mean = 0.17 ± 0.4; A vs. B, p = 0.0133. Importantly, Ad spermatogonia were absent in the entire study population. The plasma FSH of 16 patients (80% was abnormal [median = 16.35 IU/L (Interquartile range of sample - IQR 9.075-27.85 95% CI, 3-53] while the plasma testosterone of all the patients was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most severe cause of infertility in cryptorchid patients cannot be mitigated by an early successful surgery alone.

  2. lessons learned from the QUENCH program at FZK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, M.; Grosse, M.; Sepold, L.; Stuckert, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on the main outcome of the QUENCH program at FZK, including complementary bundle experiments and separate-effects tests. The major objective of the program is to deliver experimental and analytical data to support development and validation of quench and quench-related models as used in code systems. So far, 15 integral bundle QUENCH experiments with 21-31 electrically heated fuel rod simulators of 2.5 m length have been conducted. The following parameters and their influence on bundle degradation and reflood have been investigated: degree of pre-oxidation, temperature at initiation of reflood, flooding rate, influence of neutron absorber materials (B 4 C, AgInCd), air ingress, and the influence of the type of cladding alloy. In six tests reflood of the bundle caused a temporary temperature excursion connected with the release of a significant amount of hydrogen, typically 2 orders of magnitude greater than in those tests with 'successful' quenching in which cool-down was immediately achieved. Comprehensive formation, relocation, and oxidation of melt were observed in all tests with escalation. The temperature boundary between rapid cooldown and temperature escalation was typically 2100-2200 K in the 'normal' quench tests, i.e. tests without absorber and/or steam starvation. Tests with absorber and/or steam starvation were found to lead to temperature escalations at lower temperatures. All phenomena occurring in the bundle tests have been additionally investigated in parametric and more systematic separate-effects tests. Oxidation kinetics of various cladding alloys, including advanced ones, have been determined over a wide temperature range (873-1773 K) in different atmospheres (steam, oxygen, air, and their mixtures). Hydrogen absorption by different zirconium alloys was investigated in detail, recently also using neutron radiography as non-destructive method for determination of hydrogen distribution in claddings

  3. Quantum Quenches in a Spinor Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamacraft, Austen

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the ordering of a spin-1 condensate when quenched from its paramagnetic phase to its ferromagnetic phase by reducing the magnetic field. We first elucidate the nature of the equilibrium quantum phase transition. Quenching rapidly through this transition reveals XY ordering either at a specific wave vector, or the ''light-cone'' correlations familiar from relativistic theories, depending on the end point of the quench. For a quench proceeding at a finite rate the ordering scale is governed by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The creation of vortices through growth of the magnetization fluctuations is also discussed. The long-time dynamics again depends on the end point, conserving the order parameter in a zero field, but not at a finite field, with differing exponents for the coarsening of magnetic order. The results are discussed in the light of a recent experiment by Sadler et al

  4. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Early Childhood: Contributions of Early Parenting and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Berthelsen, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This research considers the role of parenting practices and early self-regulation, on children's prosocial behaviour when they begin school. Data for 4007 children were drawn from "Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). The analyses explored relations between self-reported parenting practices for…

  5. Modelling of the Quench Process for the Optimisation of the Design and Protection of Superconducting Busbars for the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, R; Sonnemann, F

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting busbars powering the LHC magnets are highly stabilised with copper to reduce the probability of a quench starting in a busbar and to avoid excessive temperatures after a quench during current discharge. In order to determine the required copper stabilisation and the parameters of the protection system a finite difference program has been developed. The program numerically approximates the heat balance equation and evaluates the temperature profile after a quench as a funct...

  6. Can We Measure the Transition to Reading? General Outcome Measures and Early Literacy Development From Preschool to Early Elementary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McConnell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which existing measures met standards for a continuous suite of general outcome measures (GOMs assessing children’s early literacy from preschool through early elementary school. The study assessed 316 children from age 3 years (2 years prekindergarten through Grade 2, with 8 to 10 measures of language, alphabetic principle, phonological awareness, and beginning reading. We evaluated measures at each grade group against six standards for GOMs extracted from earlier work. We found that one measure of oral language met five or six standards at all grade levels, and several measures of phonological awareness and alphabetic principle showed promise across all five grade levels. Results are discussed in relation to ongoing research and development of a flexible and seamless system to assess children’s academic progress across time for effective prevention and remediation, as well as theoretical and empirical analyses in early literacy, early reading, and GOMs.

  7. History of Giant Resonances and Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Arima, A

    1999-01-01

    The history of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions is reviewed. The importance of configuration mixing and core polarization to explain the quenching phenomena is shown, and discussed in the context of the recent measurement of the Gamow-Teller strength in sup 9 sup 0 Nb. It is confirmed that the contribution of the DELTA-hole excitation to the quenching of spin matrix elements is small.

  8. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  9. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

  10. QUENCH: A software package for the determination of quenching curves in Liquid Scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC), the scintillating source is part of the measurement system and its detection efficiency varies with the scintillator used, the vial and the volume and the chemistry of the sample. The detection efficiency is generally determined using a quenching curve, describing, for a specific radionuclide, the relationship between a quenching index given by the counter and the detection efficiency. A quenched set of LS standard sources are prepared by adding a quenching agent and the quenching index and detection efficiency are determined for each source. Then a simple formula is fitted to the experimental points to define the quenching curve function. The paper describes a software package specifically devoted to the determination of quenching curves with uncertainties. The experimental measurements are described by their quenching index and detection efficiency with uncertainties on both quantities. Random Gaussian fluctuations of these experimental measurements are sampled and a polynomial or logarithmic function is fitted on each fluctuation by χ"2 minimization. This Monte Carlo procedure is repeated many times and eventually the arithmetic mean and the experimental standard deviation of each parameter are calculated, together with the covariances between these parameters. Using these parameters, the detection efficiency, corresponding to an arbitrary quenching index within the measured range, can be calculated. The associated uncertainty is calculated with the law of propagation of variances, including the covariance terms. - Highlights: • The program “QUENCH” is devoted to the interpolation of quenching curves in LSC. • Functions are fitted to experimental data with uncertainties in both quenching and efficiency. • The parameters of the fitting function and the associated covariance matrix are evaluated. • The detection efficiency and uncertainty corresponding to a given quenching index is calculated.

  11. Temperature Profiles During Quenches in LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets Protected by Quench Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Maroussov, V; Sanfilippo, S; Siemko, A

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of the magnet protection by quench heaters was studied using a novel method which derives the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet during a quench from measured voltage signals. In several Large Hadron Collider single aperture dipole models, temperature profiles and temperature gradients in the magnet coil have been evaluated in the case of protection by different sets of quench heaters and different powering and protection parameters. The influence of the insulation...

  12. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  13. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  14. QUENCH: A software package for the determination of quenching curves in Liquid Scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC), the scintillating source is part of the measurement system and its detection efficiency varies with the scintillator used, the vial and the volume and the chemistry of the sample. The detection efficiency is generally determined using a quenching curve, describing, for a specific radionuclide, the relationship between a quenching index given by the counter and the detection efficiency. A quenched set of LS standard sources are prepared by adding a quenching agent and the quenching index and detection efficiency are determined for each source. Then a simple formula is fitted to the experimental points to define the quenching curve function. The paper describes a software package specifically devoted to the determination of quenching curves with uncertainties. The experimental measurements are described by their quenching index and detection efficiency with uncertainties on both quantities. Random Gaussian fluctuations of these experimental measurements are sampled and a polynomial or logarithmic function is fitted on each fluctuation by χ(2) minimization. This Monte Carlo procedure is repeated many times and eventually the arithmetic mean and the experimental standard deviation of each parameter are calculated, together with the covariances between these parameters. Using these parameters, the detection efficiency, corresponding to an arbitrary quenching index within the measured range, can be calculated. The associated uncertainty is calculated with the law of propagation of variances, including the covariance terms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrafast quenching of metals to liquid-helium temperatures - investigation of the low-temperature mobility of hydrogen in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanz, M.; Blocher, R.; Carstanjen, H.D.; Messer, R.; Plachke, D.; Seeger, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique for ultrafast quenching from 300 K to 4.2 K has been developed. It employs a fast jet of liquid helium with a speed of about 10 2 m/s and allows us to quench metal samples in about 6 ms. This corresponds to a quenching rate of about 4.5x10 4 K/s, which exceeds that achievable by conventional quenching in liquid helium by more than one order of magnitude. The technique has been used for a resistometric study of the behaviour of hydrogen in niobium quenched-in from the α-phase by means of isochronal and isothermal annealing. Even in the low-temperature region below 20 K a considerable recovery of the resistivity has been found, which cannot be seen in conventional quenching experiments. (orig.)

