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Sample records for early pregnancy peripheral

  1. Early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression and risk of preterm delivery: a nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhie Seid Y

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm delivery (PTD is a significant public health problem associated with greater risk of mortality and morbidity in infants and mothers. Pathophysiologic processes that may lead to PTD start early in pregnancy. We investigated early pregnancy peripheral blood global gene expression and PTD risk. Methods As part of a prospective study, ribonucleic acid was extracted from blood samples (collected at 16 weeks gestational age from 14 women who had PTD (cases and 16 women who delivered at term (controls. Gene expressions were measured using the GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Student's T-test and fold change analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes. We used hierarchical clustering and principle components analysis to characterize signature gene expression patterns among cases and controls. Pathway and promoter sequence analyses were used to investigate functions and functional relationships as well as regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes. Results A total of 209 genes, including potential candidate genes (e.g. PTGDS, prostaglandin D2 synthase 21 kDa, were differentially expressed. A set of these genes achieved accurate pre-diagnostic separation of cases and controls. These genes participate in functions related to immune system and inflammation, organ development, metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid and cell signaling. Binding sites of putative transcription factors such as EGR1 (early growth response 1, TFAP2A (transcription factor AP2A, Sp1 (specificity protein 1 and Sp3 (specificity protein 3 were over represented in promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR confirmed microarray expression measurements of selected genes. Conclusions PTD is associated with maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression changes. Maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression patterns may be useful for better understanding of PTD

  2. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  3. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  4. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  5. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  6. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  7. Management of early pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In order to assess the available evidence on the management of early pregnancy loss, we performed a meta-analysis on the subject. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized studies reporting on the effectiveness of expectant management, misoprostol treatment or curettage.

  8. Peripheral microcirculation during pregnancy and in women with pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, P; Jung, F; Mrowietz, C; Alt, T; Alt, S; Schmidt, W

    2001-01-01

    During pregnancy the cardiovascular system undergoes several changes so as to adapt the maternal organism to the strains of pregnancy. These adaptations can assume a pathological development in persons with a previous history of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand the absence of these adaptations may lead to a pathological course of pregnancy. Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) may be such a pathological development due to maladaptation. The causes are for the most part unknown. For some time it has been assumed that it is due to microcirculatory disorders. Using periungual capillary microscopy the present study prospectively investigated the changes in peripheral microcirculation during pregnancy focussing on pregnancy induced hypertension. Sixty-seven women with a normal course of pregnancy and 28 women with pregnancy induced hypertension were evaluated. Throughout the prospective study 3 examinations were performed during pregnancy and one during childbed. The women who developed a PIH were registered during the third trimester. Erythrocyte velocity at rest and vascular reagibility of capillaries following a 3 minute ischaemia were evaluated. In the course of pregnancy a significant increase of approximately 30% in erythrocyte velocity could be observed. Interpolation to obtain the best strait line result demonstrates that it is a continuous increase. Erythrocyte velocity returns to normal in the course of 14 weeks post partum. Due to a physiological vasodilatation during pregnancy, vascular reaction to ischaemic stress significantly decreases. During childbed these changes return to normal. Examinations on women with pregnancy induced hypertension not only showed a significant reduction of microcirculation under resting conditions but also a different pattern of reaction to ischaemic stress. Erythrocyte velocity under resting conditions lies 36% below normal values. Furthermore the distinctly shortened hyperaemic period indicates a hightened

  9. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  10. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  11. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link. It is not known if these risks are present prior to pregnancy or are a reflection of poor arterial and haemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. This prospective longitudinal preconception cohort study was conducted over 18 months. In total, 367 participants were recruited pre-pregnancy, from which 197 pregnancies were recorded; 39 of these pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. Complete longitudinal data were available for 172 pregnancies (140 viable pregnancies, 32 first trimester miscarriages) from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. This was a single site study based at a maternity hospital in London. Healthy women were recruited prior to natural conception and followed up once they became pregnant. All underwent haemodynamic [cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)] and arterial function [aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] testing prior to pregnancy and at 6 weeks gestation, using non-invasive devices (gas re-breathing method, Innocor® and an occilometric device, Vicorder®). Cross-sectional measurements at pre-pregnancy and 6 weeks gestation and a longitudinal analysis of changes were compared between women who had a subsequent viable pregnancy, and those who had a subsequent first trimester miscarriage. There were no differences between women destined to have a healthy ongoing pregnancy compared to those who miscarried, in terms of baseline cardiovascular function, assessed by CO, PVR, PWV or AIx

  12. Mapping the Fetomaternal Peripheral Immune System at Term Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Baca, Quentin J; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Ganio, Edward A; Gaudilliere, Dyani K; Tingle, Martha; Lancero, Hope L; McNeil, Leslie S; Spitzer, Matthew H; Wong, Ronald J; Shaw, Gary M; Darmstadt, Gary L; Sylvester, Karl G; Winn, Virginia D; Carvalho, Brendan; Lewis, David B; Stevenson, David K; Nolan, Garry P; Aghaeepour, Nima; Angst, Martin S; Gaudilliere, Brice L

    2016-12-01

    Preterm labor and infections are the leading causes of neonatal deaths worldwide. During pregnancy, immunological cross talk between the mother and her fetus is critical for the maintenance of pregnancy and the delivery of an immunocompetent neonate. A precise understanding of healthy fetomaternal immunity is the important first step to identifying dysregulated immune mechanisms driving adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. This study combined single-cell mass cytometry of paired peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples from mothers and their neonates with a graphical approach developed for the visualization of high-dimensional data to provide a high-resolution reference map of the cellular composition and functional organization of the healthy fetal and maternal immune systems at birth. The approach enabled mapping of known phenotypical and functional characteristics of fetal immunity (including the functional hyperresponsiveness of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and the global blunting of innate immune responses). It also allowed discovery of new properties that distinguish the fetal and maternal immune systems. For example, examination of paired samples revealed differences in endogenous signaling tone that are unique to a mother and her offspring, including increased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, rpS6, and CREB phosphorylation in fetal Tbet + CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, B cells, and CD56 lo CD16 + NK cells and decreased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, and STAT1 phosphorylation in fetal intermediate and nonclassical monocytes. This highly interactive functional map of healthy fetomaternal immunity builds the core reference for a growing data repository that will allow inferring deviations from normal associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Busschers, Wim B.; Spierings, Eline J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Gademan, Maaike G. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in

  14. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  15. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD preeclampsia (FDR preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D-associated transcriptomes implicated the emergence of an early pregnancy, distinctive immune response in women who went on to develop preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621. Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation and Genome Canada Innovation Network. This trial was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For details see Acknowledgments.

  16. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  17. [The early pregnancy factor (EPF) as an early marker of disorders in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, W; Römer, T; Zeenni, L; Loh, M

    1995-01-01

    The early pregnancy factor (EPF) seems to be very helpful in clinical applications such as early detection of pregnancy, differential diagnosis of failure of fertilization or implementation and prognosis of a fertilized ovum. Our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic value of single and serial measurement of EPF, especially in the differential diagnosis of abortion and extrauterine pregnancy. Women with a history of 6-16 weeks amenorrhoea with/without vaginal bleeding were included in the prospective study. The EPF-test system was carried out by means of the rosette inhibition method. EPF proved to be always positive in normal pregnant women and always negative in nonpregnant controls. In case of threatened abortion the prognosis was good, when the EPF values were positive, and poor when they became negative. Patients suffering from spontaneous and missed abortion mostly showed negative EPF-values. This was also true in ectopic pregnancies. The sensitivity and specificity of EPF-test system were 83%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 54% and the negative predictive value 95%. The EPF as an early embryonic signal may be a suitable parameter for the clinical use detecting pregnancy disturbances very early.

  18. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective ...

  19. [Pregnancy-specific beta-glycoprotein in the serum of women with a complicated early pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikov, N

    1989-01-01

    The author determined pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in 109 women with threatened early pregnancy as 32 of the women suffered from abortus imminens with several unsuccessful pregnancies in the past as well as 67 women with abortus incipiens with bleeding ex utero. The author established that 87% of women with abortus imminens and preserved pregnancies had values of beta 1-glycoprotein close to those of normal pregnancy for the respective gestational week. 93% of women with abortus incipiens preserved pregnancies till term, but the specific glycoprotein was with in normal ranges. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 7% of women with low values under the 10th percentile. The present study show that examination of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in women with threatened early pregnancy is of prognostic significance for the outcome of pregnancy.

  20. Clinical pattern of gynaecological / early pregnancy complaints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complaints of vaginal bleeding with or without pains, history of amenorrhea or infertility ; clinical and ultrasound impressions of early pregnancy complaints including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) with exclusion of uro-genital and gastrointestinal complaints/ cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  1. Clinical pattern of gynecological/early pregnancy complaints and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complaints of vaginal bleeding, with or without pain, history of amenorrhea or infertility, clinical and ultrasound impression of early pregnancy complaints, including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), with exclusion of urogenital and gastrointestinal complaints/cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  2. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  3. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  4. Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...

  5. Early Embryonic Heart Rate in Normal Pregnancies In Memory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the appearance and development of embryonic heart rate a total of n = 317 Nigerian pregnant women were studied in the very early pregnancy from 23 – 56 days from the onset of last menstrual period (LMP). All pregnancies had a subsequent successful outcome. Transvaginal ultrasonography was ...

  6. Management of drug-induced hyperbilirubinaemia in early pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perinatal outcomes because of the increased risks of preterm delivery and ... induced hepatotoxicity in early pregnancy. ... for threatened abortion since the 6th week. Her past and ... gene mutations, a disease complicated by unconjugated.

  7. Early pregnancy failure management among family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robin; Dehlendorf, Christine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gold, Katherine J; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-03-01

    Family physicians, as primary care providers for reproductive-aged women, frequently initiate or refer patients for management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Safe and effective options for EPF treatment include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and aspiration in the office or operating room. Current practice does not appear to reflect patient preferences or to utilize the most cost-effective treatments. We compared characteristics and practice patterns among family physicians who do and do not provide multiple options for EPF care. We performed a secondary analysis of a national survey of women's health providers to describe demographic and practice characteristics among family physicians who care for women with EPF. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of providing more than one option for EPF management. The majority of family physicians provide only one option for EPF; expectant management was most frequently used among our survey respondents. Misoprostol and office-based aspiration were rarely used. Providing more than one option for EPF management was associated with more years in practice, smaller county population, larger proportions of Medicaid patients, intrauterine contraception provision, and prior training in office-based aspiration. Family physicians are capable of providing a comprehensive range of options for EPF management in the outpatient setting but few providers currently do so. To create a more patient-centered and cost-effective model of care for EPF, additional resources should be directed at education, skills training, and system change initiatives to prepare family physicians to offer misoprostol and office-based aspiration to women with EPF.

  8. Selected non-somatic risk factors for pregnancy loss in patients with abnormal early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paszkowski

    2015-12-01

    The results of this study confirm the complexity of the early pregnancy loss etiopatogenesis. Further research need to be conducted in order to identify the non-somatic causative agents of various clinical forms of miscarriage. It may help do select women in reproductive age at high risk of early pregnancy loss and show the ways in which effective preventive measures can be introduced in such population.

  9. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  10. The echoic pseudogestational sac of ectopic pregnancy simulating early intrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, R M; Stein, K; Shih, Y H; Goodman, J D

    1983-05-01

    The sonographic features of ectopic pregnancy have been well documented. When an early intrauterine pregnancy is identified or an obvious extrauterine sac is visualized, diagnosis is not a problem; but often a sac is seen within the uterus that may contain a well-defined rind and even internal echoes simulating an early fetal pole. This has been mistaken for an early intrauterine pregnancy. In this review, four patients with pseudogestational sacs had internal echoes within the sac, and two of them ultimately underwent dilatation and curettage, which revealed blood clots. This supports the assertion that fetal cardiac activity and/or fetal motion should be demonstrated within a fetal pole before the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is excluded.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Flood-Nichols

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion.Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years. Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057.Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  12. Early Pregnancy Losses: Review of Nomenclature, Histopathology, and Possible Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, M Halit; Gibbins, Karen; He, Mai; Kostadinov, Stefan; Silver, Robert

    2018-05-08

    Miscarriage is a frequent complication of human pregnancy: ∼50% to 70% of spontaneous conceptions are lost prior to the second trimester. Etiology of miscarriage includes genetic abnormalities, infections, immunological and implantation disorders, uterine and endocrine abnormalities, and lifestyle factors. Given such variability, knowledge regarding causes, pathophysiological mechanisms, and morphologies of primary early pregnancy loss has significant gaps; often, pregnancy losses remain unexplained. Pathologic evaluation of miscarriage tissue is an untapped source of knowledge. Although miscarriage specimens comprise a significant part of pathologists' workload, information reported from these specimens is typically of minimal clinical utility for delineating etiology or predicting recurrence risk. Standardized terminology is available, though not universally used. We reintroduce the terminology and review new information about early pregnancy losses and their morphologies. Current clinical terminology is inconsistent, hampering research progress. This review is a resource for diagnostic pathologists studying this complex problem.

  13. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  14. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  15. Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Miko, Eva; Polgar, Beata

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important...... negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity...... of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY: 57 healthy pregnant women [first trimester (n = 16); second trimester (n = 19); third trimester (n = 22)] and 30 non-pregnant controls were enrolled in the study. We measured the surface expression of TIM-3...

  16. Grieving after early pregnancy loss--a common reality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Purandare, N

    2013-05-24

    A miscarriage can be very traumatic for a couple and their immediate family. The aim of this study was to assess, using the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), whether the type of early pregnancy loss influences the severity of grief and whether the presence of living children influences the severity of grief. Over a period of 6 months in 2008, seventy five patients were recruited for the study, of which 7 (9.3%) had molar pregnancies, 20 (26.7%) had ectopic pregnancies, 43 (573%) had a miscarriage and 5 (6.7%) had recurrent miscarriages. In this study there was no significant difference in severity of grief, between women that had a miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.14) or, between women that had a miscarriage and a molar pregnancy (p = 0.85). Women who had experienced a ectopic pregnancy did not have a higher grief intensity than the women that had a molar pregnancy (p = 0.75). However, for women with a child, the grief intensity significantly increases with the number of miscarriages (p = 0.015). Women with no children with an ectopic pregnancy grieve significantly more than those with a child (p = 0.019). An appointment for the \\'Miscarriage Clinic\\' should be offered to all of these women but special attention should be paid to those in the categories most at risk

  17. Mental health in early pregnancy is associated with pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, N F; Secher, A L; Cramon, P

    2015-01-01

    -related quality of life, anxiety, depression and locus of control were seen in women delivering large or appropriate for gestational age infants. CONCLUSIONS: Poor mental quality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms in early pregnancy were associated with preterm delivery in women with pregestational......AIM: To explore the role of early pregnancy health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression and locus of control for pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 148 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (118 with Type 1 diabetes and 30...... with Type 2 diabetes), who completed three internationally validated questionnaires: the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control survey at 8 weeks. Selected pregnancy outcomes were preterm delivery (

  18. Early inflammatory response in rat brain after peripheral thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raul; Wu, Yimin; Lai, Qin; Mrizek, Michael; Berger, Jamie; Jimenez, David F; Barone, Constance M; Ding, Yuchuan

    2006-10-16

    Previous studies have shown that the cerebral complications associated with skin burn victims are correlated with brain damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic thermal injury induces inflammatory responses in the brain. Sprague Dawley rats (n=28) were studied in thermal injury and control groups. Animals from the thermal injury (n=14) and control (n=14) group were anesthetized and submerged to the neck vertically in 85 degrees C water for 6 s producing a third degree burn affecting 60-70% of the animal body surface area. The controls were submerged in 37 degrees C water for 6 s. Early expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), and intracellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) protein levels in serum were determined at 3 (n=7) and 7 h (n=7) by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 in the brain was measured at the same time points with a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An equal animal number was used for controls. Systemic inflammatory responses were demonstrated by dramatic up-regulations (5-50 fold) of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 protein level in serum at 7 h after the thermal injury. However, as early as 3 h after peripheral thermal injury, a significant increase (3-15 fold) in mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and ICAM-1 was observed in brain homogenates, with increased levels remaining at 7 h after injury. This study demonstrated an early inflammatory response in the brain after severe peripheral thermal injury. The cerebral inflammatory reaction was associated with expression of systemic cytokines and an adhesion molecule.

  19. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Yousuf, K.; Karim, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  20. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.A.; Anbareen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  1. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, J A; Anbareen, T [Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Gynae; Anbareen, T [Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  2. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  3. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  4. Metabolic profiling uncovers a phenotypic signature of small for gestational age in early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Richard P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  5. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  6. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  7. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan

    1999-01-01

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  8. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan [Aju University SChool of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  9. Risk estimation of radiation exposure in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Waesser, S.

    1977-01-01

    The biomedical effects of radiation exposure (occupational, by X-ray diagnosis or examinations in nuclear medicine) to low doses on early pregnancy have been subject of a research work dealing with the dose level which, in case of exceeding, may lead to somatic damage (1.5 to 10 rem), and with the type of radiation injuries (malformations, functional disorder, cancer induction, increase in morbidity rate, genetic damage). A pilot study was the basis for the programme which will record such cases from all over the GDR. Within the scope of the health centre at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR, medical opinion on the interruption or preservation of pregnancy at its early stage, after exposure, was delivered in more than 50 cases. Exposure of the foetus was exactly determined. These children were re-investigated at the age of 1 to 3 years by applying pediatric and genetic examinations. The latter were based on clinical and biochemical methods as well as chromosome analyses. From these results, the risk of exposure in early pregnancy is estimated and adequate dose limits are suggested. In case these limits are exceeded, an interruption should be advised

  10. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  11. Biology of primate relaxin: A paracrine signal in early pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Eric S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxin's reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to relaxin reproductive biology but the similarities and subtle differences are only just beginning to be understood. We, and others, have shown that relaxin produces significant changes to the non-human primate endometrium during the peri-implantation period that are consistent with relaxin's long perceived role as a paracrine modulator of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reproductive biology of relaxin in non-human primates with a specific emphasis on the paracrine role of ovarian and endometrial relaxin during embryo implantation and early pregnancy.

  12. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  13. Correlation between pregnancy outcomes and hormone levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between pregnancy outcomes and hormone levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma. Methods: Three groups of subjects (48 cases each were selected including the group of healthy pregnant women (Group C, and the two groups of subchorionic hematoma diagnosed via B-ultrasound examination with and without (Groups A and B positive symptoms of threatened abortion such as abdominal pain, colporrhagia etc. Chemiluminescence analysis was applied to determine serum progesterone and HCG levels of all three groups, and investigate the correlation between variations of such levels and pregnancy outcomes. Results: Statistical significance existed in the differences between serum progesterone and HCG levels of the three groups at 12, 28 and 37 weeks of gestation. In early pregnancy, serum progesterone and β-HCG levels were lower in Group A than Groups B and C, and lower in Group B than Group C. In the second trimester, the serum β-HCG level was higher, while the progesterone level lower in Group A than Groups B and C; the serum β-HCG level higher, while the progesterone level lower in Group B than Group C. And the comparative results in late pregnancy were the same as those of the second trimester. The premature birth rate, abortion rate, fetal death rate were the highest, and the full time delivery rate was the lowest in Group A among all the three groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma were closely related to serum progesterone and HCG levels in early gestation. Conclusion: Serum progesterone and HCG levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma are positively correlated with pregnancy outcomes; the lower such levels of the two early indicators, the higher the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, tests of early pregnancy serum progesterone and HCG levels can be

  14. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  15. Early human pregnancy serum cytokine levels predict autoimmunity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindehammer, Sabina Resic; Björck, Sara; Lynch, Kristian; Brundin, Charlotte; Marsal, Karel; Agardh, Daniel; Fex, Malin

    2011-09-01

    It is generally believed that pregnancy is mediated by a Th2 response, which includes cytokines that promote placental growth and are involved in inducing tolerance to the foetus. If the balance between Th1/and Th2-mediated cytokines is disrupted, systemic and local changes could predispose the foetus to future disease. Therefore, a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy, possibly caused by underlying environmental factors, could be associated with post-partum autoimmune disease in the offspring. Based on this presumption, we used celiac disease as a model to investigate whether autoimmunity is triggered in the foetus during early pregnancy, observed as changes in the mother's cytokine profile. Ten cytokines were measured by electro-chemi-luminescent multiplex ELISA in serum samples obtained from mothers during early pregnancy. Cases included women with children who had developed verified celiac disease before the age of 5, who were compared with other women as matched controls. We observed that 7 out of 10 cytokine levels were significantly increased in our case mothers when compared to controls. Five of these belonged to what is generally known as a Th1-mediated response (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1β and IL-12) and two were Th2 cytokines (IL-13 and IL-10). However, the IL-10 cytokine is known to have features from both arms of the immune system. These results were confirmed in a logistic regression model where five out of the initial seven cytokines remained. This study suggests that increase in Th1 serum cytokines may be associated with celiac disease in offspring.

  16. Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2010-09-13

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15±1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15±1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  17. Anxiety associated with diagnostic uncertainty in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A; Raine-Fenning, N; Deb, S; Campbell, B; Vedhara, K

    2017-08-01

    To determine anxiety levels of women presenting to an early pregnancy assessment unit (EPAU) with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding and to assess how these levels change over time and according to ultrasonographic diagnosis. We undertook a prospective cohort study in an EPAU in a large UK teaching hospital. Women with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (anxiety levels were assessed using the standardized short form of Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) on three occasions (before, immediately after and 48-72 hours after an ultrasound scan). Scores were correlated with ultrasonographic diagnosis. The diagnosis was either certain or uncertain. Certain diagnoses were either positive, i.e. a viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), or negative, i.e. a non-viable IUP or ectopic pregnancy. Uncertain diagnoses included pregnancy of unknown location and pregnancy of uncertain viability. Statistical analysis involved mixed ANOVAs and the post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 160 women were included in the study. Anxiety levels decreased over time for women with a certain diagnosis (n = 128), even when negative (n = 64), and increased over time for women with an uncertain diagnosis (n = 32). Before the ultrasound examination, anxiety levels were high (STAI value, 21.96 ± 1.11) and there was no significant difference between the five groups. Immediately after the ultrasound examination, anxiety levels were lower in the viable IUP group (n = 64; 7.75 ± 1.13) than in any other group. The difference between the five groups was significant (P anxiety levels than had those with an uncertain diagnosis (10.77 ± 4.30 vs 22.94 ± 1.65; P anxiety levels more than does the positive or negative connotations associated with the diagnosis per se. Healthcare providers should be aware of this when communicating uncertain diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  18. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    , diversity, and evenness during pregnancy (P vaginal microbiome instability compared to term birth. No distinct taxa were associated with preterm birth. In a predominantly African-American population, a significant decrease of vaginal microbial community richness and diversity is associated with preterm birth. The timing of this suppression appears early in pregnancy, between the first and second trimesters, suggesting that early gestation may be an ecologically important time for events that ordain subsequent term and preterm birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal diet during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in mothers and newborns (Rhea cohort, Crete)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pedersen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study assessed whether diet and adherence to cancer prevention guidelines during pregnancy were associated with micronucleus (MN) frequency in mothers and newborns. MN is biomarkers of early genetic effects that have been associated with cancer risk in adults. METHODS: A total of 188...... mothers and 200 newborns from the Rhea cohort (Greece) were included in the study. At early-mid pregnancy, we conducted personal interviews and a validated food frequency questionnaire was completed. With this information, we constructed a score reflecting adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund...... exposure to genotoxics during pregnancy might affect differently mothers and newborns. The predictive value of MN as biomarker for childhood cancer, rather than adulthood, remains unclear. With few exceptions, the association between maternal carcinogenic exposures during pregnancy and childhood cancer...

  20. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  1. Distinct Transcriptional and Alternative Splicing Signatures of Decidual CD4+ T Cells in Early Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decidual CD4+ T (dCD4 T cells are crucial for the maternal-fetal immune tolerance required for a healthy pregnancy outcome. However, their molecular and functional characteristics are not well elucidated. In this study, we performed the first analysis of transcriptional and alternative splicing (AS landscapes for paired decidual and peripheral blood CD4+ T (pCD4 T cells in human early pregnancy using high throughput mRNA sequencing. Our data showed that dCD4 T cells are endowed with a unique transcriptional signature when compared to pCD4 T cells: dCD4 T cells upregulate 1,695 genes enriched in immune system process whereas downregulate 1,011 genes mainly related to mRNA catabolic process and the ribosome. Moreover, dCD4 T cells were observed to be at M phase, and show increased activation, proliferation, and cytokine production, as well as display an effector-memory phenotype and a heterogenous nature containing Th1, Th17, and Treg cell subsets. However, dCD4 T cells undergo a comparable number of upregulated and downregulated AS events, both of which are enriched in the genes related to cellular metabolic process. And the changes at the AS event level do not reflect measurable differences at the gene expression level in dCD4 T cells. Collectively, our findings provide a comprehensive portrait of the unique transcriptional signature and AS profile of CD4+ T cells in human decidua and help us gain more understanding of the functional characteristic of these cells during early pregnancy.

  2. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption habits from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skreden, Marianne; Bere, Elling; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C

    2017-04-04

    A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age. Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p <0.01), other vegetables (11 vs. 14%, p = 0.01), fruits (apples, pears, oranges or bananas) (24 vs. 41%, p < 0.01), other fruits and berries (8 vs. 15%, p < 0.01) and fruits and vegetables as snacks (14 vs. 28%, p < 0.01). The percentage of women who reported at least daily consumption of vegetables with dinner (22% at both time points) was stable. A higher proportion of older women increased their consumption of vegetables and fruits as snacks from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy compared to younger women (p=0.04). We found an increase in the proportion of women consuming FV daily or more frequently from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov database, NCT01001689 . https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01001689?term=NCT01001689&rank=1 .

  4. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes : A Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bart; Links, Thera P; Lefrandt, Joop D; van den Berg, Paul P; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by

  5. Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period in a woman\\'s life where nutrition is of key importance for optimal pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to assess maternal nutrient intakes during early pregnancy and to examine potential levels of energy underreporting.

  6. How education changes clinical documentation in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fida; Higgins, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this audit was to record medical history taking in the records of women attending with early pregnancy issues in order to assess the effect of training in this area. The medical education intervention comprised of a 30-min interactive tutorial. Retrospective chart review at three time points: pre education (July 2013, n = 45), immediately post-education (August 2013, n = 45) and longer term post-intervention (October 2013, n = 20). Pre-education, medical history was missing in 77.8% of charts compared to 13.4% immediately post-intervention and 10% long-term post-intervention (p Education in requirements for medical history taking can improve documentation.

  7. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN70595832...

  8. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy....... Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...... and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). RESULTS: Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early...

  9. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  10. Biopolitical mills. Topographies of Power in Early Peripheral Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City of Lodz is an exceptional case of industrialsettlement, a focal point of di}erent kinds and techniquesof power typical for nineteenth century industrial capi-talism. Disciplinary power parceling bodies, biopowerproviding with population stability, paternalistic gaze ofthe factory owner and monarchic sovereignty of the tsa-rist rule once met in the Scheibler and Grohman’s indu-strial establishment and nearby workers’ housing estate.{is peripheral capitalism and relations accompanyingit let us verify Foucaultian analysis of power and have anew look at it. Di}erent and less stable pattern of corre-lation of power techniques emerges here; power is nolonger strictly related to the temporal matrix or a func-tional demands of capitalist production, and temporarilyossi/es in relocated and contingent con/gurations. It isan implicit illustration of a new paradigm of power ana-lysis, which Foucault presented when his interest was notan industrial city any more, namely the „topologicalanalysis”, as S. J. Collier aptly called it.

  11. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G.; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation....... Methods A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. Main outcome measures: intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. Results Most (77%) of the participants...... reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p...

  12. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  13. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  14. Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Early Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Andersen, Nadia Lyhne; Horwitz, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in early pregnancy is associated with miscarriage. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. All births were identified using...... the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion or miscarriage were gathered from the National Hospital Register. Data on SSRI use were gathered from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed...... to an SSRI in early pregnancy and the hazard of miscarriage in women discontinuing treatment before pregnancy. RESULTS: We identified 1,279,840 pregnancies (911,569 births, 142,093 miscarriages, 226,178 induced abortions). Of the 22,884 exposed to an SSRI during the first 35 days of pregnancy, 12.6% (2...

  15. The impact of nausea and vomiting on women: a burden of early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Crowther, C; Beilby, J; Dandeaux, J

    2000-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are troublesome symptoms occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe the impact these symptoms have on women in early pregnancy by interviewing, using a structured questionnaire, 593 pregnant women presenting with nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were asked to complete the Rhodes index of nausea and vomiting and the MOS 36 Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Symptoms of nausea and vomiting started early in pregnancy. Nausea was the most troublesome symptom experienced by women, both in its duration and intensity. Low scores for the SF-36 were found for all items, particularly physical functioning, energy and social functioning. The women described substantial effects on working, household duties and parenting activities. Findings from this study suggest nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy has a profound impact on women's general sense of well-being and day to day life activities.

  16. Maternal complications in pregnancy and wheezing in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugna, Daniela; Galassi, Claudia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of maternal complications in pregnancy on wheezing in offspring is still insufficient. METHODS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual participant data from fourteen European birth cohorts to assess the relationship between several maternal pregnancy comp...

  17. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  18. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  19. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Andersen, Anita Sylvest; Lassen, Michael Rud

    2009-01-01

    -G generated by specific HLA-G transcripts, have been investigated early [median of 16.4 weeks of gestation (GW)] and late (median: 38.9 GW) in pregnancy in an original cohort of 580 pregnant Caucasian women. RESULTS: Lower concentrations of sHLA-G1 were found late in pregnancy (>32 GW) in a group of women...

  20. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  1. Suppressed peripheral and placental blood lymphoproliferative responses in first pregnancies: relevance to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N; Dunn, D T

    1993-01-01

    protein derivative [PPD]) were examined in the peripheral and placental blood of 102 Gambian women at the time of delivery. The lymphoproliferative responses of placental cells were poor to all antigens compared with those of peripheral blood (Candida P PPD P ....003, and 190N P = 0.10). Reduced proliferative capacity of placental mononuclear cells may contribute to heavy parasite colonization of this organ. Proliferation to malarial and PPD but not Candida antigens was selectively suppressed in peripheral and placental blood of primiparae relative to multiparae (F32 P...... = 0.07, 190L P = 0.09, 190N P = 0.007, PPD P = 0.09). Autologous plasma contained factors that suppressed lymphoproliferative responses to the same series of antigens to which the primiparae responded poorly (F32 P PPD P = 0.03). Malarial antibody levels were...

  2. Dynamic Changes in Fetal Microchimerism in Maternal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, CD4+ and CD8+ Cells in Normal Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Gammill, Hilary S.; Lucas, Joëlle; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Lambert, Nathalie C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cell trafficking during pregnancy results in persistence of small populations of fetal cells in the mother, known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). Changes in cell-free fetal DNA during gestation have been well-described, however, less is known about dynamic changes in fetal immune cells in maternal blood. We investigated FMc in maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) longitudinally across gestation. Study Design Thirty-five women with normal pregnancies were studied. FMc was identified in PBMC, CD4+ and CD8+ subsets employing quantitative PCR assays targeting fetal-specific genetic polymorphisms. FMc quantities were reported as fetal genome equivalents (gEq) per 1,000,000 gEq mother’s cells. Poisson regression modeled the rate of FMc detection. Main Outcome Measure FMc in PBMC Results The probability of detecting one fetal cell equivalent increased 6.2-fold each trimester [Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 95% CI: 1.73, 21.91; p=0.005]. Although FMC in PBMC was not detected for the majority of time points, 7 of 35 women had detectable FMc during pregnancy at one or more time points, with the majority of positive samples being from the third trimester. There was a suggestion of greater HLA-sharing in families where women had FMc in PBMC. FMc was detected in 9% of CD4+ (2/23) and 18% of CD8+ (3/25) subsets. Conclusions FMc in PBMC increased as gestation progressed and was found within CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in some women in the latter half of gestation. A number of factors could influence cellular FMc levels including subclinical fetal-maternal interface changes and events related to parturition. Whether FMc during pregnancy predicts persistent FMc and/or correlates with fetal-maternal HLA-relationships also merits further study. PMID:20569981

  3. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  4. Effects of Group Prenatal Care on Food Insecurity during Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Frongillo, Edward A; Picklesimer, Amy H; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    This study compared the effects of group to individual prenatal care in late pregnancy and early postpartum on (1) women's food security and (2) psychosocial outcomes among food-insecure women. We recruited 248 racially diverse, low-income, pregnant women receiving CenteringPregnancy™ group prenatal care (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124) to complete surveys in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and early postpartum, with 84 % completing three surveys. Twenty-six percent of group and 31 % of individual care participants reported food insecurity in early pregnancy (p = 0.493). In multiple logistic regression models, women choosing group versus individual care were more likely to report food security in late pregnancy (0.85 vs. 0.66 average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p = 0.052) in intention-to-treat models. Group participants were more likely to change perceptions on affording healthy foods and stretching food resources. Group compared to individual care participants with early pregnancy food insecurity demonstrated higher maternal-infant attachment scale scores (89.8 vs. 86.2 points for individual care, p = 0.032). Group prenatal care provides health education and the opportunity for women to share experiences and knowledge, which may improve food security through increasing confidence and skills in managing household food resources. Health sector interventions can complement food assistance programs in addressing food insecurity during pregnancy.

  5. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  6. Induction of oestrus and early pregnancy diagnosis in Awassi sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    1997-12-01

    An experiment on Syrian Awassi ewes and yearlings was conducted out-side the normal breeding season to study the possibility of inducing oestrus and increasing birth rate as an attempt to improve the reproductive efficiency, in addition to evaluating the possibility of early pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone radioimmunoassay kits. One-hundred-and fifty-five local female awassi sheep (96 ewes and 59 ewe lambs) were divided into 4 groups. Group T1 (n= 50 ewes) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days followd by 600 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C1 (n= 46 ewes) received no treatment. Group T2 (n= 41 yearlings) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of MAP for 14 days followed by 400 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C2 (n= 18 yearlings) received no treatment. The females in both T1 and T2 groups responded to the hormonal treatment, and showed oestrus behaviour within 36-48 h of sponge withdrawal. Total oestrus rate was 96% and 92.7% for groups T1 and T2, respectively. Lambing rates were 80%, 32.6%, 78.0% and 5.6% for groups T1, C1, T2 and C2, respectively. Twinning rates increased to 32.5% and 33.3% for groups T1 and T2, respectively, compared to 6.7% and 0% for groups C1 and C2, respectively. There were no significant differences in pregnancy duration between groups T1 (151.7 ± 1.7 days), and T2 (154.4 ± 1.5 days), and between single (154.4 ± 1.8 daus and 151.5 ± 1.6 days) and twin-born lambs (151.7 ± 1.5 days and 150.8 ± 1.3 days) for single and twin born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. Hormonal treatment had no effect on the overall average lamb birth weight, which was 4.3 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.4 ± 0.7 Kg and 3.9 ± 1.0 Kg for groups T1, C1, and T2, respectively, and the birth weight for the only lamb born in group C2 was 4.0 kg. However, average birth weight for single born lambs was

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of...

  8. Effect of metformin on early pregnancy loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Biate, Mawahib A S

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of metformin therapy in reducing early pregnancy loss in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the Obstetric Department of the Gulf Medical College Hospital in Ajman, UAE, for a period of 3 years. This study involved 106 nondiabetic pregnant women with PCOS who became pregnant while using metformin. They were divided into two groups, namely, the group that received metformin throughout pregnancy (metformin group) and the group that discontinued using the drug once pregnancy started (control group). A comparison was made between the two groups of patients with respect to certain basal characteristics (age, body mass index, previous obstetric outcome, serum glucose with free testosterone). Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test to compare the differences between the two groups. There were 56 patients who received metformin during pregnancy (metformin group) compared with 50 patients who did not receive the treatment (control group). The rate of early pregnancy loss in the metformin group was 8.9% (5/56) compared with 36% (18/50) in the control group (p metformin group with a history of previous miscarriage, the rate of pregnancy loss was 45% (35 cases/50 pregnancies). Metformin therapy in pregnant women with PCOS was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of early pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess...... the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. METHODS...... the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding...

  10. 18 Percent of Pregnant Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ . 1. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1996). Drinking and your pregnancy (NIH Publication No. 96–4101). Retrieved from http: / / ... Fetal alcohol exposure. Retrieved from http: / / www. ...

  11. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  12. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, S E; London, S J; Stigum, H; Nafstad, P; Nystad, W

    2009-03-01

    Folate supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Maternal intake of folate supplements during pregnancy might also influence childhood immune phenotypes via epigenetic mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between folate supplements in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections and wheeze in children up to 18 months of age. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, questionnaire data collected at several time points during pregnancy and after birth on 32,077 children born between 2000 and 2005 were used to assess the effects of folate supplements during pregnancy on respiratory outcomes up to 18 months of age, while accounting for other supplements in pregnancy and supplementation in infancy. Folate supplements in the first trimester were associated with increased risk of wheeze and respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. Adjusting for exposure later in pregnancy and in infancy, the relative risk for wheeze for children exposed to folic acid supplements in the first trimester was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10), the relative risk for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and the relative risk for hospitalisations for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41). Folic acid supplements in pregnancy were associated with a slightly increased risk of wheeze and lower respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. The results suggest that methyl donors in the maternal diet during pregnancy may influence respiratory health in children consistent with epigenetic mechanisms.

  13. Identification of early B cell precursors (stage 1 and 2 hematogones) in the peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Jason H; Weinberg, Olga K

    2018-05-25

    Differentiating malignant B-lymphoblasts from early benign B cell precursors (hematogones) is a vital component of the diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. It has been previously reported that only late-stage B cell precursors circulate in the peripheral blood. Consequently, flow cytometric detection of cells with immunophenotypic findings similar to earlier stage precursors in the peripheral blood justifiably raises concern for involvement by B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. We report here, however, that benign early B cell precursors can indeed be detected in the peripheral blood, thus complicating the interpretation of flow cytometric findings derived from these sample types. A retrospective search of our collective databases identified 13 cases containing circulating early stage B cell precursors. The patients ranged in age from 15 days to 85 years old. All positive cases demonstrated that the earlier B cell precursors were associated with later stage precursors, a finding that could help differentiate these cells from B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A in Type 2 Diabetic Patient with Peripheral Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosseir, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by hyperglycemia lead to dysregulation of cytokines control, subclinical inflammation together with oxidative stress associated with diabetes. The aim of this study is to correlate the role of type 2 diabetic neuropathy on serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A,interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein .The results denoted that both pregnancy associated plasma protein-A and interleukin-6 were significantly increased in those patients with diabetic neuropathy compared with those without neuropathy but while c-reactive proteins showed significant differences between the three groups, the results lead to the conclusion that PAPP-A,IL-6 are useful tests in monitoring the neuropathic complications associated with type 2 diabetes

  15. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum BDNF concentrations.

  16. Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: A prospective observational study in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Genderen (Michel); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J. de Jonge (Jeroen); R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); J. Bakker (Jan); J. van Bommel (Jasper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Altered peripheral perfusion is strongly associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. We wanted to determine whether repeated assessments of peripheral perfusion during the days following surgery could help to early identify patients that are more likely to

  17. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  18. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Baker, Philip N; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  19. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  20. Early pregnancy diagnosis in goats by transrectal echography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, JI

    2007-01-01

    Echography observations every 5 days from 20 until 45 days past-mating, were carried out to determine when the pregnancy in goats can he detected and which are the elements that can be used for the which are the elements that can be used for the diagnosis with are ultrasonic equipment Aloka SSD 500 with a 5.0 MHz probe. From 25 days the pregnancy can be detected when the embryonic vesicle the observed. However, the higher was used efficiency is attained between the 30 and 35 days when embryons with heart beat as main sign of viability are observed

  1. Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V. J.; Kuijpens, J. L.; van Baar, A. L.; Verkerk, G.; van Son, M. M.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Vulsma, T.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Vader, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is an important determinant of early fetal brain development because the fetal thyroid is unable to produce any T4 before 12-14 weeks' gestation. Overt maternal hypothyroidism as seen in severe iodine-deficient areas is associated with severely

  2. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  3. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E 3 G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P 2 G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E 3 G and P 2 G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E 3 G and P 2 G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit

  4. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake...

  5. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  6. The Peripheral Whole Blood Transcriptome of Acute Pyelonephritis in Human Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ichchha; Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Miranda, Jezid; Tarca, Adi L.; Bhatti, Gaurav; Draghici, Sorin; Yeo, Lami; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Human pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response and suppression of adaptive immunity. The former is thought to provide protection against infection to the mother, and the latter, tolerance against paternal antigens expressed in fetal cells. Acute pyelonephritis is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis in pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women. The objective of this study was to describe the gene expression profile (transcriptome) of maternal whole blood in acute pyelonephritis. Method A case-control study was conducted to include pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis (n=15) and women with a normal pregnancy (n=34). Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) were used for gene expression profiling. A linear model was used to test the association between the presence of pyelonephritis and gene expression levels while controlling for white blood cell count and gestational age. A fold change of 1.5 was considered significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1. A subset of differentially expressed genes (n=56) was tested with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (cases, n=19; controls, n=59). Gene ontology and pathway analysis were applied. Results A total of 983 genes were differentially expressed in acute pyelonephritis: 457 were up-regulated and 526 were down-regulated. Significant enrichment of 300 biological processes and 63 molecular functions was found in pyelonephritis. Significantly impacted pathways in pyelonephritis included a) cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction; b) T-cell receptor signaling; c) Jak-STAT signaling; and d) complement and coagulation cascades. Of 56 genes tested by qRT-PCR, 48 (85.7%) had confirmation of differential expression. Conclusion This is the first study of the transcriptomic signature of whole blood in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Acute infection during pregnancy is

  7. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Human leucocyte antigen class Ib molecules in pregnancy success and early pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2013-01-01

    AND CONCLUSIONS The HLA class Ib molecules seem to induce suppression of the maternal immune system, but are not necessarily fundamental factors for pregnancy success. However, evidence points towards low expression of these proteins, especially HLA-G, being associated with reduced fertility. To clarify...

  9. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  10. Fetal bilateral renal agenesis, phocomelia, and single umbilical artery associated with cocaine abuse in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Maki; Chaoui, Rabih; Stallmach, Thomas; Hürlimann, Sandra; Lauper, Urs; Hebisch, Gundula

    2003-11-01

    Maternal cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, abruptio placentae, and preterm delivery. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first published observation of fetal bilateral renal agenesis associated with a vascular disruption syndrome comprising upper limb reduction defect and a single umbilical artery following maternal cocaine abuse in early pregnancy. This constellation in a fetus aborted at 18 weeks extends the spectrum of complications possibly associated with cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Measurement of the uterus and gestation sac by ultrasound in early normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Evans, L J; Duff, G B

    1981-01-14

    Uterine volumes measured by two different ultrasonic methods, and gestation sac volumes in early normal pregnancy are reported. The results obtained for uterine volume measurements are compared. Methods using measurements obtained from only a longitudinal scan were simpler but slightly less accurate. Uterine volumes were also calculated in a series of patients with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. The accuracy of the prediction of the outcome of the pregnancy, based solely on uterine volume was 71 percent. Uterine volume measurement is most useful in identifying cases of missed abortion where the period of gestation is known.

  12. Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kaufman, Howard L; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under

  13. Are women in early pregnancy following the national pyramid recommendations?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J L

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg\\/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.

  14. Immunophenotyping and activation status of maternal peripheral blood leukocytes during pregnancy and labour, both term and preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Shynlova, Oksana; Sabra, Sally; Bang, Annie; Briollais, Laurent; Lye, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    The onset of labour in rodents and in humans is associated with physiological inflammation which is manifested by infiltration of activated maternal peripheral leukocytes (mPLs) into uterine tissues. Here, we used flow cytometry to immunophenotype mPLs throughout gestation and labour, both term and preterm. Peripheral blood was collected from non-pregnant women and pregnant women in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Samples were also collected from women in active labour at term (TL) or preterm (PTL) and compared with women term not-in-labour (TNIL) and preterm not-in-labour (PTNIL). Different leukocyte populations were identified by surface markers such as CD45, CD14, CD15, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56. Their activation status was measured by the expression levels of CD11b, CD44, CD55, CD181 and CD192 proteins. Of all circulating CD45+ leukocytes, we detected significant increases in CD15+ granulocytes (i) in pregnant women versus non-pregnant; (ii) in TL women versus TNIL and versus pregnant women in the 1st/2nd/3rd trimester; (iii) in PTL women versus PTNIL. TL was characterized by (iv) increased expressions of CD11b, CD55 and CD192 on granulocytes; (v) increased mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD55 and CD192 on monocytes; (vi) increased CD44 MFI on CD3+ lymphocytes as compared to late gestation. In summary, we have identified sub-populations of mPLs that are specifically activated in association with gestation (granulocytes) or with the onset of labour (granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes). Additionally, beta regression analysis created a set of reference values to rank this association between immune markers of pregnancy and to identify activation status with potential prognostic and diagnostic capability. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard-Gran Malin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558 completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25. Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11, somatic disease (β = 0.11, work related stress (β = 0.10 and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09. Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors.

  16. Higher incidence of spontaneous sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, T.; Das, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human and muntjac (barking deer) females who were at an advanced stage of pregnancy (32-37 weeks pregnant women and 20-24 weeks pregnant muntjacs) showed an enhanced frequency of SCEs and X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations when compared with those of nonpregnant females. Lymphocyte cultures of nonpregnant females to which sex hormones progesterone, oestrogen and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were added together exogenously also showed higher frequency of SCEs. The plausible reason(s) for such high incidence of SCEs during pregnancy is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Early pregnancy ultrasound and management – effect of a multifaceted training on physician knowledge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Leary, B

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal bleeding is a common event in early pregnancy, with 20-40% of pregnancies affected. Prompt diagnosis and management of bleeding is important, both to reduce morbidity and to avoid excessive emotional distress. This was a prospective study of an educational programme aimed at Obstetrics and Gynaecology BST trainees in the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. The educational programme consisted of didactic lectures, and simulation and practical sessions. A questionnaire reviewing early pregnancy complications was used to assess participant knowledge. Six trainees participated in the programme, with five (83%) answering the questionnaire. The pre-education questionnaire showed a generally poor level of knowledge of early pregnancy complications with 8\\/50 (16%) questions answered correctly. Following the educational intervention there was a statistically significant increase in participant knowledge with 45\\/50 (90%) questions answered correctly. A significant increase in participant knowledge of early pregnancy complications followed our multifaceted educational programme. Study limitations exist, however we have shown the potential value of our educational programme.

  18. Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-06-01

    To investigate high-anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, 260 Portuguese couples (N = 520) filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety (STAI-S ≥ 45) in women (13.1%; 12.2%; 18.2%; 18.6%; 4.7%) and men (10.1%; 8.0%, 7.8%; 8.5%; 4.4%) and for depression (EPDS ≥ 10) in women (20.0%, 19.6%, 17.4%, 17.6%; 11.1%) and men (11.3%; 6.6%; 5.5%; 7.5%; 7.2%) were high. Rates for depression were higher than rates for high-anxiety only in women during early pregnancy and the postpartum, but not at the third pregnancy trimester and childbirth. Rates for high-anxiety and depression were higher in women than in men during pregnancy/childbirth, but not at 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety but not rates for depression were higher during pregnancy/childbirth compared to 3-months postpartum and only in women. Considering that 15.9% of the parents-to-be were highly anxious and/or depressed during pregnancy-comparing to 9.3% at 3-months postpartum-particular attention should be drawn to both women's and men's mental health early in pregnancy.

  19. Impact of demographic factors, early family relationships and depressive symptomatology in teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Tan, Louisa H; Steele, Angela; Black, Kirsten

    2004-04-01

    Teenage pregnancy has been well studied from a demographic risk perspective, but less data examining the early interpersonal family experiences of teenage mothers are available. We aimed to explore the relative impact of demographic, early interpersonal family relationships and depressive symptomatology as associations for teenage, as compared to non-teenage, childbearing. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Data from consecutive teenage (teenage) and non-teenage (control) subgroups of antenatal women were compared. Subjects were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: demographic, drug use and lifestyle; early life experiences; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and General Health Questionnaire-28. In multivariate analysis, the following factors had a significant independent association with younger age of motherhood in order of magnitude: a history of parental separation/divorce in early childhood; exposure to family violence in early childhood; illicit drug use (ever or in pregnancy); idealization of the pregnancy; low family income; a positive HADS-A or HADS-D subscale score; and a low level of education. Interventions to reduce the rate of teenage births need to be multifocal and should include strategies to address early childhood exposure to parental separation and violence, reduce idealization of pregnancy, diagnose psychological symptomatology and offer alternative career choices to children defaulting in the education system.

  20. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  1. Continuation of metformin reduces early pregnancy loss in obese Pakistani women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fauzia Haq; Rizvi, Javed

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility worldwide. In addition to a poor conception rate, pregnancy loss rates are significantly higher (30-50%) during the first trimester in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance (IR) in this syndrome is not only implicated toward early pregnancy loss (EPL) but also pathognomic for various obstetrical complications during pregnancy. We evaluated the role of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously or after induction ovulation with or without Metformin. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS. Secondary outcomes like gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction were also analyzed at the end of the study. This case-control study was conducted from March 2005 to March 2008 in the infertility and antenatal clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 197 infertile women with PCOS were included. 'Cases' were women with PCOS who conceived while taking Metformin and it whom it was continued throughout pregnancy. 'Controls' were women in whom Metformin was either stopped in first trimester after confirmation of pregnancy (by serum betaHCG or by ultrasound) or they conceived spontaneously without the use of Metformin. All 197 women in this study had a confirmed diagnosis of PCOS (Rotterdam criteria). These women were followed till the final outcome of pregnancy was achieved. Both groups were compared for risk of EPL. It was found that continuation of Metformin during pregnancy reduces EPL, i.e. 8.8 vs. 29.4% in cases and controls, respectively (p pregnancy loss rate was 12.5% in the Metformin versus 49.4% in control group (p = 0.002). Metformin continuation during pregnancy significantly reduces EPL in women with PCOS. IR may play a significant role in EPL. Copyright 2009

  2. [The brothers of Jumiege--the peripheral nervous system in early French mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brean, Are

    2002-03-20

    This article reviews the process of discovery of the nervous system from Pythagoras (570-500 BC) to Galen (130-201 AD). After Galen, no anatomical studies were performed before the renaissance. According to a legend, probably produced for political reasons, two brothers, sons of the French king Clovis II, revolted against their father and were sentenced to loose their physical powers by having the nerves of their arms and legs cut. They were then set adrift on the river Seine, stranding at the Jumiège monastery. The earliest written version of this legend stems from the fourteenth century; it was probably a part of the local French mythology. This indicates that the existence of the peripheral nervous system, and therefore also in part the knowledge contained in the early anatomical works, quite early may have been more or less known outside academic circles.

  3. Inflammatory Gene Expression in Whole Peripheral Blood at Early Stages of Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Andrés-Benito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCharacterization of altered expression of selected transcripts linked to inflammation in the peripheral blood of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS patients at early stage of disease to increase knowledge about peripheral inflammatory response in sALS.MethodsRNA expression levels of 45 genes were assessed by RT-qPCR in 22 sALS cases in parallel with 13 age-matched controls. Clinical and serum parameters were assessed at the same time.ResultsUpregulation of genes coding for factors involved in leukocyte extravasation (ITGB2, INPP5D, SELL, and ICAM1 and extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9 and TIMP2, as well as downregulation of certain chemokines (CCL5 and CXC5R, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TGFB2, and IL10RA, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, and T-cell regulators (CD2 and TRBC1 was found in sALS cases independently of gender, clinical symptoms at onset (spinal, respiratory, or bulbar, progression, peripheral leukocyte number, and integrity of RNA. MMP9 levels positively correlated with age, whereas CCR5, CCL5, and TRBC1 negatively correlated with age in sALS but not in controls. Relatively higher TNFA expression levels correlate with higher creatinine kinase protein levels in plasma.ConclusionPresent findings show early inflammatory responses characterized by upregulation of factors enabling extravasation of leukocytes and extracellular matrix remodeling in blood in sALS cases, in addition to increased TNFA levels paralleling skeletal muscle damage.

  4. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (pApgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54). Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to provide appropriate advice to the obese women of the risks of obesity at the start of the pregnancy.

  5. Trimethoprim use in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Trærup; Petersen, M; Jimenez-Solem, E

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibiotic trimethoprim acts as a folate antagonist. Since trophoblasts are very sensitive to drugs that interfere with the folic acid cycle and thereby inhibit DNA synthesis, use of trimethoprim during the first trimester could be associated with miscarriage. A nationwide cohort study...... including all women in Denmark with a registered pregnancy between 1997 and 2005 was conducted. We used nationwide registers to identify all women giving birth, having a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Data on exposure to trimethoprim were obtained from the National Prescription Register. Cox...

  6. The use of iloprost in early pregnancy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, C A; Stewart, P; Webster, V J; Mills, G H; Hutchinson, S P; Howarth, E S; Bu'lock, F A; Lawson, R A; Armstrong, I J; Kiely, D G

    2005-07-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal death. Such patients are counselled to avoid pregnancy, or if it occurs, are offered early interruption. Some patients, however, decide to continue with their pregnancy and others may present with symptoms for the first time whilst pregnant. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy provides a treatment option for these high-risk patients. The present study describes three patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of various aetiologies who were treated with the prostacyclin analogue iloprost during pregnancy, and the post-partum period. Nebulised iloprost commenced as early as 8 weeks of gestation and patients were admitted to hospital between 24-36 weeks of gestation. All pregnancies were completed with a duration of between 25-36 weeks and all deliveries were by caesarean section under local anaesthetic. All patients delivered children free from congenital abnormalities, and there was no post-partum maternal or infant mortality. In conclusion, although pregnancy is strongly advised against in those with pulmonary hypertension, the current authors have achieved a successful outcome for mother and foetus with a multidisciplinary approach and targeted pulmonary vascular therapy.

  7. Rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in normal and disturbed early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dericks-Tan, J.S.E.; Taubert, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of a rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in serum showed that this method is as suitable as conventional radioimmunoassay or receptor methods in the diagnosis of normal and disturbed early pregnancy. Using a direct immunosorbent method total time requirements for the estimation could be reduced to half a working day. Sera of 314 women with normal pregnancies showed an exponential increase of HCG concentrations in serum during the first 8 weeks and thereafter steady levels for several weeks. As the anti-HCG serum used has only a slight cross reactivity with LH, false-positive results need hardly be expected in states if high LH levels in serum (menopause, polycystic ovaries, preovulatory LH peak). HCG concentrations in serum were clearly diminished in all pregnancies ending in abortion and in nearly all extrauterine pregnancies. Repeated estimations in early pregnancy enable a diagnosis of ectopic or disturbed intrauterine pregnancy to be made before symptoms of rupture, haemorrhage and similar complications occur. (orig.) [de

  8. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  9. Features of psychoemotional state of pregnant women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Bala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine peculiarities of psychoemotional state of pregnant women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy. Patients and methods. The study included 60 women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy (I group and 30 women with an advanced pregnancy to 8 weeks of gestation (II control group. To determine peculiarities of psychoemotional status of women conducted a survey according to standard methods: determination of the level of neuropsychic tension on questionnaire Nemchina, the level of anxiety according to the scale Spielberg—Hanin, the level of anxiety on a scale of Taylor—Norakidze. Results. Analysis of psychoemotional state groups have demonstrated that pregnant women with physiological course of pregnancy at an early stage (group II is characterized by a moderate level of mental stress (40.8±1.3 on a scale of Nemchina, the average level of personal and reactive anxiety (38.6±1.1 and 37.2±1.2, respectively according to the scale Spielberg—Hanin, the average anxiety level on a scale of Taylor— Norakidze. In women with the missed abortion at the early stages of pregnancy there is a high level of psychoemotional load, reactive anxiety (57.3±1.6, mental stress (of 62.6±1.4 and anxiety (31.8±2.3 years. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate the need for strong psychological support and if necessary medical assistance to women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy, since the accession of psychopathological symptoms does not contribute to the psycho-emotional adaptation and can provoke the development of psychosomatic pathological syndromes in postabortion period and on the phase of rehabilitation and subsequent pregravid preparation.

  10. Two consecutive pregnancies in early and late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafov, Stayko; Doitchinova, Maryana; Karagiozova, Zhvka; Slancheva, Boriana; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja

    2009-01-01

    There are few reports on pregnancies in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report on a young woman with sporadic ALS who gave birth twice during the course of her disease. The first pregnancy occurred 13 months after the onset of symptoms, and one month after diagnosis. The pregnancy was uncomplicated and resulted in vaginal delivery of a healthy boy. Fifteen months later, when she was already bed-ridden, she became pregnant again. She received a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the 21st gestational week and underwent early Caesarean section in the 34th week of gestation. The child was ventilated for 72 h in a neonatological unit. The patient was tracheotomized and ventilated two months later, i.e. 47 months after symptom onset, and died nine months later from gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Her two children have developed without abnormalities to date. This case confirms that pregnancies in early-stage ALS can develop normally and may result in uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Pregnancies in late stages may be critical for mother and child, and early delivery by Caesarean section may become necessary although neonatal outcome can be good.

  11. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate...... if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion...... and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. RESULT: We identified 1...

  12. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    Full Text Available To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics.A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558 having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables.Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98 and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04, gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19 and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32 and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91 and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40. Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27, polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99, tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46 and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95. Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63 and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22 and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11 and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33. Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001 and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56 and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54. Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77. Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69 than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61 or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54.Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to

  13. Urinary cortisol and depression in early pregnancy: role of adiposity and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, John W; Gallaher, Marcia J; Powers, Robert W

    2015-02-13

    Depression before and during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight and preterm birth. Abnormal maternal cortisol has been hypothesized as one mediator between depression and adverse birth outcomes. The relationship between cortisol and depression in pregnancy is exhibited most strongly in the African American population, and most studies have focused either on circulating or placental levels of cortisol. The utility of urinary cortisol in early pregnancy related to depression and adiposity has not been investigated. Twenty-five pregnant African American women identified by the Edinburgh Depression Scale as having depression were investigated and matched by body mass index (BMI), age, race, and infant birth weight centile to non-depressed subjects. Maternal urine and plasma cortisol in early pregnancy were quantified and investigated in relation to depression and adiposity. Morning urine cortisol levels tracked positively with plasma cortisol (r(2) = 0.25, p cortisol between depressed and non-depressed pregnant women. Plasma cortisol was significantly negatively associated with several measures of maternal adiposity including percent body fat (r(2) = -0.10, p obese women were found to have significantly higher cortisol levels compared to women with depression, obesity or both (p obese pregnant women evidence atypical cortisol levels compared to non-depressed non-obese pregnant women. Plasma cortisol in early pregnancy is negatively associated with measures of maternal adiposity. Atypical low circulating maternal cortisol among depressed (lean and obese) and non-depressed obese pregnant African American women may indicate hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in early pregnancy.

  14. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology.Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN.This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  16. Is the fertility treatment itself a risk factor for early pregnancy loss?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandes, M.; Verzijden, J.C.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.; Weys, N.P. de; Bruin, J.P. de; Bots, R.S.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal multicentre cohort study aimed to identify the role of the conception mode in infertile couples with an early pregnancy loss (EPL). All couples referred to the fertility clinic for the first time in the period 2002-2006 because of infertility were followed up to their first

  17. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social

  18. Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Sommer, Miriam Colstrup; Ringholm, Lene

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia present in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed was conducted in April 2017. Inclusion criteria were largely unselected cohort, inc...

  19. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors of ...