  16. Quench protection test results and comparative simulations on the first 10 meter prototype dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Gerin, G.; Marquis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first 10 meter long dipole prototypes made by European Industry within the framework of the R and D program for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been tested at CERN. As a part of the test program, a series of quench protection tests have been carried out in order to qualify the basic protection scheme foreseen for the LHC dipoles (quench heaters and cold diodes). Results are presented on the quench heater performance, and on the maximum temperatures and voltages observed during quenches under the so-called machine conditions. Moreover, an update of the quench simulation package specially developed at CERN (QUABER 2) has been recently made. Details on this new version of QUABER are given. Simulation runs have been made specifically to validate the model with the results from the measurements on quench protection mentioned above

  17. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  18. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  19. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  20. Do Fine Motor Skills Contribute to Early Reading Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how fine motor skills (FMS) relate to early literacy skills, especially over and above cognitive variables. Moreover, a lack of distinction between FMS, grapho-motor and writing skills may have hampered previous work. Method: In Germany, kindergartners (n = 144, aged 6;1) were recruited before beginning formal…

  1. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  2. Early Development of Graphical Literacy through Knowledge Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…

  3. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  4. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    2017-01-01

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  5. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  6. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CLD quench verification calculations... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench verification calculations. Perform CLD quench-check calculations as follows: (a) Perform a CLD analyzer quench...

  7. Rapidly quenched amorphous and microcrystalline solders for atomic power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, V.A.; Fedotov, V.T.; Sevryukov, O.N.; Grigor'ev, A.E.; Skuratov, L.A.; Sulaberidze, V.Sh.; Yurchenko, A.D.; Sokolov, V.F.; Rodionov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of using strip amorphous brazing alloys STEMET on Ni, Cu, Ti or Al base to braze various materials (stainless steels - zirconium, ceramics - metal, copper alloys, titanium alloys, cermets, molybdenum, beryllium) is under study. Experimental bench is designed and brazing regimes are developed for various dissimilar materials. Mechanical and corrosion tests of brazed joints show that rapidly quenching STEMET type brazing alloys are promising materials for manufacturing components of irradiating devices [ru

  8. Wave form of current quench during disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Shimada, Michiya; Lukash, Victor; Kawano, Yasunori; Yoshino, Ryuji; Miki, Nobuharu; Ohmori, Junji; Khayrutdinov, Rustam

    2003-01-01

    The time dependence of the current decay during the current quench phase of disruptions, which can significantly influence the electro-magnetic force on the in-vessel components due to the induced eddy currents, is investigated using data obtained in JT-60U experiments in order to derive a relevant physics guideline for the predictive simulations of disruptions in ITER. It is shown that an exponential decay can fit the time dependence of current quench for discharges with large quench rate (fast current quench). On the other hand, for discharges with smaller quench rate (slow current quench), a linear decay can fit the time dependence of current quench better than exponential. (author)

  9. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  10. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  11. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs...... in the uterus of the maternal adult during the early stages of gestation. Biomedical pig models could serve as genetic backgrounds for establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or other pluripotent stem cells (such as iPSC), which may be used to model and study diseases in vitro. This chapter provides...... insight into the current knowledge of pluripotent states in the developing pig embryo and the current status in establishment of bona fide porcine ESC (pESC) and piPSCs. It reflects the potential causes underlying the difficulty in establishing pluripotent stem cells and reviews recent data on global...

  12. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  13. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD

    2004-11-14

    A total of 447 dissertation abstracts were received for the DIALOG V Program, with 146 individuals applying for the DIALOG V Symposium; 47 were invited and 45 have accepted. This represents a significant increase compared to the DIALOG IV Program in which 221 abstracts were registered and 124 applied for the symposium. The importance of the dissertation registration service is indicated by the increasing number of individuals who take time to register their dissertation even when they are not interested in applying to the symposium. The number of visits to the webpage has also increased significantly over the years. This also reflects graduate interest in being part of the on-line Dissertation Registry and receiving the weekly electronic DIALOG Newsletter. See http://aslo.org/phd.html for details. The DIALOG symposium reaches approximately 40 new PI's at a pivotal point in their research careers. Based on their comments, the symposium changes the way participants think, communicate, and approach their research. The science community and the general population will benefit from the perspectives these new PI's bring back to their home institutions and share with their students and colleagues. This group should act as a catalyst to move the entire field in exciting new, interdisciplinary directions. To reach more graduates, plans are underway to establish the symposium on an annual basis. By facilitating the development of close collegial ties, symposium participants come away with a network of colleagues from around the globe with interests in aquatic science research and education. Past participants are collaborating on research proposals, and all have noted that participation has enabled them to develop a more interdisciplinary view of their field, influencing the way they interpret, communicate, and approacli their research. The dissertation registry provides a unique introduction to the work of this most recent generation of aquatic scientists. Each

  14. Quorum Quenching Agents: Resources for Antivirulence Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihao Tang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy.

  15. Effects of quenching and partial quenching on QCD penguin matrix elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2002-01-01

    We point out that chiral transformation properties of penguin operators change in the transition from unquenched to (partially) quenched QCD. The way in which this affects the lattice determination of weak matrix elements can be understood in the framework of (partially) quenched chiral perturbation

  16. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conkling, C.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure

  17. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  18. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  19. Quench behavior of a superconducting accelerator magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Dahl, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on the minimum energy required to cause quenches to propagate in an accelerator dipole magnet. The amount of stored energy dissipated into the magnet was measured as a function of dipole excitation current. This in turn determines the maximum coil temperature reached in a given magnet. Quench velocities in the longitudinal direction of the conductor were as high as 11m/sec. The azimuthal velocities or turn to turn velocities were found to be a function of the number of fiberglass layers of insulation that the quench had to cross and were on the order of a few tens of centimeters/sec. The field shape of a given magnet was found to be unchanged for more than 100 quenches. The coil to coil connection and inter-coil splice resistances were found to be less than a namo-ohm and therefore of litle consequence in the cryogenic load considerations. No definitive answers were found on how to decrease the rate of training (130 Gauss/Quench average) required from 4.OT to 5.1T

  20. Quench protection challenges in long nb3sn accelerator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Tiina-Mari; Ambrosio, G.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, Guram; Dhallé, Marc; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Marchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G. L.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2012-06-01

    The quench protection of the several meter long, large aperture high-field Nb3Sn quadrupoles that the LARP collaboration is developing for the LHC interaction region upgrade, requires efficient protection heaters to quickly generate large resistive segments across the windings. To support the protection design, experiments in the recently tested LARP R&D magnets are aimed to characterize the coil response to different protection schemes. In particular, the delay to quench and the final hotspot temperatures are evaluated after firing the heaters at different powering regimes and coverage. Also, the contribution of external energy extraction is investigated. Based on the performed studies and computer simulations, it seems that if the same protection efficiency per unit length that is measured in a 1 m long model magnet can be scaled to a 3.6 m long magnet, and the heater coverage can be improved, about 1 MJ/m of stored energy can be absorbed in the magnet after a quench. However, significant technology developments are needed to scale the protection heater efficiency to longer magnets and to increase the coverage.

  1. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  2. Early Writing Development: Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs about Emergent Writing in Qatari Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maadadi, Fatima; Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Writing often begins during the very early years of childhood; however, some children first learn writing when they begin attending school. Teachers' beliefs about early writing development can influence when and how children learn to write. The purpose of this study was to determine kindergarten teachers' beliefs about the development of…

  3. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  4. Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer Lynn; Verba, Stephanie Ann

    2017-01-01

    Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.

  5. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53 first-time…

  6. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

  8. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  9. Early assessment of medical devices in development for company decision making : An exploration of best practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Van Til, Janine; IJzerman, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    To improve successful development and clinical use of medical technologies, it is suggested that manufacturers should start collecting evidence on devices effectiveness and eficiency early in their development. The aim of this study was to explore whether and how Dutch manufacturers perform an early

  10. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  11. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  12. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Professional Development in Chilean State-Funded Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Mariel; Ford, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on professional development in Chilean state-funded early childhood education. Based on a multiple-case study design and drawing on qualitative methods we explored teachers' perspectives on professional development at two early childhood educational centers. Two centers' directors and four early…

  14. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  15. Wound Status Early Outcome Sensor and 3D Construct Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    1.35 Fyn  94 83 0.11 0.04 0.74 0.99 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1.35 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1413 1240 0.02 0.03 11.06 14.94 PGP9.5...reproducible in biological replicates, which indicates the possibility of random bias for certain proteins with iTRAQ channel specificity. Raw spectrum...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Early identification of the specific proteins , which indicate delayed

  16. Implicit time-dependent finite different algorithm for quench simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    1994-12-01