  20. Hysteroscopic Differences in the Gestational Sac in Asymptomatic Blighted Ovum and Viable Pregnancy at Early Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The anatomic alterations of the gestational sac reflect impending sac necrosis and abortion in early-stage pregnancy loss. There were no morphologic differences between the two groups in the pattern of capillary distribution on the endometrium or the implantation base.

  1. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Tan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.

  2. Early regenerative effects of NGF-transduced Schwann cells in peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Kawasoe, Jean; Hoyng, Stefan A; Kumar, Ranjan; van Minnen, Jan; Verhaagen, Joost; Midha, Rajiv

    2012-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to a rapid and robust increase in the synthesis of neurotrophins which guide and support regenerating axons. To further optimize neurotrophin supply at the earliest stages of regeneration, we over-expressed NGF in Schwann cells (SCs) by transducing these cells with a lentiviral vector encoding NGF (NGF-SCs). Transplantation of NGF-SCs in a rat sciatic nerve transection/repair model led to significant increase of NGF levels 2weeks after injury and correspondingly to substantial improvement in axonal regeneration. Numbers of NF200, ChAT and CGRP-positive axon profiles, as well as the gastrocnemius muscle weights, were significantly higher in the NGF-Schwann cell group compared to the animals that received control SCs transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding GFP (GFP-SCs). Comparison with other models of NGF application signifies the important role of this neurotrophin during the early stages of regeneration, and supports the importance of developing combined gene and cell therapy for peripheral nerve repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...

  4. Does tea consumption during early pregnancy have an adverse effect on birth outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Hua; He, Jian-Rong; Shen, Song-Ying; Wei, Xue-Ling; Chen, Nian-Nian; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Lan; Li, Wei-Dong; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Bartington, Suzanne; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-09-01

    Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Information on birth outcomes and complications during pregnancy was obtained from hospital medical records. Overall habitual tea drinking (≥1 serving/week) prevalence among pregnant women was low, at 16%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (eg, maternal age, educational level, monthly income) tea drinking during early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth (small or large for gestational age) (P>.05). We did not identify a consistent association between frequency of tea consumption or tea strength and adverse birth outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with low tea consumption. Our findings suggest that occasional tea drinking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth. Given the high overall number of annual births in China, our findings have important public health significance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Kwizera, Amata; Usta, Momade; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration

  6. Immunological mechanisms to establish embryo tolerance in early bovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, A E; Schulke, K; Schefold, J C; Fusch, G; Sinowatz, F; Reichenbach, H D; Wolf, E; Meyer, H H D; Ulbrich, S E

    2011-01-01

    A well-balanced immunological interaction between mother and the semi-allogenic embryo is of particular importance. The objective of the present study was to analyse mechanisms of immune tolerance in bovine pregnancy during peri-implantation. Simmental heifers inseminated with either cryopreserved spermatozoa or seminal plasma were killed 12, 15 or 18 days after oestrus. Uteri were flushed for the recovery of conceptuses and the ipsilateral intercaruncular endometrium was sampled for gene expression analysis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA, coding for the initial enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, was 18-fold (P < 0.001) more abundant in the endometrium of Day 18 pregnant v. non-pregnant animals. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a decrease of endometrial l-tryptophan (P = 0.0008), but an increase of l-kynurenine concentration (P = 0.005) from Day 12 to Day 18, suggesting increasing IDO activity (P < 0.03). An in vitro coculture model of endometrial cells showed an induction of IDO expression following interferon-τ exposure primarily in stroma cells, which was confirmed by in situ hybridisation localising IDO mRNA mainly in deep stroma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer CD45-positive leucocytes in the zona basalis of pregnant animals. Elevated IDO activity may reduce the presence of leucocytes in the pregnant endometrium, providing a possible mechanism for protecting the semi-allogenic conceptus from maternal rejection.

  7. Ultrasonographically documented early pregnancy loss in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Drews, Barbara; Niemuller, Cheryl; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Fickel, Jörns; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Early embryonic resorption or fetal loss is known to occur occasionally in captive elephants; however, this has mostly been reported anecdotally. The present study documents the case of a 24-year-old, multiparous Asian elephant cow that suffered embryonic death and resorption at around 18 weeks of gestation. From ovulation onwards, this female was sonographically examined 58 times. Blood was collected twice weekly for progestagen determination via enzyme immunoassay. On Day 42 after ovulation, a small quantity of fluid was detected in the uterine horn, which typically indicates the presence of a developing conceptus. Repeated inspections followed what appeared to be a normal pregnancy until Day 116. However, on Day 124, signs of embryonic life were absent. Progestagen concentrations started declining two weeks later, reaching baseline levels one month after embryonic death. Retrospectively, ultrasound examination revealed several abnormalities in the uterine horn. Besides an existing leiomyoma, multiple small cystic structures had formed in the endometrium at the implantation site and later in the placenta. These pathological findings were considered as possible contributors to the early pregnancy failure. PCR for endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) (which had occurred previously in the herd) as well as serology for other infectious organisms known to cause abortion in domestic animals did not yield any positive results. Although no definitive reason was found for this pregnancy to abort, this ultrasonographically and endocrinologically documented study of an early pregnancy loss provides important insights into the resorption process in Asian elephants.

  8. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  9. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  10. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain from birth to early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomosa Mine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have focused on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain (RWG during infancy, the dose-response relationship has not yet been confirmed, and very few studies have included Asian populations. Using a record-linkage method, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and RWG in infants at around 4 months of age to clarify the dose-response relationship. Methods: Two databases were used: maternal check-ups during pregnancy and early infancy check-ups (between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 in Okinawa, Japan were linked via IDs and provided to us after unlinkable anonymizing. For 10,433 subjects (5229 boys and 5204 girls, we calculated the change in infants' weight z-score by subtracting the z-score of their birth weight from their weight at early infancy check-ups. Smoking exposure was categorized into five groups. We used Poisson regression to examine the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with RWG in early infancy. Results: Overall, 1524 (14.6% were ex-smoker and 511 (4.9% were current smoker. Compared with the reference category of non-smokers, the adjusted risk ratio of RWG was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.32 for ex-smokers, 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93–1.50 for those who smoked 1–5 cigarettes per day, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.24–2.00 for those who smoked 6–10 cigarettes per day, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.51–3.01 for those who smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day. There was a clear dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated in a dosedependent manner with increased risk of RWG in early infancy.

  11. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  12. Does Binge Drinking During Early Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Psychomotor Deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking......, on child motor function at age 5. METHODS: We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home...

  13. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...... education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity...

  14. Isolation, purification and partial characterization of early pregnancy factor (EPF) from sera of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, A; Mothi, B A; Al-Hussein, K; Al-Tufail, M; Hollanders, J; Jaroudi, K; Al-Waili, N; Shabani, M

    2001-05-29

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy protein, which is secreted into the maternal serum 12-16 hours after fertilization. It is thought to be an immunosuppressive molecule. EPF is detected in pregnant woman's serum by the rosette inhibition assay (RIA). In this study, EPF was purified from the pregnant woman's sera by using ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins which showed a positive result with the RIA, were found to be 35 kDa and 17 kDa molecular weights. The biological activities of these proteins were stable upon heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins isolated and purified in this study might be of great significance to the field of human reproduction with particular reference to pregnancy and recurrent abortion.

  15. Risk of docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy among 1,725 Danish patients with early stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, L; Knoop, A S; Jensen, M-B

    2013-01-01

    Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) can lead to sub-optimal treatment in women with early breast cancer. Here, we compare the frequency of dose reduction as a result of PN in two different adjuvant regimens. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group READ trial we included 1...... on patient-reported outcome (secondary outcome of trial) including PN. Associations between PN and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Overall 597 patients (34 %) reported PN, grades 2-4, during treatment, 194 (11 %) after the first cycle [early onset peripheral neuropathy (EPN......)] and 403 (23 %) after subsequent cycles [later-onset peripheral neuropathy (LPN)]. The odds ratio (OR) of EPN was significantly increased for the D100 regimen (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.18-4.42) while this regimen was associated with reduced OR of LPN (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88). Patients with PN received...

  16. Early Pregnancy Biomarkers in Pre-Eclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensée Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE complicates 2%–8% of all pregnancies and is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to reduce these complications and to develop possible treatment modalities, it is important to identify women at risk of developing PE. The use of biomarkers in early pregnancy would allow appropriate stratification into high and low risk pregnancies for the purpose of defining surveillance in pregnancy and to administer interventions. We used formal methods for a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the accuracy of all biomarkers that have been evaluated so far during the first and early second trimester of pregnancy to predict PE. We found low predictive values using individual biomarkers which included a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM-12, inhibin-A, pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, placental growth factor (PlGF and placental protein 13 (PP-13. The pooled sensitivity of all single biomarkers was 0.40 (95% CI 0.39–0.41 at a false positive rate of 10%. The area under the Summary of Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (SROC was 0.786 (SE 0.02. When a combination model was used, the predictive value improved to an area under the SROC of 0.893 (SE 0.03. In conclusion, although there are multiple potential biomarkers for PE their efficacy has been inconsistent and comparisons are difficult because of heterogeneity between different studies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for high quality, large-scale multicentre research in biomarkers for PE so that the best predictive marker(s can be identified in order to improve the management of women destined to develop PE.

  17. Head circumference at birth and exposure to tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".

  18. Transcriptional factor PU.1 regulates decidual C1q expression in early pregnancy in human

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    Priyaa Madhukaran Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells. Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue- specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  19. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  20. Healthy Lifestyle During Early Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badon, Sylvia E; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wartko, Paige D; Miller, Raymond S; Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have found associations between individual healthy behaviors and reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the association of composite healthy lifestyle during pregnancy with GDM has not been examined. Participants in the Omega Study (n = 3,005), a pregnancy cohort study conducted in Washington State (1996-2008), reported information on diet, physical activity, smoking, and stress during early pregnancy. Lifestyle components were dichotomized into healthy/unhealthy and then combined into a total lifestyle score (range, 0-4). Regression models were used to determine relative risk of GDM (n = 140 cases) in relation to healthy lifestyle. Twenty percent of participants had a healthy diet, 66% were physically active, 95% were nonsmokers, and 55% had low stress. Each 1-point increase in lifestyle score was associated with a 21% lower risk of GDM (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.96) after adjustment for age, race, and nulliparity. Adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, prepregnancy physical activity, and prepregnancy smoking attenuated the associations slightly. Associations were similar in normal-weight and overweight/obese women. In this study, a composite measure of healthy lifestyle during early pregnancy was associated with substantially lower GDM risk. Public health messaging and interventions promoting multiple aspects of a healthy lifestyle during early pregnancy should be considered for GDM prevention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Problems arising from effects of low radiation doses in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.

    1976-01-01

    From 1970 to 1974, 37 expert opinions concerning interruption of pregnancy because of radiation stress of the foetus had to be given at the Centre for Clinical Radiobiology of the Karl-Marx University, Leipzig. In the cases investigated, radiation stress occurred between the first and tenth week of pregnancy at a maximum amount of approximately 20 R. X-ray diagnostic measures had been taken in the abdominal range or a tumour radiotherapy had been made, all in cases of unknown pregnancy. The individual determination of the foetal dose showed that different doses result, depending on the setting technique of photographs, physico-technical conditions and body size. In no case did anamnesis show special features. At the given doses an interruption seemed necessary only in one case (radiotherapy). According to this survey, diagnostic radiation stresses in early pregnancy almost always show radiation doses which, at the present stage of knowledge, do not make an interruption seem necessary. Individual differences of dose values for the same exposures, however, make it necessary to calculate exactly the radiation stress of the foetus in each case and to make the corresponding decision. As recent literature agrees in negating a so-called threshold dose for early damage, it is, apart from genetic considerations, necessary to avoid radiation stresses in early pregnancy for this reason also. In the author's opinion, an indication for an interruption is given at doses above 10 R (see also Hammer-Jacobsen, 1959). At lower radiation stresses, an interruption should be recommended in case of simultaneous additional noxae. This paper communicates the results of the check-ups of children who had been subject to a radiation stress of below 7 R in utero in the above cases. (author)

  2. Patterns of peripheral cytokine expression during pregnancy in two cohorts and associations with inflammatory markers in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kharah MacKenzie; Miller, Gregory; Culhane, Jennifer; Grobman, William; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Williamson, Douglas; McDade, Thomas; Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Adam, Emma; Qadir, Sameen; Keenan-Devlin, Lauren; Leigh, Adam K K; Borders, Ann

    2016-11-01

    Maternal inflammation undergoes adaptations during pregnancy, and excessive inflammation has been associated with adverse outcomes. One mechanism may be maternal inflammation transmission to the fetal compartment. Links between maternal pregnancy inflammation and fetal inflammation are poorly characterized. Principal components analysis was used to extract underlying inflammation components across cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in two pregnancy cohorts (SPAH N=87, MOMS N=539) assessed during the second and third trimesters. Links between maternal inflammation over pregnancy and fetal (cord blood) inflammation were assessed. Substantial cytokine rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts, β's range .47-.96, P's blood inflammation, P's>.04. Maternal inflammation indices over pregnancy were associated with inflammation in cord blood at birth. Results have implications for understanding pregnancy inflammatory processes and how maternal inflammation may be transmitted to fetal circulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Assessment of thyroid function in women treated for vomiting in early pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism does not influence procreation ability significantly, but very often causes complications of the course of pregnancy and increases neonatal morbidity and mortality in newborns. Nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy are very common complaints in these patients. The aim of the study was to prove, that assessment of the thyroid hormones in every vomiting woman in the first trimester allows to start the proper treatment of hyperthyreosis as early as possible and improves the prognosis. Authors analyzed 22 pregnant women treated for vomiting during the first trimester in the Department of Obstetrics and 5 women treated in the Outpatient Clinic. In none of them hormonal dysfunction was diagnosed before pregnancy. In 21 patients free thyroxine (fT4) in serum was assessed. In 8 cases (38%) hyperthyreosis was diagnosed. Except the routine anti vomiting treatment, they received a beta-blocker 30 mg per day. It allowed to avoid hospitalization in three pregnant women treated in the outpatient clinic. Two patients, who had earlier two spontaneous abortions, delivered healthy babies. 1. The beta-blocker in treatment gives very good results and allows to avoid hospitalization in patients with hyperthyroidism and hyper emesis gravidarum. 2. In some patients vomiting may be the only symptom of sub clinical hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy. Assessment of the thyroid hormones levels and adequate treatment may give these women a chance for a healthy child.

  4. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Sakumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3 were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1 expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows.

  5. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-07-01

    The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces physiological adaptations that may involve, or contribute to, alterations in the genomic landscape. Pregnancy also increases the nutritional demand for choline, an essential nutrient that can modulate epigenomic and transcriptomic readouts secondary to its role as a methyl donor. Nevertheless, the interplay between human pregnancy, choline and the human genome is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a controlled feeding study, we assessed the influence of pregnancy and choline intake on maternal genomic markers. Healthy third trimester pregnant (n = 26, wk 26-29 gestation and nonpregnant (n = 21 women were randomized to choline intakes of 480 mg/day, approximating the Adequate Intake level, or 930 mg/day for 12-weeks. Blood leukocytes were acquired at study week 0 and study week 12 for microarray, DNA damage and global DNA/histone methylation measurements. A main effect of pregnancy that was independent of choline intake was detected on several of the maternal leukocyte genomic markers. Compared to nonpregnant women, third trimester pregnant women exhibited higher (P<0.05 transcript abundance of defense response genes associated with the innate immune system including pattern recognition molecules, neutrophil granule proteins and oxidases, complement proteins, cytokines and chemokines. Pregnant women also exhibited higher (P<0.001 levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes, a genomic marker of oxidative stress. No effect of choline intake was detected on the maternal leukocyte genomic markers with the exception of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation which was lower among pregnant women in the 930 versus 480 mg/d choline intake group. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

  7. Hospitalization for early bonding of the genetic mother after a surrogate pregnancy: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, H; Yahav, J; Peleg, D; Ben-Rafael, Z; Merlob, P

    2001-12-01

    In surrogate pregnancies the genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding to their infant, either prenatally (in utero) or in the immediate postnatal period. The purpose of this article is to describe a new method for encouraging early parent-infant bonding after surrogate pregnancy by hospitalizing the genetic mother in the maternity ward immediately after the delivery. Two genetic mothers were hospitalized in the maternity ward (rooming-in system) at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel immediately after delivery of their infants by surrogate arrangement. The first birth was a singleton pregnancy with vaginal delivery and the second, a twin pregnancy with delivery by cesarean section. The genetic parents were counseled by a social worker from the adoption agency, starting 3 months before the estimated date of delivery. The parents were referred to the hospital social worker before the delivery. To assess attachment, we observed the parents' behavior toward their children during two daily 15-minute periods of free, unstructured interaction. The parents showed good primary caregiving functions and established affective verbal and physical contact with the infants. They began to recognize the infants' needs and temperament, and exhibited an aura of self-confidence during their interactions. All expressed satisfaction with the method at discharge and reported on reduction of their fears about returning home with the infants. We believe that early hospitalization of the genetic mother in a surrogate delivery may be desirable to establish good and safe early mother-infant bonding, and that it should be considered for adoption as regular hospital policy. Further randomized studies with larger samples over the long term are warranted.

  8. Effect of metformin on early pregnancy loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Biate, Mawahib A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of metformin therapy in reducing early pregnancy loss in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the Obstetric Department of the Gulf Medical College Hospital in Ajman, UAE, for a period of 3 years. This study involved 106 nondiabetic pregnant women with PCOS who became pregnant while using metformin. They were divided into two groups, namely, the group that receive...

  9. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  10. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yang, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM

  11. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aranha, Clara; Natraj, Usha; Iyer, K. S.; Shahani, Savitri

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  12. Radioimmunological determination of HPL and HCG and semiquantitative HCG determination in normal early pregnancies and in case of imminent abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanowsky-Rolssenn, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the prognosis of endangered early pregnancies for purely clinical purposes, HPL determination in addition to immunochemical HCG determination appears sufficient and most economical. For special indications, the extension of the method to the HCG-RIA up to the 15th week of pregnance appears useful and justifiable. (orig./AJ) [de

  13. Clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, C; Zhang, J; Troendle, J; Barnhart, K; Creinin, M D; Westhoff, C; Huang, X; Frederick, M

    2007-10-01

    To identify clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure. A total of 473 women with early pregnancy failure received 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol on treatment day 1. At the follow-up visit on day 3, a second dose was given if expulsion was incomplete. On day 8, vacuum aspiration was offered if expulsion had not occurred. Ultrasonography was used as gold standard for success. A Classification and Regression Tree analysis was undertaken to derive two decision trees for the success of misoprostol treatment on study days 3 and 8. Heavy bleeding after the first dose and an open cervical os were identified as clinical indicators of treatment success on day 3. Treatment success occurred in 84% of women with either or both indicators. Reporting passage of tissue after a second misoprostol dose and old blood in the vagina were potential indicators of treatment success or failure on day 8. A woman with either of these indicators has a 65% chance of treatment success after the second dose. Conversely, a woman with neither indicator on day 8 has a 94% chance of treatment failure. Standard clinical findings may be useful as indicators for success or failure of medical management of early pregnancy failure in settings with limited or no access to ultrasonography. More research to identify even better indicators is warranted.

  14. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Koester

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy. Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1 identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2 isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8, non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5, and non-ovulatory control (n = 5 cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  15. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  16. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2017-12-04

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.

  17. Early morphologic and quantitative changes in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes after low dose gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.; Byrneva, V.; Goranov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The study was undertaken in an effort to establish differences in the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes, as a possible test for evaluation of early and discrete radiation injury. Sexually mature mice of BAIB/c line were X-irradiated with doses of 50 and 250 rad. The animals were sacrificed by blood letting 24 hours after irradiation, but 30 minutes before this each mouse was heparinized. Smears were prepared from the enriched pooled leucocyte suspensions, obtained by dextran sedimentation of the red cells. The preparations were stained with toluidin blue by the methods of Smetana and Pappenheim. Cell size, clasmatosis, nucleolar structure and degree of cytoplasmic metachromasia were determined. It was found that the lymphocytogram of animals irradiated with 50 rad was characterized by high percentage of small lymphocytes, most of them with dispersed nuclear ribonucleoproteins and minimal clasmatose activity. Irradiation with 100 rad induced a characteristical rise in lymphocyte clasmatose activity and decrease in the number of small lymphocytes. The nucleoli were bright and well delineated. The lymphocytogram of animals irradiated with higher doses (150 and 250 rad) was characterized by predomination of large lymphocytes and hyperbasophilic forms with well preserved bright nucleoli. The percentage of lymphocates with clasmatosis was below the control value. (A.B.)

  18. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Kuessel

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy.Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed.646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%, and 236 were seronegative (26.8%. The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006, gravidity (p<0.001, parity (p<0.001, use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018, maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001, and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001. ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8-0.86, yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively.We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk.

  19. Induction of synchronized oestrous and early pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi ewes, outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Merstani, M.R.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on indigenous awassi ewes to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) followed by treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on inducing synchronized oestrous outside the normal breeding season, improving fecundity and on early diagnosis of pregnancy using progesterone profiles. 96 awassi ewes were divided into 2 groups. ewes in the Group T, were fitted with MAP for 14 days and injected with 600 IU PMSG at the sponge withdrawal, whereas ewes in the control Group C, received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced within 36-48 h post sponge withdrawal in 82% of the treated ewes. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between groups T and C in total oestrous response, lambing rate, and fecundity. The means being 96% and 32.6%; 80% and 32.6% and 137.5% and 106.7%, respectively. The accuracy of early diagnosis of pregnancy at 17-19 days post-mating was 100%. The mean birth weight of lambs was similar in both groups (4.3 and 4,4 Kg for groups T and C, respectively).However, single born lambs were significantly (p<0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (5.0 versus 3.9 Kg). It was concluded that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, successful pregnancy and lambing, and that serum progesterone measurement determinations are useful tool for early pregnancy diagnosis in awassi ewes induced oestrous and bred out of season. (author)

  20. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy due to ovarian torsion following successful in vitro fertilization treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chun Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF–embryo transfer treatment is a risk factor for developing adnexal torsion. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is the only way to protect the ovary and preserve the pregnancy. Laparoscopic surgery in early pregnancy causes no harm to the fetus and should be encouraged once the diagnosis is confirmed. Delaying surgery may induce serious infection and jeopardize the lives of both the fetus and mother.

  1. [IDENTIFICATION OF CAUSES OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSSES ACCORDING TO HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsiridze, K; Kintraia, N; Pailodze, M; Gogia, T; Tsaava, F

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the early spontaneous abortions has been conducted (486 cases). Histomorphologic analysis of the curettage material contents erveledinvolutive-regressive developmental chsnges in 108 (22,28%) cases, in 370 cases (77.78%) pathologic changes, like inflammatory changes of deciduas and chorionic villis in 302 cases (80.2%), pathologic prematurity of chorionic vili in 48 cases (12.6%), hydatidiform mole in 28 cases (7.4%). As most cases of pregnancy loss has been reported at 7-9 weeks /172 cases/, we compared histomorphologic data revealed at 7-8 (71 cases) weeks to 5-6 (135 cases) and 10-12 weeks of gestation. Morphologic research data confimed, that at 7-8 weeks compared to 5-6 weeks leading reason ofpregnancy loss was inflammatory changes (OR-1,584), what can be cause of 110 pregnancy losses at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.11). Data comparing7-9 weeks to 10-12 weeks pregnancy losses, confirm the priority of pathologic immaturity (OR-1,279) and hydatidiform mole (OR-1,557) and could be the risk of 100 cases of pregnancy termination at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.10).Existing results are of great importance for the preconceptional preparation of women.

  2. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Foulon

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers.Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood. Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence.A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years.This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  4. Interferon-τ increases BoLA-I for implantation during early pregnancy in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Li, Binbin; Wu, Yue; Wang, Xiao; Deng, GanZhen

    2017-11-10

    Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression. Progesterone increased IFN-τ expression in EECs. IFN-τ increased p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 levels in EECs, but reduced TRAF3 levels. In addition, IFN-τ increased expression of BoLA-I and IL-10, but decreased expression of IL-6 in EECs. These results indicate that IFN-τ enables stable implantation in dairy cows by increasing expression of BoLA-I, and by immunosuppression mediated by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-6 expression.

  5. Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-18

    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Webster, Thomas F; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-06

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3-4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4-6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS-outcome associations in epidemiologic studies.

  7. Early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancy: Findings from 60 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard; Betran, Ana Pilar; Temmerman, Marleen

    2018-06-01

    Around the world, the incidence of multiple pregnancies reaches its peak in the Central African countries and often represents an increased risk of death for women and children because of higher rates of obstetrical complications and poor management skills in those countries. We sought to assess the association between twins and early neonatal mortality compared with singleton pregnancies. We also assessed the role of skilled birth attendant and mode of delivery on early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancies. We conducted a secondary analysis of individual level data from 60 nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys including 521 867 singleton and 14 312 twin births. We investigated the occurrence of deaths within the first week of life in twins compared to singletons and the effect of place and attendance at birth; also, the role of caesarean sections against vaginal births was examined, globally and after countries stratification per caesarean sections rates. A multi-level logistic regression was used accounting for homogeneity within country, and homogeneity within twin pairs. Early neonatal mortality among twins was significantly higher when compared to singleton neonates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.0-8.3) in these 60 countries. Early neonatal mortality was also higher among twins than singletons when adjusting for birth weight in a subgroup analysis of those countries with data on birth weight (n = 20; less than 20% of missing values) (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2-3.5). For countries with high rates (>15%) of caesarean sections (CS), twins delivered vaginally in health facility had a statistically significant (aOR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.4-9.4) increased risk of early neonatal mortality compared to twins delivered through caesarean sections. Home twin births without SBA was associated with increased mortality compared with delivering at home with SBA (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) and

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  10. A Case of Uterine Prolapse Complicating Pregnancy in Early Second Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmiye Döver

    2011-12-01

    estimate disease prevalence.But uterine prolapse is a rare condition during pregnancy which can be complicated with severe maternal and neonatal outcomes.We report a case of uterine prolapse and cervical alongation which is first diagnosed at the 17th week of gestation.After the recognation, the patent is administered by both conservative and then non-surgical(pessary managements. Unique part about our case is early gestastional age at the time of diagnosis and the fact that our patient had only one previous vaginal delivery and no more risk factors for a pelvic organ prolapse with new-onset uterine prolapse in her current(secondpregnancy.In majority of cases pregnancy is superimposed on a preexisting prolapse.Prolapse occurs as a result of relaxation and tearing down of the supportive structures.

  11. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental...... health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...

  12. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A

    2015-01-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells...... that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider...... the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose...

  13. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  14. Predicting the intrauterine fetal death of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Mai; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiromi; Mochizuki, Akihiko; Sekiguchi, Futoshi; Koshimizu, Naho; Itai, Toshiyuki; Odagami, Mizuha

    2018-01-11

    We investigated whether it was possible to predict the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy based on the degree of neck thickening. We retrospectively analyzed 57 singleton pregnancies with fetuses with cystic hygroma who were examined before the 22nd week of pregnancy. The fetuses were categorized according to the outcome, structural abnormalities at birth, and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we proposed a new sonographic predictor with which we assessed neck thickening by dividing the width of the neck thickening by the biparietal diameter, which is expressed as the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio. The median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio in the intrauterine fetal death group (0.51) was significantly higher than that in the live birth group (0.27). No significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the structural abnormalities group at birth and the no structural abnormalities group, and no significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the chromosomal abnormality group and the no chromosomal abnormality group. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio to predict intrauterine fetal death. When the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio cut-off value was 0.5, intrauterine fetal death could be predicted with a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 100%. It is possible to predict intrauterine fetal death in fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured. However, even if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured, predicting the presence or absence of a structural abnormality at birth or a chromosomal abnormality is difficult. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Jared, Heather L; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2008-07-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women's charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) microg/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 microg/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy.

  16. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, C Y; Sones, J L; Lob, H E; Yuen, L C; Abbott, K E; Huang, W; Begun, Z R; Butler, S D; August, A; Leifer, C A; Davisson, R L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared with C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  18. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability: a consensus statement from the ESHRE early pregnancy special interest group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolte, A. M.; Bernardi, L. A.; Christiansen, O. B.; Quenby, S.; Farquharson, R. G.; Goddijn, M.; Stephenson, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from

  20. Studies on radioimmunoassay diagnosis of cow pregnancy at an early period by milk sample communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meiwen

    1986-01-01

    Cow pregancy was diagnosed at an early period by milk sample communication and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Liquid milk samples were converted into solid forms on filter paper and mailed to the laboratory from appointed locations, and concentrations of progesterone in milk samples were then determined by RIA method. Milks were sampled 19 and 23 days after mating. Criterion used for the judgement of cow pregnancy was as follows: When the progesterone content in milk was 5 ng/ml or less, the cow was not pregnant; when progesterone content was between 5-11 ng/ml, it was doubtful; when progesterone content was 11 ng/ml or more, it was pregnant. According to this criterion, among 215 cows, 131 were pregnant, 73 were not pregnant, and 11 were doubtful. The results were further checked by palpation 3 months after inseminations. The unpregnancy and pregnancy accuracies were 97.6% and 89.2%, respectively. Forther milk samples were collected on 44 days for above cows that had been diagnosed on 19 and 23 days showing pregnancy to diagnose embryo forming. Among 91 cows, 74 had embryo. 7 had none, and the other 10 were doubtful. The embryo and unembryo accuracies were 94.6% and 100% respectively checking by palpation 3 months after inseminations

  1. Immunohistochemical distribution of early pregnancy factor in ovary, oviduct and placenta of pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, M C; Bellingeri, R V; Motta, C E; Alustiza, F E; Picco, N Y; Vivas, A B

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressant that promotes maternal immune system tolerance of the allogenic fetus. Little is known about localization of this factor in different tissues and nothing has been reported about localization in swine reproductive and placental tissues. We determined the concentration of EPF in serum of gilts and porcine placenta conditioned medium (PPCM). We also analyzed the expression of EPF in different reproductive tissues of pregnant gilts at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. EPF concentration in serum and PPCM was determined by western blot and densitometry. EPF expression in reproductive tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The highest concentration of EPF was observed at 30 days in serum and PPCM; the concentration was higher in PPCM than in serum at the stages we evaluated. All reproductive tissues from the gestational stages analyzed showed specific labeling of EPF, but this labeling did not appear in non-pregnant gilts. At 30 days pregnancy, the EPF expression in the ovary was predominantly in follicular lutein cells, probably owing to its function as a luteotrophic factor. In the oviduct, EPF was expressed in unciliated secretory epithelial cells and in the cilia of ciliated cells. In the placenta, EPF was expressed in the fetal portion (mesoderm chorioallantois and epithelium of endoderm). EPF acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for the trophoblast during the peri-implantation period.

  2. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  3. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  4. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  5. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  6. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo, Candace A.; Mendola, Pauline; Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and PM 2.5 constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO X (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO 2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O 3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO x and SO 2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O 3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO x and SO 2 before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO x and SO 2 exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased GDM risk. • Early exposure to O 3 reduced GDM risk but risk increased

  7. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  8. Increased maternal plasma leptin in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Vadachkoria, Surab; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Luthy, David A

    2004-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may have independent direct effects on both insulin secretion and action, in addition to its well documented effects on appetite and energy expenditure. Some, but not all, previously published studies suggest that maternal leptin concentrations may be increased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the association between plasma leptin concentration and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. Maternal plasma leptin concentrations (collected at 13 weeks of gestation) were measured by using immunoassay. We used generalized linear models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. GDM developed in 5.7% of the cohort (47 of 823). Elevated leptin concentrations were positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 1.2, 18.0) as compared with women who had concentrations of 14.3 ng/mL or lower. We noted a strong linear component of trend in risk of GDM with increasing maternal plasma leptin concentration. Each 10-ng/mL increase in the leptin concentration was associated with a 20% increase in GDM risk (relative risk 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.3). Hyperleptinemia, independent of maternal adiposity, in early pregnancy appears to be predictive of an increased risk of GDM later in pregnancy. Additional larger prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm and more precisely assess the etiologic importance of hyperleptinemia in pregnancy. II-2

  9. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  10. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  11. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  12. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines\\/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  13. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (pregnancies. Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...

  14. Early lymphocyte recovery after intensive timed sequential chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: peripheral oligoclonal expansion of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Christopher G; Hess, Allan D; Gocke, Christopher D; Thoburn, Christopher; Kos, Ferdynand; Meyer, Christian; Briel, Janet; Luznik, Leo; Smith, B Douglas; Levitsky, Hyam; Karp, Judith E

    2011-01-13

    Few published studies characterize early lymphocyte recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte recovery mirrors ontogeny, we characterized early lymphocyte recovery in 20 consecutive patients undergoing induction timed sequential chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. Recovering T lymphocytes were predominantly CD4(+) and included a greatly expanded population of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Recovering CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells were phenotypically activated regulatory T cells and showed suppressive activity on cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Despite an initial burst of thymopoiesis, most recovering regulatory T cells were peripherally derived. Furthermore, regulatory T cells showed marked oligoclonal skewing, suggesting that their peripheral expansion was antigen-driven. Overall, lymphocyte recovery after chemotherapy differs from ontogeny, specifically identifying a peripherally expanded oligoclonal population of activated regulatory T lymphocytes. These differences suggest a stereotyped immunologic recovery shared by patients with newly diagnosed AML after induction timed sequential chemotherapy. Further insight into this oligoclonal regulatory T-cell population will be fundamental toward developing effective immunomodulatory techniques to improve survival for patients with AML.

  15. The value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and progesterone in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong

    2011-01-01

    To explore the value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and P in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy and expectant therapeutic efficacy. Serum levels of β-HCG and P of 324 patients with early ectopic pregnancy and 146 normal early pregnant women were determined and compared by RIA, Serum β-HCG and P were compared between before and after treatment. The required time when serum β-HCG and P decreased to the normal rang of the patients treated successfully were observed respectively. The results showed that the serum β-HCG and P value in ectopic pregnancy group were significantly lower than those in intrauterine gestation group (P<0.05). The variation of P was significant between success and failure groups of drug conservative treatment, but β-HCG had no significant difference. The required time when serum P decreased to the normal was significantly less than the serum β-HCG dropped to normal. Combined detection of serum levels of β-HCG and P is an adjunctive method to diagnose early ectopic pregnancy, so it giants opportunity for treatment of early ectopic pregnancy and is of positive clinical application value for observation therapeutic effect and prognosis of the disease. P values may be one of the more important reference index to predict whether conservative treatment is successful or not than β-HCG. (authors)

  16. Different enzymatic antioxidative pathways operate within the sheep caruncular and intercaruncular endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, K H; Faure, P; Garrel, C

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in the role played by antioxidant enzymes in the regulation of endometrial function in mammals. However, little is known about enzymatic antioxidative pathways involved in conditioning the cyclic and early pregnant endometrium for conceptus attachment and implantation in domestic ruminants. We aimed to investigate changes in activities of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1, SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) in sheep caruncles (CAR) and intercaruncles (ICAR) endometrial tissues of cyclic and early pregnant ewes. Irrespective of day of cycle or pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activities of SOD1 and SOD2 than in ICAR. On day 12 of the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX and GR than in CAR tissues. On days 12 and 16 the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. CAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, and 16 of the estrous cycle. The activity of CAT in ICAR increased from days 4 and 8 to day 12 of the estrous cycle. The activity of SOD2 in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On day 12 of pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in ICAR. On day 16 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in CAR. The activity of GPX in ICAR increased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy. The activity of GPX in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. The activity of GR in CAR and ICAR increased from days 12 and 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On days 16 and 18 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. The activity of CAT in CAR decreased from day 12 to days 16 and 18 of pregnancy. The activity of CAT in ICAR decreased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy and

  17. Inability to have children caused by recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancies - implications for a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Karmowski, Andrzej; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Krzemieniewska, Joanna; Kulczycka, Aleksandra; Gabryś, Marian Stanisław; Koryś, Jerzy; Gworys, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    This review is inspired by a case of two pregnancies of the same patient complicated by HELLP syndrome, which suggests that there is a predisposition for the occurrence of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy. HELLP syndrome, uncommon below the 20th week and rarer still in two consecutive pregnancies, appeared in two pregnancies of the same woman. The aim of our work is to try to understand the cause of heterogeneity of HELLP syndrome and help find a way of prolonging such pregnancies. Recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy is a form of severe, fulminant preeclampsia. The preceding symptom is a surge in blood pressure. The hypertension becomes resistant to antihypertensive drugs, which indicates that preexisting hypertension is later accompanied by other factors contributing to the rise in blood pressure. Different effects of high dosage of corticosteroids on liver and platelets show that there are different factors responsible for liver damage and for thrombocytopenia. It seems that the symptoms have various origins, so the therapy with one drug only is not sufficiently effective. Nicotine analogues or a plant extract (from rootstock of Eriosema kraussianum) used by South African traditional healers for erectile dysfunction seem to give a chance of prolonging pregnancy and, consequently, having children.

  18. [Mexican adolescentes' goals as determinants in the prevention of early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Lozada, Ana Lilia; Herrera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore adolescents' intentions related to the early formation of a family. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974). Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents' expectations for their child's education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13). In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.

  19. Mexican adolescents’ goals as determinants in the prevention of early pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E Atienzo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to explore adolescents’ intentions related to the early formation of a family. Materials and methods. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974. Results. Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents’ expectations for their child’s education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13. Conclusions. In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.

  20. Myocardial and Peripheral Ischemia Causes an Increase in Circulating Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A in Non-atherosclerotic, Non-heparinized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Poulsen, Christian Bo; Shim, Jeong; Bek, Marie; Jacobsen, Kevin; Conover, Cheryl A; Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-12-01

    The usefulness of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as a biomarker for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is widely debated. We used the pig as a model to assess PAPP-A dynamics in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Induction of myocardial ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A. However, the ischemic myocardium was excluded as the source of PAPP-A. Interestingly, induction of ischemia in peripheral tissues by ligation of the left femoral artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A originating from the left hind limb. This is the first study to demonstrate PAPP-A elevations in the absence of atherosclerosis or heparin during myocardial ischemia. Our findings thus add to the current discussion of the usefulness of PAPP-A as a biomarker for ACS.

  1. The transabdominal chorionic villus sampling puncture guided by color Doppler ultrasound during early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Weixiang; Chen Zhiyi; Yuan Wenlin; Cai Kuan; Zhu Junlin; Wang Weiqun; Chen Xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the operation of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) guided by color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) via abdomen puncture during early pregnancy and investigate the advertences during the operation. Methods: CVS guided by CDU probe via abdomen puncture were operated on 28 pregnant women who had the indications of antenatal diagnosis. CDU was used to observe the implantation position of the fo1iaceous villis and help setting mark of the puncture point and puncture range on body surface before operation. The needle was punctured under real-time ultrasound guidance and villis were aspirated during the operation: The choice of the right time of puncture and the operation skills were emphasized in the study. Results: The CVS puncture approach should be set through CDU ob servation, which attend to avoid the surrounding blood vessels, intestinal canal and surrounding important organs. The puncture point should be chosen in a point where lobif0rmed villis distributed wider and with a larger scope. The operations were performed from 10 to13 weeks of pregnancy, with an average of 11 weeks. Among these 28 cases, 9.6 were successfully drawn materials in one time, 1 in twice and l failure, with the total ratio of achievement was 96.4%. For all the cases, fetal heart pulsating could be seen by real-time CDU observation fight after the operation, and no larger hematoma echo in the placental site occurred. Ultrasound reexamined one week after the operation, fetal heart pulsation could be found in all cases, and no abortion cases occurred after regular follow-up in 25 continued pregnant patients. Conclusion: Abdominal CVS puncture guided by CDU probe is conveniently operated, safe and available in clinic. It is an important method for antenatal diagnosis during early pregnancy. The puncture localization, skills and the time are the key points for the success in obtaining the materials. (authors)

  2. Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jerome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to identify other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs in the corpus luteum (CL during early pregnancy in buffalo. Materials and Methods: For this study, CL (n=2 from two buffalo gravid uteri, obtained from the slaughter house, was transported to laboratory after snap freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. The stage of pregnancy was determined by measuring the crown-rump region of the fetus. This was followed by isolation of RNA and deep sequencing. Post-deep sequencing, the obtained reads were checked and aligned against various ncRNA databases (GtRNA, RFAM, and deep guide. Various parameters, namely, frequency of specific ncRNAs, length, mismatch, and genomic location target in several model species were deciphered. Results: Frequency of piwi-interacting RNAs (piwi-RNAs, having target location in rodents and human genomes, were significantly higher compared to other piwi-RNAs and ncRNAs. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs deduced had nucleotides (nts ranging from 17 to 50 nts, but the occurrence of small length rRNAs was more than lengthier fragments. The target on 16S rRNA species confirms the conservation of 16S rRNA across species. With respect to transfer RNA (tRNA, the abundantly occurring tRNAs were unique with no duplication. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, identified in this study, showed a strong tendency for coding box C/D snoRNAs in comparison to H/ACA snoRNAs. Regulatory and evolutionary implications of these identified ncRNAs are yet to be delineated in many species, including buffaloes. Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of other ncRNAs in CL of early pregnancy in buffalo.

  3. Perceived Financial Satisfaction, Health Related Quality of Life and depressive Symptoms in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Roine, Risto P

    2017-07-01

    Objectives To assess the associations of perceived financial satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in an unselected pregnant population in early pregnancy. Methods 750 consecutive pregnant women attending the first communal ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate. Questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric, and socioeconomic status were handed out. The participants were divided into three groups according to their satisfaction with their financial status, (unsatisfied, somewhat satisfied, and satisfied). Main outcome measures were 15D and EPDS-scores and dimensions of HRQoL. Results 325 (43,3%) questionnaires were returned. The mean 15D-score for HRQoL was 0,926 (SD 0,056). The financially unsatisfied women had lower HRQoL than women in more satisfied groups (0.906, 0.923 and 0.931, p = 0.012). The result remained significant, even after adjusting for age and education(p = 0.032). The unsatisfied women had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (25.4, 24.4 and 23.2 kg/m 2 , p for linearity = 0.002), were more often smokers, (13 vs. 4 and 3%, p = 0.029), and had experienced at least one abortion (18, 14 and 7%, p = 0.017). Dimensions of depression, distress and sleep explained the differences between the groups. 27% of unsatisfied women scored EPDS ≥10 points suggesting increased risk of depression. Conclusions Financial satisfaction in early pregnancy associates with HRQoL and risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. Unsatisfied women more often have risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes which may influence the later health and wellbeing of the mother and child.

  4. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of expectant management versus surgical evacuation of early pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Ravichandran; Quek, Yek Song; Kuppannan, Kaliammah; Woon, Shu Yuan; Jeganathan, Ravichandran

    2014-07-01

    To show whether a clinically significant difference in success rates exists between expectant and surgical management of early pregnancy loss. Randomised controlled trial comparing expectant versus surgical management of early pregnancy loss over a 1-year period from 1st January to 31st December 2009 at Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru. Pregnant women with missed or incomplete miscarriages at gestations up to 14 weeks were recruited in this study. The success rate in the surgical group was measured as curettage performed without any complications during or after the procedure, while the success rate in the expectant group was defined as complete spontaneous expulsion of products of conception within 6 weeks without any complication. A total of 360 women were recruited and randomised to expectant or surgical management, with 180 women in each group. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rate between the groups and between the different types of miscarriage. With expectant management, 131 (74%) patients had a complete spontaneous expulsion of products of conception, of whom 106 (83%) women miscarried within 7 days. However, the rates of unplanned admissions (18.1%) and unplanned surgical evacuations (17.5%) in the expectant group were significantly higher than the rates (7.4% and 8% respectively) in the surgical group. The complications in both groups were similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of creatine kinase, estradiol and progesterone levels in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies: a prospective controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Mimaroğlu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the role of serum creatine kinase, progesterone and estradiol as a biochemical marker in the early diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. MATERIAL-METHODS: A prospective controlled study was carried out on 44 women with first trimester pregnancy. First group (n=22 with tubal pregnancy formed the study group and second group (n=22 with normal intrauterine pregnancy was taken as controls. Serum beta hCG, creatine kinase, progesterone and estradiol levels in the two groups were compared. Surgical treatment had choosen as a treatment modality of ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff value of creatine kinase to be used for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy was 45 IU/l, which resulted in a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 31%, positive predictive value 55 % and negative predictive value 70 %. The same values for estradiol and progesterone were detected >225 pg/ml, 100 %, 68 %, 75%, 100 % and >13 ng/mL, 95 %, 81 %, % 84, % 97 in discriminating ectopic pregnancies. According to AUC levels there was a significant difference between estradiol-creatine kinase levels, progesterone-estradiol levels and progesterone–creatin kinase levels (p values 0.024, 0.0082, and 0.0001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum creatine kinase values appear to be a useful marker in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Fthenou, Eleni; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-01-01

    .68) respectively. Prenatal DDE and HCB exposure were not significantly associated GDM risk. These findings suggest that women with high PCBs levels in early pregnancy had higher risk for GDM. Further studies are needed to replicate these results and to evaluate potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early regenerative effects of NGF-transduced Schwann cells in peripheral nerve repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhbazau, A.; Kawasoe, J.; Hoyng, S.A.; Kumar, R.; van Minnen, J.; Verhaagen, J.; Midha, R.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to a rapid and robust increase in the synthesis of neurotrophins which guide and support regenerating axons. To further optimize neurotrophin supply at the earliest stages of regeneration, we over-expressed NGF in Schwann cells (SCs) by transducing these cells with a

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Al-Musharaf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OHD levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OHD levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81% were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5, low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval of 25.4 (5.5–117.3, 17.8 (2.3–138.5, 4.0 (1.7–9.5, 3.3 (1.4–7.9, 2.8 (1.2–6.4, and 2.0 (1.1–3.5, respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5; 0.2 (0.1–0.6; 0.3 (0.1–0.9; and 0.4 (0.2–0.8, respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%. Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B cell count and T subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), peripheral B cell count as well as T subsets (with monoclonal technique) were examined in 34 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and 35 controls. Results: The serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 , CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hY- pertension syndrome is a kind of autoimmune diseases with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  11. Fetal exposure to lead during pregnancy and the risk of preterm and early-term deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Wenqian; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Wenyu; Liao, Jiaqiang; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the association between lead exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. However, findings are still inconsistent. This prospective birth cohort study evaluated the risks of preterm and early-term births and its association with prenatal lead exposure in Hubei, China. A total of 7299 pregnant women were selected from the Healthy Baby Cohort. Maternal urinary lead levels were measured by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The associations between tertiles of urinary lead levels and the risks of preterm and early-term deliveries were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary lead concentrations among all participating mothers, preterm birth, and early-term birth were 3.19, 3.68, and 3.17μg/g creatinine, respectively. A significant increase in the risk of preterm births was associated with the highest urinary lead tertile after adjusting for confounders with odds ratio (OR) of 1.96. The association was more pronounced among 25-36 years old mothers with OR of 2.03. Though significant p trends were observed between lead exposure (medium and high tertiles) and the risk of early-term births, their ORs were not significant. Our findings indicate that the risk of preterm birth might increase with higher fetal lead exposure, particularly among women between the age of 25 and 36 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2012-01-01

    of initial monitoring). Ten women (15%) did not wish to use continuous glucose monitoring again in pregnancy. Main causes behind early removal of continuous glucose monitoring were self-reported skin irritation, technical problems and continuous glucose monitoring inaccuracy. No differences were found......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...

  13. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  14. Exposure to Zearalenone During Early Pregnancy Causes Estrogenic Multitoxic Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunishige, Kohji; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2017-03-01

    Although zearalenone (ZEN; Sigma Chemicals, St Louis, Missouri) is a well-known mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, the toxic effects of ZEN during pregnancy are unknown. This study compared the effects of daily subcutaneous injections of ZEN (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg) with those of 17β-estradiol (E2; [Sigma Chemicals] 0.8, 1.6, or 3.2 μg/kg) in mice. Injections were administered on gestational days (GDs) 1 to 5, the period including implantation which is sensitive to hormonal balance. The effects of ZEN or E2 were evaluated by comparing the number of live fetuses, their weight, and absorbed conceptuses on GD 18, with those in vehicle-treated controls. In addition, implantation, embryos in the oviducts and those in uteri without implantation sites were investigated on GD 5. In mice treated with the highest dose of ZEN or E2, decidual responses and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on GDs 5 and 6, respectively, and delayed implantation was investigated on GDs 9 and 14. The results showed that treatment with ZEN, in a manner similar to that seen for E2, led to obstruction of essential processes for establishing and maintaining pregnancy, such as embryo migration from oviducts to uteri, the decidual response, and activation of luteal function. Zearalenone also induced delayed implantation and loss of conceptuses and at low doses caused a retarded growth of the fetuses after normal implantation. It was therefore concluded that ZEN causes multiple estrogenic toxic actions when administered during early pregnancy in mice.

  15. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many

  17. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  1. Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Beck, James D; Murtha, Amy P; Moss, Kevin; Offenbacher, Steven

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether periodontal disease is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. In a prospective study of oral health, periodontal disease was categorized as health, mild, or moderate/severe on the basis of clinical criteria. Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. A risk ratio (95th percentile confidence interval) for a small-for-gestational-age infant among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease was calculated. Sixty-seven of 1017 women (6.6%) delivered a small-for-gestational-age infant, and 143 (14.3%) had moderate or severe periodontal disease. The small-for-gestational-age rate was higher among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease, compared with those with health or mild disease (13.8% versus 3.2% versus 6.5%, P periodontal disease was associated with a small-for-gestational-age infant, a risk ratio of 2.3 (1.1 to 4.7), adjusted for age, smoking, drugs, marital and insurance status, and pre-eclampsia. Moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. Understanding the mechanism of periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes could lead to interventions to improve fetal growth.

  2. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  3. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisiere, Julien; Mousset, Pierre-Yves; Lafay, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. PMID:29614764

  4. Variability and predictors of serum perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations during pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Kelsey, Karl T; Calafat, Antonia M; Ehrlich, Shelley; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin; Braun, Joseph M

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants, could be associated with adverse health outcomes, but there are limited longitudinal data assessing patterns and predictors of exposure during childhood. We quantified concentrations of eight different PFAS in sera collected from women during pregnancy and children at delivery and ages 3 and 8 years in 367 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort from 2003 to 2006. In general, median childhood PFAS concentrations increased from birth to age 3 and then decreased by age 8. Maternal serum PFAS concentrations during pregnancy were strongly correlated with cord serum concentrations (0.76 PFAS concentrations, including income, race, and parity. In children, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal age at delivery, race, parity, and child age. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with childhood PFAS concentrations at ages 3 and 8 years. In addition, stain repellant use was associated with higher perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid concentrations at age 8 years. Serum PFAS concentrations are higher during early childhood, a potentially sensitive period of development, and were highest among breastfed children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stanisiere

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP. However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety.

  6. Early resuscitation with polymerized bovine hemoglobin reverses acidosis, but not peripheral tissue oxygenation, in a severe hamster shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Reto; Tsai, Amy G; Harder, Yves; Erni, Dominique; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2006-11-01

    Awake hamsters equipped with the dorsal window chamber preparation were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of the estimated blood volume. Initial resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) with polymerized bovine hemoglobin (PBH) or 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) occurred in concert with an equivolumetric bleeding to simulate the early, prehospital setting (exchange transfusion). Resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) without bleeding was performed with PBH, HES, or autologous red blood cells (HES-RBCs). Peripheral microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and systemic hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were assessed. After exchange transfusion, base deficit was -8.6 +/- 3.7 mmol/L (PBH) and -5.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/L (HES) (not significant). Functional capillary density was 17% +/- 6% of baseline (PBH) and 31% +/- 11% (HES) (P < 0.05) and arteriolar diameter 73% +/- 3% of baseline (PBH) and 90% + 5% (HES) (P < 0.01). At the end, hemoglobin levels were 3.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL with HES, 8.2 +/- 0.6 g/dL with PBH, and 10.4 +/- 0.8 g/dL with HES-RBCs (P < 0.01 HES vs. PBH and HES-RBCs, P < 0.05 PBH vs. HES-RBCs). Base excess was restored to baseline with PBH and HES-RBCs, but not with HES (P < 0.05). Functional capillary density was 46% +/- 5% of baseline (PBH), 62% + 20% (HES-RBCs), and 36% +/- 19% (HES) (P < 0.01 HES-RBCs vs. HES). Peripheral oxygen delivery and consumption was highest with HES-RBCs, followed by PBH (P < 0.05 HES-RBCs vs. PBH, P < 0.01 HES-RBCs and PBH vs. HES). In conclusion, the PBH led to a correction of base deficit comparable to blood transfusion. However, oxygenation of the peripheral tissue was inferior with PBH. This was attributed to its negative impact on the peripheral microcirculation caused by arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  7. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking...... in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University...... on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time...

  8. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe...... verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish...... asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically...

  9. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  10. Radiation induction of developmental effects during the very early stages of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have shown that early embryos of several mouse strains are sensitive to radiation-induction of congenital anomalies. The presence of mutations in particular genes seems to increase the sensitivity of embryos to such effects, but studies in that field are extremely limited. The aim of these studies is to determine (1) whether the sensitivity to radiation-induction of congenital anomalies during very early stages of gestation is transmitted to the following generation; (2) how mutations in genes involved in important cellular processes, like DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (cell suicide of a damaged cell), can influence the radiation sensitivity of the mammalian embryo during sensitive stages of early pregnancy. Emphasis is put on heterozygous mutations (in which only one of the two copies of the gene is mutated), which are relatively numerous in the human population and do not affect the viability and the fertility of individuals carrying them. The studies under way in that field are supported by contracts with the European Union and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC-AFCN)

  11. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  12. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110...... with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks. RESULTS: From early to late pregnancy....... The HADS anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved...

  13. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (gestation) and gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  14. Does leisure time physical activity in early pregnancy protect against pre-eclampsia? Prospective cohort in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, M L; Strøm, M; Klemmensen, A K

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical activity in early pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 85,139 pregnant Danish women, recruited between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: The authors assessed leisure time physical...

  15. The emotional-behavioural functioning of children exposed to maternal depressive symptoms across pregnancy and early childhood: a prospective Australian pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Hiscock, Harriet; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    Children exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period are at increased risk of a range of health, wellbeing and development problems. However, few studies have examined the course of maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and beyond on children's wellbeing. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between both the severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and children's emotional-behavioural difficulties at 4 years of age. Data from over 1,085 mothers and children participating in a large Australian prospective pregnancy cohort were used. Latent class analysis identified three distinct trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum: (1) no or few symptoms (61%), (2) persistent subclinical symptoms (30%), and (3) increasing and persistently high symptoms (9%). Regression analyses revealed that children of mothers experiencing subclinical and increasing and persistently high symptoms were at least two times more likely to have emotional-behavioural difficulties than children of mothers reporting minimal symptoms, even after accounting for known risk factors for poor outcomes for children. These findings challenge policy makers and health professionals to consider how they can tailor care and support to mothers experiencing a broader spectrum of depressive symptoms across the early childhood period, to maximize opportunities to improve both short-and long-term maternal and child health outcomes.

  16. Parity and tanned white skin as novel predictors of vitamin D status in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lb; Abrahamsen, B; Dalgård, Christine

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)......CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)...

  17. Correlation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, United Kingdom screening test and electrodiagnosis for early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study

  18. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  19. Tight interplay in early pregnancy between follistatin and anti-mullerian hormone in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köninger, Angela; Kampmeier, Antje; Mach, Pawel; Schmidt, Boerge; Strowitzki, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Gellhaus, Alexandra

    2018-05-01

    Follistatin levels increase during the course of pregnancy and may play a role in ovarian arrest, reflected by the simultaneous decrease of anti-mullerian-hormone (AMH) levels. The aim of the study was to investigate AMH and follistatin levels during the hormonal window at the beginning of pregnancy. Since both parameters are described as deregulated in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), subgroup analysis of PCOS patients may additionally elucidate their interplay and effects on ovarian activity. Serum samples were retrospectively analyzed using the AMH Gen II ELISA and the Human Follistatin Quantikine ELISA Kit. Samples were collected longitudinally from 57 patients (32 with PCOS and 25 controls) before conception and during the first trimester. In 18 patients, measurements from the early and the late first trimester were available. Potential associations of AMH and follistatin levels with PCOS-related parameters were compared between the subgroups as well as longitudinally before and in the first trimester of pregnancy. For statistical analysis, the Spearman's correlation, Wilcoxon test, t test, Friedman test and multiple linear regression analysis was performed. In contrast to AMH, follistatin levels differed not between controls and PCOS patients before and in pregnancy. In both subgroups, AMH levels significantly decreased and follistatin levels significantly increased in longitudinally performed measurements before conceiving and in the first trimester of pregnancy. Follistatin levels are not suited as a biomarker for PCOS, but could be involved in suppressing ovarian activity, as reflected by AMH levels at the beginning of pregnancy.

  20. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  1. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological ...

  2. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  3. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  4. Gene expression in the mouse brain following early pregnancy exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3,4]. Improvement of neurobehavioural outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure requires greater understanding of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the brain. Here we use a mouse model of relatively moderate ethanol exposure early in pregnancy and profile gene expression in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of adult male offspring. The effects of offspring sex and age on ethanol-sensitive hippocampal gene expression were also examined. All array data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accession number GSE87736.

  5. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  6. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  7. [Diagnosis and monitoring of endangered early pregnancies with determination of oestrone, oestradiol 17beta, oestriol, progesterone and HPL in plasma and the pregnancy test in graduated dilutions of urine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, J R; Negulescu, R; Dahlén, H; Musch, K

    1977-06-01

    Unconjugated oestrone (Oe1), oestradiol-17beta (Oe2), oestriol (Oe3), progesterone (P) and HPL in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the immunological pregnancy-test in urine was carried out in 70 patients with normal pregnancy or imminent abortion from 4th-20th week of gestation. Oe2 and HPL showed the most pronounced rises, Oe3 increased especially after the first trimester. In cases with abortion symptoms and poor prognosis Oe2 and HPL gave the most reliable results concerning the endocrin function of early normal pregnancy. Oe1- and P-values in normal pregnancy did not differ so clearly from concentrations observed during normal menstrual cycles and were thus of less value. The pregnancy-test was positive (greater than 1000 IU/1) even in most cases of dead pregnancy and therefore not reliable. With increasing production of oestrogen precursors in the fetal adrenal cortex after the first trimester determination of Oe3 becomes more important. In cases with abortion symptoms in early pregnancy and subsequent normal development, plasma Oe2- and Oe3- values represented best criteria for a prognosis. -- For the diagnosis and control of the endangered early pregnancy we recommend, as a consequence of this study, determination of Oe2 up to the 13th week of pregnancy and thereafter Oe3 in maternal plasma.