    A magnet in a fusion machine has many difficulties in its application because of requirement of a large operating current, high operating field and high breakdown voltage. A cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is the best candidate to overcome these difficulties. However, there remained uncertainty in a quench event in the cable-in-conduit conductor because of a difficulty to analyze a fluid dynamics equation. Several scientists, then, developed the numerical code for the quench simulation. However, most of them were based on an explicit time-dependent finite difference scheme. In this scheme, a discrete time increment is strictly restricted by CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. Therefore, long CPU time was consumed for the quench simulation. Authors, then, developed a new quench simulation code, POCHI1, which is based on an implicit time dependent scheme. In POCHI1, the fluid dynamics equation is linearlized according to a procedure applied by Beam and Warming and then, a tridiagonal system can be offered. Therefore, no iteration is necessary to solve the fluid dynamics equation. This leads great reduction of the CPU time. Also, POCHI1 can cope with non-linear boundary condition. In this study, comparison with experimental results was carried out. The normal zone propagation behavior was investigated in two samples of CIC conductors which had different hydraulic diameters. The measured and simulated normal zone propagation length showed relatively good agreement. However, the behavior of the normal voltage shows a little disagreement. These results indicate necessity to improve the treatment of the heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent flow region and the electric resistivity of the copper stabilizer in high temperature and high field region. (author)

  17. Early numerical foundations of young children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2015-04-01

    This study focused on the relative contributions of the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and knowledge of quantitative symbols to young children's early mathematical learning. At the beginning of preschool, 191 children (Mage=46 months) were administered tasks that assessed ANS acuity and explicit knowledge of the cardinal values represented by number words, and their mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of the school year. Children's executive functions, intelligence, and preliteracy skills and their parents' educational levels were also assessed and served as covariates. Both the ANS and cardinality tasks were significant predictors of end-of-year mathematics achievement with and without control of the covariates. As simultaneous predictors and with control of the covariates, cardinality remained significantly related to mathematics achievement, but ANS acuity did not. Mediation analyses revealed that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by cardinality, suggesting that the ANS may facilitate children's explicit understanding of cardinal value and in this way may indirectly influence early mathematical learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quench studies of YBCO insulated and non-insulated pancake coils

    OpenAIRE

    Glowa Natalia; Wesche Rainer; Bruzzone Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    As a result of extremely high upper critical fields Bc2 high temperature superconductors (HTSs) have the potential to be used as high field insert coils in magnet systems where the background field is provided by low temperature superconductors (LTS). However due to low quench propagation velocity in HTS as compared to LTS the issue of developing a fast and reliable quench detection and protection scheme for such magnet systems remains a serious challenge. In order to provide a stable operati...

  19. A summary of the quench behavior of B ampersand W 1 m collider quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, C.M.; Xu, M.F.; Hlasnicek, P.; Kelley, J.P.; Dixon, K.; Savignano, J.; Letterman, S.; Craig, P.; Maloney, J.; Boyes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quench performance of a B ampersand W-Siemens designed quadrupole magnet at the earliest possible stage, a model magnet program was developed at B ampersand W for the support of the Superconducting Super Collider. The authors report the quench performance, training behavior, and the ramp rate dependence for the QSH-801 through QSH-804 series of short (1.2 meter) quadrupole model magnets

  20. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  1. Thermal quench at finite 't Hooft coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using holography we have studied thermal electric field quench for infinite and finite 't Hooft coupling constant. The set-up we consider here is D7-brane embedded in (α′ corrected AdS-black hole background. It is well-known that due to a time-dependent electric field on the probe brane, a time-dependent current will be produced and it will finally relax to its equilibrium value. We have studied the effect of different parameters of the system on equilibration time. As the most important results, for massless fundamental matter, we have observed a universal behaviour in the rescaled equilibration time in the very fast quench regime for different values of the temperature and α′ correction parameter. It seems that in the slow quench regime the system behaves adiabatically. We have also observed that the equilibration time decreases in finite 't Hooft coupling limit.

  2. Quench Protection of SC Quadrupole Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.; Dimarco, J.; Mitchell, D.; Lamm, M. J.; Limon, P. J.; Mazur, P.; Nobrega, F.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J. P.; Strait, J. B.; Tompkins, J. C.; Zlobin, A. V.; McInturff, A. D.

    1997-05-01

    The energy stored in a superconducting accelerator magnet is dissipated after a quench in the coil normal zones, heating the coil and generating a turn to turn and coil to ground voltage drop. Quench heaters are used to protect the superconducting magnet by greatly increasing the coil normal zone thus allowing the energy to be dissipated over a larger conductor volume. Such heaters will be required for the Fermilab/LBNL design of the high gradient quads (HGQ) designed for the LHC interaction regions. As a first step, heaters were installed and tested in several Tevatron low-β superconducting quadrupoles. Experimental studies in normal and superfluid helium are presented which show the heater-induced quench response as a function of magnet excitation current, magnet temperature and peak heater energy density.

  3. Structure of partly quenched molten copper chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    The structural modifications induced in a model of molten CuCl by quenching the chlorine component into a microporous disordered matrix are evaluated using the hypernetted-chain closure in Ornstein-Zernike relations for the pair distribution functions in random systems. Aside from obvious changes in the behaviour of long-wavelength density fluctuations, the main effect of partial quenching is an enhanced delocalization of the Cu + ions. The model suggests that the ionic mobility in a superionic glass is enhanced relative to the melt at the same temperature and density. Only very minor quantitative differences are found in the structural functions when the replica Ornstein-Zernike relations derived by Given and Stell for a partly quenched system are simplified to those given earlier by Madden and Glandt. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  4. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.

  5. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Santander, María; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Roldán-Molina, A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation

  6. Quantifying brain development in early childhood using segmentation and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.

    2007-03-01

    In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.

  7. The Development of Winged Angels in Early Christian Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Martin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The first representations of angels in Early Christian art showed a being visually indistinguishable from man. This study undertakes to explain the sudden apperarance of winged angels in the late fourth century within its religious and historical contexts The model for winged angels was Nike, an unusual choice given that Victory was conceived of as a female, while angels were decidedly male.Las primeras representaciones de angeles en el art paleocristianno fueron de un ser visualmente indiferenciado del hombre. Este estudio pretende explicar la aparicion subita de angeles con alas, a fines del siglo IV, dentro de ese particular contexto historicoreligioso. El modelo de angel con alas fue Nike, una eleccion inusual si se tiene en cuenta que la Victoria fue concebida como mujer, mientras que los angeles eran indudablemente masculinos.

  8. Early development of executive functions: a differential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sastre-Riba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of executive functions is essential in explaining differential and normative developmental trends. Executive functions must be studied from an early age given their consequential effects on mental flexibility, monitoring information, planning, and cognitive control. We propose a differential study in alternative developmental courses through observing typical babies, Down syndrome babies, and babies with risk-factors at birth (due to low weight or to congenital hypothyroidism. Applymg Systematic Observational Methodology, spontaneous babies' activity was registered. The results indicated that: a Typical babies showed better shifting and action flexibility in order to obtain a goal, thus better results; b Among the higher risk-babies, the lower efficacy in executive functioning was observed in underweight babies. Those with hypothyroidism were more in line with the typical babies; c Underweight babies showed a good level of combining actions but they obtained inferior results; d Down syndrome babies displayed more executive functioning difficulty, lower flexibility, high perseveration and less error detection.

  9. Impact of Vitamin D on development of early childhood caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an

  10. Quenching of spin-flip quadrupole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, B.; Blunden, P.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An increasing amount of experimental data indicates that spin-flip quadrupole transitions exhibit quenching effects similar to those reported earlier in (p,n) reactions involving l = 0 and l = 1 transitions. We present here two model calculations suggesting that the E2 spin-flip transitions are more affected than their M1 and M3 counterparts by the tensor and spin-orbit components of the nuclear force and should exhibit the largest quenching. We also review the experimental evidence corroborating our observations

  11. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Lee, W.

    1991-02-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A-coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of an argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high-intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs

  12. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-03-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs

  13. Early Chilhood, Characteristic and Creative-Social Development

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Subur

    2017-01-01

    Every child born, not only has talent and creative potential, but also has social tendency. Talent and creative and social potential are important capital to determine child future. Talent and creativity can develop optimally when they are coached intensely and professionally. Well-developed talent will be very helpful for children future. Every parent wants to have creative and sociable child but, not all parents understand how to develop their children’s creative and social potential. There...

  14. Quench Protection Studies of the 11-T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; BAJAS, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Chlachidze, Guram; Karppinen, Mikko; Rysti, Juho; Savary, Frederic; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data from the 2-m-long Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models. The validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.

  15. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom; Lacoste, Deanna; Damazo, Jason; Kwon, Eddie; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  16. Experiments on the margin of beam induced quenches a superconducting quadrupole magnet in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bednarek, M J; Nebot Del Busto, E; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    Protection of LHC equipment relies on a complex system of collimators to capture injected and circulating beam in case of LHC kicker magnet failures. However, for specific failures of the injection kickers, the beam can graze the injection protection collimators and induce quenches of downstream superconducting magnets. This occurred twice during 2011 operation and cannot be excluded during future operation. Tests were performed during Machine Development periods of the LHC to assess the quench margin of the quadrupole located just downstream of the last injection protection collimator in point 8. In addition to the existing Quench Protection System, a special monitoring instrumentation was installed at this magnet to detect any resistance increase below the quench limit. The correlation between the magnet and Beam Loss Monitor signals was analysed for different beam intensities and magnet currents. The results of the experiments are presented.

  17. Quench protection system for 1 MJ superconducting magnet coil for SMES Project at VECC, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, S.K.; Bera, A.; Kumar, Y.; Bhunia, U.; Pradhan, J.; Saha, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the indigenous development of a system which is used for quench detection, protection and monitoring the parameters of superconducting coil of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system. Resistive voltage measurement method is used for detecting the quench. The voltage across each current lead is also monitored and over voltage across the current lead is detected by comparing it with a set voltage limit. By using isolation amplifier and timer circuit, false quench trigging due to noise and spikes are minimized. If quench is detected a relay operated to turn-off the SMES power supply followed by the release of stored energy of the magnet to the external dump resistance by closing a switch. (author)

  18. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom

    2017-01-05

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  19. Early Gesture Provides a Helping Hand to Spoken Vocabulary Development for Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Baumann, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) children refer to objects uniquely in gesture (e.g., point at a cat) before they produce verbal labels for these objects ("cat"). The onset of such gestures predicts the onset of similar spoken words, showing a strong positive relation between early gestures and early words. We asked whether gesture plays the…

  20. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  1. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  2. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  3. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  4. Early postnatal development, parental care and interaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavioural development which is the object of this note. A litter of three (two males and one female) was born in cap- tivity in February 1976. The pups were weighed and measured every day for the first 19 days, thereafter inter- mittently until Day 43 and once more on Day 86. Physical and behavioural development.

  5. The neonatal brain : early connectome development and childhood cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The human brain is a vastly complex system that develops rapidly during human gestation. Its developmental pace is unprecedented in any other period of human development. By the time of normal birth the brain's layout verges on the adult human brain. All major structures have come into place,

  6. Early Career Boot Camp: a novel mechanism for enhancing early career development for psychologists in academic healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran-Tuller, Kelly; Robiner, William N; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Otey-Scott, Stacie; Wryobeck, John; King, Cheryl; Sanders, Kathryn

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot mentoring program for Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) working in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and synthesize the lessons learned to contribute to future ECP and AHC career development training programs. The authors describe an early career development model, named the Early Career Boot Camp. This intensive experience was conducted as a workshop meant to build a supportive network and to provide mentorship and survival tools for working in AHCs. Four major components were addressed: professional effectiveness, clinical supervision, strategic career planning, and academic research. Nineteen attendees who were currently less than 5 years post completion of doctoral graduate programs in psychology participated in the program. The majority of boot camp components were rated as good to excellent, with no component receiving below average ratings. Of the components offered within the boot camp, mentoring and research activities were rated the strongest, followed by educational activities, challenges in AHCS, and promotion and tenure. The article describes the purpose, development, implementation, and assessment of the program in detail in an effort to provide an established outline for future organizations to utilize when mentoring ECPs.

  7. Partially quenched gauge theories and an application to staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.W.; Golterman, M.F.L.

    1994-01-01

    We extend our Lagrangian technique for chiral perturbation theory for quenched QCD to include theories in which only some of the quarks are quenched. We discuss the relationship between the partially quenched theory and a theory in which only the unquenched quarks are present. We also investigate the peculiar infrared divergences associated with the η' in the quenched approximation, and find the conditions under which such divergences can appear in a partially quenched theory. We then apply our results to staggered fermion QCD in which the square root of the fermion determinant is taken, using the observation that this should correspond to a theory with four quarks, two of which are quenched

  8. Validation of Quench Simulation and Simulation of the TWIN Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Pots, Rosalinde Hendrika

    2015-01-01

    For the Future Circular Collider at CERN a multi-purpose detector is proposed. The 6T TWIN Solenoid, a very large magnet system with a stored energy of 53 GJ, is being designed. It is important to protect the magnet against quenches in the system. Therefore several existing quench protection systems are evaluated and simulations have be performed on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid. The simulations on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid have been performed with promising results; the hotspot temperatures do not exceed 120 K and layer to layer voltages stay below 500 V. Adding quench heaters to the system might improve the quench protection system further.

  9. Early Years Educators at Play: A Research-Based Early Childhood Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Sultan; Kelley, Michael F.; Millinger, Jenny; Adams, Korbi

    2016-01-01

    Every culture has developed some version of performance art. Children especially appreciate performance; their innate openness, forgiveness, and self-love make them delightful performers and audience members. Every time they engage with performance art, children are learning about storytelling, history, sociability, artistry, and physicality.…

  10. Interleukin-23 in early disease development in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hvid, M; Johansen, C

    2015-01-01

    randomized to methotrexate (MTX) plus adalimumab (ADA; n = 75) or MTX plus placebo-ADA (PLA; n = 76). Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at months 3, 6, and 12 together with values for C-reactive protein (CRP), the 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on CRP (DAS28CRP), scores on the Clinical......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the levels of interleukin (IL)-23 in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) and the effect of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-α treatment on IL-23 levels. METHOD: Treatment-naïve eRA patients from the OPERA cohort were included (n = 151). Patients were...... Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain/fatigue/physician global and total Sharp/van der Heijde score (TSS). IL-23 was measured at each time point. RESULTS: IL-23 levels decreased significantly in the ADA group from 20.6 pg...

  11. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  12. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  13. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min Kyoung; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Chul Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2017-06-01

    Delayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys) diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76-126). None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis. IQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  14. Convergent preparation and photophysical characterization of dimaleimide dansyl fluorogens: elucidation of the maleimide fluorescence quenching mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Julia; Caron, Karine; Dufresne, Stéphane; Michnick, Stephen W; Skene, W G; Keillor, Jeffrey W

    2007-10-03

    Dimaleimide fluorogens are being developed for application to fluorescent protein labeling. In this method, fluorophores bearing two maleimide quenching groups do not fluoresce until both maleimide groups have undergone thiol addition reactions with the Cys residues of the target protein sequence [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 559-566]. In this work, a new convergent synthetic route was developed that would allow any fluorophore to be attached via a linker to a dimaleimide moiety in a modular fashion. Series of dimaleimide and dansyl derivatives were thus prepared conveniently and used to elucidate the mechanism of maleimide quenching. Intersystem crossing was ruled out as a potential quenching pathway, based on the absence of a detectable triplet intermediate by laser flash photolysis. Stern-Volmer rate constants were measured with exogenous dimaleimide quenchers and found to be close to the diffusion-controlled limits, consistent with electron transfer being thermodynamically favorable. The thermodynamic feasibility of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching mechanism was verified by cyclic voltammetry. The redox potentials measured for dansyl and maleimide confirm that electron transfer from the dansyl excited state to a pendant maleimide group is exergonic and is responsible for fluorescence quenching of the fluorogens studied herein. Taking this PET quenching mechanism into account, future fluorogenic protein labeling agents will be designed with spacers of variable length and rigidity to probe the structure-property PET efficiency relationship.

  15. Quench in a conduction-cooled Nb3Sn SMES magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Aki; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto; Perälä, Raine

    2003-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of cryocoolers, conduction-cooled Nb3Sn devices are nowadays enabled. A 0.2 MJ conduction-cooled Nb3Sn SMES system has been designed and constructed. The nominal current of the coil was 275 A at 10 K. The quench tests have been performed and in this paper the experimental data are compared to the computational one. Due to a slow normal zone propagation, Nb3Sn magnets are not necessarily self-protective. In conduction-cooled coils, a thermal interface provides a protection method known as a quench back. The temperature rise in the coil during a quench was measured with a sensor located on the inner radius of the coil. The current decay was also monitored. The measured temperature increased for approximately 15 s after the current had already decayed. This temperature rise is due to the heat conduction from the hot spot. Thus, the measured temperature does not represent the hot-spot temperature. A computational quench model which takes into account quench back and heat conduction after the current decay was developed in order to understand the measured temperatures. According to the results, a quench back due to the eddy current induced heating of the thermal interface of an LTS coil was an adequate protection method.

  16. Early Childhood Education: The Biological Bases: Malnutrition and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Merrill S.

    1972-01-01

    Malnutrition, contrasted with hunger, is defined as a state of impaired functional ability or development resulting from an inadequate supply of essential nutrients or calories to meet long-term biologic needs. (Author/MB)

  17. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  18. Exciplex formation accompanied with excitation quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Stanislav G; Burshtein, Anatoly I

    2010-04-08

    The competence of the reversible exciplex formation and parallel quenching of excitation (by electron or energy transfer) was considered using a non-Markovian pi-forms approach, identical to integral encounter theory (IET). General equations accounting for the reversible quenching and exciplex formation are derived in the contact approximation. Their general solution was obtained and adopted to the most common case when the ground state particles are in great excess. Particular cases of only photoionization or just exciplex formation separately studied earlier by means of IET are reproduced. In the case of the irreversible excitation quenching, the theory allows specifying the yields of the fluorescence and exciplex luminescence, as well as the long time kinetics of excitation and exciplex decays, in the absence of quenching. The theory distinguishes between the alternative regimes of (a) fast equilibration between excitations and exciplexes followed by their decay with a common average rate and (b) the fastest and deep excitation decay followed by the weaker and slower delayed fluorescence, backed by exciplex dissociation.