  8. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William; Steiner, Meir; Coote, Marg; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1) to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2) to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3) to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women's Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.025), and IL-10 (p = 0.006) were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Simpson

    Full Text Available Objective: Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1 to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2 to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3 to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Methods: Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women’s Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph’s Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Results: Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001, IL-6 (p = 0.025, and IL-10 (p = 0.006 were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS score. Conclusions: Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  10. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum: parity differences and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate both anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, comparing women and men and first and second-time parents. A sample of 260 Portuguese couples (N=520), first or second-time parents, recruited in an Obstetrics Out-patients Unit, filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. A decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum was found in both women and men, as well as in first and second-time parents. Men presented less anxiety and depression symptoms than women, but the same pattern of symptoms over time. Second-time parents showed more anxiety and depression symptoms than first-time parents and a different pattern of symptoms over time: an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms from the 3rd trimester to childbirth was observed in first-time parents versus a decrease in second-time parents. The voluntary nature of the participation may have lead to a selection bias; women and men who agreed to participate could be those who presented fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Moreover, the use of self-report symptom measures does not give us the level of possible disorder in participants. Anxiety and depression symptoms diminish from pregnancy to the postpartum period in all parents. Patterns of anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum are similar in women and men, but somewhat different in first and second-time parents. Second-time parents should also be considered while studying and intervening during pregnancy and the postpartum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Molecular markers of Alzheimer disease early diagnostic: investigation perspectives of peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsev, M A; Zuev, V A; Kozhevnikova, E O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnaia, T V; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoy, I M

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of elderly and old age people. For intravital diagnosis of the expression of signaling molecules - AD markers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral tissues are used: lymphocytes and blood platelets, buccal and olfactory epithelium, skin fibroblasts. There are several changes in the production of hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein, BACE1 and peptide Аβ42 in CSF in case of AD, but CSF taking may have a number of side effects. Less traumatic taking of sampling tissues for the diagnosis of AD is in use of epithelium biopsy and blood portion. An increase in the expression of the hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein is shown in blood lymphocytes of AD patients. An increase in the content of high molecular weight forms of phosphorylated t-protein and amyloid precursor protein-APP was also revealed in blood platelets of AD patients. Changes in the amount of 2 miRNA families - miR-132 family and miR-134 family were revealed in blood cells 1-5 years before the manifestation of clinical signs of AD. An increase in the concentration of bound calcium, synthesis of peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42, τ protein was observed in AD skin fibroblasts. In the olfactory and buccal epithelium an increase in the expression of hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein and Aβ peptide was detected in patients with AD. Verification of AD markers in peripheral tissues for biopsy have the important significant for life diagnostics, prevention and and target AD treatment.

  13. The applied observation of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone (reports of 660 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinglan; Li Yan; Li Julian; He Lihong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the clinical significance of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone. Methods: 660 cases of premedical abortion were ultrasonic diagnosed to know the status of inner-uterus pregnancy and exclude the taboo of medical abortion; after-medical abortion ultrasonic were performed to find rudimental embryo in uterus, recuperation of uterus, etc. Results: 88.18% of cases are full abortion; 10.15% of cases are semi-abortion; 1.7% of cases are unsuccessful abortion. Conclusions: It is a quick and safe method to use ultrasonography before and after medical abortion. (authors)

  14. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Grant, Frederick; Goldenberg, Tamar; Zongrone, Amanda; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-07-01

    Current understanding of biologic processes indicates that women's nutritional status before and during early pregnancy may play an important role in determining early developmental processes and ensuring successful pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the impact of maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy (health outcomes and included 45 articles (nine intervention trials and 32 observational studies) that were identified through PubMed and EMBASE database searches and examining review articles. Intervention trials and observational studies show that periconceptional (importance of women's nutrition prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, but there is a need for well-designed prospective studies and controlled trials in developing country settings that examine relationships with low birthweight, SGA, PTD, stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. The knowledge gaps that need to be addressed include the evaluation of periconceptional interventions such as food supplements, multivitamin-mineral supplements and/or specific micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B-6 and B-12) as well as the relationship between measures of prepregnancy body size and composition and maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  16. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and circulating microRNAs in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wander, Pandora L; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Qiu, Chunfang; Holzman, Claudia; Williams, Michelle A

    Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study. Plasma miRNA expression was characterised using epigenome-wide (319 miRNAs) profiling among 20 pregnant women in each cohort. Cohort-specific linear regression models that included the predictor (pre-pregnancy body mass index), the outcome (microRNA expression), and adjustment factors (maternal age, gestational age at blood collection, and race) were fit. Expression of 27 miRNAs was positively associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index in both cohorts (p-values pregnancy body mass index is associated with circulating miRNAs in early-mid pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting that preecla......The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  18. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of aortocoronary bypass grafts in the early postoperative phase with peripheral-venous contrast medium injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuengerthal, S.; Lang, J.; Donhoeffner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a fully digitalised subtraction unit, aortocoronary bypass grafts can be visualised in the early postoperative phase by means of peripheral venous contrast medium injection (57 out of a total of 60 cases). In more than one-half of the cases (31 out of a total of 60), it is possible to outline sharply the bypass grafts from the beginning to their entry into the bridged-over coronary artery, in such a manner that any loops, kinks, stenoses or reduced flow rates can be recognised. This examination is not considered to be an invasive one by the patient, and the cardiosurgeon can welcome it as a valuable additional means of controlling and assessing the results of surgery. (orig.) [de

  19. Time-lapse culture with morphokinetic embryo selection improves pregnancy and live birth chances and reduces early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Nilselid, Anna-Maria; Montag, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Embryo evaluation and selection is fundamental in clinical IVF. Time-lapse follow-up of embryo development comprises undisturbed culture and the application of the visual information to support embryo evaluation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out to study whether time-lapse monitoring with the prospective use of a morphokinetic algorithm for selection of embryos improves overall clinical outcome (pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, stillbirth and live birth rate) compared with embryo selection based on single time-point morphology in IVF cycles. The meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials (n = 1637) showed that the application of time-lapse monitoring was associated with a significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (51.0% versus 39.9%), with a pooled odds ratio of 1.542 (P loss (15.3% versus 21.3%; OR: 0.662; P = 0.019) and a significantly increased live birth rate (44.2% versus 31.3%; OR 1.668; P = 0.009). Difference in stillbirth was not significant between groups (4.7% versus 2.4%). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low owing to inconsistencies across the studies. Selective application and variability were also limitations. Although time-lapse is shown to significantly improve overall clinical outcome, further high-quality evidence is needed before universal conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI adults or those who have prediabetes (PD or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1 were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D. Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV. All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.

  1. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  2. The Relationship between Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity and Ophthalmological Findings in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Ito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV is an indicator of neuronal damage in the distal segment of the peripheral nerves. Here, we determined the association between NCV and other systemic and ocular clinical findings, in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic retinopathy (DR. Methods. This study included 42 eyes of 42 type 2 diabetes patients (median age: 54 years with no DR or with mild nonproliferative DR. Standard statistical techniques were used to determine associations between clinical findings. Results. Sural sensory conduction velocity (SCV and tibial motor conduction velocity (MCV were significantly lower in mild nonproliferative DR patients than patients with no DR (P=0.008 and P=0.01, resp.. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that sural SCV and tibial MCV were independent factors contributing to the presence of mild nonproliferative DR (OR 0.83, P=0.012 and OR 0.69 P=0.02, resp.. Tibial MCV was correlated with choroidal thickness (CT (P=0.01, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that age, tibial MCV, and carotid intima-media thickness were independent associating factors with CT (P=0.035, P=0.015, and P=0.008, resp.. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that reduced NCV may be closely associated with early DR in type 2 diabetes patients. Thus, reduced nerve conduction is a potential early biomarker of DR.

  3. Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Epilepsy in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaz, Neda; Tedroff, Kristina; Villamor, Eduardo; Cnattingius, Sven

    2017-06-01

    There is growing concern about the long-term neurologic effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity. The causes of epilepsy are poorly understood and, in more than 60% of the patients, no definitive cause can be determined. To investigate the association between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of childhood epilepsy and examine associations between obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications and risks of childhood epilepsy. A population-based cohort study of 1 441 623 live single births at 22 or more completed gestational weeks in Sweden from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The diagnosis of epilepsy as well as obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications were based on information from the Sweden Medical Birth Register and National Patient Register. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for maternal age, country of origin, educational level, cohabitation with partner, height, smoking, maternal epilepsy, and year of delivery. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to December 15, 2016. Risk of childhood epilepsy. Of the 1 421 551 children born between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, with covariate information available, 7592 (0.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy through December 31, 2012. Of these 3530 (46.5%) were female. The overall incidence of epilepsy in children aged 28 days to 16 years was 6.79 per 10 000 child-years. Compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to epilepsy by maternal BMI categories were as follows: overweight (BMI 25.0 to epilepsy were considerably increased for children with malformations of the nervous system (adjusted HR, 46.4; 95% CI, 42.2-51.0), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (adjusted HR, 23.6; 95% CI, 20.6-27.1), and neonatal convulsions (adjusted HR, 33.5; 95% CI, 30.1-37.4). The rates of epilepsy were doubled among children with

  4. Severe hydronephrosis secondary to uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the early second trimester of pregnancy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tsukuru; Tokoro, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Inoue, Takashi; Kimura, Fuminori; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-09-25

    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) normally presents genital bleeding in the puerperal period, and severe hydronephrosis rarely presents during pregnancy. We report a rare case of severe ureteral obstruction accompanied by uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the early second trimester of pregnancy, which was successfully treated by surgical intervention. A 42-year-old nulligravid woman who had undergone myomectomy 3 years earlier was referred to our hospital for acute left abdominal pain at the 17th week of gestation. Ultrasonography showed severe left hydronephrosis and a 6-cm mass in the parauterine space. Color Doppler ultrasonography revealed a spinning turbulent flow pattern inside the mass lesion. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the left uterine artery feeding blood flow to the mass and left ureteral obstruction by the mass. These results indicated left hydronephrosis secondary to left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. To resolve the problem, laparotomy was performed. As uterine artery isolation was impossible, ligation of the left internal iliac artery and releasing of the ureteral obstruction were carried out. The hydronephrosis and abdominal pain promptly resolved after the surgery. Thereafter, fetal development proceeded normally in the remaining months of the pregnancy. A healthy baby was delivered through cesarean section at 36 weeks gestational age. At the cesarean section, the left lower uterine segment where the UAP had been present was not visible because of the firm adhesion in around it. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm can cause hydronephrosis in the early second trimester of pregnancy. Ligation of the unilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and effective intervention to block the blood flow to the uterine artery pseudoaneurysm during pregnancy, when uterine artery ligation seems not possible. In the pregnancy after previous surgical procedures to the uterus, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm should be considered in the differential

  5. Determination of serum progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on fertility control and early pregnancy diagnosis in angora goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsar, S.; Guven, B.; Ozekin, N.; Noyan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on diagnosis of cyclicity, confirmation of estrus so that mating timing and confirmation of return on non-return (pregnancy diagnosis) in Angora goats by using progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum as well as observing the sexual behaviours of the goats. The cyclic reproductive activity of 20 mature Angora goat does with normal previous reproductive function, 5 does which had never become pregnant in the previous breeding seasons, and 10 does which were old for breeding was investigated. Circulating progesterone was relatively low (0.45 ng/ml) at estrus (day 0) and increased progressively to 3.45 ng/ml during the subsequent luteal phase. This high level was maintained until day-3 of the succeding estrus cycle, when it decreased abruptly. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the levels of progesterone in serum was confirmed by kidding. 1.5 ng/ml or more progesterone was used as an indication of pregnancy (within 21 days after mating). The accuracy of pregnancy by progesterone assay was 100%. It was concluded that the use of progesterone RIA in serum is a reliable and convenient means of monitoring ovarian activity and early pregnancy. (author)

  6. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  7. Migrant women's perceptions of healthcare during pregnancy and early motherhood: addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Casanova, Catarina; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-08-01

    Recent guidelines from the World Health Organization emphasize the need to monitor the social determinants of health, with particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. With this in mind, we evaluated the access, use and perceived quality of care received by migrant women during pregnancy and early motherhood, in a large urban area in northern Portugal. We performed semi-structured interviews in 25 recent mothers, contacted through welfare institutions, who had immigrated from Eastern European countries, Brazil, or Portuguese-speaking African countries. Six native-Portuguese women of equal economic status were also interviewed for comparison. Misinformation about legal rights and inadequate clarification during medical appointments frequently interacted with social determinants, such as low social-economic status, unemployment, and poor living conditions, to result in lower perceived quality of healthcare. Special attention needs to be given to the most vulnerable populations in order to improve healthcare. Challenges reside not only in assuring access, but also in promoting equity in the quality of care.

  8. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine levels during late pregnancy and early lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johke, Tetsu; Hodate, Kouichi

    1977-01-01

    Changes of serum prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in Holstein dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation were determined by radioimmunoassays. The cows calved in September. Mean serum PRL ranged 9.9 ng/ml to 12.4 ng/ml during the 3rd to 7th day prepartum. It increased to a peak value of 87.3 ng/ml on the day of parturition from 57.5 ng/ml on the day before calving, and decreased to 13.9 ng/ml within 3 days postpartum. During the 2nd to 30th day prepartum, serum GH varied between 2.4 and 4.0 ng/ml and increased to 8.0 ng/ml on the day of calving. During a week postpartum, serum GH ranged from 5.2 to 8.2 ng/ml. Mean serum GH during a week postpartum was higher than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). Mean serum T3 level during 5 days prepartum varied 104.2 to 108.8 ng/dl and decreased to 93 ng/dl on the day of calving. During 5 days postpartum, mean T3 level varied 73.0 to 83.8 ng/dl. Contrary to GH, mean serum T3 level during 5 day postpartum was significantly lower than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). (auth.)

  9. Health Resources and Strategies among Employed Women in Norway during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstveit, Marit; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2015-01-01

    The number of women in paid employment is increasing. However, when becoming a mother for the first time, many seem unprepared for the challenge of balancing motherhood and work as well as for the impact on their health. The aim of this study was to investigate the health resources and strategies of employed women in Norway during pregnancy and early motherhood by means of salutogenic theory. A hypothetical-deductive interpretive approach based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory was applied in a secondary analysis. A total of six themes were identified; three were classified as health resources when experiencing tension and three as health strategies. Salutogenic theory seems to be a useful framework for illuminating the health resources and strategies adopted by employed women who become mothers. The identified health resources when experiencing tension and the health strategies applied may have implications for maternity care professionals and employers in promoting the health of such women and supporting them to combine work and family life. PMID:25945258

  10. Decidualization and angiogenesis in early pregnancy: unravelling the functions of DC and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Klapp, Burghard F; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2011-03-01

    Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells and formation of new maternal blood vessels at the time of embryo implantation are critical for the establishment and maintenance of gestation. The regulatory functions of decidual leukocytes during early pregnancy, particularly dendritic cells (DC) and NK cells, may be important not only for the generation of maternal immunological tolerance but also in the regulation of stromal cell differentiation and the vascular responses associated with the implantation process. However, the specific contributions of DC and NK cells during implantation are still difficult to dissect mainly due to reciprocal regulatory interactions established between them within the decidualizing microenvironment. The present review article discusses current evidence on the regulatory pathways driving decidualization in mice, suggesting that NK cells promote uterine vascular modifications that assist decidual growth but DC directly control stromal cell proliferation, angiogenesis and the homing and maturation of NK cell precursors in the pregnant uterus. Thus, successful implantation appears to result from an interplay between cellular components of the decidualizing endometrium involving immunoregulatory and pro-angiogenic functions of DC and NK cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early pregnancy clinical risk factors for preeclampsia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestergaard, Marianne; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg

    Aim: To assess the prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and to identify early clinical, modifiable predictors of preeclampsia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 type 1 and 187 type 2...... diabetes), included at their first antenatal visit at 11±6 gestational weeks (mean±SD) from 2012 to 2016. Predictors of preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit were sought identified. Results: At the first antenatal visit HbA1c was 6.9±2.3 % (51±10 mmol/mol) vs. 6.8±2.6 % (49±14 mmol/mol) and blood...... pressure 120±12/76±8 mmHg vs. 122±14/79±10 mmHg, (p=0.16/p=0.001) in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Preeclampsia developed in 40 women at 36±3 gestational weeks with delivery 8±9 days later. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 8% (9% vs. 7%) and gestational hypertension 8% (9% vs. 6...

  12. Sex determination using free fetal DNA in early pregnancy: With the approach to sex linked recessive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Monfaredan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prenatal diagnosis is testing for detection of diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. Most of prenatal diagnostic (PD techniques are invasive and done in late stages of pregnancy. Using fetal DNA in maternal blood for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy might help in management of X-linked genetic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of sex determination using fetal DNA in maternal blood at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 pregnant women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The sex-determining region Y (SRY gene expression with the internal control (IC glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was investigated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers and probes. Results: Accuracy of sex determination with SRY gene expression in 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were 85%, 85%, 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that fetal sex determining using fetal DNA in maternal blood is a reliable method for early stage of pregnancy.

  13. Goserelin with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function in pre-menopausal women with early breast cancer: menstruation and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M; O'Neill, S; Walsh, G; Smith, I E

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC) are major concerns for young women. The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists with chemotherapy in EBC in reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause remains uncertain, and long-term data on the recovery of fertility are sparse. We report an audit of our experience with the GnRH agonist, goserelin (Zoladex®), used with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and maintain fertility. Pre-menopausal women were given goserelin subcutaneously every 28 days during chemotherapy, starting 0-14 days before treatment. The main clinical end point was recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. The other end points were rate of successful conception and median time to recovery of menses. About 84% of 125 women recovered menstruation with the median time to recovery of 6 months (1-43 months), including 76% of 71 patients aged over 35. Of the 42 patients who attempted pregnancy, 71% (n=30) managed to achieve pregnancies. At the time of analysis, there were 42 pregnancies and 30 healthy deliveries. The GnRH agonist, goserelin, given with chemotherapy for EBC is associated with a low risk of long-term chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea and a high chance of pregnancy. Further randomised trials are needed.

  14. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  15. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Impact of new society of radiologists in ultrasound early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maowen; Poder, Liina; Filly, Roy A

    2014-09-01

    New early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound via a multispecialty consensus panel extended the diagnostic size criteria of crown-rump length from 5 to 7 mm for embryos without a heartbeat and mean sac diameter from 16 to 25 mm for "empty" sacs. Our study assessed the potential impact of the new criteria on the number of additional follow-up sonograms these changes would engender. A retrospective study of all first-trimester sonograms in women with first trimester bleeding from 1999 to 2008 was conducted. Everyone included in the study had a visible gestational sac in the uterus. There were no pregnancies of unknown location or ectopic pregnancies included in this study cohort. Pregnancy of unknown location was used to describe cases in which there were no signs of pregnancy inside or outside the uterus on transvaginal sonography despite a positive pregnancy test result. A total of 1013 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seven hundred fifty-two patients (74%) had identifiable embryos, and 261 (26%) did not. Of those with an identifiable embryo, 286 (38%) had no detectable embryonic cardiac activity. The breakdown of crown-rump lengths in this group was as follows: 100 measuring less than 5 mm, 36 measuring 5 to 7 mm, and 150 measuring 7 mm or greater. The breakdown of mean sac diameters in those without a visible embryo was as follows: 120 measuring less than 16 mm, 90 measuring 16 to 25 mm, and 51 measuring 25 mm or greater. When diagnosing a failed pregnancy, there can be no room for error. Only 126 of 1013 early pregnancies threatening to abort (12%) fell into the more conservative zones defined by the new compared to the former size criteria (crown-rump length, 5-7 mm; mean sac diameter, 16-25 mm). Therefore, the potential impact of the new guidelines on follow-up sonograms does not appear inordinate. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum infection early in pregnancy has profound consequences for fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Matondo, Sungwa; Minja, Daniel T R

    2017-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in areas of endemicity. The World Health Organization recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated fetal growth by ultrasonography and birth outcomes...

  20. The effect of obesity on early fetal growth and pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of maternal obesity on fetal size in first- and second-trimester pregnancies and to determine duration of pregnancy as estimated by a variety of methods. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2011, a cohort study included (n = 9055) singleto...

  1. Accuracy of single progesterone test to predict early pregnancy outcome in women with pain or bleeding: meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Jorine; Gallos, Ioannis D.; van Mello, Norah M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Harb, Hoda; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy with which a single progesterone measurement in early pregnancy discriminates between viable and non-viable pregnancy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest,

  2. Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffelaar, Evelien R.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon

    2010-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may account for reduced fetal growth and for altered neonatal development. The present study explored the association between maternal vitamin D status measured early in pregnancy and birth weight, prevalence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and

  3. The added value of mifepristone to non-surgical treatment regimens for uterine evacuation in case of early pregnancy failure: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Gordon, B.B.; Snijders, M.P.M.L.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.; Coppus, S.F.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): Early pregnancy failure (EPF) is a common complication of pregnancy. Surgical intervention carries a risk of complications and, therefore, medical treatment appears to be a safe alternative. Unfortunately, the current medical treatment with misoprostol alone has complete evacuation

  4. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Onset of bell's palsy in late pregnancy and early puerperium is associated with worse long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Heiser, Alyssa; Gaudin, Robert; Hadlock, Tessa A; Jowett, Nate

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of Bell's palsy (BP) is elevated in the late phases of pregnancy. Controversy exists as to whether pregnancy is a risk factor for worse outcomes in BP, and whether such outcomes are the result of factors intrinsic to pregnancy or the tendency to withhold medical therapy in this cohort. Long-term facial function outcomes in cases of pregnancy-associated BP (PABP) were compared against outcomes in cases affecting nonpregnant adult women of child-bearing age by a blinded expert using the electronic clinician-graded facial function scale (eFACE) facial grading system. Fifty-one pregnancy-associated cases and 58 nonpregnancy-associated cases were included. Among patients who received early corticosteroid therapy, significantly worse static, synkinesis, and composite facial function eFACE scores were demonstrated among cases of PABP compared to nonpregnancy-associated cases (static median = 86 vs. 92.5, P = 0.005; synkinesis median = 79 vs. 86, P = 0.007; composite median = 78 vs. 84, P = 0.023). Among those not treated with corticosteroids, significantly worse dynamic and composite facial function eFACE scores were demonstrated in cases of PABP compared to those for nonpregnancy-associated cases (dynamic median = 74 vs. 92.5, P = 0.038; composite median = 73 vs. 86.5, P = 0.038). A trend toward improved outcomes was demonstrated within both groups for those treated with corticosteroids compared to those who were not. In comparison to cases unrelated to pregnancy, late-term PABP is associated with worse long-term outcomes to a degree that cannot solely be explained by differences in medical therapy. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2854-2859, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Early expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 22 (PSG22) by trophoblast cells modulates angiogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Tirado-González, Irene; Wu, Julie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Johnson, Briana; Warren, James; Freitag, Nancy; Klapp, Burghard F; Irmak, Ster; Ergun, Suleyman; Dveskler, Gabriela S

    2012-06-01

    Mouse and human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are known to exert immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy by inducing maternal leukocytes to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote a tolerogenic decidual microenvironment. Many such anti-inflammatory mediators also function as proangiogenic factors, which, along with the reported association of murine PSG with the uterine vasculature, suggest that PSG may contribute to the vascular adaptations necessary for successful implantation and placental development. We observed that PSG22 is strongly expressed around the embryonic crypt on Gestation Day 5.5, indicating that trophoblast giant cells are the main source of PSG22 during the early stages of pregnancy. PSG22 treatment up-regulated the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in murine macrophages, uterine dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. A possible role of PSGs in uteroplacental angiogenesis is further supported by the finding that incubation of endothelial cells with PSG22 resulted in the formation of tubes in the presence and absence of VEGFA. We determined that PSG22, like human PSG1 and murine PSG17 and PSG23, binds to the heparan sulfate chains in syndecans. Therefore, our findings indicate that despite the independent evolution and expansion of human and rodent PSG, members in both families have conserved functions that include their ability to induce anti-inflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic factors as well as to induce the formation of capillary structures by endothelial cells. In summary, our results indicate that PSG22, the most abundant PSG expressed during mouse early pregnancy, is likely a major contributor to the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

  7. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  8. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  9. In vivo quantification of {sup 18}F-Fdg uptake in human placenta during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Jan, S.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, F-91401 Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Inst Phys, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Antoine, AP-HP, F-75571 Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IMDCT, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, F-75221 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    {sup 18}F-FDG is the most widely used PET radiopharmaceutical. Nevertheless, no data for {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the human placenta have been reported. We recently reported on embryo dosimetry in a woman who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan during early pregnancy. In the present work we attempt an in vivo quantification of the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by the placenta. The 27-y-old woman received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG for a follow-up study for Hodgkin's lymphoma and was later discovered to be pregnant (embryo age 8 wk). Imaging started 1 h after injection. The maximum placental tissue uptake (SUVmax) was 2.5. This value was conservatively attributed to the entire placental volume, i.e., 45 mL, a value representative of the average dimensions of a normal placenta at 8 wk. On the basis of these measurements, placenta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in our patient was 0.19% of the injected activity. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to derive the photon dose to the embryo from the placenta (0.022 * 10{sup -2} mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG) and from the surrounding amniotic fluid (0.017 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}). This increases our previously calculated dose (3.3 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}) by only a small fraction (1.18%), which does not justify modifying the previous estimate given the overall uncertainties. (authors)

  10. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kohei; Jwa, Seung-Chik; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium) to 0.401 (vitamin C), and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from -0.015 (alcohol) to 0.572 (yogurt), and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Ogawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. Method: We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Results: Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium to 0.401 (vitamin C, and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from −0.015 (alcohol to 0.572 (yogurt, and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. Conclusions: The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan.

  13. Urinary pregnandiol-3-glucuronide and estrone conjugates to creatinine ratios in early pregnancies complicated by vaginal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B J

    1986-10-01

    There is no simple and rapid test available to predict the outcome of an early pregnancy complicated by vaginal bleeding. In this prospective study, 15 women with normal pregnancies collected a weekly urine sample between 6 and 13 weeks' gestation. A single random urine sample was obtained from 15 women with bleeding who continued to carry their child and 50 women who proceeded to have a spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pregnandiol-3-glucuronide (PDG) was determined with the use of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and estrone conjugates (E1C) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The ratios of these metabolites to creatinine (C) were calculated. PDG/C ratios in normal women rose gradually from 6 weeks on. All women with bleeding during a normal pregnancy had ratios in the normal range, but 94% of women with a SAB had ratios below the normal range. The E1C/C ratio remained unchanged from 6 to 11 weeks and then rose rapidly. Until 11 weeks, there was no clear separation between the E1C/C ratios of the women with a SAB and the women with bleeding who continued their pregnancies. The prognosis of threatened abortion can be made by a urinary PDG/C ratio but not by an E1C/C ratio. EMIT is simple and quick and uses technology present in many laboratories.

  14. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  15. Remission, continuation, and incidence of eating disorders during early pregnancy: A validation study on a population-based birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to validate previously published rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy. The previous rate modeling was done by our group (Bulik et al. 2007) and yielded participants halfway into recruitment of the planned 100,000 pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This study aimed to internally validate the findings with the completed cohort. Methods 77267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were included. Participants were split into a “training” sample (n=41243) based on participants in the MoBa version 2 dataset of the original study and a “validation” sample (n=36024) comprising individuals in the MoBa version 5 dataset that were not in the original study (Bulik et al. 2007). Internal validation of all original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the “training” and “validation” samples as well as bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. Results Remission, continuation, and incidence estimates from the “training” sample remained stable when evaluated via a split sample validation procedure. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the “validation” sample were 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.0% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.3% for binge eating disorder (BED), and 0.1% for purging disorder (EDNOS-P). In early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% for BN, 4.8% for BED, and eating disorders during pregnancy. Eating disorders during pregnancy were relatively common, occurring in nearly 1 in every 20 women, although almost all were cases of BED. Pregnancy was a window of remission from BN but a window of vulnerability for onset and continuation of BED. Training to detect the signs and symptoms of eating disorders by obstetricians/gynecologists and interventions to enhance pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

  16. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  17. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. ► SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. ► SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. ► SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. ► Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for α-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22α) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence (α-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22α) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5–E8.5, becomes drastically reduced by E10.5 and is undetectable by E12.5. In conclusion, this study reveals novel aspects of the decidual SA muscular

  18. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  19. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  20. Maternal folate status in early pregnancy and child emotional and behavioral problems: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral

  1. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...... with normal pregnancies. Methods: In the study were included 161 cases with PE and 88 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Plasma PAPP-A and hCGβ were measured between gestational age (GA) 8+2 and 14+0, and cases with early and late onset PE were compared with controls. Results: Median of hCGβ (Mo...

  2. Polyphenols and IUGR pregnancies: Maternal hydroxytyrosol supplementation improves prenatal and early-postnatal growth and metabolism of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vazquez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls. Number and weight of offspring were assessed at birth, on post-natal Day 15 and at weaning (25 days-old. At weaning, body composition and plasma indexes of glucose and lipids were measured. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol was associated with higher mean birth weight, lower incidence of piglets with low birth weight. Afterwards, during the lactation period, piglets in the treated group showed a higher body-weight than control piglets; such effects were even stronger in the most prolific litters. These results suggest that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol may improve pre- and early post-natal development of offspring in pregnancies at risk of IUGR.

  3. Risk of Vaginal Infections at Early Gestation in Patients with Diabetic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Marschalek

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are reported to be at increased risk for infections of the genital tract. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV and Candida colonization at early gestation between pregnant women with and without diabetic conditions during pregnancy. We included data from 8, 486 singleton pregnancies that underwent an antenatal infection screen-and-treat programme at our department. All women with GDM or pre-existing diabetes were retrospectively assigned to the diabetic group (DIAB, whereas non-diabetic women served as controls (CON. Prevalence for BV and Candida colonization was 9% and 14% in the DIAB group, and 9% and 13% in the CON group, respectively (n.s.. No significant difference regarding stillbirth and preterm delivery (PTD, defined as a delivery earlier than 37 + 0 (37 weeks plus 0 days weeks of gestation was found. We could not find an increased risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens at early gestation in pregnant women with diabetes, compared to non-diabetic women. Large prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens during the course of pregnancy in these women.