  19. Origin and early development of the chicken adenohypophysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSanchez-Arrones

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The adenohypophysis (ADH is an important endocrine organ involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. The late morphogenesis of this organ at neural tube stages is well known: the epithelial ADH primordium is recognized as an invagination of the stomodeal roof (Rathke’s pouch, whose walls later thicken and differentiate as the primordium becomes pediculated, and then fully separated from the stomodeum. The primordium attaches to the pial surface of the basal hypothalamus, next to the neurohypophyseal field (NH; future posterior pituitary, from which it was previously separated by migrating prechordal plate cells. Once the NH evaginates, the ADH surrounds it and jointly forms with it the pituitary gland. In contrast, little is known about the precise origin of the ADH precursors at neural plate stages and how the primordium reaches the stomodeum. For that reason, we produced in the chicken a specific ADH fate map at early neural plate stages, which was amplified with gene markers. By means of experiments labelling the mapped presumptive ADH, we were able to follow the initial anlage into its transformation into Rathke’s pouch. The ADH origin was corroborated to be strictly extraneural, i.e., to lie at stage HH4/5 outside of the anterior neural plate within the pre-placodal field. The ADH primordium is fully segregated from the anterior neural border cells and the neighboring olfactory placodes both in terms of precursor cells and molecular profile from head fold stages onwards. The placode becomes visible as a molecularly characteristic ectodermal thickening from stage HH10 onwards. The onset of ADH genoarchitectonic regionalization into intermediate and anterior lobes occurs at closed neural tube stages.

  20. Temperature effects on early season cotton growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; Reddy, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental factor controlling growth and developmental rates of plants, yet little specific information is available regarding cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) responses to temperature. Information covering a wide range of temperatures would be useful for predicting both developmental and growth rates in cotton. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in naturally lit, temperature- and CO 2 -controlled cabinets from soon after emergence until 56 d after emergence (DAE). The cabinets were maintained at 20/12, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32C day/night cycles. Plant heights, number of nodes, and leaf areas were determined weekly throughout the experiment, and dry weight measurements were obtained at three intervals. Mainstem elongation, leaf area growth, and biomass accumulation rates were very sensitive to temperature about 3 wk after emergence. Prior to that time, they were relatively insensitive to temperature. The temperature optimum for stem elongation, leaf area expansion, and biomass accumulation was 30/22 C. Developmental rates, as depicted by number of mainstem nodes produced, number of fruiting branches, and fruiting branch nodes, were not as sensitive to temperatures above 30/22 C as were growth rates. Four times as many fruiting branches were produced at 30/22 C as at 20/12 C; whereas more vegetative branches were produced at low temperatures. All flower buds abscised from plants grown at 40/32 C. Essentially, all bolls and squares were retained at 30/22 C while a 10% boll and square loss was observed at 35/27 C during the early reproductive period. Less time was required for this cultivar to produce squares at any temperature, suitable for growing cotton, than was suggested by previous experiments

  1. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyoung Seo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDelayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.ResultsThe patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76–126. None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ <70. Twenty-one subjects were treated with a low dose (6.0–9.9 µg/kg/day and 22 with a high dose of levothyroxine (10.0–16.0 µg/kg/day. There was no significant difference in the mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis.ConclusionIQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  2. Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan; Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Hornbæk, K.

    2007-01-01

    t is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design...... ideas produced early in software development processes. The method proceeds by systematic inspection of use cases with reference to a set of guidelines for usable design. To validate the method, four evaluators inspected a set of use cases for a health care application....

  3. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  4. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  5. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  6. Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V. J.; Kuijpens, J. L.; van Baar, A. L.; Verkerk, G.; van Son, M. M.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Vulsma, T.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Vader, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is an important determinant of early fetal brain development because the fetal thyroid is unable to produce any T4 before 12-14 weeks' gestation. Overt maternal hypothyroidism as seen in severe iodine-deficient areas is associated with severely

  7. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  8. Republic of Kiribati Early Childhood Development : SABER and NSA-ECD Country Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) subsector, including programs and policies that affect young children in the Republic of Kiribati. This was a collaborative effort between UNICEF and the World Bank Group; it combines the World Bank Group’s Systems Approach for Better Education Results SABER-ECD framework, which includes analysis of early learningan...

  9. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  10. Accelerating the Early Numeracy Development of Kindergartners with Limited Working Memory Skills through Remedial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a special interest group among all children that score below average on early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the early numeracy development of these children through remedial education, by comparing them with children with typically working memory…

  11. Parental Factors Influencing the Development of Early Childhood Caries in Developing Nations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanjot Kaur Rai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly childhood caries (ECC is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations.MethodsStudies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed.ResultsThe search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC.ConclusionTo date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve

  12. RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN BORN WITH AN ASSISTED FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena MILICHEVIKJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  13. Family-School Connectedness and Children's Early Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Zewelanji N.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of the frequency of parent-teacher contacts and quality of parent-teacher relationships in prekindergarten were associated with teachers' perceptions of the quality of their relationship with children and children's social development. Participants were a diverse sample of 2966 four-year-olds…

  14. The Role of Early Visual Attention in Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Yim, Jung Yeon; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Faces convey important information about the social environment, and even very young infants are preferentially attentive to face-like over non-face stimuli. Eye-tracking studies have allowed researchers to examine which features of faces infants find most salient across development, and the present study examined scanning of familiar (i.e.,…

  15. Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Isobel van der Kuip; Ingrid Verheul

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to create a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial qualities. Theory and practice are confronted. The paper discusses the extent to which entrepreneurship can be taught, and the way in which it should be taught. The focus is on the phase of initial education.

  16. Early development of artificially spawned southern mullet, Liza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-02

    Aug 2, 1988 ... of egg incubation and rearing of the L. richardsonii larvae are given in Bok (1989) and will not be discussed in this paper. Larvae were sampled on a regular basis to observe growth and development. They were immobilized by a sudden temperature drop to ca 4°C (placing a petri dish with live larvae into a ...

  17. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  18. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-expression; and (ii) Supports the emerging communication skills of infants and toddlers by providing daily...) Provides each child with opportunities for success to help develop feelings of competence, self-esteem, and... to help children gain the skills and confidence necessary to be prepared to succeed in their present...

  19. A Review of Peer Social Development in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, Robin P.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on young children's peer social development. Addresses implications of social learning theory and empirical research. Discusses recurring themes, including child/peer versus child/adult interactions, incorporation of toys and games, influence of mothers, and gender peer preferences. Considers areas lacking empirical support…

  20. Developing Self-Esteem in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawl, Jeree

    2012-01-01

    Jeree Pawl, PhD, former clinical professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco and past director of the Infant-Parent Program located at San Francisco General Hospital responds to questions about how parents and caregivers can support the development of self-esteem in very young children. Contrary to the idea that…

  1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum With Early And Rapid Development Of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Arghyaprasum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a 9 year old developing multiple tumours over a short period of 6 months is reported. The tumours showed two different types of malignancies-squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Two other siblings exhibited cutaneous lesions of xeroderma pigmentosum without any malignant change.

  2. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  3. Topics in Galaxy Evolution: Early Star Formation and Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago Signorini

    In this thesis, we present three projects designed to shed light on yet unanswered questions on galaxy formation and evolution. The first two concern a sample of UV-bright starburst galaxies in the local universe (z ˜0.2). These objects are remarkably similar to star-forming galaxies that were abundant at high redshifts (2 manipulating our observations to mimic our objects at greater distances, we show how low resolution and signal-to-noise ratios can lead to erroneous conclusions, in particular when attempting to diagnose mergers as the origin of the starburst. Then, we present results from a pilot survey to study the cold, molecular gas reservoir in such objects. Again, we show that the observed properties are analogous to those observed at high redshift, in particular with respect to baryonic gas fractions in the galaxy, higher than normally found in low-extinction objects in the local universe. Furthermore, we show how gas surface density and star-formation surface density follow the same relation as local galaxies, albeit at much higher values. Finally, we discuss an observational project designed to measure the mass flux density from the blue sequence to the red sequence across the so-called green valley. We obtain the deepest spectra ever observed of green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z˜0.8) in order to measure spectral features from which we can measure the star formation histories of individual galaxies. We measure a mass flux ratio that is higher than observed in the local universe, indicating the red sequence was growing faster when the universe was half its present age than today.