  4. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  5. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation. PMID:27872858

  6. Peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with Neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Horcajo, Pilar; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Romão, Elton Amorim; Álvarez-García, Gema; Mesquita, Emanuela Polimeni de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. However, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by N. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. In the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10 6 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at early (G1, at day 40 of gestation, dg), mid (G2, 90 dg) and late (G3, 120 dg) gestation, together with a group of non-infected goats as a control group (G4). Seroconversion was observed as early as day 10 post-infection (pi) in all goats from G1 that aborted earlier (10-11 pi). The remaining infected goats had seroconverted by day 14 pi. Similar IFN-γ kinetic profiles were found in sera from goats in G1 and G2 with a significant increase in the IFN-γ levels on days 7 and 10 pi. This increase was not observed in G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine expression was found in all infected groups. IFN-γ and IL-4 showed the highest increase, followed by a weaker up-regulation in TNF-α and IL-10. The lowest up-regulation was observed for IL-12 expression. In summary, this study provides information regarding the dynamics of immune responses and their relationship with the outcome of N. caninum infection in goats during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  8. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B; Windham, Gayle C; Croen, Lisa A; Daniels, Julie L; Lee, Brian K; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E; Fallin, M Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one job during pregnancy. Asthmagen exposure was estimated from a published job-exposure matrix. The adjusted odds ratio for ASD comparing asthmagen-exposed to unexposed was 1.39 (95 % CI 0.96-2.02). Maternal workplace asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD risk in this study, but this result does not exclude some involvement of maternal exposure to asthma-causing agents in ASD.

  9. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Dong Hua; Gu Yan; Zhang Zuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (t β-HCG =4.845, t E =7.655, t P =11.390, P E =9.089, P P =2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  10. Increased risk of severe congenital heart defects in offspring exposed to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tanja Majbrit; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a possible association between maternal use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD). The purpose of this study was to verify this association by using validated data from the Danish EUROCAT...... terminated due to congenital anomalies. The study population consisted of all registered pregnancies (n = 72,280) in Funen, Denmark in the period 1995-2008. SSRI-use was assessed using The Danish National Prescription Registry, information on marital status, maternal educational level, income, and country...... of origin from Statistics Denmark was used as indicators of socioeconomic situation, and the CHD were studied in subgroups defined by EUROCAT. Logistic Regression was used to investigate the association between redeemed prescriptions for SSRIs and CHD. RESULTS: The risk of severe CHD in the offspring...

  11. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies.

  12. A logistic model to predict early pregnancy loss following in vitro fertilization based on 2601 infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yan; Lu, Guangxiu; Ouyang, Yan; lin, Ge; Gong, Fei; Li, Xihong

    2016-03-31

    According to previous studies, even after embryonic cardiac activity is detected, the pregnancy loss rate remains 3-4 %. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in ultrasound parameters between a miscarriage group and an ongoing pregnancy group during the 1(st) trimester and to build a logistic model to predict early pregnancy loss (EPL) after the appearance of embryonic cardiac activity in patients who have undergone in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment. A total of 2601 patients with early singleton pregnancies with embryonic cardiac activity were retrospectively analyzed after IVF from January 2010 to June 2011. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) was performed at 6 to 10 weeks of gestational age (GA). The mean gestational sac diameter (MSD), crown-rump length (CRL), fetal heart rate (FHR), and yolk sac diameter (YSD) were measured by TVS. A total of 2400 patients had an ongoing pregnancy and an additional 201 (7.7 %) patients miscarried during the first trimester after fetal cardiac activity had been established. The maternal age (MA) and infertility duration were much greater, and the MSD, CRL, and FHR were much lower in the miscarriage group than in the ongoing pregnancy group after IVF (P model utilized the following equation: the possibility of EPL = exp(z)/(1 + exp(z)), where z = -21.456 + (0.114 × MA) + (4.305 × × GA) - (0.043 × MSD) - (0.359 × CRL) - (0.091 × FHR) + 2.243 (fluid collection present around the gestational sac (GS)) + 2.519 (when YSD  5.5). The MA, MSD, CRL, YSD, FHR, infertility duration, and fluid collection around the GS were each correlated with EPL after IVF in infertile patients. A logistic model is a useful tool for predicting EPL after the appearance of embryonic cardiac activity (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.909).

  13. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis E; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Kühl, Anja A; Drews, Barbara

    2014-05-10

    Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9-11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart

  14. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  15. Lifestyle patterns in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnoses when using IADPSG criteria. The St Carlos gestational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gracia, Teresa; Duran, Alejandra; Fuentes, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Carrera, Evelyn F; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Valle, Laura Del; García de la Torre, Nuria; Bedia, Ana R; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-06-01

    Early-pregnancy lifestyle (EPL) could influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), depending on the diagnostic criteria used. We studied EPL in 1750 pregnant women using Carpenter-Coustan criteria(CCc), and in 1526 with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria(IADPSGc). GDM risk factors were assessed in women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age during two consecutive years. A semiquantitative frequent-food-consumption questionnaire was used to evaluate lifestyle during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess GDM risk with different lifestyle patterns. Using IADPSGc, the GDM ORs (95%CI) for intake/week were: nuts >3 times: 0.59 (0.39-0.91; p < 0.015), refined cereals ≤1 serving: 0.72(0.58-0.89; p < 0.003), juices <4 servings: 0.77 (0.62-0.95; p < 0.017), cookies and pastries <4 servings: 0.71(0.57-0.89; p < 0.003) as compared to opposite habits. No significant nutritional patterns were found to be significant using CCc. The OR (95%CI) for GDM with none of the four risk patterns as compared to having three-four risk factors was 0.21(0.07-0.62; p < 0.005), remaining significant after stratification by BMI, age, obstetric events, parity and family history. The multiple logistic regression model including nutritional categories and pregestational BMI, age, obstetric history, parity, personal/family history, had an area under the curve(AUC) of the receiver operating curve(ROC) for the probability to predict GDM of 0.66 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.69; p < 0.001). Our study is the first to identify four early-pregnancy nutritional patterns associated with the GDM when using IADPSGc. Adherence to a low-risk nutritional pattern from early pregnancy on could be an effective strategy for GDM prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  17. Static trunk posture in sitting and standing during pregnancy and early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Wendy L; Crosbie, Jack; Smith, Richard

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the postural alignment of the upper body in the sagittal plane during sitting and standing postures as pregnancy progressed and then in the postpartum period. Longitudinal, repeated-measures design. Biomechanics laboratory in an Australian university. A volunteer convenience sample of 9 primiparous and multiparous women and 12 nulliparous women serving as a control group. Not applicable. Subjects were filmed while sitting and during quiet standing at intervals throughout pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess systematic changes in the alignment of the pelvic, thoracic, and head segments, and the thoracolumbar and cervicothoracic spines. Student t tests were used to compare the postpartum and nulliparous control groups. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on the upper-body posture, although there was a tendency in some subjects for a flatter thoracolumbar spinal curve in sitting as pregnancy progressed. Postpartum during standing, the pelvic segment had a reduced sagittal plane anterior orientation, and the thoracolumbar spine was less extended, indicating a flatter spinal curve compared with the control group. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on upper-body posture during sitting and standing, although individuals varied in their postural response. A flatter spinal curve was found during standing postpartum. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Díaz-Rúa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  19. Androgen receptor in early apoptotic follicles in the porcine ovary at pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Tabarowski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Localization of androgen receptor (AR was investigated in ovarian follicles developing and undergoing atresia during pregnancy in the pig. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted on ovarian antral follicles isolated on different days of gestation: 10, 18, 32, 50, 70, and 90. Paraffin sections were also subjected to in situ DNA labeling. TUNEL staining revealed the presence of positive follicles on all days of pregnancy but the amount of atretic follicles increased with time. However, even on day 90 of gestation many follicles were normal, with no signs of atresia. In atretic follicles, apoptotic cells were localized predominantly in the granulosa while theca was much less affected. Atretic follicles with many apoptotic cells were negative for AR. Nuclear immunostaining for AR was positive in follicles with limited amount of apoptotic cells. The same relationship was observed in ovarian follicles isolated at various days of pregnancy.

  20. Early primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: maternal hyperimmunoglobulin therapy improves outcomes among infants at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Silvia; Manara, Renzo; Milanese, Laura; Da Roit, Anna; Forner, Gabriella; Salviato, Eleonora; Citton, Valentina; Magno, Fioretta Marciani; Orzan, Eva; Morando, Carla; Cusinato, Riccardo; Mengoli, Carlo; Palu, Giorgio; Ermani, Mario; Rinaldi, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Gussetti, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Early CMV infection carries a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome (sensorineural hearing loss or neurological deficits). Intravenous hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) therapy seems to be promising, but its efficacy needs further investigation. Since 2002, we have enrolled consecutively all pregnant women with early (ie, before gestational week 17) CMV infection. Beginning in 2007, all women were offered treatment with HIG (200 UI per kilogram of maternal weight, in a single intravenous administration). Outcome of infants was evaluated at the age of 1 year. Of the 592 women with early primary CMV infection, amniocentesis for CMV DNA detection was performed for 446. Of the 92 CMV-positive fetuses, pregnancy was terminated for 24, HIG was administered to mothers of 31, and no treatment was received by mothers of 37. Fetuses of treated mothers did not differ from fetuses of nontreated mothers according to mother's age, gestational week of infection, CMV load, or detection of abnormal ultrasonography findings. At the 1-year evaluation, 4 of 31 infants with treated mothers (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-25%) and 16 of 37 infants with nontreated mothers (43%; 95% CI, 27%-59%) presented with poor outcomes (P primary CMV infection before gestational week 17.

  1. Risks of fetus irradiation in X-ray and radioisotope examinations in early stages of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Wiedermann, M.; Susila, M.; Ryznar, V.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation burden is discussed of the fetus in pregnancy. During organogenesis the fetus is not capable of repairs; irradiation causes growth inhibition and malformations. In the last trimestre, irradiation causes disturbances in the somatic growth, leukemia is found in greater incidence in newly-borns. Doses are tabulated from commonest X-ray examinations and the applications of radiopharmaceuticals. The said doses are only valid for the first five weeks of pregnancy; when the thyroid starts functioning, the total dose retained in the thyroid after the application of radiopharmaceuticals may be higher. (H.S.)

  2. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyakala Rajendran; Suthanthira Devi

    2015-01-01

    The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. ...

  3. Characterization of the Th profile of the bovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian J Oliveira

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh, T- cytotoxic (LTc, gamma delta-T (γδT and natural killer (NK lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells, CD4 (LTh, CD8 (LTc, γδT cell receptor (TCR and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg cells and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment.

  4. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period

  5. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  6. Hyperglycaemia in early pregnancy: the Treatment of Booking Gestational diabetes Mellitus (TOBOGM) study. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David; Hague, William M; Teede, Helena J; Cheung, N Wah; Hibbert, Emily J; Nolan, Christopher J; Peek, Michael J; Girosi, Federico; Cowell, Christopher T; Wong, Vincent W-M; Flack, Jeff R; McLean, Mark; Dalal, Raiyomand; Robertson, Annette; Rajagopal, Rohit

    2018-05-28

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes adverse pregnancy outcomes that can be averted by treatment from 24-28 weeks' gestation. Assessing and treating women for overt diabetes in pregnancy (ODIP) at the first antenatal clinic booking is now recommended in international guidelines. As a consequence, women with milder hyperglycaemia are being diagnosed and treated for early GDM, but randomised controlled trial (RCTs) assessing the benefits and harms of such treatment have not been undertaken. The Treatment Of Booking Gestational diabetes Mellitus (TOBOGM) study is a multi-centre RCT examining whether diagnosing and treating GDM diagnosed at booking improves pregnancy outcomes. Methods and analysis: 4000 adult pregnant women (lean body mass. The primary maternal outcome is pre-eclampsia. Ethics approval: South Western Sydney Local Health District Research and Ethics Office (reference, 15/LPOOL/551). Dissemination of results: Peer-reviewed publications, scientific meetings, collaboration with research groups undertaking comparable studies, discussions with guideline groups and policy makers. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000924459.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  8. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  9. Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B

    2009-01-01

    score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe...

  10. Treatment of thyroid disorders before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, R.; van den Boogaard, E.; van Wely, M.; van der Post, J. A.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P. H.; Goddijn, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are associated with pregnancy complications. Universal screening is currently not recommended because of a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of treatment. Women with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism evidently require treatment but this is less clear for women with subclinical

  11. Cigarette smoking during early pregnancy reduces the number of embryonic germ and somatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn; Lutterodt, M C; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first-trimeste......BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first......-trimester gonads in relation to maternal smoking. METHODS: The study includes 24 human first-trimester testes, aged 37-68 days post-conception, obtained from women undergoing legal termination of pregnancy. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. Validated...... confounders such as alcohol and coffee consumption (P = 0.002). The number of germ cells in embryonic gonads, irrespective of gender, was also significantly reduced by 41% (95% CI 58-19%, P = 0.001) in exposed versus non-exposed embryonic gonads. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke...

  12. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Bieleninik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3, including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III and subjectively by their mother. Additionally, medical and nursing documentation was analyzed. Individual psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy is different with regards to various spheres, and has different rates and dynamics throughout consecutive years. Psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancies is determined by gender and postnatal clinical parameters, i.e. birth weight, head circumference, postnatal morbidity, and prematurity-related conditions.

  13. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, M.C. (Matteo C.); J.G.M. Jelsma (Judith G. M.); Bogaerts, A. (Annick); Simmons, D. (David); G. Desoye (Gernot); R. Corcoy (Rosa); J.M. Adelantado (Juan M); A. Kautzky-Willer (Alexandra); J. Harreiter (Jurgen); van Assche, F.A. (Frans A.); R. Devlieger (Roland); G. Jans (Goele); S. Galjaard (Sander); D.J. Hill (David); P. Damm (Peter); E. Mathiesen (E.); E. Wender-Ozegowska (Ewa); A. Zawiejska (Agnieszka); Blumska, K. (Kinga); A. Lapolla (Annunziata); M.G. Dalfra (Maria G.); A. Bertolotto (Alessandra); F. Dunne (Fidelma); D.M. Jensen (Dorte M.); Andersen, L.L.T. (Lise Lotte T.); F.J. Snoek (Frank); M.N. van Poppel (Mireille)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with

  14. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Matteo C.; Jelsma, Judith G. M.; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A.; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a

  15. Associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bai (Guannan); I.J. Korfage (Ida); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Mautner, E. (Eva); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early

  16. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...... expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group...... included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  18. Maternal serum C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Mohamadi, Bita; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohamad; Aliyan Moghadam, Narges

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and later occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. A prospective cohort study that measured maternal serum CRP levels in 778 pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy was performed in the city of Noor (north Iran), and included follow-up of patients up to time of delivery. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth were defined as the occurrence of membranes rupture and birth, respectively before 37 weeks of gestation. Of the 778 pregnancies studied, 19 (2.41%) preterm premature rupture of membranes and 58 (7.3%) preterm births were seen. Median CRP levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth cases were much higher than in term deliveries (7 and 6.8 respectively vs 2.4 mg/L; 66.67 and 64.76, respectively vs 24.38 nmol/L). CRP levels >4 mg/L had statistically significant relationships with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.07-16.89) and preterm birth (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.60-17.43). With a cut-off level of 4 mg/L of CRP, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-) ) for preterm birth were 81, 70, 2.70, 0.28%, respectively, and for preterm premature rupture of membranes they were 79, 67, 2.41 and 0.31%, respectively. It seems that the inflammatory marker, CRP, can be used in the early stages of pregnancy to identify women at risk of experiencing preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Prediabetes in pregnancy, can early intervention improve outcomes? A feasibility study for a parallel randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ruth C E; Rowan, Janet; Williman, Jonathan

    2018-03-03

    Measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in early pregnancy is routine in New Zealand to identify women with diabetes and prediabetes. However, the benefit of early intervention in women with prediabetes is inconclusive. Our aim was to test the feasibility of a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of standard care versus early intervention in pregnancies complicated by prediabetes. Two tertiary referral centres in New Zealand. Women measured at booking, without pre-existing diabetes. Randomisation was done by remote web-based allocation into one of two groups. Women in the early intervention group attended an antenatal diabetes clinic, commenced daily home blood glucose monitoring, and medication was prescribed if lifestyle measures failed to maintain target blood glucose levels. Controls received lifestyle education, continued standard care with their midwife and/or obstetrician, and were asked to perform a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24 weeks' gestation with a referral to clinic if this test was positive. Both groups received lifestyle questionnaires at recruitment and in late pregnancy. Recruitment rate, adherence to protocol and validation of potential primary outcomes. Recruitment rates were lower than expected, especially in Māori and Pacific women. Non-adherence to allocated treatment protocol was significant, 42% (95% CI 24% to 61%) in the early intervention group and 30% (95% CI 16% to 51%) in controls. Caesarean section and pre-eclampsia were signalled as potential primary outcomes, due to both the high observed incidence in the control group and ease of measurement. For a future definitive trial, extending the gestation of eligibility and stepped-wedge cluster randomisation may overcome the identified feasibility issues. Consistent with published observational data, pre-eclampsia and emergency caesarean section could be included as primary outcome measures, both of which have a significant impact on maternal and neonatal morbidity and

  20. Low omega-3 index values and monounsaturated fatty acid levels in early pregnancy: an analysis of maternal erythrocytes fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Axelle; Bernardy, Florence; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Dardenne, Nadia; Degée, Sylvie; Timmermans, Marie; Nisolle, Michelle; Guillaume, Michèle; Castronovo, Vincenzo

    2018-04-02

    It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Because of the lack of cutoff values, reference ranges were used to determine fatty acids categories. Of concern, our data revealed low monounsaturated and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status in most participants. More than 75% of Belgian pregnant women exhibited Pal, AO and EPA levels as well as IOM3 values below the laboratory reference ranges. Higher DHA concentrations and IOM3 values were found among foreign-nationality participants, non-smokers and physically active women. With regard to dietary factors, omega-3 supplements and diet seem to be complementary since DHA from supplements (but not from diet) and EPA from diet (but not from supplements) were found to be associated with higher concentrations of DHA and EPA, respectively. Our study presents evidence demonstrating that the fatty acid status of most early pregnant women is far from being optimal based on the admitted general reference values. Clinicians should be advice to carefully evaluate and improve this status to guarantee the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

  1. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  2. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...

  3. Achieving an early pregnancy following allogeneic uterine transplantation in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saso, Srdjan; Petts, Gemma; David, Anna L; Thum, Meen-Yau; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Vicente, Jose S; Marco-Jimenez, Francisco; Corless, David; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David; Lindsay, Iain; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J Richard

    2015-02-01

    Uterine transplantation (UTx) has been proposed as a treatment option for women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). The goal of UTx remains achieving pregnancy and live birth of a healthy neonate following allogeneic UTx. Our aim was to assess whether fertility was possible following allogeneic uterine transplantation (UTx), when the recipient had demonstrated long-term survival and had been administered immunosuppression. Nine allogeneic UTx in New Zealand White rabbits were performed using a pre-determined protocol. Tacrolimus was the immunosuppressant selected. Embryos were transferred into both cornua of the sole living recipient via a mini-midline laparotomy. The pregnancy was monitored with regular reproductive profiles and serial trans-abdominal ultrasound to measure conceptus growth (gestation sac and crown rump length (CRL)). In the sole surviving doe a gestation sac was visualised on ultrasound from Day 9 (D9) after embryo transfer. Gestation sac diameter and CRL increased from D9 to D16 but by D18 the gestation sac had reduced in size. The fetus was no longer visible, suggesting fetal resorption had occurred. Subsequent scans on D22 and D25 did not demonstrate a gestation sac. Scheduled necropsy on D27 and histopathology confirmed evidence of a gravid uterus and presence of a gestational sac. A single episode of acute rejection occurred on D13. Pregnancy was achieved after rabbit allogeneic UTx but serial ultrasound suggested that fetal demise occurred prior to scheduled necropsy. The study represents only the third example of conception and pregnancy following an animal allogeneic UTx. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Achieving an early pregnancy following allogeneic uterine transplantation in a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Saso, Srdjan; Petts, Gemma; David, Anna L.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Vicente Antón, José Salvador; Marco Jiménez, Francisco; Corless, David; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David; Lindsay, Iain; Del Priorei, Giuseppe; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Objective: Uterine transplantation (UTx) has been proposed as a treatment option for women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). The goal of UTx remains achieving pregnancy and live birth of a healthy neonate following allogeneic UTx. Our aim was to assess whether fertility was possible following allogeneic uterine transplantation (UTx), when the recipient had demonstrated long-term survival and had been administered immunosuppression. Study desig...

  5. Metformin exposure in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn; Viftrup-Lund, Mette; Gade, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether metformin affects the rate of first trimester spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations in women with PCOS. Design. Consecutive series of metformin treated women with a questionnaire followup. Setting. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at H...... is comparable with the risk in the general population. Our low incidence of malformations warrants further investigation on adverse and beneficial effects of metformin during pregnancy....

  6. Early experience with repeated determinations of 131-I-hipuran clearance-equivalent during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, R; Stoll, W; Arndt, J

    1981-07-01

    Serial observations of ureteric and renal function during pregnancy were carried out by using isotope clearances; renal scintigraphy was performed for the first examination and isotope nephrography subsequently. The results of both types of examination are tabulated. It is shown that these procedures provide the necessary information on renal and ureteric function, given the indications which we have listed. The information concerns both kidneys or can be confined to a single kidney.

  7. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment among Women in Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…

  8. Poison, Pregnancy and Protestants: Gossip and Scandal at the Early Modern French Court

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenna, Una

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the scandalous case of Isabelle de Limeuil, a lady-in-waiting to the sixteenth century French queen mother Catherine de Medici, whose notorious affair with the Protestant Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé, illegitimate pregnancy, public birth and subsequent imprisonment for attempted poisoning was the stuff of gossip at courts across Europe. Given the multiplicity of scandalous factors in this case, and the historical contingency of many of those factors, the story of Is...

  9. Central-peripheral temperature gradient: an early diagnostic sign of late-onset neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leante-Castellanos, José Luis; Lloreda-García, José M; García-González, Ana; Llopis-Baño, Caridad; Fuentes-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Alonso-Gallego, José Ángel; Martínez-Gimeno, Antonio

    2012-04-22

    We assessed central-peripheral temperature gradient alteration for the diagnosis of late-onset neonatal sepsis and compared earliness detection of this sign with altered blood cell count and C-reactive protein. Thirty-one preterm babies (peripheral) temperatures were continuously monitored with a thermal probe (ThermoTracer; Dräger Medical AGF & Co. KgaA, Lübeck, Germany) adjusting incubator air temperature for a thermal gradient peripheral temperature alteration was defined as a thermal gradient >2°C that could not be corrected with protocolized air temperature modifications. Proven (positive blood culture) sepsis and probable late-onset sepsis were recorded. Late-onset sepsis was diagnosed in 11 neonates (proven, 9; probable, 2). Thermal gradient alteration was present in 12 cases, in association with the onset of sepsis in 10 and concomitantly with a ductus arteriosus and stage 1 necrotizing enterocolitis in 2. Thermal gradient alteration had a sensitivity of 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-98.4] and specificity of 90% (95% CI, 69.9-97.2%), and in 80% of cases, it occurred before abnormal laboratory findings. Central-peripheral temperature gradient monitoring is a feasible, non-invasive, and simple tool easily applicable in daily practice. An increase of >2°C showed a high-sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of late-onset sepsis.

  10. Early fatherhood: a mapping of the evidence base relating to pregnancy prevention and parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D; Brooks, F; Bunn, F; Graham, M

    2009-12-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual health programmes that are most effective from the perspective of young men. We conducted a systematic mapping to identify studies involving young men aimed at preventing teenage pregnancy, improving outcomes for teenage fathers or exploring the perspectives of young men around pregnancy and fatherhood. We searched a wide range of electronic databases from January 1996 to August 2008. Three quantitative and 15 qualitative studies were identified, of which nine were UK based. Key themes related to the inappropriateness of current sexual health promotion to respond to the needs of young men. While young men often possessed very similar ideals to young women, existing programmes were problematic when they negatively stereotyped young men and ineffectively addressed models of masculinity or the difficulties young men may have forming meaningful relationships. Further investigations are required on programme development for young men, particularly on sexual health promotion interventions for 'looked-after' young men and those from unstable childhoods.

  11. The role of elevated central-peripheral temperature difference in early detection of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussat, M; Vogtmann, C; Gebauer, C; Pulzer, F; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the association between clinical symptoms and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants with the aim of identifying a non-invasive tool for the early detection of LOS. This was a prospective study of 83 episodes of suspected LOS in 67 preterm infants. At the time LOS was suspected, we recorded a standardized set of clinical symptoms. A diagnosis of "clinical LOS" (Clin-LOS), "culture-proven LOS" (Prov-LOS) or "LOS not present" (No-LOS) was made on the basis of C-reactive protein (CrP) and blood culture results where Clin-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l, Prov-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l AND positive blood cultures, or it was established that there was no sepsis present (No-LOS). We examined univariable associations between clinical signs and LOS using odds ratio (OR) analysis and then adjusted the odds ratio (adOR) through binary regression analysis. Clin-LOS was diagnosed in 20/83 episodes, 19 cases were found to have Prov-LOS. Clinical signs which had a significant association with Clin-LOS were capillary refill time >2s (OR 2.9) and decreased responsiveness (OR 5.2), whereas there was a negative association between gastric residuals and LOS (OR 0.35). However, the most marked association was found for a greater central-peripheral temperature difference (cpTD) >2°C (OR 9). In Prov-LOS an increased heart rate (OR 3.1), prolonged capillary refill time (OR 3.3) and again an increased cpTD (OR 16) had a significant association with LOS, whereas gastric residuals were negatively associated (OR 0.29). Regression analysis showed that cpTD was the most striking clinical sign associated with both Clin- (adOR 6.3) and Prov-LOS (adOR 10.5). Prolonged capillary refill time and - more impressive - elevated cpTD were the most useful clinical symptoms for detection of LOS in preterm infants. We especially suggest using cpTD as a predictor of LOS. It is a cheap, non-invasive and readily available tool for daily routines. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  12. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers...

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Altered Protein Expression in the Placental Villous Tissue of Early Pregnancy Loss Using Isobaric Tandem Mass Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pregnant women suffer miscarriages during early gestation, but the description of these early pregnancy losses (EPL can be somewhat confusing because of the complexities of early development. Thus, the identification of proteins with different expression profiles related to early pregnancy loss is essential for understanding the comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism. In this study, we report a gel-free tandem mass tags- (TMT- labeling based proteomic analysis of five placental villous tissues from patients with early pregnancy loss and five from normal pregnant women. The application of this method resulted in the identification of 3423 proteins and 19647 peptides among the patient group and the matched normal control group. Qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis revealed 51 proteins to be differentially abundant between the two groups (≥1.2-fold, Student's t-test, P<0.05. To obtain an overview of the biological functions of the proteins whose expression levels altered significantly in EPL group, gene ontology analysis was performed. We also investigated the twelve proteins with a difference over 1.5-fold using pathways analysis. Our results demonstrate that the gel-free TMT-based proteomic approach allows the quantification of differences in protein expression levels, which is useful for obtaining molecular insights into early pregnancy loss.

  14. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  15. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  16. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autism: maternal and infant peripheral blood levels in the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Goines, Paula; Braunschweig, Daniel; Yolken, Robert; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Grether, Judith K.; Fireman, Bruce; Kharrazi, Martin; Hansen, Robin; Van de Water, Judy

    2008-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioral characteristics. There is currently no laboratory test that can be done to identify autism. In this study, we investigated a molecule called brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a possible early biologic marker for autism. BDNF is a small protein found throughout the central nervous system and in circulating blood. We measured the level of BDNF in blood collected from women during pregnancy and from their babies at birth. We found that the concentration of BDNF in the maternal mid-pregnancy and newborn blood specimens was similar for children with autism, children with mental retardation, and children with typical development. The results of this study suggest that BDNF is unlikely to be a useful early biologic marker for autism. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Objective To investigate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens as early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study nested within the cohort of infants born from July 2000 – September 2001 to women who participated in the prenatal screening program in Orange County, California. Cases (n=84) were all children receiving services for autism at the Regional Center of Orange County. Two comparison groups from the same study population were included: children with mental retardation or developmental delay (n=49) receiving services at the same regional center, and children not receiving services for developmental disabilities, randomly sampled from the California birth certificate files (n=159), and frequency-matched to autism cases on sex, birth year, and birth month. BDNF concentrations were measured in archived mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens drawn during routine prenatal and newborn screening using a highly sensitive bead-based assay (Luminex). Results The concentration of BDNF in maternal mid-pregnancy and neonatal specimens was

  18. Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, K G; Lee, Y Q; Weatherall, L; Keogh, L; Diehm, C; Roberts, C T; Eades, S; Brown, A; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Brown, L J; Collins, C E; Rae, K M

    2018-05-16

    Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.

  19. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  20. EG-VEGF Maintenance Over Early Gestation to Develop a Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Déborah; Sergent, Frédéric; Abi Nahed, Roland; Brouillet, Sophie; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, multiple animal models have been developed to mimic hallmarks of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) diseases, which include gestational hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), or eclampsia. Converging in vitro, ex vivo, and clinical studies from our group strongly suggested the potential involvement of the new angiogenic factor EG-VEGF (endocrine gland-derived-VEGF) in the development of PIH. Here, we described the protocol that served to demonstrate that maintenance of EG-VEGF production over 11.5 days post coitus (dpc) in the gravid mice caused the development of PIH. The developed model exhibited most hallmarks of preeclampsia.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enato, E F O; Mens, P F; Okhamafe, A O; Okpere, E E; Pogoson, E; Schallig, H D F H

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and estimated 25% by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of education of the study participants was relatively high, antimalarial control measures during pregnancy were found to be poorly utilised by the women and malaria care-seeking was often delayed. A minority of the interviewed pregnant women said they had received sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) during current pregnancy. Moreover, the use of inferior antimalaria treatment (e.g. chloroquine) was frequent. The majority of the pregnant women, mainly primigravidae, were anaemic. Efforts to improve antimalaria healthcare must be intensified, targeting pregnant women, particularly the primigravidae and secundigravidae and the healthcare providers.