  4. Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

  5. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV): Building Health and Early Development with the Pediatric Family-Centered Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    President Obama announced his Early Learning Agenda during his Second Inaugural Address. This announcement has galvanized a special focus on early childhood policy and practices, for the prenatal to 5-year-old period, to improve educational outcomes for America's youth. The emergent science of early childhood development places an emphasis on…

  7. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Selection of a quench detection system for the ITER CS magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coatanea, Marc; Duchateau, Jean-Luc; Lacroix, Benoit; Nicollet, Sylvie; Rodriguez-Mateos, Felix; Topin, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    At variance with most of the existing superconducting systems operating in the world, the ITER central solenoid (CS) magnet is a fast pulsed system. This peculiarity creates a specific situation regarding the quench detection system, as a small resistive signal associated with a quench has to be discriminated from the high inductive signals imposed by the plasma scenario. The quench detection is based on an inductive compensation built from three adjacent double pancakes. The ITER protection rules for a superconducting magnet impose to respect the so-called maximum hot spot temperature criterion of 250 K in the quenched cable at the end of the fast discharge. A careful analysis of the residual inductive signals in the detection voltage shows that a blanking of the quench detection cannot be avoided during the early times of the plasma discharge (i.e. during 3.5 s). It is demonstrated that this blanking is, however, acceptable while fulfilling the hot spot criterion because the plasma initiation phase (PIP) is very similar to a fast safety discharge and corresponds to a fast decrease of the modules currents, which is favourable for the magnet protection.

  9. A quench detection/logging system for the SSCL Magnet Test Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Coles, M.; Dryer, J.; Lambert, D.

    1993-05-01

    The quench in a magnet describes a process which occurs while the superconductivity state goes to the normal resistive state. The consequence of a quench is the conversion of the stored electromagnetic energy into heat. During this process the initiating point will reach a high temperature, which will char the insulation or melt the conductor and thereby destroy the magnet. To prevent the magnet from being lost, it is standard practice to observe several resistance and/or inductance voltages across the magnet as quench signatures -- detection. When a quench symptom is detected, protection operations are initiated: proper shutdown of the magnet excitation systems and treatment to dilute the heat energy at a spot -- protection. The temperature rise is diluted by firing heaters along the length of the magnet to insure that the dissipated energy is spread. To develop a reliable quench detection system, two distinct approaches have been tried in the past: (i) Understanding of the Noise Mechanism and Sub-system Optimization, and (ii) Escaping from the Known Electromagnetic Noises by Observing Optical Waves or Acoustic Waves. The MTL of SSCL confronts a mass-measurement of about 10,000 production magnets. To meet the testing schedule, the false quench detection rate needs to be further optimized while the true quench detection rate remains secure for the magnet measurement safety. To meet these requirements, we followed an iterative top-down approach. First we defined the signal and noise characteristics of the quench phenomena by using existing software tools to build a rapid prototype system incorporating all proven functionality of the existing system. Then we further optimize the system through iterative upgrading based on our signal and noise character findings

  10. Effect of UV irradiation on the early development of silkworm embryos, (2). Development of irradiated eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1981-02-01

    The development of silkworm eggs irradiated with UV was compared with that of normal eggs. When the eggs were irradiated with UV from the lateral side immediately after oviposition, development was decelerated, but the germ band was produced. The side of the germ band that was irradiated with UV was abnormal with holes, but the opposite side was hole-free and normal. The normal half of the germ band splits longitudinally, but developed along with the abnormal half to form various malformations. When the eggs were irradiated from the ventral side, the ventral part of the germ band was abnormal at the early stage, the germ band did not concentrate to one place, and produced the half-embryos longitudinally divided by the median line. The UV irradiation at the beginning of the blastoderm stage produced similar results. In the areas irradiated by UV, cleavage nuclei invaded into the surrounding protoplasm, and mitotic figures were observed, but the cell number did not increase even with the advance of development unlike normal cells, whereas the sizes of the cells, their nuclei and nucleoli were enlarged, and intercellular space widened so that the cells were no longer in close contact. The germ band cells produced in the non-irradiated area were normal. The above results suggest that when either the protoplasm or the nucleus of a silkworm egg is damaged by UV, the effect first appears as the inhibition of cell division in the germ band, and as the enlargement of the cell, nucleus and nucleoli. It is presumed that this induces the subsequent inhibition of cell differentiation or abnormalities.

  11. Early determinants of chronic disease in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in developing countries. The extent to which this is due to a nutritional mismatch in foetal and adult life is unknown however, studies in such countries show that the risk of chronic diseases is increased in low birthweight subjects who become obese adults. Immune dysfunction is also linked to low birthweight. Therefore, in countries where communicable diseases are prevalent, infection may be exacerbated by factors acting in utero. It is also possible that the foetal growth-retarding effects of maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malaria infection may contribute to an increased risk of NCDs later in life. Low birthweight and postnatal growth faltering followed by rapid weight gain define subjects who develop NCDs. Dietary interventions at specific time points in the life course may therefore be important for reducing disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  13. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these posi...

  14. Quench detection/protection of an HTS coil by AE signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, M.; Nanato, N.; Aoki, D.; Kato, T.; Murase, S.

    2011-01-01

    A quench detection/protection system based on measuring AE signals was developed. The system was tested for a Bi2223 coil. Temperature rise after a quench occurrence was restrained at very low value. The normal zone propagation velocities in high T c superconductors are slow at high operation temperature and therefore local and excessive temperature rise generates at quench occurrence, and then the superconductors are degraded or burned. Therefore it is essential to detect the temperature rise in high T c superconducting (HTS) coils as soon as possible and protect them. The authors have presented a quench detection method for HTS coils by time-frequency visualization of AE signals and have shown its usefulness for a HTS coil with height and outer diameter of 40-50 mm. In this paper, the authors present a quench detection/protection system based on superior method in quench detection time to the previous method and show its usefulness for a larger HTS coil (height and outer diameter: 160-190 mm) than the previous coil.

  15. Quenching Combustible Dust Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspensions (EPS): A New Testing Method For Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nathanael; Shoemaker, David; Xu, Hua

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system being developed at Iowa State University for evaluating quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). Because of the high cloud uniformity possible and its simplicity, the EPS method has potential for "benchmark" design of quenching flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire standard. Microgravity is expected to increase suspension uniformity even further and extend combustion testing to higher concentrations (rich fuel limit) than is possible at normal gravity. Two new combustion parameters are being investigated with this new method: (1) the particle velocity distribution and (2) particle-oxidant slip velocity. Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as a parameter in laminar flame theory as it closely relates to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. Because of its design simplicity, EPS is suitable for testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Laser scans showing stratification effects at 1-g have been studied for different materials, aluminum, glass, and copper. PTV/PIV and a leak hole sampling rig give particle velocity distribution with particle slip velocity evaluated using LDA. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are given for aluminum powder. Testing is planned for the KC-135 and NASA s two second drop tower. Only 1-g ground-based data have been reported to date.

  16. Scrambled eggs: mechanical forces as ecological factors in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Steven W

    2003-01-01

    Many ecological interactions involve, at some level, mechanical forces and the movements or structural deformations they produce. Although the most familiar examples involve the functional morphology of adult structures, all life history stages (not just the adults) are subject to the laws of physics. Moreover, the success of every lineage depends on the success of every life history stage (again, not just the adults). Therefore, insights gained by using mechanical engineering principles and techniques to study ecological interactions between gametes, embryos, larvae, and their environment are essential to a well-rounded understanding of development, ecology, and evolution. Here I draw on examples from the literature and my own research to illustrate ways in which mechanical forces in the environment shape development. These include mechanical forces acting as selective factors (e.g., when coral gamete size and shape interact with turbulent water flow to determine fertilization success) and as developmental cues (e.g., when plant growth responds to gravity or bone growth responds to mechanical loading). I also examine the opposite cause-and-effect relationship by considering examples in which the development of organisms impacts ecologically relevant mechanical forces. Finally, I discuss the potential for ecological pattern formation as a result of feedback loops created by such bidirectional interactions between developmental processes and mechanical forces in the environment.

  17. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic changes in the interchromosomal interaction of early histone gene loci during development of sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaya; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Hayashi, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Awazu, Akinori; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2017-12-15

    The nuclear positioning and chromatin dynamics of eukaryotic genes are closely related to the regulation of gene expression, but they have not been well examined during early development, which is accompanied by rapid cell cycle progression and dynamic changes in nuclear organization, such as nuclear size and chromatin constitution. In this study, we focused on the early development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization of gene loci encoding early histones (one of the types of histone in sea urchin). There are two non-allelic early histone gene loci per sea urchin genome. We found that during the morula stage, when the early histone gene expression levels are at their maximum, interchromosomal interactions were often formed between the early histone gene loci on separate chromosomes and that the gene loci were directed to locate to more interior positions. Furthermore, these interactions were associated with the active transcription of the early histone genes. Thus, such dynamic interchromosomal interactions may contribute to the efficient synthesis of early histone mRNA during the morula stage of sea urchin development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Quench detection on a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ru-Yu; Spirn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We study quench detection in superconducting accelerator cavities cooled with He-II. A rigorous mathematical formula is derived to localize the quench position from dynamical data over a finite time interval at a second sound detector.

  20. Studies on halogen quenching through the Stern-Volmer plot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, Makoto; Ishikawa, Hiroaki.

    1978-01-01

    The quenching effect for halogenated benzenes, methanes and ethanes have been investigated. The halogen quenching was accurately measured using the internal conversion electrons emitted from 113 Sn-sup(113m)In. From the quenching constants determined by the Stern-Volmer plots with respect to various halogen quenchers, the following results have been obtained. (1) The quenching constants increase with the number of halogen substituents, so as linearly in halogenated benzenes and exponentially in halogenated methanes and ethanes. Even the isomers of halogenides have different quenching constants. (2) There is a linearity between logarithm of the quenching constant and a polarographic half-wave reduction potential. (3) Electron excitation provides larger quenching constants than UV excitation for halogenated methanes. Based on these results, the mechanism of halogen quenching have been discussed in connection with the exciplex formation. (auth.)

  1. Revisiting the Role of Xanthophylls in Nonphotochemical Quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Bart; Roy, Laura M; Xu, Pengqi; Lu, Yinghong; Karcher, Daniel; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Photoprotective nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of absorbed solar energy is vital for survival of photosynthetic organisms, and NPQ modifications significantly improve plant productivity. However, the exact NPQ quenching mechanism is obscured by discrepancies between reported mechanisms, involving

  2. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  4. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  5. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  6. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  7. Early Detection of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area using HIMAWARI-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Kadosaki, G.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many disasters have been occured by influence of meteorological change in Japan. So, it becomes more important to inform rapid weather change caused by cumulus which brings concentrated heavy rain/hail, wind gust, lightning in a short period. These severe events should inclease in the future by global warming. Therefore we are developping the alert system for Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area (RDCA) detection using Japanese new satellite. At July 2015, Japan Meteorological Agency started operation of new geostationary meteorological satellite "Himawari-8". This satellite has optical imager named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). It can observe Japan area every 2.5 minutes. The frequently infrared image with high resolution (2km) is the key of our alert system. We took some special functions in the algorithm of this system. One of the points is cloud location which shifts to north from true location around Japan by viewing angle from the satellite above the equator. We moved clouds to the correct position using geometric correction method according to its height and latitude. This algorithm also follows a movement of cloud every 2.5 minutes during several observations. It derives the information about degree of the development of cumulus. The prototype system gives the alert before 30 to 60 minutes in advance to the first lightning in typical cumulus case. However, we understand that there are some difficult cases to alert. For example, winter low cloud over the Japan Sea which brings a winter lightning, and tornado (although it is not cumulus). Now, we are adjusting some parameters of the algorithm. In the near future, our algorithm will be used in weather information delivery service to the customer.

  8. Classical vs. evolved quenching parameters and procedures in scintillation measurements: The importance of ionization quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The quenching parameters used to model detection efficiency variations in scintillation measurements have not evolved since the decade of 1970s. Meanwhile, computer capabilities have increased enormously and ionization quenching has appeared in practical measurements using plastic scintillation. This study compares the results obtained in activity quantification by plastic scintillation of 14 C samples that contain colour and ionization quenchers, using classical (SIS, SCR-limited, SCR-non-limited, SIS(ext), SQP(E)) and evolved (MWA-SCR and WDW) parameters and following three calibration approaches: single step, which does not take into account the quenching mechanism; two steps, which takes into account the quenching phenomena; and multivariate calibration. Two-step calibration (ionization followed by colour) yielded the lowest relative errors, which means that each quenching phenomenon must be specifically modelled. In addition, the sample activity was quantified more accurately when the evolved parameters were used. Multivariate calibration-PLS also yielded better results than those obtained using classical parameters, which confirms that the quenching phenomena must be taken into account. The detection limits for each calibration method and each parameter were close to those obtained theoretically using the Currie approach

  9. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2016-10-01

    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  11. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  12. Superconducting synchrotron power supply and quench protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.; Flora, R.; Lauckner, R.; Tool, G.

    1978-01-01

    The power supply and quench protection scheme for the proposed Fermilab 6 km circumference superconducting synchrotron is described. Specifically, the following points are discussed: (1) the 46 MW thyristor power supply; (2) the 3 x 10 8 J emergency energy dump; (3) the distributed microprocessing system for the detection of quenches; (4) the thyristor network for shunting current around quenched magnets; and (5) the heaters internal to the magnets which cause rapid propagation of quenches. Test results on prototype systems are given

  13. Emotional development among early school-age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences...

  14. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  15. Severe fuel damage experiments performed in the QUENCH facility with 21-rod bundles of LWR-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepold, L.; Hering, W.; Schanz, G.; Scholtyssek, W.; Steinbrueck, M.; Stuckert, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the QUENCH experimental program at the Karlsruhe Research Center is to investigate core degradation and the hydrogen source term that results from quenching/flooding an uncovered core, to examine the physical/chemical behavior of overheated fuel elements under different flooding conditions, and to create a data base for model development and improvement of severe fuel damage (SFD) code systems. The large-scale 21-rod bundle experiments conducted in the QUENCH out-of-pile facility are supported by an extensive separate-effects test program, by modeling activities as well as application and improvement of SFD code systems. International cooperations exist with institutions mainly within the European Union but e.g. also with the Russian Academy of Science (IBRAE, Moscow) and the CSARP program of the USNRC. So far, eleven experiments have been performed, two of them with B 4 C absorber material. Experimental parameters were: the temperature at initiation of reflood, the degree of peroxidation, the quench medium, i.e. water or steam, and its injection rate, the influence of a B 4 C absorber rod, the effect of steam-starved conditions before quench, the influence of air oxidation before quench, and boil-off behavior of a water-filled bundle with subsequent quenching. The paper gives an overview of the QUENCH program with its organizational structure, describes the test facility and the test matrix with selected experimental results. (author)

  16. MOTOR STRUCTURE AND BASIC MOVEMENT COMPETENCES IN EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Pišot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  17. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, David J; Carter, R McKell; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision-making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 5- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the youngest sample of children in an fMRI decision-making task. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision-making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g., insula, hippocampus, and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk-averse showed increased activation during decision-making in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision-making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  18. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling of pressure tube Quench using PDETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Lei, Q.M.; Kwee, M.

    2004-01-01

    Transient two-dimensional heat conduction calculations have been carried out to determine the time-dependent temperature distribution in an overheated pressure tube during quenching with water. The purpose of the calculations is to provide input for evaluation of thermal (secondary) stresses in the pressure tube due to quench. The quench phenomenon in pressure tubes could occur in several hypothetical accident scenarios, including incidents involving intermittent buoyancy-induced flow during outages. In these scenarios, there will be two (radial and axial) or three dimensional temperature gradients, resulting in thermal stresses in the pressure tube, as the water front reaches and starts to cool down the hot pressure tube. The transient, two-dimensional heat conduction equation in the pressure tube during quench is solved using a FORTRAN package called PDETWO, available in the open literature for solving time-dependent coupled systems of non-linear partial differential equations over a two-dimensional rectangular region. This routine is based on finite difference solution of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations. Temperature gradient in the circumferential gradient is neglected for conservatism and convenience. The advancing water front is not modelled explicitly, and assumed to be at a uniform temperature and moving at a constant velocity inferred from experimental data. For outer surface and both ends of the pressure tube in the axial direction, a zero-heat flux boundary condition is assumed, while for the inner surface a moving water-quench front is assumed by appropriately varying the fluid temperature and the heat transfer coefficient. The pressure tube is assumed to be at a uniform temperature of 400 o C initially, to represent conditions expected during an intermittent buoyancy-influenced flow scenario. The results confirm the expectations that axial temperature gradients and associated heat fluxes are small in comparison with those in the

  20. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new...

  1. Quench propagation across the copper wedges in SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of copper wedges on quench propagation in SSC windings has been studied. The results indicate that the turn-to-turn quench transit time for conductors separated by an insulated copper wedge can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the bulk quench properties and the mean wedge thickness

  2. First experience with the new coupling loss induced quench system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravaioli, Emanuele; Datskov, V.I.; Dudarev, A.V.; Kirby, G.; Sperin, K.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Verweij, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A

  3. Introduction of fuzzy logic theorem for quench detection in the superconducting coil system of a Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yamato; Ninomiya, Akira; Uriu, Yoshihisa; Ishigohka, Takeshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Yanagi, Nagato; Sekiguchi, Haruo; Yamada, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the state of the superconducting coil system in a LHD at NIFS (National Institute of Fusion Science) using a fuzzy logic theorem to detect quenching at an early stage. In this method, the 'warning coefficient' of the coil system is calculated. As for the fuzzy variables, 'effective stored heat' in the coil is introduced in addition to the voltage signal in order to improve quench detection and state estimation. The 'effective stored heat' is an integrated value of the heat generated in the coil on the assumption that instantaneous heat in the conductor is continuously cooled by liquid helium. Experiments conducted using the LHD coils confirmed that quench alarm signals can be issued with sufficient lead time before quenching. On the other hand, in the case of small local disturbances, the system shows only a small increase in the caution level. (author)

  4. Antibiotic use in early childhood and the development of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, K; Pearce, N; Crane, J; Beasley, R

    1999-06-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the role of infections in infancy in promoting or protecting against the subsequent development of asthma. A related hypothesis concerns the possible role of medical responses to infections, including the widespread use of antibiotics. We chose children at Rudolf Steiner schools to test this latter hypothesis because a significant proportion of parents rejects the use of conventional treatments, including antibiotics. Seventy-five per cent (n = 456) of parents of children aged 5-10 years attending Rudolf Steiner schools throughout New Zealand completed questionnaires which included questions on the use of antibiotics and a history of asthma and wheeze in their children. After controlling for potential confounders, antibiotic use was significantly associated with having a history of asthma (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.10-6.85) or wheeze (OR = 1. 86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) but not with current wheeze (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.54-2-16). The adjusted odds ratio for asthma was 4.05 (95% CI: 1.55-10.59) if antibiotics were used in the first year of life and 1. 64 (95% CI: 0.60-4.46) if antibiotics had been used only after the first year of life when compared with children who had never used antibiotics. The number of courses of antibiotics during the first year of life was also associated with increased odds ratios for asthma: 2.27 (95% CI: 1.14-4.51) for one to two courses and 4.02 (95% CI: 1.57-10.31) for three or more courses when compared with no antibiotic use in the first year of life. Although not significant, the association of antibiotics and hay fever (OR = 1.99 [95% CI: 0. 93-4.26]) was of a similar strength to the association of antibiotics with a history of wheeze. Antibiotics were not significantly associated with eczema (OR = 1.23 [95% CI: 0.71-2.13]). Antibiotic use in infancy may be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma. Further study is required to determine the reasons for this association.

  5. Perspectives on source terms based on early research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressesky, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the key documentation of the research and development programs relevant to the source term issue which were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Commission between 1950 and 1970. The source term is taken to be the amount, composition (physical and chemical), and timing of the projected release of radioactivity to the environment in the hypothetical event of a severe reactor accident in a light water reactor of the type currently being licensed, built and operated. The objective is to illuminate and provide perspectives on (a) the maturity of the technical data base and the analytical methodology, (b) the extent to which remaining conservatisms can be applied to compensate for uncertainties, (c) the purpose for which the technology and methodology will be used, and (d) the need to keep problems and uncertainties in proper perspective. Comments that can provide some context for the difficult programmatic choices to be made are included, and technical considerations that may be inadequately applied or neglected in some current source term calculations were studied. This review has not uncovered any significant technical considerations that have been omitted or are being inadequately treated in current source term analyses, except perhaps the contribution made to in-containment aerosols by coolant comminution upon escape at pressure from the reactor coolant system. 11 refs

  6. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  7. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part II: application to the quench longitudinal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Manfreda, G.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application...

  8. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  9. Early motor development and later language and reading skills in children at risk of familial dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Paula; Cantell, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2006-05-01

    Relationships between early motor development and language and reading skills were studied in 154 children, of whom 75 had familial risk of dyslexia (37 females, 38 males; at-risk group) and 79 constituted a control group (32 females, 47 males). Motor development was assessed by a structured parental questionnaire during the child's first year of life. Vocabulary and inflectional morphology skills were used as early indicators of language skills at 3 years 6 months and 5 years or 5 years 6 months of age, and reading speed was used as a later indicator of reading skills at 7 years of age. The same subgroups as in our earlier study (in which the cluster analysis was described) were used in this study. The three subgroups of the control group were 'fast motor development', 'slow fine motor development', and 'slow gross motor development', and the two subgroups of the at-risk group were 'slow motor development' and 'fast motor development'. A significant difference was found between the development of expressive language skills. Children with familial risk of dyslexia and slow motor development had a smaller vocabulary with poorer inflectional skills than the other children. They were also slower in their reading speed at the end of the first grade at the age of 7 years. Two different associations are discussed, namely the connection between early motor development and language development, and the connection between early motor development and reading speed.

  10. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2018-01-01

    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…

  11. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  12. Pulsed field losses and intentional quenches of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pulsed field losses of several 5-20 kJ coils have been measured under triangular field variations. The conductors, developed as potential subcables of 25-50 kA cables, consist of Cu wires and NbTi strands with or without CuNi barriers. Losses of soft-soldered subcables are compared with those of well-compacted cables. The coils were quenched intentionally by pulsing the coils above the critical current to observe loss variations due to possible conductor damage. The method of measurements, and effects of soldering and compactness of the conductors on the pulsed field losses will be presented

  13. A finite element model for the quench front evolution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folescu, J.; Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Carmo, E.G.D. do.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the rewetting problem associated with the loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor is proposed. A variational formulation for the time-dependent heat conduction problem on fuel rod cladding is used, and appropriate boundary conditions are assumed in order to simulate the thermal interaction between the fuel rod cladding and the fluid. A numerical procedure which uses the finite element method for the spatial discretization and a Crank-Nicolson-like method for the step-by-step integration is developed. Some numerical results are presented showing the quench front evolution and its stationary profile. (Author) [pt

  14. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  15. Vaccine development: From concept to early clinical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Garçon, Nathalie; Leo, Oberdan; Friedland, Leonard R; Strugnell, Richard; Laupèze, Béatrice; Doherty, Mark; Stern, Peter

    2016-12-20

    In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response. Processes such as recombinant DNA technology can simplify the complexity of manufacturing and facilitate consistent production of large quantities of antigen. Any new vaccine development is greatly enhanced by, and requires integration of information concerning: 1. Pathogen life-cycle & epidemiology. Knowledge of pathogen structure, route of entry, interaction with cellular receptors, subsequent replication sites and disease-causing mechanisms are all important to identify antigens suitable for disease prevention. The demographics of infection, specific risk groups and age-specific infection rates determine which population to immunise, and at what age. 2. Immune control & escape. Interactions between the host and pathogen are explored, with determination of the relative importance of antibodies, T-cells of different types and innate immunity, immune escape strategies during infection, and possible immune correlates of protection. This information guides identification and selection of antigen and the specific immune response required for protection. 3. Antigen selection & vaccine formulation. The selected antigen is formulated to remain suitably immunogenic and stable over time, induce an immune response that is likely to be protective, plus be amenable to eventual scale-up to commercial production. 4. Vaccine preclinical

  16. Fiber optic quench detection via optimized Rayleigh Scattering in high-field YBCO accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are known for their ability to operate in the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures, even above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). When these same conductors are operated at lower temperatures, they are able to operate in much higher magnetic fields than traditional superconductors like NiTi or Nb3Sn. Thus, YBCO superconducting magnets are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This project has studied, theoretically and experimentally, YBCO magnets and Rayleigh scattering quench detection systems to demonstrate feasibility of the systems for YBCO quench protection systems. Under this grant an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation model was used to accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets and to evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering required the development of a high performance fiber optic based quench detection/data acquisition system and its integration with an existing voltage tap/thermo-couple based system. In this project, optical fibers are tightly co-wound into YBCO magnet coils, with the fiber on top of the conductor as turn-to-turn insulation. Local changes in the temperature or strain of the conductor are sensed by the optical fiber, which is in close thermal and mechanical contact with the conductor. Intrinsic imperfections in the fiber reflect Rayleigh

  17. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  18. Chiral analysis of quenched baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.D.; Leinweber, D.B.; Thomas, A.W.; Wright, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    We extend to quenched QCD an earlier investigation of the chiral structure of the masses of the nucleon and the delta in lattice simulations of full QCD. Even after including the meson-loop self-energies which give rise to the leading and next-to-leading nonanalytic behavior (and hence the most rapid variation in the region of light quark mass), we find surprisingly little curvature in the quenched case. Replacing these meson-loop self-energies by the corresponding terms in full QCD yields a remarkable level of agreement with the results of the full QCD simulations. This comparison leads to a very good understanding of the origins of the mass splitting between these baryons

  19. Collapse and revival in holographic quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Emilia da; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  20. The QUENCH programme at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, M.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.; Stuckert, J.; Hering, W.; Homann, C.; Miassoedov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The QUENCH programme at FZK was launched to investigate the hydrogen source term during reflood of an overheated reactor core. It consists of large scale bundle experiments, separate-effects tests, modelling activities and application and validation of severe fuel damage (SFD) code systems. The paper describes the experimental part of the programme, namely the experimental facilities and test rigs as well as selected results obtained during the recent years. (author)