  4. Contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy and lead exposure to early child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Pine, D S; Graziano, J H

    2001-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy elevates risk for later child behavior problems. Because prior studies considered only Western settings, where smoking co-occurs with social disadvantage, we examined this association in Yugoslavia, a different cultural setting. Mothers enrolled in pregnancy as the low-exposure group in a prospective study of lead exposure were interviewed about health, including smoking history. A total of 199 children were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years. Average cumulative blood lead (BPb) was determined from serial samples taken biannually since delivery. Longitudinal analyses were derived from 191 children with available data on behavior and covariates. Smoking was unrelated to social adversity. Controlling for age, gender, birthweight, ethnicity, maternal education, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Acceptance, smoking was associated with worse scores on almost all subscales; BPb concentration was related to small increases in the Delinquency subscale. Daughters of smokers received significantly higher scores on Somatic Complaints compared to daughters of nonsmokers, consistent with other work relating biological factors and internalizing problems in young girls. Because the present smoking/child behavior associations persist after control for individual and social factors also related to behavior problems, possible biological mediators are considered.

  5. Subchorionic hematomas are increased in early pregnancy in women taking low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ashley; Sayago, M Mercedes; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    To determine the frequency of subchorionic hematomas (SCH) in first-trimester ultrasound examinations of patients with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in patients from a general obstetric population. To determine if the method of assisted reproduction utilized or the use of anticoagulants, such as heparin and aspirin (ASA), influenced frequency of SCH. Prospective, cohort study. Fertility clinic and general obstetrics clinic. Five hundred and thirty-three women who were pregnant in the first-trimester. Not applicable. Frequencies of subchorionic hematomas in women based on diagnosis, use of anticoagulants, and fertility treatment. SCH were identified in 129/321 (40.2%) in the study group compared to 23/212 (10.9%) in the control group. Fertility diagnosis and the use of heparin did not appear to affect the frequency of SCH in the first trimester; however, SCH occurred at an almost four-fold increase in patients taking ASA compared to those not taking ASA, regardless of fertility diagnosis or method of fertility treatment. The use of ASA may be associated with an increased risk of developing a SCH during the first trimester. The increased frequencies of SCH in pregnancies of patients attending a fertility clinic compared to women from a general obstetrical practice was highly correlated with the use of ASA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early CD3+/CD15+ peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism patterns correlate with long-term engraftment in non-malignant hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, T G; Flesher, M; Shanley, R; Miller, W

    2014-04-01

    Following hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for non-malignant disorders (NMDs) variable donor chimerism among lympho-hematopoietic lines may be observed. We retrospectively evaluated early post-HSCT, lineage-sorted (CD3+ and CD15+) peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism data to characterize patterns and assess for association with long-term CD15+ engraftment. 'Early' was defined as the first value obtained between days +14 and +42, 'late' as the last recorded value after day +90. 'High' donor chimerism was defined as 80% on either fraction at all time-points. Patients were classified into four subgroups with respect to early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns (high/low) then analyzed for long-term CD15+ chimerism status. A total of 135 transplants were evaluable, with all three time-points available in 97. Underlying disease, graft source, patient age and conditioning intensity varied. 'Split' early chimerism (discordant high/low CD3+/CD15+ status) was common. Multivariable analysis revealed strong association between conditioning regimen and primary disease on early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns and a dominant predictive effect of early CD15+ chimerism on long-term CD15+ donor engraftment (observed at median day +365). These data may guide real-time clinician decisions (restraint vs intervention, when available) when faced with unfavorable or unusual early lympho-hematopoietic chimerism patterns following HSCT for NMD.

  8. Morphology of the villous chorion maldevelopment in early forms of EPH-gestosis combined with anemia of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Lagoda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a complex morphological study of human placenta the characteristic structural features of villous maldevelopment in a combination of edema of pregnant and anemia of pregnancy are defined by the type of dissociated cotyledon development with retardation of the placental barrier functional specialization. This pathology leads to compensatory reactions of the placenta in the form of the restructuring of fetal blood vessels, aimed only at the oncoming of fetal and maternal blood flow without increasing of the vasculosyncytial membranes area. These changes were accompanied by complicated delivery and fetus state disorder characteristic for chronic feto-placental insufficiency, 2-nd degree of severity. Received results are the basis for inclusion of pregnant women with early form of EPH-gestosis (edema of pregnant in combination with anemia into the risk group of fetoplacental insufficiency developing and complicated delivery.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with early childhood social interaction in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Iwata, Keiko; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasunori; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Okumura, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Takahira; Yoshino, Hiroki; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Mori, Norio; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Elevated blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. On the other hand, early childhood adverse experience also increases blood levels of these cytokines. Since social experience of children with autism spectrum disorder is generally unlike to typically developing children, we hypothesized that social interaction during childhood contribute to pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. We compared revised Autism Diagnostic Interview scores and expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (n = 30). The score of domain A on the revised Autism Diagnostic Interview, indicating social interaction impairment in early childhood, was negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not interleukin-1β or -6. Consistently, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was markedly low in subjects with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children who presumably experienced the regular levels of social interaction. These findings suggest that the low blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in subjects with autism spectrum disorder might be due to impaired social interaction in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early, Incomplete, or Preclinical Autoimmune Systemic Rheumatic Diseases and Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Locatelli, Elena; Ramoni, Vèronique; Caporali, Roberto; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of preclinical systemic autoimmune rheumatic disorders on pregnancy outcome. In this longitudinal cohort study, patients were enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy if they reported having had connective tissue disorder symptoms, were found to be positive for circulating autoantibodies, and on clinical evaluation were judged to have a preclinical or incomplete rheumatic disorder. The incidence of fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with preclinical rheumatic disorders was compared with that in selected controls, after adjustment for confounders by penalized logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Of 5,232 women screened, 150 (2.9%) were initially diagnosed as having a suspected rheumatic disorder. After a mean ± SD postpartum follow-up of 16.7 ± 5.5 months, 64 of these women (42.7%) had no clinically apparent rheumatic disease and 86 (57.3%) had persistent symptoms and positive autoantibody results, including 10 (6.7%) who developed a definitive rheumatic disease. The incidences of preeclampsia/FGR and of small for gestational age (SGA) infants were 5.1% (23 of 450) and 9.3% (42 of 450), respectively, among controls, 12.5% (8 of 640) (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.1-6.4]) and 18.8% (12 of 64) (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.5]), respectively, among women with no clinically apparent disease, and 16.3% (14 of 86) (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.9-7.7]) and 18.6% (16 of 86) (OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.2-4.3]), respectively, among those with persisting symptoms at follow-up. Mean ± SD umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility indices were higher among women with no clinically apparent disease (0.95 ± 0.2) and those with persisting symptoms (0.96 ± 0.21) than in controls (0.89 ± 0.12) (P = 0.01 and P rheumatic disorders were associated with an increased risk of FGR/preeclampsia and SGA. The impact of these findings and their utility in screening

  11. Differential gene expression profile reveals deregulation of pregnancy specific β1 glycoprotein 9 early during colorectal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallinger Steven

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. Patients carrying germline APC mutations develop multiple colonic adenomas at younger age and higher frequency than non-carrier cases which indicates that silencing of one APC allele may be sufficient to initiate the transformation process. Methods To elucidate the biological dysregulation underlying adenoma formation we examined global gene expression profiles of adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa from an FAP patient. Differential expression of the most significant gene identified in this study was further validated by mRNA in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR and Northern blotting in different sets of adenomas, tumours and cancer cell lines. Results Eighty four genes were differentially expressed between all adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa, while only seven genes showed differential expression within the adenomas. The first group included pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 9 (PSG9 (p PSG9 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA/PSG family and is produced at high levels during pregnancy, mainly by syncytiotrophoblasts. Further analysis of sporadic and familial colorectal cancer confirmed that PSG9 is ectopically upregulated in vivo by cancer cells. In total, deregulation of PSG9 mRNA was detected in 78% (14/18 of FAP adenomas and 75% (45/60 of sporadic colorectal cancer cases tested. Conclusion Detection of PSG9 expression in adenomas, and at higher levels in FAP cases, indicates that germline APC mutations and defects in Wnt signalling modulate PSG9 expression. Since PSG9 is not found in the non-pregnant adult except in association with cancer, and it appears to be an early molecular event associated with colorectal cancer monitoring of its expression may be useful as a biomarker for the early detection of this disease.

  12. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Prenatal radiographic diagnosis of alpha-fetoprotein positive malformations in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, F.P.; Sigurd, J.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of two malformed fetuses with positive alpha-fetoprotein test of the amniotic fluid with the aid of amniography is reported. Radiographic, diagnostic and prognostic aspects are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and school performance in 5-year-old offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noten, Anna M. E.; Loomans, Eva M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Rotteveel, Joost; van Eijsden, Manon; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnant women is associated with a lower intelligence quotient in their children. More recently, subtle decreases in maternal thyroid function have also been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in offspring. We tested the effect of hypothyroxinaemia during early

  15. Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, C S; Gamborg, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether delivery mode (vaginal versus by caesarean section), maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and early exposure to antibiotics (..., with information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, delivery mode and antibiotic administration in infancy, were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed with childhood height and weight at the 7-year follow-up as outcome measures. Results: Delivery mode was not significantly associated with childhood.......54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.98). The same tendency was observed among children of obese mothers (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41–1.76). Conclusion: The present cohort study revealed that a combination of early exposures, including delivery mode, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and antibiotics in infancy, influences the risk...

  16. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... 2012;119:1211-1221. Objective  The aim was to examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's attention at 5 years of age. Design  Prospective follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003......-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the recently developed Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  17. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and early neonatal life: consequences for HIV-exposed, uninfected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available Women have emerged as the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected population worldwide, mainly because of the increasing occurrence of heterosexual transmission. Most infected women are of reproductive age and one of the greatest concerns for both women and their physicians is that more than 1,600 infants become infected with HIV each day. Almost all infections are a result of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, transmission rates lower than 2% have been achieved in clinical studies. Antiretroviral compounds differ from most other new pharmaceutical agents in that they have become widely prescribed in pregnancy in the absence of proof of safety. We reviewed antiretroviral agents used in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, and their consequences for infants.

  18. The acidity of early pregnancy diet and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf-Bank, Sahar; Tehrani, Hotav; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Moosavian, Seyedeh Parisa; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-10-03

    Recently, an increasing interest has been addressed to the acid-base imbalance in the pathogenesis of diabetes while we are not aware of any study among patients affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, the purpose of present study was to reveal the potential relation between dietary acid load (DAL) and glycemic indices, lipid profiles and GDM odds ratio among Iranian pregnant women with GDM. This case-control study (hospital-based setting) was performed in singleton fetus pregnant women; healthy (n = 263) and GDM (n = 200), aged 22-44 years, and between weeks 5-28 of pregnancy. Three-day 24-h dietary records were applied to determine usual intakes of women. The tertiles of protein to potassium ratio (Pr/K) and potential renal acid load (PRAL) were calculated and used for statistical analyses. Across tertiles of both DAL scores, fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, total cholesterol and LDL-C increased significantly. Diastolic blood pressure of participants significantly increased only across the tertiles of Pr/K ratio. Participants in the highest tertile of Pr/K and PRAL had more than 7 (OR = 7.60; 95% CI: 3.43-16.84) and 9 times (OR = 9.27; 95% CI: 4.00-21.46) increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus, respectively. Women with higher scores of DAL were more likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, R.E.; O'Connor, J.F.; Birken, S.; Krichevsky, A.; Wilcox, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone, secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast cells of the fertilized ovum, that enters the maternal circulation at the time of endometrial implantation. It is composed of two nonidentical subunits; α and β, with molecular weights of 14 kD and 23 kD, respectively. Human chorionic gonadotropin binds to the same receptor as hLH and displays the same biological response, namely, to stimulate the declining function of the corpus luteum to produce progestins and estrogen late in the menstrual cycle. The differences in the structures of hCG and hLH have been exploited to develop antibodies that can measure hCG specifically in the presence of hLH. Two-site antibody binding assays have been developed, based on a surface immunological concept of hCG epitopes, that involve four distinct regions to which antibodies against hCG can bind simultaneously. Antibody cooperative effects, in conjunction with kinetic advantages derived from the concentration factors by use of the sandwich assay technique (immunoradiometric assay, IRMA), have enabled development of extremely sensitive and specific measurement protocols for urinary hCG. The assay described herein permits the detection of pregnancy on an average 25.4 days after the first day of the preceding menses, as opposed to 29.5 days for conventional radioimmunoassay techniques. In addition, the greater sensitivity and specificity of this assay method has permitted the detection of episodes of fetal loss not detected by radioimmunoassay of urine specimens. A large scale epidemiological study is in progress using this assay technique as a way to identify pregnancies that are lost before becoming clinically apparent

  1. Treatment of thyroid disorders before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, R; van den Boogaard, E; van Wely, M; van der Post, J A; Fliers, E; Bisschop, P H; Goddijn, M

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid disorders are associated with pregnancy complications. Universal screening is currently not recommended because of a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of treatment. Women with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism evidently require treatment but this is less clear for women with subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to provide a comprehensive overview on the available treatment interventions. Relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, published until December 2011. From a total of 7334 primary selected titles, 22 articles were included for the systematic review and 11 were appropriate for meta-analyses. Eight studies reported on hyperthyroidism. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole reduce the risk for preterm delivery [risk ratio (RR): 0.23, confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.52], pre-eclampsia (RR: 0.23, CI: 0.06-0.89) and low birthweight (RR: 0.38, CI: 0.22-0.66). The nine studies that reported on clinical hypothyroidism showed that levothyroxine is effective in reducing the risk for miscarriage (RR: 0.19, CI: 0.08-0.39) and preterm delivery (RR: 0.41, CI: 0.24-0.68). For treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, current evidence is insufficient. The five studies available on thyroid autoimmunity showed a not significant reduction in miscarriage (RR: 0.58, CI: 0.32-1.06), but significant reduction in preterm birth by treatment with levothyoxine (RR: 0.31, CI: 0.11-0.90). For hyperthyroidism, methimazole and PTU are effective in preventing pregnancy complications. For clinical hypothyroidism, treatment with levothyroxine is recommended. For subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity, evidence is insufficient to recommend treatment with levothyroxine. The overall lack of evidence precludes a recommendation for universal screening and is only justified in a research setting.

  2. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  3. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy.

  4. "These are not good things for other people to know": how rural Tanzanian women's experiences of pregnancy loss and early neonatal death may impact survey data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Rachel A; Mashasi, Irene; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Darmstadt, Gary L; Winch, Peter J

    2010-11-01

    Little research in low-income countries has compared the social and cultural ramifications of loss in childbearing, yet the social experience of pregnancy loss and early neonatal death may affect demographers' ability to measure their incidence. Ninety-five qualitative reproductive narratives were collected from 50 women in rural southern Tanzania who had recently suffered infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth or early neonatal death. An additional 31 interviews with new mothers and female elders were used to assess childbearing norms and social consequences of loss in childbearing. We found that like pregnancy, stillbirth and early neonatal death are hidden because they heighten women's vulnerability to social and physical harm, and women's discourse and behaviors are under strong social control. To protect themselves from sorcery, spiritual interference, and gossip--as well as stigma should a spontaneous loss be viewed as an induced abortion--women conceal pregnancies and are advised not to mourn or grieve for "immature" (late-term) losses. Twelve of 30 respondents with pregnancy losses had been accused of inducing an abortion; 3 of these had been subsequently divorced. Incommensurability between Western biomedical and local categories of reproductive loss also complicates measurement of losses. Similar gender inequalities and understandings of pregnancy and reproductive loss in other low-resource settings likely result in underreporting of these losses elsewhere. Cultural, terminological, and methodological factors that contribute to inaccurate measurement of stillbirth and early neonatal death must be considered in designing surveys and other research methods to measure pregnancy, stillbirth, and other sensitive reproductive events. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disparities in reproductive outcomes according to the endometrial preparation protocol in frozen embryo transfer : The risk of early pregnancy loss in frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, I; Bellon, L; Swierkowski, N; Ouazana, M; Bouba, S; Fathallah, K; Paillusson, B; Bailly, M; Boitrelle, F; Alter, L; Bergère, M; Selva, J; Wainer, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stimulated and artificial endometrial preparation protocols on reproductive outcomes in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. We performed a retrospective study of 1926 FET cycles over a 3.5-year period in the Fertility Unit at a University Hospital. Stimulated and artificial protocols were used for endometrial preparation. The embryos for FET were obtained from either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Live birth rate and early pregnancy loss rates were retrospectively compared. In artificial protocols, oral or vaginal administration of oestradiol 2 mg two or three times a day was followed by vaginal supplementation with progesterone 200 mg two or three times a day. In stimulated protocols, recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone was administered from day 4 onward. Vaginal ultrasound was used for endometrial and ovarian monitoring. A pregnancy test was performed 14 days after FET. If it was positive, oestradiol and progesterone were administered up until the 12th week of gestation in artificial cycles. We defined early pregnancy losses as biochemical pregnancies (preclinical losses) and miscarriages. Data on 865 artificial cycles (45% of the total) and 1061 stimulated cycles (55%) were collected. Early pregnancy loss rate was significantly lower for stimulated cycles (34.2%) than for artificial cycles (56.9%), and the live birth rate was significantly higher for stimulated cycles (59.7%) than for artificial cycles (29.1%). In frozen embryo transfer, artificial cycles were associated with more early pregnancy loss and lower live birth rate than stimulated cycles.

  6. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  7. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Parraguez

    Full Text Available Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  8. Upregulation of zinc absorption matches increases in physiological requirements for zinc in women consuming high-or-moderate-phytate diets during late pregnancy and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine the roles of host and dietary factors in matching increases in physiological requirements for zinc (Zn) during late pregnancy and early lactation in women whose major dietary staple is maize with and without phytate reduction. Methods: Subjects were 22 indigenous Guatemalan ...

  9. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  10. [Measurement of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, S; Beaufils, M; Uzan, M; Donsimoni, R; Mareck, A; Salat-Baroux, J; Sureau, C

    1988-02-01

    An increased maternal plasma volume (PV) is a characteristic phenomenon of normal pregnancy, which may be related to a physiological decrease of peripheral resistances. The authors have studied the plasma volume of 1,105 patients distributed as follows: normal (387), permanently hypertensive patients (84), hypertensive patients during pregnancy (390), patients with apparently isolated RCIU (154) or with a pathological past-history during previous pregnancies (90). It appears that the PV is a sign of a severe HBP, and presents a rather early and good predictive value regarding the weight of the fetus and some complications such as severe UCIU and fetal death in utero. In case of pathological past events or pre-existing hypertension, the PV enables to differentiate rather well patients who will be prone to a complicated pregnancy. In view of these results, utilization and interpretation criteria of this parameter during pregnancies with hypertension or pregnancies in which there is a suspicion or a risk of intra-uterine growth delay, are defined.

  11. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1- BASING ONEPIDEMIOLOGIC CLUE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, IMAGING FINDINGS, PERIPHERAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS AND SPO2 LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  12. The early onset of peripheral neuropathy might be a robust predictor for time to treatment failure in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy containing paclitaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Fukada

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel plays a central role in chemotherapy for breast cancer. Peripheral neuropathy, a well-known toxicity with paclitaxel, may be of interest in predicting the efficacy of paclitaxel therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis assessing whether the early occurrence of peripheral neuropathy (EPN was a predictive marker for better efficacy in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy containing paclitaxel.Between January 2000 and August 2008, we examined the records of 168 patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with paclitaxel in our hospital. EPN was defined as a symptom of Grade 2 or more during first three months of treatment. The overall response rate (ORR and time to treatment failure (TTF in each group were analyzed retrospectively.Of 168 patients with metastatic breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel, EPN was documented in 101 patients (60.1%. The clinical benefit rate (CR, PR, and SD ≥ 6 months was 72.3% in the EPN group and 49.3% in the non-EPN group (p = 0.002. The TTF of the EPN group (median 11.2 months, 95% CI: 9.5-12.9 was significantly longer than that of the non-EPN group (5.7 months, 95% CI: 4.6-6.8 (p<0.001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that EPN (p<0.001, dose intensity of less than 70% (p<0.001, and the history of microtubule agents (p = 0.001 were the significant favorable prognostic factors for TTF.The early onset of peripheral neuropathy might be a robust predictor for TTF in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with paclitaxel.

  13. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative

  14. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  15. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  16. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment Among Women in Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were utilized to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18-44, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad campaign yielded 6,094 clicks by 5,963 unique users at a mean cost of $0.63 per click and a unique click-through rate of 0.08%. Of those who clicked through to the study site, eighteen percent (18%, n = 1,075) consented to participate. The participant pool was reduced to 344 women after application of strict eligibility criteria. Participants represented 43 states and the District of Columbia, their mean age was 20.9 years (Mdn 19.0, SD 4.0), and their mean weeks’ gestation was 11.5 (SD 5.8). The campaign cost was $3,821.81 or $11.11 per eligible participant. PMID:24082026

  17. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment Among Women in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-06-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad campaign yielded 6,094 clicks by 5,963 unique users at a mean cost of $0.63 per click and a unique click-through rate of 0.08%. Of those who clicked through to the study site, 18% (n = 1,075) consented to participate. The participant pool was reduced to 344 women after application of strict eligibility criteria. Participants represented 43 states and the District of Columbia, their mean age was 20.9 years (Mdn = 19.0, SD = 4.0), and their mean weeks' gestation was 11.5 (SD = 5.8). The campaign cost was $3,821.81 or $11.11 per eligible participant. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Endurance Exercise Mobilizes Developmentally Early Stem Cells into Peripheral Blood and Increases Their Number in Bone Marrow: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise has been reported to increase the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in peripheral blood (PB as well as in bone marrow (BM. We therefore became interested in whether endurance exercise has the same effect on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, which have been described as a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in BM. Mice were run daily for 1 hour on a treadmill for periods of 5 days or 5 weeks. Human volunteers had trained in long-distance running for one year, six times per week. FACS-based analyses and RT-PCR of murine and human VSELs and HSPCs from collected bone marrow and peripheral blood were performed. We observed that endurance exercise increased the number of VSELs circulating in PB and residing in BM. In parallel, we observed an increase in the number of HSPCs. These observations were subsequently confirmed in young athletes, who showed an increase in circulating VSELs and HSPCs after intensive running exercise. We provide for the first time evidence that endurance exercise may have beneficial effects on the expansion of developmentally early stem cells. We hypothesize that these circulating stem cells are involved in repairing minor exercise-related tissue and organ injuries.

  19. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Patterns of remission, continuation and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during early pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2007-08-01

    We explored the course of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 41,157 pregnant women, enrolled at approximately 18 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. We collected questionnaire-based diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), and bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). EDNOS subtypes included binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P). We explored rates of remission, continuation and incidence of BN, BED and EDNOS-P during pregnancy. Prepregnancy prevalence estimates were 0.1% for AN, 0.7% for BN, 3.5% for BED and 0.1% for EDNOS-P. During early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% (BN), 4.8% (BED) and 0.1% (EDNOS-P). Proportions of individuals remitting during pregnancy were 78% (EDNOS-P), 40% (BN purging), 39% (BED), 34% (BN any type) and 29% (BN non-purging type). Additional individuals with BN achieved partial remission. Incident BN and EDNOS-P during pregnancy were rare. For BED, the incidence rate was 1.1 per 1000 person-weeks, equating to 711 new cases of BED during pregnancy. Incident BED was associated with indices of lower socio-economic status. Pregnancy appears to be a catalyst for remission of some eating disorders but also a vulnerability window for the new onset of broadly defined BED, especially in economically disadvantaged individuals. Vigilance by health-care professionals for continuation and emergence of eating disorders in pregnancy is warranted.

  1. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Amini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic vasculitis in pre-capillary arteries is associated with peripheral neuropathy. In some types of systematic vasculitis about 60 % of patients have peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement. In vasculitic peripheral neuropathies (VPN a necrotizing and inflammatory process leads to narrowing of vasa nervorum lumen and eventually the appearance of ischemic lesions in peripheral nerves. Some features might be suggestive of VPN, like: axonal nerve degeneration, wallerian-like degeneration, and diameter irregularity of nerve. Peripheral nervous system (PNS destruction during systemic vasculitides should be considered, due to its frequency and early occurrence in vasculitis progression. The first line treatment of non systematic VPNs is corticosteroid agents, but these drugs might worsen the VPNs or systemic vasculitis.

  2. Serum ferritin concentration in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent development of gestational diabetes: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum ferritin concentration is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently it has also been described in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Objective: A prospective study was done to determine whether there was a relationship between serum ferritin concentration in early pregnancy and the risk of GDM. Materials and Methods: A study was performed on 1,384 pregnant women with gestational age of 12-16 weeks. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of ferritin in the first trimester. Diagnosis of GDM was done by 75 gr oral glucose tolerance test between 24-28 wk. Results: Women who developed GDM had a higher concentration of serum ferritin than women who did not develop GDM (p=0.01. A ferritin concentration of 45 ng/ml was calculated to be the 75th percentile for healthy pregnant women. Considering this level 32% in the GDM group and 25.2%of normal subjects exhibited high ferritin levels (p=0.01. The risk of GDM with these high levels of ferritin was 1.4-fold higher than that for subjects with lower concentrations. The Odds Ratio was 1.4 (95% CI= 1-1.87 (p=0.01. After adjusted for age Odds Ratio was 1.38 (95% CI=1.02-1.86 (p=0.03 and after adjustment for pre-pregnancy Body Mass index, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.31 (CI= 0.96-1.79 (p=0.08. After multivariable adjustment (age and body mass index, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.3 (0.95-1.8 (p=0.09. Conclusion: High serum ferritin can be regarded as a significant risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes.

  3. Mothers' accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-13

    The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed. This was a descriptive qualitative study, informed by phenomenological social psychology, exploring women's experiences of the impact of organised peer support on their emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and in early parenthood. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with women who had received peer support provided by ten projects in different parts of England, including both projects offering 'mental health' peer support and others offering more broadly-based peer support. The majority of participants were disadvantaged Black and ethnic minority women, including recent migrants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. 47 mothers were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (1) 'mothers' self-identified emotional needs', containing the subthemes 'emotional distress', 'stressful circumstances', 'lack of social support', and 'unwilling to be open with professionals'; and (2) 'how peer support affects mothers', containing the subthemes 'social connection', 'being heard', 'building confidence', 'empowerment', 'feeling valued', 'reducing stress through practical support' and 'the significance of "mental health" peer experiences'. Women described how peer support contributed to reducing their low mood and anxiety by overcoming feelings of isolation, disempowerment and

  4. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  5. Socio-economic, environmental and nutritional characteristics of urban and rural South Indian women in early pregnancy: findings from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2018-06-01

    High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, Pwomen were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.

  6. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  7. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gürke

    Full Text Available During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld, were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  8. Chlamydia related bacteria (Chlamydiales) in early pregnancy: community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, F; Oakeshott, P; Kerry, S R; Hay, P E; Jensen, J S

    2017-02-01

    Serological case-control studies suggest that certain chlamydia-related bacteria (Chlamydiales) which cause cows to abort may do the same in humans. Chlamydiales include Waddlia chondrophila, Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Data on prevalence of Chlamydiales in pregnancy are sparse. Using stored urine samples from a carefully characterised cohort of 847 newly pregnant women recruited from 37 general practices in London, UK, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of Chlamydiales infections. We also explored possible associations with miscarriage or spontaneous preterm birth. Samples were tested using W. chondrophila and pan-Chlamydiales specific real-time PCRs targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Samples positive on either PCR were subjected to DNA sequencing and C. trachomatis PCR. The overall prevalence of Chlamydiales was 4.3% (36/847, 95% CI 3.0% to 5.8%). The prevalence of W. chondrophila was 0.6% (n = 5), C. trachomatis 1.7% (n = 14), and other Chlamydiales species 2.0% (n = 17). Infection with C. trachomatis was more common in women aged <25, of black ethnicity or with bacterial vaginosis, but this did not apply to W. chondrophila or other Chlamydiales. Follow up was 99.9% at 16 weeks gestation and 90% at term. No infection was significantly associated with miscarriage at ≤12 weeks (prevalence 10%, 81/827) or preterm birth <37 weeks (prevalence 4%, 23/628). Of 25 samples sequenced, seven (28%) were positive for Chlamydiales bacterium sequences associated with respiratory tract infections in children. In the first study to use the pan-Chlamydiales assay on female urine samples, 4% of pregnant women tested positive for Chlamydiales, including species known to be pathogenic in mothers and neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Bisphenol A affects placental layers morphology and angiogenesis during early pregnancy phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics. Much evidence supports the adverse effects of BPA, particularly on susceptible groups such as pregnant women. The present study considered placental development - relevant for pregnancy outcomes and fetal nutrition/programming - as a potential target of BPA. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered per os with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg kg(-1) (BPA50) body weight day(-1) of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12, BPA50 induced significant degeneration and necrosis of giant cells, increased vacuolization in the junctional zone in the absence of glycogen accumulation and reduction of the spongiotrophoblast layer. In addition, BPA05 induced glycogen depletion as well as significant nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in trophoblasts of labyrinthine and spongiotrophoblast layers, supporting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that BPA05 promoted and BPA50 inhibited blood vessel development and branching; morphologically, maternal vessels were narrower in BPA05 placentas, whereas embryonic and maternal vessels were irregularly dilated in the labyrinth of BPA50 placentas. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction evidenced an estrogen receptor β induction by BPA50, which did not correspond to downstream genes activation; indeed, the transcription factor binding sites analysis supported the AhR/Arnt complex as regulator of BPA50-modulated genes. Conversely, Creb appeared as the main transcription factor regulating BPA05-modulated genes. Embryonic structures (head, forelimb) showed divergent perturbations upon BPA05 or BPA50 exposure, potentially related to unbalanced embryonic nutrition and/or to modulation of genes involved in embryo development. Our findings support placenta as an important target of BPA, even at environmentally relevant dose levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  11. Complicating the dominant morality discourse: mothers and fathers' constructions of substance use during pregnancy and early parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Magnus, Samantha; Phillips, Rachel; Marcellus, Lenora; Charbonneau, Sinéad

    2015-08-25

    Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. In this follow-up paper we examine descriptive and qualitative data from a convenience sample of biological mothers and fathers (N = 34) recruited as part of a larger mixed methods study of the development and early implementation of an integrated primary maternity care program. We present a description of the participants' backgrounds, family circumstances, health status, and perception of drug-related stigma. This is succeeded by a thematic analysis of their personal views on substance use during both pregnancy and the transition to parenthood. Our results show that while many mothers and fathers hold abstinence as the ideal during pregnancy and early parenting, they simultaneously recognize the autonomy of women to judge substance use risk for themselves. Participants also call attention to social structural factors that increase/decrease harms associated with such substance use, and present an embodied knowledge of substance use based on their tacit knowledge of wellness and what causes harm. While these two main discourses brought forward by parents concerning the ideal of abstinence and the autonomy of women are not always reconcilable and are partially a reflection of the dissonance between dominant moral codes regarding motherhood and the lived experiences of people who use substances, service providers who are attuned to these competing discourses are likely to be more effective in their delivery of health and social services

  12. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Zhou, Li-Qiang [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  13. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival

  14. A mass shooting at Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia: a study of its impact on early pregnancy losses using a conception time-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R G; Dean, J; Heller, G Z; Leader, L R

    2015-11-01

    Does an acute calamity in a community cause early miscarriage and is this association the same for male and female fetuses? Estimated losses of 29.5% of first trimester pregnancies in the affected region could be associated with an acute calamity, with no statistically significant difference in estimated losses by fetal sex. There are very few studies on the impact of a calamity on early pregnancy loss and its differential effects on male and female fetuses. A decline in the human sex ratio at birth associated with the events of 9/11 in New York has been documented. This is a retrospective descriptive study of birth register data in Tasmania, Australia, from 1991 to 1997, covering the period in which the calamity occurred. The register contains data on all pregnancies that proceeded to >20 weeks gestation. The conception date was calculated by subtracting gestational age from birth date. We estimated that 40 318 pregnancies were conceived in the period 1991-1996 inclusive. These were aggregated to 4-weekly blocks classified by region and sex. The acute calamity was at Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. On 28 April 1996, a gunman opened fire on visitors and staff in a tourist cafe. A very stressful 20 h period, ended with 35 people dead and 22 injured. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess the association between this calamity and pregnancy loss. This loss is evidenced by a shortfall in the registration of pregnancies that were in their first trimester at the time of the calamity. We estimated a shortfall of 29.5% or 229 registered pregnancies among those in the first trimester at the time of the calamity (P surrogate for geographic area or space assumes that the mother has not moved into the postcode area after the calamity and before the reporting of a birth. The results of this study suggest that calamities bring about significant pregnancy loss affecting both sexes. The methodology presented of inferring conception date from birth date and using

  15. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio

  16. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle Sharon; Otupiri, Easmon; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de Jonge, Ank; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and

  17. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.S.; Otupiri, E.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; de Jonge, J.; Agyemang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal

  18. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The type I interferon signature in leukocyte subsets from peripheral blood of patients with early arthritis: a major contribution by granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tamarah D; Lübbers, Joyce; Turk, Samina; Vosslamber, Saskia; Mantel, Elise; Bontkes, Hetty J; van der Laken, Conny J; Bijlsma, Johannes W; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Verweij, Cornelis L

    2016-07-13

    The type I interferon (IFN) signature in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has shown clinical relevance in relation to disease onset and therapeutic response. Identification of the cell type(s) contributing to this IFN signature could provide insight into the signature's functional consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of peripheral leukocyte subsets to the IFN signature in early arthritis. Blood was collected from 26 patients with early arthritis and lysed directly or separated into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). PBMCs were sorted into CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD14(+) monocytes by flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression of three interferon response genes (IRGs RSAD2, IFI44L, and MX1) and type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) was determined in whole blood and blood cell subsets by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IRG expression was averaged to calculate an IFN score for each sample. Patients were designated "IFN(high)" (n = 8) or "IFN(low)" (n = 18) on the basis of an IFN score cutoff in whole peripheral blood from healthy control subjects. The difference in IFN score between IFN(high) and IFN(low) patients was remarkably large for the PMN fraction (mean 25-fold) compared with the other subsets (mean 6- to 9-fold), indicating that PMNs are the main inducers of IRGs. Moreover, the relative contribution of the PMN fraction to the whole-blood IFN score was threefold higher than expected from its abundance in blood (p = 0.008), whereas it was three- to sixfold lower for the other subsets (p ≤ 0.063), implying that the PMNs are most sensitive to IFN signaling. Concordantly, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 were upregulated compared with healthy controls selectively in patient PMNs (p ≤ 0.0077) but not in PBMCs. PMNs are the main contributors to the whole-blood type I IFN signature in patients with early arthritis, which seems due to

  20. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Brown, Mark A; Zeeman, Gerda G; Dekker, Gustaaf; Sibai, Baha M

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature on the definitions of severe and early-onset pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine those definitions for clinical purposes and to introduce them in the classification of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for publication purposes. We circulated a questionnaire to the International Committee of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy focusing on the thresholds for defining severe preeclampsia and the gestation at which to define early-onset preeclampsia, and on the definition and inclusion of the HELLP syndrome or other clinical features in severe preeclampsia. The questions were closed, but all answers had space for more open detailed comments. There was a general agreement to define preeclampsia as severe if blood pressure was >160mmHg systolic or 110mmHg diastolic. There was scarce agreement on the amount of proteinuria to define severity. The HELLP syndrome was considered a feature to include in the severe classification. Most investigators considered early-onset preeclampsia as that occurring before 34weeks. A definition of pre-eclampsia is paramount for driving good clinical practice. Classifications on the other hand are useful to enable international comparisons of clinical data and outcomes. We used the results of this survey to update our previous classification for the purposes of providing clinical research definitions of severe and early onset pre-eclampsia that will hopefully be accepted in the international literature. Copyright © 2012 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. All rights reserved.

  1. Fathers’ experiences of being in change during pregnancy and early parenthood in a context of intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Håland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a large public health problem with far-reaching consequences for those involved. The aim of this study was to explore fathers’ experiences of change during pregnancy and early parenthood in the context of IPV. Methods: The methodological approach in this interview study was hermeneutics, based on a lifeworld perspective. Ten men, who had subjected their partners to violence during the childbearing period, and had become fathers within the previous 6 years, participated. Results: The analysis revealed four themes: beginning to acknowledge that you are inflicting violence, receiving confirmation that you are more than just a perpetrator of violence, becoming aware of the child, and the desire to receive support in the process of learning how to become a father. Levinas’ concept “the face of the other” is used to interpret the findings. Conclusion: This study contributes to a more nuanced and expanded picture of IPV. It shows that men who inflict violence want to be and learn how to be fathers. We need more knowledge about how to stop violent acts and support these men in the process of fatherhood.

  2. Clinical Observation on Termination of Early Pregnancy of 213 Cases after Caesarian Section with Repeated Use of Mifepristone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩佩; 汪平

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety in women after caesarian section for termination of early pregnancies by treatment, or repeated treatment with mifepristone and misoprostot.Subjects and Methods A total of 213 pregnant women with amenorrhea of 34-69d after caesarian section who asked for medical abortion were recruited,including 63 cases undergoing their second medical abortion.A total amount of mi feprisstone of 150 mg given in separate doses(25 mg×4 and 50 mg at the first time)was administered orally within 3d, followed by misoprostot of 0.6 mg orally in the morning of d 3.Results The complete abortion rate was 92.5%,incomplete abortion was 4.7% and failure was 2.8%.Conclusion The sequential use of mifepristone and misoprostol could be successfully and repeatedly used for induced abortion in those women with a caesarian section histo-ry.Its efficacy was similar to that for ordinary population.Its safety and effec-tiveness were satisfactory.

  3. The association between maternal cervicovaginal proinflammatory cytokines concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent early-onset neonatal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Jarosław; Krajewski, Paweł; Sobala, Wojciech; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of selected proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8) in cervicovaginal fluid, as measured in midgestation, and the risk of early-onset neonatal infection (EONI). Cervicovaginal fluids were obtained from a cohort of 114 pregnant women at 22 to 34 weeks' gestation. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations of selected proinflammatory cytokines using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Lower genital tract microbiology was diagnosed using Gram stain method according to Spiegel's criteria and by culture. Mean gestational age at the time of sampling was 29.0 weeks. Mean time between sampling and delivery was 9.3 (SD 4.7) weeks. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was diagnosed in 27.2% of subjects and M. hominis and U. urealyticum in 22.8% and 26.3%, respectively. Out of 114 women examined, 20 (17.5%) delivered newborns with EONI. Median cervicovaginal concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between women who delivered newborns with EONI as compared to women who delivered newborns without EONI. Women with pathological lower genital tract microflora and low IL-8 concentration (below 25(th) percentile) during pregnancy presented a significant risk of delivering newborns with EONI (OR=4.9; 95% CI, 1.1-22.8). Subjects with pathological lower genital tract microflora and a low concentration of more than one cytokine had the highest risk of delivering a newborn with EONI, OR=16.2, 95% CI, 1.1-234.0. Cytokine measurement in cervicovaginal fluid in early gestation could be useful for predicting subsequent EONI only among pregnant women with lower genital tract infection. Maternal genital tract immune hyporesponsiveness as represented by low concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines may create a permissive environment for ascending infection and may lead to subsequent EONI.

  4. Lost opportunities to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life.

  5. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H cows were given high dose (1800 IU of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10 among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01 reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60% compared with C cows (20%. However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate.

  6. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D estimates of placental volume in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Stevenson, Gordon N; Impey, Lawrence; Collins, Sally L

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound estimation of placental volume (PlaV) between 11 and 13 wk has been proposed as part of a screening test for small-for-gestational-age babies. A semi-automated 3-D technique, validated against the gold standard of manual delineation, has been found at this stage of gestation to predict small-for-gestational-age at term. Recently, when used in the third trimester, an estimate obtained using a 2-D technique was found to correlate with placental weight at delivery. Given its greater simplicity, the 2-D technique might be more useful as part of an early screening test. We investigated if the two techniques produced similar results when used in the first trimester. The correlation between PlaV values calculated by the two different techniques was assessed in 139 first-trimester placentas. The agreement on PlaV and derived "standardized placental volume," a dimensionless index correcting for gestational age, was explored with the Mann-Whitney test and Bland-Altman plots. Placentas were categorized into five different shape subtypes, and a subgroup analysis was performed. Agreement was poor for both PlaV and standardized PlaV (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), with the 2-D technique yielding larger estimates for both indices compared with the 3-D method. The mean difference in standardized PlaV values between the two methods was 0.007 (95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.009). The best agreement was found for regular rectangle-shaped placentas (p = 0.438 and p = 0.408). The poor correlation between the 2-D and 3-D techniques may result from the heterogeneity of placental morphology at this stage of gestation. In early gestation, the simpler 2-D estimates of PlaV do not correlate strongly with those obtained with the validated 3-D technique. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and quantitative changes in amounts of aquaporin 1, 5 and 9 in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowronski Mariusz T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporins (AQPs are a family of membrane channel proteins that facilitate bulk water transport. To date, 11 isoforms of AQPs have been reported to be expressed in the female and male reproductive systems. The purpose of our study was to determine the localization and quantitative changes in the expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 within the pig uterus during different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Methods Immunoperoxidase and semi-quantitative immunoblotting techniques were used to examine the distribution and changes in amounts of AQP1, AQP5 and AQP9 in uteral cells of pigs at the early (Days 2-4, middle (10-12, late (14-16 stage of the luteal phase and late (18-20 stage of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle as well as on Days 14-16 and 30-32 of gestation (the onset and the end of implantation process. Results The results demonstrated that AQP1, 5, and 9 were clearly detected in all studied stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. AQP1 was localized within uterine blood vessels. In cyclic gilts, endometrial and myometrial expression of AQP1 protein did not change significantly but increased during gestation. AQP5 was localized in smooth muscle cells and uterine epithelial cells. Endometrial expression of AQP5 protein did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Myometrial expression of AQP5 did not differ significantly during the estrous cycle but increased in the pregnancy. The anti-AQP9 antibody labeled uterine epithelial cells of uterus. Endometrial expression of AQP9 did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Conclusions The results suggest that a functional and distinctive collaboration exists among diverse AQPs in water handling during the different uterine phases in the estrous cycle and

  8. Timing of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy and the implications of current policy on early uptake in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambo Pili

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp is efficacious in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy-associated malaria, however uptake of the recommended two doses is low in Tanzania, and little is known of the timepoint during pregnancy at which it is delivered. This study investigated the timing of delivery of IPTp to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC, and the potential determinants of timely uptake. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake. Results Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock. Conclusion Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising

  9. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan Luke; Stephens, Sally; Thomas, Simon Hugh Lynton; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Zetstra-van der Woude, Priscilla; Laursen, Maja; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Bourke, Alison; Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella Cf

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (Padvertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Recruitment of a pregnant cohort using direct-to-participant advertisement methods is feasible, but the total costs incurred are not insubstantial. Future research is

  10. Estimation of the {beta}+ dose to the embryo resulting from {sup 18}F-FDG administration during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LIME, Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Inst Phys, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Nucl Med Serv, F-75475 Paris 10 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Although {sup 18}F-FDG examinations are widely used, data are lacking on the dose to human embryo tissues in cases of exposure in early pregnancy. Although the photon component can easily be estimated from available data on the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-FDG in female organs and from phantom measurements (considering the uterus as the target organ), the intensity of embryo tissue uptake, which is essential for deriving the {beta}+ dose, is not known. We report the case of a patient who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for tumor surveillance and who was later found to have been pregnant at the time of the examination(embryo age, 8 wk). Methods: The patient received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. Imaging started with an unenhanced CT scan 1 h after the injection, followed by PET acquisition. PET images were used to compute the total number of {beta}+ emissions in embryo tissues per unit of injected activity, from standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements corrected for partial-volume effects. A Monte Carlo track structure code was then used to derive the {beta}+ self-dose and the {beta}+ cross-dose from amniotic fluid. The photon and CT doses were added to obtain the final dose received by the embryo. Results: The mean SUV in embryo tissues was 2.7, after correction for the partial-volume effect. The mean corrected SUV of amniotic fluid was 1.1. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the {beta}+ dose to the embryo (self-dose plus cross-dose from amniotic fluid) was 1.8 E-2 mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG. Based on MIRD data for the photon dose to the uterus, the estimated photon dose to the embryo was 1.5 E-2 mGy/MBq. Thus, the specific {sup 18}F-FDG dose to the embryo was 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq (10.6 mGy in this patient). The CT scan added a further 8.3 mGy. Conclusion: The dose to the embryo is 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. The {beta}+ dose contributes 55% of the total dose. This value is higher than previous estimates in late nonhuman-primate pregnancies. (authors)

  11. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa, E-mail: sinisa.stanic@carle.com [Carle Cancer Center and University of Illinois College of Medicine, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Barriger, Robert B. [Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bezjak, Andrea [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.

  12. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, Sinisa; Paulus, Rebecca; Timmerman, Robert D.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Barriger, Robert B.; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT

  13. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  14. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98.734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. 3 H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of 3 H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy

  15. Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Shengyu; Xie, Lu; Ma, Teng; Lv, Dongying; Jing, Wang; Tian, Xiuzhi; Song, Yukun; Liu, Zhiping; Xiao, Xianghong; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-01-01

    To test whether melatonin plays an important role in the process of early pregnancy, melatonin was given in drinking water to pregnant mice at different gestation stages. These included mice who were given melatonin 14 days prior to their successful mating (confirmed by vaginal plug) (Group A), after successful mating (Group B), and 14 days prior to and until after successful mating (Group C). Melatonin administration significantly enhanced serum as well as ovarian melatonin levels in the mic...

  16. Plasma TNF-α levels are higher in early pregnancy in patients with secondary compared with primary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piosik, Zofia Maria; Goegebeur, Yuri; Klitkou, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown.......Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown....

  17. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood : a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, M.G.; Wijk, R.M. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Grant, C.C.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 μg per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  18. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood: a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; van Wijk, Renske; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Lanting, Caren I.; Grant, Cameron C.; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 μg per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  19. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood: a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, M.G.; Wijk, R.M. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Grant, C.C.; van Vlimmeren, L.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 mug per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  20. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  1. Low birth weight in response to salt restriction during pregnancy is not due to alterations in uterine-placental blood flow or the placental and peripheral renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Sandra Márcia; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Patriarca, Giuliana; Coelho, Michella Soares; Dolnikoff, Miriam Sterman; Heimann, Joel Claudio

    2008-09-03

    A number of studies conducted in humans and in animals have observed that events occurring early in life are associated with the development of diseases in adulthood. Salt overload and restriction during pregnancy and lactation are responsible for functional (hemodynamic and hormonal) and structural alterations in adult offspring. Our group observed that lower birth weight and insulin resistance in adulthood is associated with salt restriction during pregnancy. On the other hand, perinatal salt overload is associated with higher blood pressure and higher renal angiotensin II content in adult offspring. Therefore, we hypothesised that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function is altered by changes in sodium intake during pregnancy. Such changes may influence fetoplacental blood flow and thereby fetal nutrient supply, with effects on growth in utero and, consequently, on birth weight. Female Wistar rats were fed low-salt (LS), normal-salt (NS), or high-salt (HS) diet, starting before conception and continuing until day 19 of pregnancy. Blood pressure, heart rate, fetuses and dams' body weight, placentae weight and litter size were measured on day 19 of pregnancy. Cardiac output, uterine and placental blood flow were also determined on day 19. Expressions of renin-angiotensin system components and of the TNF-alpha gene were evaluated in the placentae. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, as well as plasma and placental levels of angiotensins I, II, and 1-7 were measured. Body weight and kidney mass were greater in HS than in NS and LS dams. Food intake did not differ among the maternal groups. Placental weight was lower in LS dams than in NS and HS dams. Fetal weight was lower in the LS group than in the NS and HS groups. The PRA was greater in LS dams than in NS and HS dams, although ACE activity (serum, cardiac, renal, and placental) was unaffected by the level of sodium intake. Placental levels of

  2. Patient-centered early pregnancy care: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies on the perspectives of women and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M M J; Dancet, E A F; Erlikh, T; van der Veen, F; Goddijn, M; Hajenius, P J

    2018-01-01

    Early pregnancy complications, defined as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, affect the physical and psychological well-being of intended parents. Research in this field so far has focused mainly on improving accuracy of diagnostic tests and safety and effectiveness of therapeutic management. An overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners is missing. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners faced with early pregnancy complications and to identify potential targets for improvement in early pregnancy healthcare. We searched five electronic databases for empirical quantitative or qualitative studies on patients' perspectives of early pregnancy care in July 2017. We first identified aspects of early pregnancy care valued by women and/or their partners based on qualitative and quantitative data and organized these aspects of care according to the eight dimensions of patient-centered care. Second, we extracted the assessment of service quality from women and/or their partners on each of these aspects of care based on quantitative data. Third, we combined the findings on patients' values with the findings of service quality assessment to identify potential targets for improvement in five groups according to how likely these targets are to require improvement. The search yielded 6240 publications, of which 27 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. All included studies focused on miscarriage or recurrent miscarriage care. We identified 24 valued aspects of care, which all covered the eight dimensions of patient-centered care. The most frequently reported valued aspect was 'being treated as an individual person experiencing a significant life event rather than a common condition'. Assessment of service quality from women and/or their partners was available for 13 of the 24 identified aspects of care. Quantitative studies all documented service quality

  3. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  4. Quantitative power Doppler ultrasound measures of peripheral joint synovitis in poor prognosis early rheumatoid arthritis predict radiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerangaiah, Dee; Grayer, Michael; Fisher, Benjamin A; Ho, Meilien; Abraham, Sonya; Taylor, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the value of quantitative vascular imaging by power Doppler US (PDUS) as a tool that can be used to stratify patient risk of joint damage in early seropositive RA while still biologic naive but on synthetic DMARD treatment. Eighty-five patients with seropositive RA of power Doppler volume and 2D vascularity scores were the most useful US predictors of deterioration. These variables were modelled in two equations that estimate structural damage over 12 months. The equations had a sensitivity of 63.2% and specificity of 80.9% for predicting radiographic structural damage and a sensitivity of 54.2% and specificity of 96.7% for predicting structural damage on ultrasonography. In seropositive early RA, quantitative vascular imaging by PDUS has clinical utility in predicting which patients will derive benefit from early use of biologic therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Overfeeding Dairy Cattle During Late-Pregnancy Alters Hepatic PPARα-Regulated Pathways Including Hepatokines: Impact on Metabolism and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Jawad; Jacometo, Carolina B; Graugnard, Daniel E; Corrêa, Marcio N; Schmitt, Eduardo; Cardoso, Felipe; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic metabolic gene networks were studied in dairy cattle fed control (CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg) or higher energy (overfed (OVE), 1.62 Mcal/kg) diets during the last 45 days of pregnancy. A total of 57 target genes encompassing PPARα-targets/co-regulators, hepatokines, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated on −14, 7, 14, and 30 days around parturition. OVE versus CON cows were in more negative energy balance (NEB) postpartum and had greater serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Milk synthesis rate did not differ. Liver from OVE cows responded to postpartal NEB by up-regulating expression of PPARα-targets in the fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis pathways, along with gluconeogenic genes. Hepatokines (fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4)) and apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) were up-regulated postpartum to a greater extent in OVE than CON. OVE led to greater blood insulin prepartum, lower NEFA:insulin, and greater lipogenic gene expression suggesting insulin sensitivity was not impaired. A lack of change in APOB, MTTP, and PNPLA3 coupled with upregulation of PLIN2 postpartum in cows fed OVE contributed to TAG accumulation. Postpartal responses in NEFA and FGF21 with OVE support a role of this hepatokine in diminishing adipose insulin sensitivity. PMID:24737933

  6. Comparison of human memory CD8 T cell responses to adenoviral early and late proteins in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Joshi

    Full Text Available Treatment of invasive adenovirus (Ad disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT recipients with capsid protein hexon-specific donor T cells is under investigation. We propose that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs targeted to the late protein hexon may be inefficient in vivo because the early Ad protein E3-19K downregulates HLA class I antigens in infected cells. In this study, CD8+ T cells targeted to highly conserved HLA A2-restricted epitopes from the early regulatory protein DNA polymerase (P-977 and late protein hexon (H-892 were compared in peripheral blood (PB and tonsils of naturally infected adults. In tonsils, epitope-specific pentamers detected a significantly higher frequency of P-977+CD8+ T cells compared to H-892+CD8+ T cells; this trend was reversed in PB. Tonsil epitope-specific CD8+ T cells expressed IFN-γ and IL-2 but not perforin or TNF-α, whereas PB T cells were positive for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and perforin. Tonsil epitope-specific T cells expressed lymphoid homing marker CCR7 and exhibited lower levels of the activation marker CD25 but higher proliferative potential than PB T cells. Finally, in parallel with the kinetics of mRNA expression, P-977-specific CTLs lysed targets as early as 8 hrs post infection. In contrast, H-892-specific CTLs did not kill unless infected fibroblasts were pretreated with IFN-γ to up regulate HLA class I antigens, and cytotoxicity was delayed until 16-24 hours. These data show that, in contrast to hexon CTLs, central memory type DNA polymerase CTLs dominate the lymphoid compartment and kill fibroblasts earlier after infection without requiring exogenous IFN-γ. Thus, use of CTLs targeted to both early and late Ad proteins may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for life-threatening Ad disease in SCT recipients.

  7. Retrospective cohort study of the effects of obesity in early pregnancy on maternal weight gain and obstetric outcomes in an obstetric population in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,1 George O Ugwu,1 Frank O Ezugwu,2 Osaheni L Lawani,3 Azubuike K Onyebuchi31Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 2Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 3Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaObjective: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal weight gain in pregnancy and obstetric outcomes between women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal body mass index (BMI in early pregnancy.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal BMI who were seen at three teaching hospitals in South-East Nigeria. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software, with descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence.Results: The study sample consisted of 648 women (324 obese and 324 healthy-weight. The mean age of the obese women was 26.7 ± 5.1 years and that of the healthy-weight women was 26.6 ± 4.9 years. Although both excessive weight gain (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.54 and inadequate weight gain (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04–0.15 were less common in women with early pregnancy obesity than in healthy-weight women, a significantly higher proportion of obese women with excessive weight gain had adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Also, a significantly higher proportion of obese women had specific complications, such as premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, antepartum hemorrhage (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02–7.93, gestational diabetes (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.62–11.74, cesarean delivery (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–5.44, macrosomia (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.06–8.41, severe birth asphyxia (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6

  8. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  9. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Gong; Pei, Lijun; Xiao, Hailong; Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Jiaomei; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Duo

    2018-02-21

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss (ESPL) in Chinese women. Seventy women with ESPL and 29 healthy pregnant women who asked for legal induced abortion were included in the case and control groups, respectively. The gestational age of the subject foetuses in both the case and control groups ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. The total fatty acids composition in the decidual and villous tissues was detected by gas-liquid chromatography using a standard method. Metabonomics analysis of the decidual and villous tissues was conducted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). The total C18:3n-3 in the decidual and villous tissues, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) in the decidual tissue, and total C18:2n-6 in the villous tissue were all significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. The ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 in villous tissue was significantly higher, but prostaglandin I 2 as well as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, leukotriene B 5 and thromboxane B 3 in the villous tissue were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. In addition, the low content of lysophosphatide in the decidual and villous tissues and the low content of diacylglycerol in the villous tissue were also associated with the occurance of ESPL. In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and diacylglycerol in the placenta were all potential risk factors for ESPL in Chinese.

  10. Purification and partial characterization of an early pregnancy factor-induced suppressor factor (EPF-S1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, B A; Athanasas-Platsis, S; Hoskin, M J; Morton, H; Cavanagh, A C

    1995-06-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of early pregnancy factor (EPF) are mediated through induction of at least two lymphokines, designated EPF-S1 and EPF-S2 (previously estimated M(r) 15,000 and 55,000 respectively). The activity of the former is MHC-restricted while the latter is restricted to a locus (or loci) outside the MHC. The present study established further criteria by which EPF-S1 and EPF-S2 might be distinguished from each other and compared with other suppressor factors. In addition, techniques have been developed to purify EPF-S1 to homogeneity. Congenic mouse strains were used to map the genetic restriction of EPF-S2 in the rosette inhibition test and high performance gel permeation chromatography was used to demonstrate that EPF-S1 induces EPF-S2 but not vice versa. Further studies then focused on isolation of this first component of the cascade, EPF-S1, from immune ascites (from growth in athymic mice of the anti-EPF-S1 producing rat-mouse hybridoma R2T gamma, in which EPF-S1 is complexed to antibody). Techniques used were acidification followed by application to Sep-pak C18 cartridges, high performance cation-exchange chromatography and two reversed-phased HPLC steps on a C3 column. Purified material was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Edman degradation. Approximately 10 micrograms EPF-S1 were isolated fom 60 ml ascitic fluid. Homogeneity of the purified material was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE, where it ran as a single band of approximate M(r) 12,000 coincident with biological activity. Attempts at Edman degradation indicate that the molecule is N-blocked. Definitive primary characterization of EPF-S1 must await the preparation and isolation of proteolytic fragments of the molecule, but the present studies establish conditions which make such structural analysis possible.

  11. Plasma MIC-1 and PAPP-a levels are decreased among women presenting to an early pregnancy assessment unit, have fetal viability confirmed but later miscarry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino

    Full Text Available We have recently shown first trimester Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1 and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A serum concentrations are depressed among asymptomatic women destined to miscarry. Here we examined whether plasma levels of MIC-1 and PAPP-A are depressed among women presenting to an Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit (EPAU, noted to have a confirmed viable fetus, but subsequently miscarry.We performed a prospective cohort study, recruiting 462 women in the first trimester presenting to EPAU and had fetal viability confirmed by ultrasound. We obtained plasma samples on the same day and measured MIC-1, PAPP-A and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, grouping the cohort according to whether they later miscarried or not. To correct for changes in analyte levels across gestation, we expressed the data as Multiples of the normal Median (MoMs.We recruited 462 participants presenting to EPAU at 5-12 weeks gestation. Most (80% presented with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (e.g. abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding. 34 (7.4% subsequently miscarried. Median plasma MIC-1 levels among those who miscarried were 50% of those with ongoing pregnancies (Miscarriage cohort MoM 0.50 (25(th-75(th centiles: 0.29-1.33 vs ongoing pregnancies MoM 1.00 (0.65-1.38; p=0.0025. Median plasma PAPP-A MoMs among those who miscarried was 0.57 (0.00-1.12, significantly lower than those with ongoing pregnancies (MoMs 1.00 (0.59-1.59; p=0.036. Plasma hCG levels were also significantly depressed among those who miscarried compared to those with ongoing pregnancies. However, the performance of MIC-1 as a diagnostic marker to predict miscarriage in this cohort was modest, and not improved with the addition of hCG.MIC-1 and PAPP-A levels are significantly depressed in women presenting to EPAU with ultrasound evidence of fetal viability, but later miscarry. While they are unlikely to be useful as predictive biomarkers in this clinical setting, they probably play

  12. Accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age and macrosomic infant: a cohort study in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and macrosomia at birth in a low-risk population. Cohort study that included 68 771 women with non-anomalous singleton pregnancies, without history of diabetes or hypertension, based on an electronic database on pregnancies and deliveries in Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden, 2008-2014. We performed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between accelerated fetal growth occurring in the first through early second trimester as measured by ultrasound and LGA and macrosomia at birth. Restricted analyses were performed in the groups without gestational diabetes and with normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ). When adjusting for confounders, the odds of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant were elevated in mothers with fetuses that were at least 7 days larger than expected as compared with mothers without age discrepancy at the second-trimester scan (adjusted odds ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.23-2.64 and adjusted odds ratio 2.15; 95% CI 1.55-2.98, respectively). Additionally, mothers without gestational diabetes and mothers with normal weight had an elevated risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant when the age discrepancy by second-trimester ultrasound was at least 7 days. In a low-risk population, ultrasound-estimated accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  14. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress