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Sample records for early pregnancy peripheral

  1. Identification of conserved microRNAs in peripheral blood from giant panda: expression of mammary gland-related microRNAs during late pregnancy and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C D; Long, K; Jin, L; Huang, S; Li, D H; Ma, X P; Wei, M; Gu, Y; Ma, J D; Zhang, H

    2015-11-13

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals, and it has evolved several unusual biological and behavioral traits. During puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and involution, the mammary gland undergoes profound morphological and functional changes. A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be involved in mammary gland development and lactation. In this study, we identified 202 conserved mature miRNAs, corresponding to 147 pre-miRNAs, in giant panda peripheral blood using a small RNA-sequencing approach. In addition, 27 miRNA families and 29 miRNA clusters were identified. We analyzed the arm selection preference of pre-miRNAs and found that: 1) most giant panda pre-miRNAs generated one-strand miRNAs, and the 5p-arm only miRNAs have a higher expression level than 3p-arm only miRNAs; 2) there were more 5p-arm dominant miRNAs than 3p-arm dominant miRNAs; and 3) 5p-arm dominant miRNAs have a larger fold change within miRNA pairs than 3p-arm dominant miRNAs. Expression of 12 lactation-related miRNAs was detected across late pregnancy and early lactation stages by qPCR, and seven miRNAs were identified as clustered in one significant model. Most of these clustered miRNAs exhibited inhibitory roles in proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. Functional analysis highlighted important roles of the seven as signed miRNAs in mammary development and metabolic changes, including blood vessel morphogenesis, macromolecule biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation, and protein transport.

  2. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  3. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

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    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  4. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  5. Neospora caninum infection during early pregnancy in cattle: how the isolate influences infection dynamics, clinical outcome and peripheral and local immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Mezo, Mercedes; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; González-Warleta, Marta

    2014-01-30

    This work studies the influence of Neospora caninum intra-species diversity on abortion outcome, infection dynamics in terms of parasite dissemination and peripheral-local immune responses in pregnant cattle. Animals were intravenously inoculated at day 70 of pregnancy with 10⁷ tachyzoites of two isolates showing marked differences in virulence in vitro and in pregnant mouse models: Nc-Spain7, a high virulence isolate, and Nc-Spain8, a low-to-moderate virulence isolate. After inoculation, pregnancy was monitored, and dams were culled when foetal death was detected. Foetal mortality occurred in all infected heifers between days 24 and 49 post-infection (pi), however, it was detected sooner in Nc-Spain7-infected animals (median day = 34) than those inoculated with Nc-Spain8 (median day = 41) with a trend towards significance (P < 0.11). Similar histological lesions were observed in placentomes and in most of the foetuses from the two infected groups. However, parasites were more frequently detected in the placenta and foetuses by PCR and in the foetal brain by immunohistochemistry in Nc-Spain7-infected animals. Specific antibodies were detected starting at day 13 post-infection in all infected cattle, with higher IgG levels in Nc-Spain7-infected group. IFN-γ and IL-4 profiles also varied between infected groups in PBMC stimulation assays. Infected animals showed significant increases in their cytokine mRNA levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and TNF-α) in the caruncle at time of foetal death. Differences between the infected groups were also observed for cytokine profiles. These results demonstrate the influence of the N. caninum isolate on foetal death outcome, infection dynamics and immune responses in cattle.

  6. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Levente L. Orbán; Farhad N. Dastur

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to...

  7. EXPRESSION OF ADHESION MOLECULES ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTES DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mikhaylova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes play a key role in regulation of immune response during pregnancy. Intensive adhesion of monocytes to endothelium proves that monocytes are activated during pregnancy. To determine a potential role of adhesion molecules for ability of monocytes to adhere, we studied expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD49d, CD29 markers of monocytes from non-pregnant and pregnant women. Expression of adhesion molecules on monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The amounts of CD11b-expressing monocytes increased during pregnancy, as compared with non-pregnant women. Intensity of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29 expression on the monocytes did also increase at normal pregnancy. These results suggest that intense adhesion of monocytes to endothelium during uncomplicated pregnancy may be determined by increased expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29, and higher amounts of CD11b+ monocytes.

  8. The impact of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on fetal cardiac and peripheral circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmuş, Seçil; Gür, Esra Bahar; Öztekin, Deniz; Güleç, Ebru Şahin; Okyay, Duygu; Gülhan, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in fetal cardiac and peripheral circulation in pregnancies complicated with intrahepatic cholestasis. Material and Methods The Doppler examination results of 22 pregnant subjects complicated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and 44 healthy controls were compared. The parameters of fetal cardiac circulation were pulmonary artery and aortic (Ao) peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulmonary vein (Pv), peak velocity index (PVI) and pulsatility index (PI), mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV), early diastole (E)- and atrial contraction (A)-wave peak velocity ratio (E/A), and isthmus aortic peak systolic velocity (IAo PSV). The parameters of fetal peripheral circulation were middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) PI, resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio. Fetal obstetric Doppler monitoring was conducted weekly before 36 weeks and biweekly after that, and the results were compared with the normal reference values for gestational age. Results The Doppler parameters of fetal cardiac and peripheral circulation did not significantly differ between the two groups. S/D ratio readings in the ICP group were significantly above 2 SD before 35 weeks of gestation. Women with ICP had increased risks of preterm delivery, neonatal unit admission, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid compared with those in the controls. Conclusion Fetuses of pregnant women with ICP showed no differences in the evaluation of cardiac and peripheral Doppler measurements compared with fetuses of healthy mothers. The Doppler investigation of the umbilical artery may be useful in monitoring of pregnancies complicated by early onset intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:26097388

  9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Chandak, P; Tiptaft, R; Glass, J; Dasgupta, P

    2004-08-01

    Most cases of urolithiasis in pregnancy are managed conservatively either with ureteric stents or percutaneous nephrostomy tubes, which need to be changed at regular intervals. Definitive management of the stone is usually delayed till after delivery. We describe a patient who presented with pyonephrosis in the fifth week of gestation, due to a stone obstructing the right ureteropelvic junction. This was managed by insertion of a nephrostomy tube. She declined nephrostomy tube/stent changes during the rest of her pregnancy and requested termination as an alternative. She successfully underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the 14th week of pregnancy, with radiation exposure strictly localised to the kidney for 6 s. A healthy male baby was delivered at term.

  10. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  11. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link. It is not known if these risks are present prior to pregnancy or are a reflection of poor arterial and haemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. This prospective longitudinal preconception cohort study was conducted over 18 months. In total, 367 participants were recruited pre-pregnancy, from which 197 pregnancies were recorded; 39 of these pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. Complete longitudinal data were available for 172 pregnancies (140 viable pregnancies, 32 first trimester miscarriages) from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. This was a single site study based at a maternity hospital in London. Healthy women were recruited prior to natural conception and followed up once they became pregnant. All underwent haemodynamic [cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)] and arterial function [aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] testing prior to pregnancy and at 6 weeks gestation, using non-invasive devices (gas re-breathing method, Innocor® and an occilometric device, Vicorder®). Cross-sectional measurements at pre-pregnancy and 6 weeks gestation and a longitudinal analysis of changes were compared between women who had a subsequent viable pregnancy, and those who had a subsequent first trimester miscarriage. There were no differences between women destined to have a healthy ongoing pregnancy compared to those who miscarried, in terms of baseline cardiovascular function, assessed by CO, PVR, PWV or AIx

  12. Significance and changes of peripheral blood, placental tissue cytokines and NO in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Ning Zou; Li Xiong; Jin-Tao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate significance and changes of placental tissue cytokines and NO levels in peripheral blood of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and their relationship. Methods: A total of 75 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were selected as researching objects, including 26 cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension subgroup, 29 cases of patients with mild preeclampsia and 20 cases of subgroups severe preeclampsia subgroups;another 45 cases of healthy pregnant women were also selected as the control group. The maternal blood and placental tissue factor (TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP) and NO levels of the four groups were compared.Results:Peripheral blood and placental tissue cytokine levels of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were significantly higher, NO levels were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). In subgroups peripheral blood and placenta cytokine levels were gradually increased, NO levels were increased with gestational hypertension disease degree (P<0.05); NO was significantly negatively correlated with TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP levels (P<0.01).Conclusions: During pregnancy, monitoring of TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP and NO in placental tissue is helpful in prediction and evaluation of early hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and is also helpful in treatment.

  13. Pregnancy outcomes following the administration of high doses of dexamethasone in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar Ahmadabad, Hasan; Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  15. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD preeclampsia (FDR preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D-associated transcriptomes implicated the emergence of an early pregnancy, distinctive immune response in women who went on to develop preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621. Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation and Genome Canada Innovation Network. This trial was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For details see Acknowledgments.

  16. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  17. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  18. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy outcome in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, M C; Ande, A B; Olagbuji, B N

    2011-12-01

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women with obesity and 201 non-obese controls in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in early pregnancy was 9.63%. Obesity was significantly associated with advanced maternal age and parity > or =1. It was also a risk factor for pregnancy induced hypertension, admissions during pregnancy, caesarean delivery and associated with 5th minute apgar score Obesity in early pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome among pregnant Nigerian women. This information should be utilised by physicians to improve the outcome of pregnancy and promote safe motherhood.

  19. Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background0 : Human chimerism is rare and usually uncovered through investigations of ambiguous genitalia or blood grouping or prenatal diagnosis. Most of the publications on placental chimerism are mainly case reports. There is no systematic search with sensitive techniques for placental chimerism in human. Aim0 : This study was aimed to asses placental chimerism through two sensitive molecular techniques i.e., interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative fluorescent PCR. Material and methods0 : Placental chimerism was analyzed using X & Y dual color fluorescent in-situ hybridization onto 154 placentae from natural conceptions, obtained at termination of pregnancy between 7 to 16 weeks of gestation. Results0 : Three cases of placental sex chromosome chimerism were observed (1.95%. Exclusion of maternal contamination and diagnosis was confirmed later by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conclusion0 : This finding indicates that placental chimerism in early human pregnancy is not rare.

  20. Interferon-γ Expression in Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Cells Is Suppressed in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyun Shi; Bin Ling; Ying Zhou; Ting Gao; Dingqing Feng; Min Xiao; Lin Feng

    2007-01-01

    Recent study has suggested that innate immune system might play an important role in pregnancy progression. In this study, to investigate whether NK cells and NKT cells, instead of T cells, are the dominant populations of peripheral blood in early pregnancy, flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage and intracellular cytokine expressions of T cells, NK cells, NKT cells in peripheral blood of non-pregnant women and early pregnant women.In our result, the percentages of NK cells and NKT cells were significantly increased in pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. However, the percentage of T cells was not changed. We did not detect the Th2-dominance of total lymphocytes or T cells in peripheral blood of early pregnant women and there were also no significant changes of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in T cells, but IFN-γ production in both NK and NKT cells was decreased in early pregnancy. These results suggest that the innate immune system including NK cells and NKT cells should play a pivotal role in pregnancy progression. Type 1/type 2 shift mechanisms in innate immune system during the human early pregnancy should be paid more attention.

  1. [Support for teenage pregnancies and early emotional deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andro, Gwénäelle

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal psychology and psychiatry unit of Caen university hospital has put in place two systematic intervention protocols relating to pregnancy: teenage pregnancy and denial of pregnancy. Professionals are particularly concerned with teenagers with a history of early emotional deprivation and mistreatment, with the spectre of repetition. A partnership with a motherhood centre helps all concerned to work together to build resilience.

  2. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左祥生; 苏宝田; 魏道严

    1994-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor(EPF)was purified from the pooled sera of 210 pregnant women at 3-8weeks of gestation.Sera from healthy nonpegnant women used as control.The samples (G-Ⅱ,G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ) ob-tained from pregnant women had EPF activity but no HCG activity.Polyacrylamide gel electrophopesis showed that the amjor bands in pregnant G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ were at similar positions in tube gels.The results of SDS-PAGE showed 3 bands in pregnant G-Ⅳ:57.0 kD,38.0 kD and 19.0 kD.The basic active form of EPF may be a small peptide of 19.0 kD. The isoelectric points of pregnant G-Ⅳ were 6.45 and 8.20.

  4. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  5. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  6. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Busschers, Wim B; Spierings, Eline J M; Roseboom, Tessa J; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in the prospective ABCD study and the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of early pregnancy lipid profile in this association was determined. We included 2500 normal weight (lipids [median (IQR): 13 (12-14) weeks of gestation] and blood pressure during pregnancy [mean (SD) = 10 (2.3)]. Lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids) were divided into tertiles. Multilevel piecewise linear spline models were used to describe the course of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in four time periods during gestation for overweight and normal weight women. Both SBP (5.3 mmHg) and DBP (3.9 mmHg) were higher in overweight compared to normal weight women and this difference remained the same over all four time periods. The difference in SBP and DBP was not mediated or moderated by the lipid profile. Lipid profile had an independent positive effect on both SBP (range 1.3-2.2 mmHg) and DBP (0.8-1.1 mmHg), but did not change blood pressure course. Both pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile independently increase blood pressure during pregnancy. Improving pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile might result in a healthier blood pressure course during pregnancy.

  7. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja; Magnussen, Britta Kjeldberg; Shawe, Jill; Stern, Jenny; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. RESULTS Most (77%) of the participants reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p planning and 98% of those with a low degree of planning had not taken folic acid prior to pregnancy. Binge drinking during early pregnancy was reported by 20% of women with a high degree of planned pregnancy and 31% of those with a low degree (p = 0.1). CONCLUSION Pregnancy planning was associated with a healthier lifestyle but still many women could improve their lifestyle in connection to pregnancy. Their level of alcohol consumption is higher than that recommended for best pregnancy outcome.

  8. Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Groen, Henk; Roberts, Claire; Dekker, Gus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR

  9. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics...

  10. Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164428.html Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of ... researchers said. "This means more severe grades of obesity correspond to increasingly higher risk," said study co- ...

  11. [Recent recommendations in the management of early pregnancy failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupak, Aleksandra; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion refers to pregnancy loss up to the end of 22 weeks' (21(+7)) gestation. Currently, the terminology suggests early pregnancy loss or early pregnancy failure. Miscarriage occurs in 10-20% of pregnancies, and most of them take place up to 13 weeks'gestation. Management in the case of vaginal bleeding in women with a confirmed pregnancy requires a physical examination (with a speculum), and a biochemical and ultrasound diagnosis. Conservative, pharmacological or surgical management can be offered to patients with an incomplete miscarriage. The pharmacological method of proceeding in miscarriages is recommended by many scientific societies (ACOG, RCOG), and WHO, as well as in manuals for students and for obstetrician-gynecologists developed by leading experts in Poland. The procedure for pharmacological treatment with mizoprostol is: 1. Pregnancy under 9 weeks gestation: 800 mg vaginally, and if there is no effect after 4 h another 400 mg vaginally or orally. 2. Pregnancy over 9 weeks gestation: up to 4 x 400 mg every 3 hours. 3. In the absence of any effect after 36 hours from the start of the treatment, a surgical procedure is recommended. 4. The prevention of chlamydia infection in each patient: 1 g of metronidazole rectally and one dose of 1 g azithromycin, or 2 x 100 mg of doxycycline for 7 days. The legal aspects regarding the administrative proceedings after early pregnancy failure relate to the correct reporting of feat death on proper forms.

  12. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  13. Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Miko, Eva; Polgar, Beata;

    2014-01-01

    of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY: 57 healthy pregnant women [first trimester (n = 16); second trimester (n = 19); third trimester (n = 22)] and 30 non-pregnant controls were enrolled in the study. We measured the surface expression of TIM-3...... negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity...... by cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and NK cell subsets as well as Galectin-9 expression by regulatory T cells by flow cytometry. We analyzed the cytokine production and cytotoxicity of TIM3+ and TIM3- CD8 T and NK cells obtained from non-pregnant and healthy pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy by flow...

  14. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Flood-Nichols

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion.Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years. Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057.Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  16. Pregnancy and early-stage melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daryanani, D; Plukker, JT; De Hullu, JA; Kuiper, H; Nap, RE; Hoekstra, HJ

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Cutaneous melanomas are aggressive tumors with an unpredictable biologic behavior. It has been suggested that women who present with melanoma during pregnancy have a worse prognosis due to more aggressive behavior of the melanoma. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the lo

  17. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  18. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  19. Grieving after early pregnancy loss--a common reality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Purandare, N

    2013-05-24

    A miscarriage can be very traumatic for a couple and their immediate family. The aim of this study was to assess, using the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), whether the type of early pregnancy loss influences the severity of grief and whether the presence of living children influences the severity of grief. Over a period of 6 months in 2008, seventy five patients were recruited for the study, of which 7 (9.3%) had molar pregnancies, 20 (26.7%) had ectopic pregnancies, 43 (573%) had a miscarriage and 5 (6.7%) had recurrent miscarriages. In this study there was no significant difference in severity of grief, between women that had a miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.14) or, between women that had a miscarriage and a molar pregnancy (p = 0.85). Women who had experienced a ectopic pregnancy did not have a higher grief intensity than the women that had a molar pregnancy (p = 0.75). However, for women with a child, the grief intensity significantly increases with the number of miscarriages (p = 0.015). Women with no children with an ectopic pregnancy grieve significantly more than those with a child (p = 0.019). An appointment for the \\'Miscarriage Clinic\\' should be offered to all of these women but special attention should be paid to those in the categories most at risk

  20. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  1. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  2. SEASONAL EFFECT ON ACCURACY OF IN - HOME URINARY PREGNANCY TEST FOR DETECTION OF EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : A study was planned to find out the cause of false positive urinary pregnancy test in early pregnancy as some times when ultrasonography is done on these women with positive pregnancy test , they are found to be non - pregnant . Such reports on false positive urinary pregnancy test , confirmed by ultrason ography are few and therefore the study was planned. METHOD: A total number of 218 women who came to the Deptt. o f Radiology Era’s Lucknow Medical College Lucknow , for routine first trimester ultrasonographies from April 2012 to Dec 2012 were analyzed . All th ese women had their urinary pregnancy test positive tested by commonly available test kits. Some of them were found to be non - pregnant on ultrasonography. The study was conducted for nine months . RESULT: Out of the 218 women who came with positive urinary pregnancy test were examined by ultrasonography. Out of these 18(8.2% cases were found to be non - pregnant and the test was false positive. These women had performed the urinary pregnancy test by themselves and out of these 4 cases were confirmed by hospit al/ lab. These women had performed the urinary pregnancy test in the months from April 2012 to September 2012 , when atmospheric temperature is high and weather is dry. CONCLUSION : Care should be taken to avoid drying of the test membrane in the pregnancy car d test kit by replacing it in its packet soon after adding the urine sample. The result should be noted within the time mentioned on the pack. Such instructions should be followed strictly while testing the urine for pregnancy.

  3. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation.

  4. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  5. Impact of early pregnancy on prenatal development in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, van der T.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study aspects of the impact of early pregnancy on the average prenatal development per litter and on the within-litter weight distribution at birth have been investigated. The aims of the present study are given in the introduction (chapter 1). A brief review of the literatur

  6. Metabolic profiling uncovers a phenotypic signature of small for gestational age in early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Richard P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  7. Early pregnancy B vitamin status, one carbon metabolism, pregnancy outcome and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Navais, Pol; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Murphy, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Periconception supplementation with folic acid is recommended until 12 gestational weeks to prevent neural tube defects. Doses of folic acid contained in supplements and timing and length of use during pregnancy vary. The effects of status in periconception and pregnancy folate, cobalamin, betaine and their interactions on one carbon metabolism (1C), as well as the global effect of 1C on foetal growth and pregnancy outcome, are reviewed. Results from prospective studies are reviewed. Cessation of folic acid supplement use after the first trimester is associated with a sharp drop in plasma folate status and enhanced conversion of betaine to dimethylglycine. Dimethylglycine production is also higher in mothers with low folate status than in those with normal-high folate status. The effects of high doses of folic acid on one carbon metabolism in mothers with low early pregnancy cobalamin status and on foetal growth are also reviewed. Several studies report that moderately elevated early pregnancy fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is inversely associated with birth weight and a predictor of intrauterine growth retardation. There is also evidence for increased risk of preterm birth when maternal folate status is low.

  8. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Madonna; Dodds, Linda; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Armson, B. Anthony; Woolcott, Christy; Agellon, Sherry; Spencer, Anne; Weiler, Hope A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in early pregnancy and the subsequent diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN This was a nested case-control study from 2 prospective Canadian cohorts conducted in Quebec City, Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 2002 through 2010. Participants were pregnant women (n=169 cases with PE and 1975 controls). Maternal serum was drawn child-bearing age should be explored as a strategy for reducing PE and for promoting a healthier pregnancy. PMID:25446694

  9. EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL IN TERMINATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of all confirmed pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. Misoprostol’s use in early pregnancy failure is varied and dose and route are not well established. AIM: To study the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in causing expulsion of products of conception in early pregnancy failure. METHODS: Women with an ultrasound diagnosis of early pregnancy failure, less than 12 weeks gestation were included in the study. Tablet Misoprostol 600 mcg was given six hourly sublingually for 3 doses. All observations were noted and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 7.946+1.2 weeks. Mean induction abortion interval was 18.241+1.2 hours. Women with gestational age six to eight weeks had least mean induction-abortion interval time of 17.38+2. Mean dose required was 1564mcg.Efficacy of protocol was 92.85% in achieving complete abortion. CONCLUSION: The regime had 92.85% efficacy, acceptability (90% and few side effects. Thus by using a lower dose and appropriate interval between two doses (six hours, the side effects were lessened with high efficacy

  10. Mental health in early pregnancy is associated with pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, N F; Secher, A L; Cramon, P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of early pregnancy health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression and locus of control for pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 148 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (118 with Type 1 diabetes and 30......-Emotional [58.3 (38.1) vs. 82.9 (31.3); P = 0.0005] and Mental Health [67.7 (20.4) vs. 75.2 (15.8), P = 0.04], and a lower score for the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey scale Mental Component Summary (42.8 (13.1) vs. 48.8 (9.7), P = 0.03) in early pregnancy, compared with women with term deliveries. Depression...... symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score ≥ 8) were more frequent in women with preterm vs. term deliveries (seven (25%) vs. six women (5%); P = 0.003), while levels of anxiety and locus of control were similar in these two groups. No difference in early pregnancy scores for health...

  11. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Memari, Aishe; Naji, Siamak; Mladkova, Nikol; Saeedi, Vida

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks). The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.13; P = 0.040) but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8-208.4; P = 0.014). Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28-131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47-80.03; P = 0.020, respectively). There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines). In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.

  12. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  13. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad1, Aishe Memari1, Siamak Naji1, Nikol Mladkova2, Vida Saeedi1 1Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; 2Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UK Background: There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. Material and methods: We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks. Results: The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.13; P = 0.040 but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8–208.4; P = 0.014. Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28–131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47–80.03; P = 0.020, respectively. There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, early pregnancy loss, early abortion, infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm

  14. Use of tramadol in early pregnancy and congenital malformation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, Bengt; Reis, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies exist regarding the risk of a teratogenic effect of tramadol when used in early pregnancy. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, women (deliveries in 1997-2013) who had reported the use of tramadol in early pregnancy were identified. Maternal characteristics and concomitant drug use were analyzed. Among 1,682,846 women (1,797,678 infants), 1751 (1776 infants) had used tramadol, 96 of the infants had a congenital malformation and 70 of them were relatively severe. The adjusted odds ratio for a relatively severe malformation was 1.33 (95% CI 1.05-1.70). The odds ratios for cardiovascular defects (1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.29) and for pes equinovarus (3.63, 95% CI 1.61-6.89) were significantly increased. The study suggests a teratogenic effect of tramadol but the risk increase is moderate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy at an early age has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents. Postulated mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include alterations in the relative dynamics of hormone and growth factor-initiated cell fate-determining signaling pathways within the hierarchically organized mammary gland epithelium. Recent studies in epithelial cell subpopulations isolated from mouse and human mammary glands have shown that early pregnancy decreases the proportion of hormone receptor-positive cells and causes pronounced changes in gene expression as well as decreased proliferation in stem/progenitor cells. The changes include downregulation of Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. These new findings highlight the importance of cell-cell interactions within the mammary gland epithelium in modulating cancer risk and provide potential targets for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  16. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan [Aju University SChool of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  17. A molar masquerading as an ectopic pregnancy in the early first trimester: a salutary lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Abha; Lakhi, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case in which a molar pregnancy was mistaken for an ectopic pregnancy in the early first trimester. This confusion delayed diagnosis and caused distress; follow-up led to the final diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole. Correct preoperative diagnosis of molar pregnancy by ultrasound in early pregnancy may be tricky. It is important to obtain histological evidence to make the final diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. While relatively rare, consideration of molar pregnancy in the differential diagnosis of early pregnancy loss may avoid unnecessary distress.

  18. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  19. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine use during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; Mclay, James S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and explore predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use during early pregnancy. A questionnaire survey of pregnant women (500) attending for mid trimester scan at the maternity services in Grampian, North-East Scotland. Outcome measures included; CAM used; vitamins and minerals used; independent predictors of use; views and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The response rate was 66%. Two thirds of respondents (63%) reported using CAM, excluding vitamins and minerals, during early pregnancy. Respondents reported using a total of 28 different CAM modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (37% of respondents, 25 different products). The independent predictors of CAM use identified were: use by family and friends (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.3, ppregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.014). In comparison to prescribed medicines, most users were uncertain if CAM were safer (63%), more effective (66%), free from possible adverse effects (46%) or drug-CAM interactions (50%). Despite the majority of respondents being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, CAM modalities and CAM products are widely used during the early stages of pregnancy in this study population. The role of family and friends rather than health professionals in the decision to use CAM may be of concern and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  2. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset pre

  3. [Early pregnancy risk: development and validation of a predictive instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R; Rosales, M E; Díaz, M; Muzzo, S

    1994-06-01

    An early pregnancy risk scale, with scores ranging from 11 to 66 points from lower to higher risk, was constructed using variables associated with teenager's pregnancy. This scale was applied to 3000 female teenagers, coming from Metropolitan Santiago public schools. The sample was divided in three risk groups: group A (high risk) with scores equal or over 35 points, group B (low risk) with scores equal or below 20 points and group B (intermediate risk) with scores between 20.1 and 34.9 points. These girls were followed during 2 years. During this period, 84 girls became pregnant, 24 of 184 (13%) in group A, 60 of 2332 (2.6%) in group C and none of 307 in group B. There were 104 school desertions in group A and 37 in group B. To study associations and analyze risk, the sample was divided in two risk groups: high, with scores over 27 and low, with scores below 27. There was a high association between pregnancy risk score and the occurrence of pregnancy (RR 5.25 p school desertion (RR 3.32 p School desertion was predicted with a 74% sensitivity and 56% specificity. The importance variable weighing using multiple regression models, to improve the predictor's sensitivity and specificity, is discussed.

  4. Endocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstad, E; Veiberg, V; Säkkinen, H; Dahl, E; Kindahl, H; Holand, O; Beckers, J F; Eloranta, E

    2005-04-01

    The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E2 and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer.

  5. Effects of early pregnancy loss on hormone levels in the subsequent menstrual cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of hormone patterns after clinical miscarriage suggest reduced pituitary function. Hormonal effects of very early pregnancy loss (before six weeks gestation) have not been described. We used within-woman differences between menstrual cycles in urinary hormone measurements from women in the North Carolina Early Pregnancy Study to describe hormonal changes after very early pregnancy loss (n=28 early losses; 80 non-conception comparison cycles). We found lower pre-ovulatory lute...

  6. Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2010-09-13

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15±1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15±1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  7. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  8. Risk factors of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayisha Begam

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia should be evaluated by making a practice of routinely checking the platelet count and peripheral smear in early pregnancy and also in third trimester to enable early diagnosis since most cases may be asymptomatic.

  9. Waist hip ratio in early pregnancy as a clinical indicator of serum lipid levels and predictor of pregnancy complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khare

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The waist hip ratio in early pregnancy has the potential to serve as a clinical indicator of lipid levels. It can also be explored as a predictor of pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension in larger cohort studies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1709-1713

  10. Forensic DNA expertise of incest in early period of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovski, Zlatko; Jankova, Renata; Nikolova, Ksenija; Spasevska, Liljana; Jovanovic, Rubens; Janeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Proving incest from tissue obtained by abortion early in pregnancy can be a challenge. Problems include the small quantity of embryonic tissue in the products of conception, and the mixing of DNA from mother and embryo. In many cases, this amorphous material cannot be grossly segregated into maternal and fetal components. Thus, morphological discrimination requires microscopy to select relevant tissue particles from which DNA can be typed. This combination of methods is reliable and efficient. In this article, we present two cases of incest discovered by examination of products of conception.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgeniyevich Karateev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of a drug of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA in patients with early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis (UPA on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the induction of remission, the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, the immunological manifestations of the disease during a 12-week follow-up. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients with UPA and a symptom duration of less than 12 months, who took nonsteroidal anti-inflamma tory drugs (NSAIDs and omega-3 PUFA (Vitrum Cardio Omega-3 as one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. A control group comprised 20 patients with UPA receiving therapy with NSAIDs for 3 months. The groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in age (42.98±10.81 and 48.25±13.92 years, the duration of symptoms (6.73±2.81 and 5.95±2.54 months, the number of patients positive for rheumatoid factor [14 (35% and 7 (35%] and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide [9 (22.5% and 7 (35%] patients, the duration of morning stiffness (35.6±25.82 and 37.0±19.15 min, the number of swollen (3.08±1.39 and 3.30±1.21 and tender (3.63±1.63 and 3.85±1.69 joints, and DAS 28 (4.21±0.65 and 4.35±0.63. Results. The use of omega-3 PUFA did not affect significantly the incidence of RA and the use of DMARDs. Clinical remission and low DAS28 were considerably observed in the study group patients, but no statistical significance was achieved. The dose of NSAIDs, including on-demand drugs, was decreased in 22 (55% and 4 (20% patients in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.013. At 12 weeks, the study group showed signifi cant reductions in the number of tender joints, the duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS 28, and interleukin 6 levels (p < 0.05; no significant changes were found in the control group. There were no significant differences in the frequency of undesirable events. Conclusion. Omega-3 PUFAs

  12. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    , diversity, and evenness during pregnancy (P preterm birth is associated with increased vaginal microbiome instability compared to term birth. No distinct taxa were associated with preterm birth. In a predominantly African-American population, a significant decrease of vaginal microbial community richness and diversity is associated with preterm birth. The timing of this suppression appears early in pregnancy, between the first and second trimesters, suggesting that early gestation may be an ecologically important time for events that ordain subsequent term and preterm birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Early clinical features of severe peripheral facial paralysis and acupuncture strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Li, Yun; Bai, Ya-Ping

    2010-05-01

    In order to have a good grasp of rules of acupuncture for severe peripheral facial paralysis, the early clinical features of severe peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) are studied and analyzed from the aspect of injury level, injury degrees, clinical syndromes and symptoms; consequently, the treatment strategies with acupuncture are proposed. The severe peripheral facial paralysis is an important research area in clinic trials which verifies the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment.

  14. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    ) develops type 2 diabetes within a ten-year period. Early detection can prevent or delay the onset of late complications, for which follow-up screening is important. The women are recommended follow-up screening every 1-2 years after birth do to the potentials in early detection of diabetes and prevention...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...... and their participating in follow-up screening were identified. Diagnosis of diabetes or treatment with glucose-lowering agents after giving birth were also identified. Results: Attendance in follow-up screening significantly decreased with time after giving birth. Women attending follow-up screening had a significantly...

  15. Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period in a woman\\'s life where nutrition is of key importance for optimal pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to assess maternal nutrient intakes during early pregnancy and to examine potential levels of energy underreporting.

  16. T-HELPER 1 CYTOKINES INCREASE DURING EARLY PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH A HISTORY OF RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaei A. Dabbagh

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurment of various cytokines may provide a different tool for evaluation of the immune system. Recent investigations have shown that the number and function of peripheral natural killer cells (NK- cells increase during early pregnancy in women with a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA. NK-cells activity may be responsible for some cases of RSA. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the Thl cytokines (IL-2, IFN-y, TNF-a ; TNF-/0 in this phenomenon, and detection of Thl cytokines in women with RSA. The control group consisted of 40 women with no history of pregnancy loss and complication. The abortion group comprised of 92 women having at least 3 pregnancy losses. Blood from the control group and women with RSA was taken at the end of first trimester of gestational age and at the time of abortion, respectively. Sera were separated and peripheral blood lymphocytes were challenged with PHA using RPMI medium. All samples were tested for concentration of Thl cytokines using ELISA methods. It was considered that sera from women with RSA produced higher concentration of TNF-«, TNF-/? , and IL-2 in comparison with sera from normal pregnant women (NPW (P<0.001. We were not able to detect IL-2 in (NPW whereas in 31% sera from RSA group, IL-2 was detectable (P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between IFN-y, concentration in sera from patients and control group (P<0.182. Tissue culture supernatant from women with RSA also produced higher concentration of TNF-a. IFN-y, TNF-/* and IL2, than control group. These data may explain the increase NK-cells cytotoxicity during early pregnancy in women with a history of RSA. It may also provide a diagnostic tool to predict the outcome of pregnancy.

  17. Intact HCG, free HCG beta subunit and HCG beta core fragment: longitudinal patterns in urine during early pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Ruth; Wilcox, Allen J; O'Connor, John F; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D; Schlatterer, John P; McConnaughey, D Robert; Birken, Steven; Canfield, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    Detecting and monitoring early pregnancy depend on the measurement of HCG. Little is known about how production of various forms of HCG may evolve over the earliest weeks of pregnancy, particularly in naturally conceived pregnancies...

  18. Misoprostol versus curettage in women with early pregnancy failure after initial expectant management : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; Mol, BWJ; Reuwer, PJH; Drogtrop, A; Bruinse, HW

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least

  19. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes : A Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bart; Links, Thera P; Lefrandt, Joop D; van den Berg, Paul P; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptatio

  20. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  1. Progestogens and early pregnancy:prevention and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolf E.Schindler

    2013-01-01

    During human and mammalian pregnancy,endogenous progesterone is the dominant hormone since it is not only essential for conception and implantation,but also needed throughout pregnancy.Progesterone provided the effects of prevention and treatment in human pregnancy by certain mechanisms.If one considers prevention or treatment with progestogens in human pregnancy,that all progestogens are progestogenic,if one condsiders the progestogens for prevention and therapeutic approaches,nowadays,only two progenstogens can be considered fully suitable for prevention and treatment in human pregnancy:progesterone and dydrogesteone.This review introduced the mechanism of progesterone and dydrogesterone in pregnancy and treatment in human.

  2. Comparison of Pregnancy Stress Between In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer and Spontaneous Pregnancy in Women During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Fen-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Chiao, Chia-Yi; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Women who undergo in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) face complicated psychological stress and negative emotions, which may affect health during pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The current literature does not address the question of whether women who become pregnant spontaneously and women who undergo IVF face similar levels of pregnancy stress. This study investigates the differences in pregnancy stress between women with spontaneous pregnancy and women with IVF/ET pregnancy living in central Taiwan during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures, generalized estimated equations model, Wilks' λ, and Bonferroni test was used. Purposive samples of 163 women who had undergone IVF/ET and of 94 women who had undergone spontaneous pregnancy were enrolled as participants. Pregnancy stress was measured using the Chinese version of the self-administered Pregnancy Stress Scale at the 9th, 12th, and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The psychological stress experienced by IVF participants significantly increased with gestational week during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p pregnancy participants. Gestational week was the main factor found to influence stress ratings for "identifying maternal role." "Altering body structure and body function" was the main factor found to influence pregnancy stress (p pregnancy stress during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p > .05). The results of this study provide clinical evidence that IVF/ET does not cause more stress for women than spontaneous pregnancy. However, the intensity and trend of stresses differed between these two groups. These findings suggest that nurses should consider method of pregnancy when assessing the risk of stress in expectant mothers for each gestational week and when providing appropriate care and support.

  3. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G

    2015-01-01

    the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. METHODS......: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met...... the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding...

  4. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  5. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G.; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation....... Methods A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. Main outcome measures: intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. Results Most (77%) of the participants...... reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p...

  6. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  7. Ultrasound imaging in the management of bleeding and pain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Jure; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-07-01

    Bleeding and pain are experienced by 20% of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most pregnancies complicated by pain and bleeding tend to progress normally, these symptoms are distressing for woman, and they are also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first and often the only diagnostic modality that is used to determine location of early pregnancy and to assess its health. Ultrasound is an accurate, safe, painless and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool, which all contributed to its widespread use in early pregnancy. Pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are sometimes caused by concomitant gynaecological, gastrointestinal, and urological problems, which could also be detected on ultrasound scan. In women with suspected intra-abdominal bleeding, ultrasound scan can be used to detect the presence of blood and provide information about the extent of bleeding. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy complications. We include information about the diagnosis of gynaecological and other pelvic abnormalities, which could cause pain or bleeding in pregnancy. We also provide a summary of the current views on the safety of ultrasound in early pregnancy.

  8. Dynamics of heat shock protein 70 concentrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte lysates during pregnancy in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F; Almería, S; Carretero, T; García-Ispierto, I; Serrano, B; Smith, R F; Dobson, H; Santolaria, P

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dynamics of the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (Bos taurus) during pregnancy. The detection of pregnancy was carried out and blood samples collected on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 of gestation from 46 cows (11 primiparous and 35 pluriparous, 34 seropositive and 12 seronegative to Neospora caninum). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Serologic analysis of Neospora infection and determinations of HSP70 concentrations in lymphocyte lysates were carried out using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Climate variables were monitored using on-farm data loggers. Heat shock protein 70 concentrations increased in lymphocytes as gestation progressed, particularly in primiparous cows, with no effect from Neospora infection, climate variables, milk production, semen-providing bull, or outcome of gestation (singletons or twins). Our results show that HSP70 concentrations increased in lymphocytes as gestation progressed and were not affected by stressful factors, such as milk production, heat stress, chronic infection (neosporosis), or twin pregnancies.

  9. Reorganization of early visual cortex functional connectivity following selective peripheral and central visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Sanda, Nicolae; Authié, Colas N; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir; Safran, Avinoam B

    2017-02-24

    Behavioral alterations emerging after central or peripheral vision loss suggest that cerebral reorganization occurs for both the afferented and deafferented early visual cortex (EVC). We explored the functional reorganization of the central and peripheral EVC following visual field defects specifically affecting central or peripheral vision. Compared to normally sighted, afferented central and peripheral EVC enhance their functional connectivity with areas involved in visual processing, whereas deafferented central and peripheral EVC increase their functional connectivity with more remote regions. The connectivity pattern of afferented EVC suggests adaptive changes that might enhance the visual processing capacity whereas the connectivity pattern of deafferented EVC may reflect the involvement of these regions in high-order mechanisms. Characterizing and understanding the plastic changes induced by these visual defects is essential for any attempt to develop efficient rehabilitation strategies.

  10. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G; Damm, Peter; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2015-11-27

    Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding Danish language and a low educational level were all factors associated a lower probability for meeting the recommendations. The preferred types of exercise before and during pregnancy were bicycling, brisk walking, running and strength training. The proportion of women engaged in any type of exercise decreased in early pregnancy with the exception of swimming and aquatic exercise. In this cohort, more than one-third met the Danish recommendation for exercise during early pregnancy. Exercise in pregnancy is still an issue to address because the most vulnerable groups of pregnant women do not exercise. This is a cause of concern because it may reflect social inequalities in health and highlights the need for a structural and systematic approach to preconception care and early antenatal counselling.

  11. Maternal diet during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in mothers and newborns (Rhea cohort, Crete)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pedersen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study assessed whether diet and adherence to cancer prevention guidelines during pregnancy were associated with micronucleus (MN) frequency in mothers and newborns. MN is biomarkers of early genetic effects that have been associated with cancer risk in adults. METHODS: A total of 188...

  12. Early pregnancy diagnosis by serum progesterone and ultrasound in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Coppola, G; Mastromonaco, G F; St John, E; Reyes, E R; Betts, D H; King, W A

    2008-04-01

    Early pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring play an important role following embryo transfer in sheep. The aims of the current study were to investigate (i) the pattern of serum progesterone profiles in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived (clone) pregnancies, and (ii) the frequency of pregnancy loss during development following SCNT embryo transfer. Sheep SCNT embryos were made using standard nuclear transfer techniques. Day 7 embryos were surgically transferred to oestrus-synchronized recipients (n = 27). As a control, normal fertile ewes (n = 12) were bred by natural breeding. Serum was collected from all the ewes on the day of estrus (day 0 sample), 7 days post-estrus (day 7 sample) and 19 days post-estrus (day 19 sample) and every 10 days thereafter until lambing or pregnancy loss occurred. Serum progesterone (P4) was assessed using enzyme immunoassay. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound scanning on day 35 of pregnancy followed by subsequent scanning every 10 days. In control ewes, pregnancy rate on day 35 was 83.3% (10/12), whereas in the ewes that received SCNT embryos, it was 22.2% (6/27; p sheep. Further, the serum P4 levels directly reflect the degree of placental development in these two groups.

  13. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  14. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kambiz (Shoista); J.W. van Neck (Han); S.G. Cosgun (Saniye G.); M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); Avazverdi, N. (Naim); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study w

  15. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to invest

  16. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  17. Biopolitical mills. Topographies of Power in Early Peripheral Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City of Lodz is an exceptional case of industrialsettlement, a focal point of di}erent kinds and techniquesof power typical for nineteenth century industrial capi-talism. Disciplinary power parceling bodies, biopowerproviding with population stability, paternalistic gaze ofthe factory owner and monarchic sovereignty of the tsa-rist rule once met in the Scheibler and Grohman’s indu-strial establishment and nearby workers’ housing estate.{is peripheral capitalism and relations accompanyingit let us verify Foucaultian analysis of power and have anew look at it. Di}erent and less stable pattern of corre-lation of power techniques emerges here; power is nolonger strictly related to the temporal matrix or a func-tional demands of capitalist production, and temporarilyossi/es in relocated and contingent con/gurations. It isan implicit illustration of a new paradigm of power ana-lysis, which Foucault presented when his interest was notan industrial city any more, namely the „topologicalanalysis”, as S. J. Collier aptly called it.

  18. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  19. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  20. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  1. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  2. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Petersen, Morten; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2013-01-01

    The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated...... with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations....

  3. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  4. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  5. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Burger, H.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxie

  6. Early Pregnancy and Academic Achievement of African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Loretta Pinkard

    1992-01-01

    Case studies of 10 unmarried, African-American adolescent mothers at risk of dropping out of school are presented, revealing the stressful situations created by competing demands of school and home. Educational deficits that existed prior to pregnancy and their influence on contraceptive behavior and pregnancy resolution are noted. Intervention…

  7. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of methanol during early pregnancy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent attention to methanol (MeOH) as a potential alternative fuel prompted an evaluation of the chemical's effects during very early pregnancy. Rats were dosed by gavage during Days 1-8 of pregnancy at 0, 1.6, 2.4 or 3.2 g MeOH/kg/day. Groups of animals were killed on Days 9, 11 or 20 of pregnancy, and maternal, embryonic, or fetal parameters were assessed, depending on the stage of pregnancy. The decidual cell response (DCR) technique was also applied to rats treated with MeOH during pseudopregnancy. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.).

  9. Depression in Early Pregnancy Linked to Gestational Diabetes, NIH Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Monday, September 19, 2016 Depression in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes, NIH ... Women with gestational diabetes at risk for postpartum depression. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have ...

  10. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  11. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  12. Peripherally presented emotional scenes: a spatiotemporal analysis of early ERP responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoulot, Simon; Delplanque, Sylvain; Despretz, Pascal; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Honoré, Jacques; Sequeira, Henrique

    2008-06-01

    Recent findings from event-related potentials (ERPs) studies provided strong evidence that centrally presented emotional pictures could be used to assess affective processing. Moreover, several studies showed that emotionally charged stimuli may automatically attract attention even if these are not consciously identified. Indeed, such perceptive conditions can be compared to those typical of the peripheral vision, particularly known to have low spatial resolution capacities. The aim of the present study was to characterize at behavioral and neural levels the impact of emotional visual scenes presented in peripheral vision. Eighteen participants were asked to categorize neutral and unpleasant pictures presented at central (0 degrees ) and peripheral eccentricities (-30 and +30 degrees ) while ERPs were recorded from 63 electrodes. ERPs were analysed by means of spatio-temporal principal component analyses (PCA) in order to evaluate influences of the emotional content on ERP components for each spatial position (central vs. peripheral). Main results highlight that affective modulation of early ERP components exists for both centrally and peripherally presented pictures. These findings suggest that, for far peripheral eccentricities as for central vision, the brain engages specific resources to process emotional information.

  13. Maternal complications in pregnancy and wheezing in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugna, Daniela; Galassi, Claudia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    complications and wheezing symptoms in the offspring. Exposures of interest included hypertension and preeclampsia, diabetes, as well as pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index between 25 and 29.9) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) compared with normal weight (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9). Outcomes...... wheezing (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with an increase risk of wheezing in the offspring.......BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of maternal complications in pregnancy on wheezing in offspring is still insufficient. METHODS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual participant data from fourteen European birth cohorts to assess the relationship between several maternal pregnancy...

  14. Management of drug-induced hyperbilirubinaemia in early pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal hyperbilirubinaemia during pregnancy worsens perinatal ... delivery and intra-uterine death.2 However, the effects of maternal ... multiple spontaneous abortions. .... is only one case report describing high levels of unconjugated.

  15. Early Pregnancy Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... mother and fetus, include changes in the expression of the coagulation ... inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and determined its relationship .... The continuous variables (age, body mass index [BMI],.

  16. The trophoblast plug during early pregnancy: a deeper insight

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Gregor; Sundl, Monika; Glasner, Andreas; Huppertz, Berthold; Moser, Gerit

    2016-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, foetal endovascular trophoblasts invade into maternal spiral arteries, accumulate and form plugs in the lumen of the vessels. These plugs only allow blood plasma to seep through. Hence, during the first trimester of pregnancy, a first flow of fluids through the placental intervillous space is established, resulting in a physiological oxygen gradient between mother and foetus. The trophoblast plugs block spiral arteries until the beginning of the second...

  17. Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: early diagnosis and intervention are important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Shing, Koh Kai; Tan, Khim Khee; Krasu, Mary; Bickle, Ian; Chong, Vui Heng

    2014-05-01

    Bowel obstruction is rare in pregnancy, and delay in recognition can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Most reported causes of bowel obstruction in pregnancy (adhesions, intussusception, hernia, and carcinoma) require surgical intervention. Sigmoid volvulus is an acute surgical cause that can now be managed successfully without surgery. We report the case of 33-year-old lady who presented with a sigmoid volvulus that was successfully managed with urgent endoscopic decompression.

  18. Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Sommer, Miriam Colstrup; Ringholm, Lene

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia present in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed was conducted in April 2017. Inclusion criteria were largely unselected cohort......, including at least 100 women with type 1 diabetes, dealing with either the prevalence of preeclampsia or possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia identified in early pregnancy. RESULTS: Based on 11,518 pregnancies in 11 articles, the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes was 17%, five...... to six times more than in the background population. In early pregnancy, the following clinical predictors were associated with increased prevalence of preeclampsia: diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.7-23.5), microalbuminuria (OR 3.8-11.7), diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.9-2.9) and pre-existing hypertension (OR 3...

  19. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  20. Are female orphans at risk for early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tia; Peterman, Amber

    2009-06-01

    Female orphans are widely cited as being at risk for early marriage, early childbearing, and risky sexual behavior; however, to date no studies have examined these linkages using population-level data across multiple countries. This study draws from recent Demographic and Health Surveys from ten sub-Saharan African countries to examine the relationship between orphanhood status and measures of early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy among adolescent girls aged 15 to 17. Results indicate that, overall, little association is found between orphanhood and early marriage or teen pregnancy, whereas evidence from seven countries supports associations between orphanhood and early sexual debut. Findings are sensitive to the use of multivariate models, type of orphan, and country setting. Orphanhood status alone may not be a sufficient targeting mechanism for addressing these outcomes in many countries; a broader, multidimensional targeting scheme including orphan type, schooling, and poverty measures would be more robust in identifying and aiding young women at risk.

  1. [Peripheral microthrombotic purpura associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in pregnancy. A light and electron microscopic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, F K; Wagner, H; Büchner, T

    1978-06-15

    A case is presented of a pregnant patient in the 28th week of gestation with promyelocytic leukemia and an unusual thrombohemorrhagic skin lesion. Ultrastructural examination revealed a microthrombotic purpura. Reduced coagulation factors increased during heparin treatment. The exacerbation of disseminated intravascular coagulation is explained by a hypercoagulable state in pregnancy in association with the as yet unknown etiology of "promyelocytic fibrinopathic leukemia".

  2. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  3. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L; Petersen, Morten; Broedbaek, Kasper; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Nielsen, Torben K; Poulsen, Henrik E; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2016-08-01

    Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. We identified 1,338,824 pregnancies (970,491 births, 142,147 miscarriages, 226,145 induced abortions). One hundred sixty-six were exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in the early pregnancy of which 28.3 % (47) ended up in a miscarriage compared to 10.6 % among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol in the first trimester was 3.6 (CI 95 % 2.6-4.9). We found an increased risk of miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol during the early pregnancy. Women in the fertile age should not be treated with the combination of diclofenac/misoprostol if other options were available.

  4. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  5. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake.......12-0.95), respectively, in zero fish consumers. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounding by factors such as maternal smoking, height, and prepregnant weight. We conclude that never consuming fish in the first two trimesters of pregnancy was an extremely strong risk factor for preterm delivery but was also...

  6. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake...

  7. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trohimovych O.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  8. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  9. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  10. Differential expression of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 in rat uterus during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Shi; Ma, X. H.; Diao, H.L.; Ni, H.; Xu, L.B.; Zhu, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Yang, Z. M.

    2005-01-01

    PGE2 is essential for mammalian female reproduction. This study was to examine the expression of EP2 gene in the rat uterus during early pregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. There was no detectable EP2 mRNA expression in the uterus from days 1 to 4 of pregnancy (day 1 = day of vaginal sperm). A low level of EP2 immunostaining was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium from da...

  11. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  12. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  13. Human leucocyte antigen class Ib molecules in pregnancy success and early pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2013-01-01

    AND CONCLUSIONS The HLA class Ib molecules seem to induce suppression of the maternal immune system, but are not necessarily fundamental factors for pregnancy success. However, evidence points towards low expression of these proteins, especially HLA-G, being associated with reduced fertility. To clarify...

  14. Are women in early pregnancy following the national pyramid recommendations?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J L

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg\\/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.

  15. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Influence of Early Pregnancy Termination by Focused Ultrasound Beams on Menstrual Recovery of Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong DU; Zheng-ai XIONG; Jian-zhong ZOU; Yi TAN; Jin BAI; Zhi-biao WANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects on macaques' menstrual recovery after terminating early pregnancy by focused ultrasound beams (FUB)Methods FUB was used to terminate early pregnancy in 5 macaques with gestation duration ranging from 37-66 d. Two circles after the recovery of menstruation, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to estimate the shape, size and blood flow of uterus, and pathological examinations were performed to check against any lesions to uterine endometrium and ovary.Results Forty days after FUB abortion, menstruation recovered and the volume and duration of each macaque's menstruation were not changed compared with those before gestation. CDFI and MRI suggested that the siz.e and shape of uterus were normal.The endometrial line was clear and no lesions were found in adjacent organs.Conclusion FUB termination of early pregnancy in macaques did not damage their ovarian tissue and had no influence on subsequent menstrual recovery.

  17. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekumary Radha; Bindu Nambisan; Nisha Kizhekkepurakkal Prabhakaran; Shahida Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of ...

  18. Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Hong-fei; JIANG Ling-ying; ZHANG Song-ying; LIANG Feng-bing

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.Data sources The PubMed database (1992-2012) was searched for the words "conservative "OR" fertility sparing "OR"fertility preserving" AND "endometrial neoplasms" (MeSH).All relevant articles in English and the relevant references were collected.Study selection Data from published articles about fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer,including the response and recurrence rate of conservative treatment,strategies of infertility treatment,pregnancy,and obstetric outcomes,were selected.Data were mainly extracted from 41 studies,which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Hormone therapy was the most common method used for early-stage endometrial carcinoma in patients who wished to preserve fertility.Sixty percent of the patients became pregnant after remission of the carcinoma.The percentage of patients who conceived in the assisted reproductive technology group was higher than that of the natural pregnancy group (80.0% vs.43.2%,P<0.01).A higher rate of preterm labor and multiple pregnancies was observed in the assisted reproductive technology group than that in the natural pregnancy group.The majority of pregnancies (71.4%) in the assisted reproductive technology group were achieved by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.The clinical pregnancy rate of transfer cycles in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 34.1%.Conclusions Assisted reproductive technology is a good option in well-selected patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who have completed conservative treatment.In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer offers an opportunity to achieve an immediate pregnancy.

  19. Ischemia-modified albumin as an oxidative stress biomarker in early pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Kanawati, Ammar; Suzen Çaypinar, Sema; Yesil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yasar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between early pregnancy loss and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations. Serum samples of 180 women that included healthy pregnant women, women admitted for termination of pregnancy due to the absence of fetal cardiac activity or absence of fetal pole on ultrasonographic examination, and healthy non-pregnant women attending for gynecological examination. Each group included 60 patients. Serum concentrations of IMA were compared among the groups, and the correlations with patients' age, gravidity, BMI, gestational age and total serum albumin concentrations were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to IMA concentrations, the group with early pregnancy loss was found to have significantly higher IMA concentrations (p 163 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 55% to discriminate between healthy pregnant patients and patients with early pregnancy loss in first trimester. Our findings support the theory that possible oxidative stress, a more hypoxic environment and defective placentation lead to increased serum IMA concentrations. These findings may help to shed light on the complicated pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  20. Early pregnancy ultrasound and management – effect of a multifaceted training on physician knowledge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Leary, B

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal bleeding is a common event in early pregnancy, with 20-40% of pregnancies affected. Prompt diagnosis and management of bleeding is important, both to reduce morbidity and to avoid excessive emotional distress. This was a prospective study of an educational programme aimed at Obstetrics and Gynaecology BST trainees in the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. The educational programme consisted of didactic lectures, and simulation and practical sessions. A questionnaire reviewing early pregnancy complications was used to assess participant knowledge. Six trainees participated in the programme, with five (83%) answering the questionnaire. The pre-education questionnaire showed a generally poor level of knowledge of early pregnancy complications with 8\\/50 (16%) questions answered correctly. Following the educational intervention there was a statistically significant increase in participant knowledge with 45\\/50 (90%) questions answered correctly. A significant increase in participant knowledge of early pregnancy complications followed our multifaceted educational programme. Study limitations exist, however we have shown the potential value of our educational programme.

  1. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  2. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lozoya

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs, in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (deregulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  3. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Teresa; Domínguez, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  4. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  5. Ambulatory assessments of psychological and peripheral stress-markers predict birth outcomes in teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Julie; Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Choi, Chien Wen; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Feng, Tianshu; Altemus, Margaret; Gyamfi, Cynthia; Monk, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Pregnant adolescents have high rates of poor birth outcomes, but the causes are unclear. We present a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents assessing associations between maternal psychobiological stress indices and offspring gestational age at birth and birthweight. Healthy nulliparous pregnant adolescents were recruited (n=205) and followed during pregnancy. Ambulatory assessments over 24h of perceived psychological stress (collected every 30 min) and salivary cortisol (6 samples) and a summary questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, were collected at three time points (13-16, 24-27, and 34-37 gestational weeks). Corticotropin-releasing hormone, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 were assayed from blood taken at the latter 2 sessions. A final sample of 119 participants was selected for analyses. The ambulatory assessment of perceived psychological stress was positively correlated with the Perceived Stress Scale (r=.20, p=.03) but neither was associated with any of the biological assays (all ps>.20). Based on backward selection regression models that included all stress variables and relevant covariates, the ambulatory assessments of perceived psychological stress and cortisol - though not the Perceived Stress Scale - were negatively associated with gestational age at birth (F(4, 107)=3.38, p=.01) while cortisol was negatively related to birthweight (F(5, 107)=14.83, pstress during pregnancy may have positive public health benefits for the offspring given the associations of shortened gestation and lower birthweight with risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: A prospective observational study in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Genderen (Michel); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J. de Jonge (Jeroen); R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); J. Bakker (Jan); J. van Bommel (Jasper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Altered peripheral perfusion is strongly associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. We wanted to determine whether repeated assessments of peripheral perfusion during the days following surgery could help to early identify patients that are more likely to

  7. Pregnant women on thyroxine substitution are often dysregulated in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Bengt; Lantz, Mikael; Andreasson, Bengt; Grennert, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for normal fetal development. Maternal hypothyroidism during early pregnancy is associated with impaired neuropsychological development of children and other adverse outcomes. The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine whether thyroxine-treated pregnant women with hypothyroidism are adequately thyroxine substituted in early pregnancy. A secondary aim was to determine if fetal loss differed between females with thyrotropin (TSH) values within and outside the reference range at their first TSH test, scheduled for 1-2 weeks after verification of pregnancy. This was a prospective open-labeled study. During the years 1997-2002, 119 consecutive pregnancies in 101 females with thyroid diseases were followed at the Department of Endocrinology, Malmö University Hospital. At the first visit, 63 patients, median age 30 years (range 17-45 years), were on thyroxine substitution therapy for hypothyroidism. In these patients 83% were in their first trimester at the time of the initial test. Of the 63 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 32 (51%; Group A) patients had serum TSH values within the reference range at their initial test and 31 (49%; Group B) had serum TSH values outside the reference range. Twelve (19%) had TSH values of 4.0 mIU=l. The fetal loss was 2 of 32 (6%) in Group A compared to 9 of 31 (29%) in Group B ( p pregnant women on thyroxine substitution, serum TSH values were outside the reference range when first tested, generally in the first trimester. Fetal loss was significantly greater in pregnant women with abnormal TSH values compared to those with normal TSH values. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored early in pregnancy and carefully followed during pregnancy. The thyroxine dose should be increased as needed early in pregnancy to avoid hypothyroidism.

  8. 3D power Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the relationship of corpus luteum morphology and vascularity by 3 dimensional power Doppler ultrasound and the pregnancy outcome in early pregnancy. Design: prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Zagazig University Hospital. Materials and methods: this is a prospective observational cohort study of thirty six pregnant patients examined by two dimensional and three dimensional transvaginal sonography for corpus luteum volume, echostructure and corpus luteum vascularization index in the period after documentation of fetal heart activity and nine weeks. Results: there were 36 study women, ultrasound morphologic features of corpus luteum: volume ranged from 0.91 to 42.8 ml with median of 6.85, vascularization index ranged from 0.05 to 23.8 with a median of 6.85, echostructure was cystic in 12 women (33.3%, hemorrhagic in 18 (50% and solid in 6 women (16.7%. The relation between CL volume and pregnancy outcome was significant (p-value was 0.02, being smaller in group of missed abortion. The relation between CL VI and pregnancy outcome was non significant (p-value was 0.229. The relation between CL echostructure and pregnancy outcome was highly significant (p-value was 0.009. The prognosis was worst in group of solid echostructure. Conclusion: the corpus luteum volume and echostructure assessed by 3D power Doppler ultrasound have statistical relationship with the early pregnancy outcome.

  9. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (psmoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  10. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Li, Yu-Fen; Langholz, Bryan; Gilliland, Frank D

    2005-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy may affect children's asthma risk by modulating early-life immune development. Type of fish intake may be important because of differences in fatty acid content. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a nested case-control study, selecting subjects from the Children's Health Study, a population-based study of school-aged children in southern California. Cases had physician-diagnosed asthma and controls were asthma-free by age 5 years. Mothers or guardians provided information on fish consumption during pregnancy in telephone interviews. We computed odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using conditional logistic regression models that accounted for the sampling. In children born to mothers with a history of asthma, the OR of asthma was 0.20 (95% CI = 0.06-0.65) when mothers ate oily fish at least monthly during pregnancy compared with no consumption (p(trend) = 0.006). Maternal oily fish consumption during pregnancy did not benefit children of non-asthmatic mothers. In contrast, fish stick (a source of trans-fats) consumption during pregnancy increased asthma risk in children (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.18-3.51). Our results suggest that maternal oily fish intake during pregnancy may protect offspring from asthma; however, eating fish sticks during pregnancy may increase asthma risk in children.

  11. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu; Mehmet Alptekin; Sirma Geyik; Abidin Murat Geyik; Inan Gezgin; Abdulvahap Gk

    2015-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potas-sium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug in-jection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efifcacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by cyclosporine-A administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours). The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour) and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant im-provement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05); at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  12. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  13. The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Aytul; Bakir, Vuslat Lale; Akbayir, Ozgur; Cilesiz Goksedef, Behiye Pinar; Akca, Aysu

    2012-07-01

    Female sexual function is negatively influenced by pregnancy due to the physical and emotional changes. Although the most significant effect is seen in the third trimester of pregnancy, a considerable decrease in the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire in the first trimester has also been shown. To investigate the factors that affect sexuality in early pregnancy and the impact of awareness of pregnancy on female sexual function in the first trimester of pregnancy using two self-reported questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, 130 healthy, married pregnant women who were admitted to the gynecology clinic between the 4th and 10th week of gestation were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and the female sexual function index (FSFI). The factors associated with FSFI score and monthly sexual activity frequency in the first trimester, as well as the differences in sexual activity frequency and FSFI scores between the women who were previously aware of their pregnancy and those who were yet unaware of their pregnancy. Women who were unaware of their pregnancy had significantly higher coitus frequency in comparison with the aware group (P = 0.002). Total FSFI score was 21.99 ± 8.13 in the aware group and 24.66 ± 3.76 in the unaware group (P = 0.02). None of the obstetric and sociodemographic variables had an influence on desire and pain scores. Arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction scores were adversely affected by awareness of pregnancy. Orgasm scores were influenced negatively by awareness and positively by love marriage; however, in multivariate linear regression analysis none of these were defined as independent factor for orgasm scores. Overall FSFI scores and monthly frequency of sexual activity were only affected by awareness. The results of this study suggest that in early gestation, awareness of pregnancy is associated with lower female sexual function. Furthermore, obstetric and sociodemographic factors seem to be

  14. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors...... of TSH and free T4 (fT4) reference limits in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Measurement of TSH and fT4 in biobank sera collected in pregnancy weeks 5-19 from a random sample of the Danish National Birth Cohort that enrolled 101 032 pregnant in 1996-2002. SETTING: National cohort of pregnant...... women. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants (n = 6671) were identified and individual characteristics retrieved using interview data and data from Danish national health registers. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reference limits for TSH and fT4 in each first trimester pregnancy week...

  15. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumary Radha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of the urinary tract. The primary objective was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancies less than 28 weeks gestation in our hospital and to study the various adverse pregnancy outcomes in the study group. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done over a period of 12 months at this tertiary care centre in Government sector in Trivandrum, Kerala. A sample size was calculated statistically and 400 women with gestational age less than 28 weeks attending the outpatient department were included in this study. A structured proforma, urine microscopy and urine culture and sensitivity were the study tools. Results: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our study population was 8.25%. Commonest pathogen isolated was E.coli in 57.14% cases. Maternal morbidity was higher in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (24.2% than those without (12.5%. Fetal morbidity in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was 24% whereas it was 12.5% in those without it. Preterm labour, preeclampsia and prematurity were the common morbidities noted. Conclusions: Since pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria were at an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcome, routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria preferably in the first trimester is highly recommended.

  16. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  17. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate...... if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion...... and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. RESULT: We identified 1...

  18. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...

  19. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  20. FETAL HEART-RATE IN EARLY-PREGNANCY AND CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; VISSER, GHA; MANTINGH, A; BEEKHUIS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Objective To investigate normal fetal heart rate in early pregnancy and assess the hypothesis that abnormal fetal heart rate is associated with fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Design Prospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Antenatal clinic associated to the University Clinic of Obste

  1. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social disadvant

  2. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  3. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Seve...

  4. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDR OF DL-111-IT,A NEW NON-STEROID EARLY PREGNANCY TERMINATING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGRui-Ying; ZHOUHui-Jun; YANGBao-Zhu; LIUHe-Chu; XUJian-Hua; LOUYi-Jia; ZHANGYuan-Pei

    1989-01-01

    DL-111-IT (3-ethylpheny1-5- (3-methoxyphenyl) -1, 2, 4-triazole) is highly effective for terminating early pregnancy in several species of animals without delayoel embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the secondary embryo in rats. The present paper is a toxicological study of DI-111-IT.

  6. Birth defects after use of antithyroid drugs in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Lönn, Stefan; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    .0%). For subtypes of birth defects, MMI was associated with an increased incidence of septal heart defects (p=0.02). PTU was associated with ear (p=0.005) and obstructive urinary system malformations (p=0.006). A case of choanal atresia was observed after exposure to both MMI and PTU. The incidence of birth defects...... in children born to mothers who received ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy, was 8.8% and not significantly different from non-exposed (p=0.3), MMI exposed (p=0.4) or PTU exposed (p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: MMI and PTU were associated with subtypes of birth defects previously reported, but the frequency...

  7. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558 having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS: Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98 and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04, gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19 and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32 and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91 and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40. Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27, polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99, tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46 and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95. Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63 and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22 and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11 and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33. Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001 and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56 and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54. Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77. Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69 than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61 or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54. CONCLUSION: Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those

  8. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  9. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  10. Early use of peripherally inserted central catheters is safe in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James D; Runnegar, Naomi

    2017-09-04

    Management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) includes prolonged intravenous antibiotics often via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Optimal timing of PICC insertion for SAB treatment is unknown. There are concerns that early insertion may increase the risk of subsequent line infection. This retrospective audit aims to determine if early PICC insertion is safe. The outcomes considered included crude mortality, attributable mortality, PICC line infections, duration of bacteraemia and relapsed SAB. Patients with SAB at our institution between March 2013 and September 2016 were identified. Early PICC line insertion was defined as occurring within 48 hours of index positive blood culture. This retrospective audit identified 357 patients with SAB who subsequently received a PICC. This study did not show any significant differences between the early and late PICC insertion groups for attributable mortality (6.3% and 4.8%, p 0.27), duration of bacteraemia (median 2 days for both groups, p 0.48) and relapsed SAB (4.7% and 4.1%, p 0.74). Importantly, no confirmed PICC infections were identified in either group. Early PICC insertion in SAB appears safe in this retrospective audit. If validated in prospective studies this should allow for early establishment of safe, reliable IV access in SAB patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. First-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbom, Ingegerd; Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2016-10-11

    The body of first-time pregnant women is affected in many ways, and the women may not know what to expect. Conversations between women and healthcare personnel about women's bodily experience in early pregnancy can contribute to increased body knowledge, which may have a positive impact in later stages of their pregnancy and in relation to delivery. The aim of the study was to describe first-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy (pregnancy weeks 10-14). Twelve women were asked to draw pictures and answer questions freely about their experiences of their first pregnant body. Hermeneutical text interpretation was used to obtain an overall view of the experiences. A main theme emerged: 'the body is connected to the cycle of life'. This theme comprised five subthemes: 'bodily longing and a sense of ambivalence', 'being doubtful', 'welcoming changes in body and mind', 'feeling inner strength and struggle to find strength' and 'accepting a different body and mind'. This main theme and the subthemes were further interpreted and were understood as an experience of 'me and my body'. The body reminded the women to take care of it and gave rise to positive thoughts. When the body exhibited uncomfortable reactions and sensations, these were taken as evidence of pregnancy, which was also seen positive but it also triggered a sense of dissatisfaction with the body and a feeling of it becoming alien. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Early pregnancy plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Nigerian women and its relationship with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, I C; Arikawe, A P; Makwe, C C

    2017-05-01

    This study compared early plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and determined its relationship with disease severity. This was a prospective cohort study of 195 normotensive, aproteinuric pregnant women without prior history of gestational hypertension. The women were attending the Antenatal Clinic at The Lagos University Teaching Hospital and were within 24 weeks gestation at recruitment. The outcome measures were PAI-1, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and significant proteinuria. The endpoint of the study was the development of preeclampsia. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by the attending Obstetrician. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistical software. Statistical significance was set at P women who later developed preeclampsia compared to those who had a normal pregnancy (P women who later developed preeclampsia, PAI-1 had an inverse relationship with gestational age (r = 0.878) whereas in normal pregnancy, PAI-1 and gestational age had a direct relationship (r = 0.017). Second trimester systolic and DBP values were also significantly higher in the women who later developed preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy, P = 0.007 and 0.004, respectively. There was, however, no correlation between PAI-1 values and SBP, DBP and proteinuria in the women who developed preeclampsia. Plasma levels of PAI-1 are increased early in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, but the lack of correlation of this marker with disease severity may limit its clinical utility.

  13. Early pregnancy alters the metabolic responses to restricted nutrition in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Forcada, F; Martin, G B; Palacín, I; Meikle, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether a 27-day period of nutrition at half-maintenance during early pregnancy (up to Day 14) could alter maternal endocrine responses. Forty-six ewes were fed all or half of their maintenance requirements and slaughtered on Day 14 of the oestrous cycle or pregnancy. We used real time RT-PCR to study gene expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin in adipose tissue and GHR, GHR1A and of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the liver. Blood profiles of metabolites and metabolic hormones were also determined. Throughout the experiment, underfed animals presented lower body weight and body condition, greater plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and lower plasma concentrations of leptin, compared to adequately fed animals. Undernutrition affected the patterns of gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissues, and the responses differed between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. In adequately fed ewes, pregnancy up-regulated leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue, a response that was impaired in underfed ewes. The hepatic expression of IGF-I mRNA was increased by pregnancy in underfed animals while no effect was observed in adequately fed ewes. It remains to be determined whether the changes in the endocrine milieu are paralleled by modifications in uterine gene expression that could alter the environment of the embryo during early pregnancy.

  14. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Andersen, Anita Sylvest; Lassen, Michael Rud

    2009-01-01

    published studies that a high, detectable soluble HLA-G concentration in maternal plasma or serum is not mandatory for a successful pregnancy. However, complications during pregnancy, such as (severe) pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortion, IUGR, and premature birth, are associated with a low or undetectable...... was to investigate the levels of different soluble HLA-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) can be detected in maternal blood, and in this study, two different isoforms of sHLA-G, namely sHLA-G1 generated by shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G1 and HLA......-G generated by specific HLA-G transcripts, have been investigated early [median of 16.4 weeks of gestation (GW)] and late (median: 38.9 GW) in pregnancy in an original cohort of 580 pregnant Caucasian women. RESULTS: Lower concentrations of sHLA-G1 were found late in pregnancy (>32 GW) in a group of women...

  15. The sheep conceptus modulates proteome profiles in caruncular endometrium during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmanesh, Mitra; Fowler, Paul A; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2016-12-01

    The stage-specific expression of functional proteins within the endometrium, and their regulation by conceptus-derived signals, are crucial for conceptus development and successful establishment of pregnancy. Accurate knowledge of endometrium-conceptus interactions is key for the development of effective strategies to improve conceptus implantation rates both following natural conception and/or assisted reproductive technologies. The unilateral pregnant ewe provides a powerful experimental model for the study of endometrial function in the presence or absence of conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics were used to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in caruncular endometrium collected from the gravid uterine horns and the non-gravid uterine horns at the time of conceptus attachment (day 16 of pregnancy) and early post-implantation period (day 20 of pregnancy). Fifty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 16 of pregnancy and twenty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 20 of pregnancy. Sixteen proteins with different functions such as protein metabolism, cholesterol and ion transport and cell adhesion were identified. In conclusion, the use of the unilaterally pregnant ewe model provides evidence that the early implantation and post-implanting conceptus-derived signals up-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA-II) and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1) and down-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) and heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (HSP60). These regulated proteins are likely involved in providing a suitable intra-uterine environment required for conceptus attachment, implantation, early post-implantation development and the successful establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

  16. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine endometrium and myometrium during early pregnancy and luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Kotwica, G

    2008-02-01

    Past studies of the source of estrogens secreted during maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs have focused on embryonic rather than uterine origin of these steroids. The present study documents: (1) the expression of the gene CYP 17, encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C(17-20) lyase and (2) the synthesis and secretion of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) in endometrial and myometrial tissues in gilts. The expression of CYP 17 gene was shown in porcine endometrium and myometrium. Basal endometrial secretion of E(2) was higher in pregnant gilts than in cyclic gilts (days 14-16). The myometrium secreted more E(2) during the expected time of luteolysis compared to early pregnancy. Basal secretion of E(2) during pregnancy was higher from the endometrium than from the myometrium. Conversely, during luteolysis E(2) secretion was higher from the myometrium and lower from the endometrium. In pregnant and cyclic gilts (days 14-16), progesterone (P(4), 10(-5)M) in vitro significantly increased E(2) secretion regardless of reproductive status. Oxytocin (OT, 10(-7)M) had no influence on E(2) secretion and did not change the stimulatory effect of P(4) in both tissues examined. In conclusions: (1) the CYP 17 gene transcript is present in porcine endometrium and myometrium; (2) porcine endometrium and myometrium release E(2) in vitro; (3) the endometrium releases more E(2) than the myometrium during early pregnancy; (4) the myometrium releases E(2) mainly during luteolysis; (5) the endometrium and myometrium can increase E(2) release in vitro if substrate (P(4)) is provided during early pregnancy and luteolysis. These data suggest active estrogen production by the myometrium and endometrium as an alternative source for this signal for recognition of pregnancy in the pig.

  17. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  18. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  19. A case of painless thyroiditis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shiori; Endo, Kei; Iizaka, Toru; Saiki, Ryo; Iwaku, Kenji; Sato, Shotaro; Takahashi, Yasuyoshi; Otsuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of painless thyroiditis detected during the first trimester of pregnancy. A 29-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized because of thyrotoxicosis and she was confirmed to be pregnant. The gestational age was 4 weeks. Blood examinations revealed negative TSH receptor antibodies, however, we started potassium iodide because we were unable to rule out Graves' disease. Thyroid hormone levels were normalized in 3 weeks and remained low even after discontinuation of medication. She received replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium hydrate till 3 months after delivery. Painless thyroiditis can be one of the differential diagnoses of thyrotoxicosis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

  20. Cervico-isthmic pregnancy: early diagnostic imaging and successful dual therapy for uterine-sparing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Koike, Wataru; Hayashi, Shotaro; Imoto, Sanae; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-isthmic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening form of ectopic gestation in which the blastocyst implants in the uterine cervico-isthmus between the histological and anatomical internal os, followed by subsequent extension to the lower uterine segment. Early diagnosis may allow a conservative therapeutic approach that avoids catastrophic hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy. Here we report the case of a 43-year-old primigravida woman whose cervico-isthmic pregnancy complicated by massive hematometra was diagnosed at 6 weeks gestation by multimodal imaging and successfully treated by hysteroscopic resection, securing adequate hemostasis, after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

  1. [Ultrasonic observation on early pregnancy in patients using IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z M

    1987-05-01

    The paper is a report of ultrasonic examinations of IUD positions in women who became pregnant with IUD in situ. 61 pregnant women aged 23 to 41 wearing stainless steel single ring IUD were examined between 1983 and 1985. The duration between the IUD insertion and pregnancy of these women ranged from one month to 5 years with 67.2% under 1 year. This indicated that the first year after IUD insertion is a critical period for method failure. Extra care should be taken in the follow-up of insertion. Among the cases studied, the IUD position of 42 women was below the embryo in the uterine cavity, including some around the cervix. The position change of IUD apparently lost its contraceptive effect. The declined position of IUD in the uterus could be associated with the skill of inserter, and the compatibility of the shape and the size of IUD with the uterine cavity. It was suggested that both the length and width of uterine cavity should be measured before the insertion, and IUD's of all sizes should be made available in the clinics where the insertions are conducted. IUD different shapes should also be kept too fit those women with irregularly shaped uteri.

  2. Focused-ultrasound termination of an early pregnancy in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hong; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Bai, Jin; Zhan, Yang; Wu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2012-12-01

    We explored the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of focused ultrasound in terminating undesired pregnancy. A high-intensity focused ultrasound therapeutic unit was employed to terminate early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. B-mode ultrasound incorporated within the system was used to locate and study the gestational sacs of 6 rhesus macaques with gestation ages of 37 to 66 days, and varying modes of ultrasound exposure were adopted in the termination of the early pregnancies of the rhesus macaques. After focused ultrasound exposure, B-mode ultrasound of the gestational sacs showed significant lethal changes. Of the 6 rhesus macaques, 5 underwent complete abortions whereas 1 rhesus macaque underwent an incomplete abortion. The rhesus macaques resumed their menstrual cycles 50 days after focused-ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that focused ultrasound could be safe, feasible, and effective in terminating early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. As a novel physical method, it may be a promising ablation for a potentially clinical application. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mitchell; A. Kwizera; M. Usta; H. Gebreselassie

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration fo

  4. IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in peripheral blood and decidua of early miscarriages with euploid embryos: comparison between women with and without PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Minghui; Yuan, Guangqing; Wang, Zengyan; Zhou, Canquan

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the possible relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and early miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with euploid embryos. 40 pregnant women included. 9 had PCOS and miscarried; 20 had PCOS and a successful ongoing pregnancy; the remaining 11 women did not have PCOS and miscarried. An ultrasound scan was performed to prove clinical pregnancy and a blood sample was taken on day 55 ± 4 of gestation. Serum samples of IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), total testosterone, serum hormone binding protein (SHBG), leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) were obtained. In miscarriages, samples of decidua were obtained during vaccum curettage. Embryonic chromosomes in all miscarriages were proven to be normal. The expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, leptin, long-form leptin receptor and androge sOb-R n receptor (AR) were examined in the decidua. We found that miscarried PCOS patients showed significantly increased free androgen index and free IGF index, as well as decreased SHBG and IGFBP-1 than other two groups in peripheral blood. In the decidua, miscarried PCOS patients showed significantly increased expression of IGF-1 and decreased IGFBP-1 when compared with non-PCOS. AR was not expressed in the decidua of either group. Our results suggest that early miscarriage is associated with increased IGF-1 and decreased IGFBP-1 in PCOS patients.

  5. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for the early identification of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diana E; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia are major contributors to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of gestational hypertension still relies on conventional clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and thresholds of ≥140/90 mm Hg for systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP. However, the correlation between BP level and target organ damage, cardiovascular disease risk, and long-term prognosis is greater for ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than clinic BP measurement. Accordingly, ABPM has been suggested as the logical approach to overcoming the low sensitivity and specificity of clinic BP measurements in pregnancy. With the use of ABPM, differing predictable BP patterns throughout gestation have been identified for clinically healthy and hypertensive pregnant women. In normotensive pregnancies, BP steadily decreases up to the middle of gestation and then increases up to the day of delivery. In contrast, women who develop gestational hypertension or preeclampsia show stable BP during the first half of pregnancy and a continuous linear BP increase thereafter until delivery. Epidemiologic studies have also consistently reported sex differences in the 24-h patterns of ambulatory BP and heart rate. Typically, men exhibit a lower heart rate and higher BP than women, the differences being larger for SBP than DBP. Additionally, as early as in the first trimester of gestation, statistically significant increased 24-h SBP and DBP means characterize women complicated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. However, the normally lower BP in nongravid women as compared with men, additional decrease in BP during the second trimester of gestation in normotensive but not in hypertensive pregnant women, and significant differences in the 24-h BP pattern between healthy and complicated pregnancies at all gestational ages have not been taken into consideration when establishing reference BP thresholds for the

  7. Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Early Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Andersen, Nadia Lyhne; Horwitz, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in early pregnancy is associated with miscarriage. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. All births were identified using...... the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion or miscarriage were gathered from the National Hospital Register. Data on SSRI use were gathered from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed......,883) ended in miscarriage compared with 11.1% among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to an SSRI was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.33) compared with unexposed. Women discontinuing SSRI treatment 3-12 months before pregnancy also had an increased hazard...

  8. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  9. Early Pregnancy Biomarkers in Pre-Eclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensée Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE complicates 2%–8% of all pregnancies and is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to reduce these complications and to develop possible treatment modalities, it is important to identify women at risk of developing PE. The use of biomarkers in early pregnancy would allow appropriate stratification into high and low risk pregnancies for the purpose of defining surveillance in pregnancy and to administer interventions. We used formal methods for a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the accuracy of all biomarkers that have been evaluated so far during the first and early second trimester of pregnancy to predict PE. We found low predictive values using individual biomarkers which included a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM-12, inhibin-A, pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, placental growth factor (PlGF and placental protein 13 (PP-13. The pooled sensitivity of all single biomarkers was 0.40 (95% CI 0.39–0.41 at a false positive rate of 10%. The area under the Summary of Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (SROC was 0.786 (SE 0.02. When a combination model was used, the predictive value improved to an area under the SROC of 0.893 (SE 0.03. In conclusion, although there are multiple potential biomarkers for PE their efficacy has been inconsistent and comparisons are difficult because of heterogeneity between different studies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for high quality, large-scale multicentre research in biomarkers for PE so that the best predictive marker(s can be identified in order to improve the management of women destined to develop PE.

  10. Early adult psychological consequences for males of adolescent pregnancy and its resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Robbins, C

    1990-08-01

    Using data front 2522 young men who were first surveyed as 7th-grade students in Houston, Texas in 1971, we examined the psychological consequences in early adulthood of having a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. By age 21, 15% of the young men were involved in a nonmarital pregnancy. Rates were higher for blacks (24%) than for whites (12%) or Hispanics (16%). Among whites, most adolescent pregnancies were ended by abortion (58%). Adolescent pregnancies to blacks most often resulted in single parenthood (56%). Hispanics tended to have the child, and marry or live together (55%). Consistent with the life course perspective, young men involved in adolescent pregnancies were more psychologically distressed as young adults than those who did not have a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. The greater distress in adulthood is not simply a function of accelerated role transitions, because men whose girlfriends had abortions are also distressed, and those who let their girlfriends assume major parenting responsibility are no less distressed than those who became fathers and married or lived with their girlfriends. Subgroup comparisons revealed that psychological distress levels of young black men were not influenced by adolescent pregnancy.

  11. Psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Fisher, J R W; Wynter, K H

    2008-01-01

    It is known that infertility affects emotional well-being, satisfaction with life and self-esteem and that failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is associated with diminished life satisfaction, reduced self-confidence and substantial psychological distress. Investigations of whether these persist when treatment results in a pregnancy and live birth have been undertaken. A systematic search for English-language research articles on psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and the first post-partum year after ART conception. Of 466 retrieved papers, 46 met inclusion criteria. These reported data from 28 studies. There is consistent evidence that marital satisfaction, emotional well-being and self-regard in pregnancy, attachment to the fetus and parent-infant relationship in ART groups are similar to comparison groups. Anxiety about the survival of the fetus and early parenting difficulties appear to be higher and post-natal self-confidence lower. Evidence about adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood and the experience of childbirth is inconclusive and reports of parental perceptions of infant temperament and behaviour are contradictory. Between-study methodological differences may explain the lack of consistency in findings of the influence of infertility and ART on some aspects of the transition to parenthood. Overall, this body of evidence is best described as emergent. It is possible that in pregnancy after ART, parenthood might be idealized and this might then hinder adjustment and the development of a confident parental identity.

  12. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  13. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  14. Free Thyroxine During Early Pregnancy and Risk for Gestational Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Haddow

    Full Text Available Several studies have now reported associations between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and low free thyroxine (fT4 during the second and third trimesters, but not in the first trimester. The present study further examines relationships between low fT4, maternal weight, and GDM among women in the FaSTER (First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk trial, in an effort to determine the extent to which thyroid hormones might contribute to causality. The FaSTER cohort includes 9351 singleton, euthyroid women; 272 of these women were subsequently classified as having GDM. Thyrotropin (TSH, fT4, and thyroid antibodies were measured at 11-14 weeks' gestation (first trimester and 15-18.9 weeks' gestation (second trimester. An earlier report of this cohort documented an inverse relationship between fT4 in the second trimester and maternal weight. In the current analysis, women with GDM were significantly older (32 vs. 28 years and weighed more (75 vs. 64.5 kg. Maternal weight and age (but not TSH were significantly associated univariately with fT4 (dependent variable, in the order listed. Second trimester fT4 odds ratios (OR for GDM were 2.06 [95% CI 1.37-3.09] (unadjusted; and 1.89 [95% CI 1.26-2.84] (adjusted. First trimester odds ratios were not significant: OR 1.45 [95%CI 0.97-2.16] (unadjusted and 1.11 [95% CI 0.74-1.62] (adjusted. The second trimester fT4/GDM relationship thus appeared to strengthen as gestation progressed. In FaSTER, high maternal weight was associated with both low fT4 and a higher GDM rate in the second trimester. Peripheral deiodinase activity is known to increase with high caloric intake (represented by high weight. We speculate that weight-related low fT4 (the metabolically inactive prohormone is a marker for deiodinase activity, serving as a substrate for conversion of fT4 to free triiodothyronine (fT3, the active hormone responsible for glucose-related metabolic activity.

  15. Serum fructosamine concentrations in relation to metabolic changes during late pregnancy and early lactation in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Natalija; Stojević, Zvonko; Prvanović, Nikica

    2010-01-01

    The changes in blood serum fructosamine concentrations as indicators of glycaemia during a longer period of time were investigated in mares during late pregnancy and early lactation, as well as their relationship to the changes in the concentration of biochemical indicators of energetic status. The samples were taken from eleven mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. Concentrations of serum fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides were higher during late pregnancy (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.0005), while the concentrations of beta- hydroxybutyrate increased significantly (P < 0.00001) during early lactation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of fructosamine and metabolic parameters was observed. The results indicate a relationship between energetic status and serum fructosamine in mares. Higher concentrations of fructosamine are related to the adaptation to late pregnancy. Therefore, the measurement of the serum fructosamine concentrations could serve as an indicator of energetic status of mares during pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Sakumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3 were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1 expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows.

  17. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  18. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression. METHODS: We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology. FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  19. Significance of (sub) clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Emmy; Vissenberg, Rosa; Land, Jolande A.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Goddijn, Mariette; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity are prevalent among women of reproductive age and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid dysfunction has been proposed but is not widely accepted. We conducted a systematic review

  20. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  1. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  2. Early pregnancy loss in women stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver, José; Albert, Carmen; Labarta, Elena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of early pregnancy loss in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. University of Valencia. Spain. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine patients, aged <36, stimulated with GnRH antagonists for IVF between January 1, 2000 and November 1, 2005. Reproductive outcome was compared based on the application (or not) of OCP pretreatment: 944 women were included in the OCP group and 595 in the non-OCP group. The Student's t test was used for statistics. Pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early clinical pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and ongoing pregnancy rates. No significant differences were observed in any of the outcome parameters. Early pregnancy loss rates were similar: 23% in the OCP pretreatment group versus 19.2% in the non-OCP pretreatment group. However, longer periods of ovarian stimulation and higher doses of gonadotropins needed to be employed in the OCP group. There is not sufficient evidence to confirm OCP pretreatment as a risk factor for miscarriage in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols.

  3. Significance of (sub) clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Emmy; Vissenberg, Rosa; Land, Jolande A.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Goddijn, Mariette; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity are prevalent among women of reproductive age and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid dysfunction has been proposed but is not widely accepted. We conducted a systematic review

  4. Drug use during early pregnancy: cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsdottir, Thury O; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A

    2014-09-01

    To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p pregnancy (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting.

  5. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  6. Hospitalization for early bonding of the genetic mother after a surrogate pregnancy: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, H; Yahav, J; Peleg, D; Ben-Rafael, Z; Merlob, P

    2001-12-01

    In surrogate pregnancies the genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding to their infant, either prenatally (in utero) or in the immediate postnatal period. The purpose of this article is to describe a new method for encouraging early parent-infant bonding after surrogate pregnancy by hospitalizing the genetic mother in the maternity ward immediately after the delivery. Two genetic mothers were hospitalized in the maternity ward (rooming-in system) at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel immediately after delivery of their infants by surrogate arrangement. The first birth was a singleton pregnancy with vaginal delivery and the second, a twin pregnancy with delivery by cesarean section. The genetic parents were counseled by a social worker from the adoption agency, starting 3 months before the estimated date of delivery. The parents were referred to the hospital social worker before the delivery. To assess attachment, we observed the parents' behavior toward their children during two daily 15-minute periods of free, unstructured interaction. The parents showed good primary caregiving functions and established affective verbal and physical contact with the infants. They began to recognize the infants' needs and temperament, and exhibited an aura of self-confidence during their interactions. All expressed satisfaction with the method at discharge and reported on reduction of their fears about returning home with the infants. We believe that early hospitalization of the genetic mother in a surrogate delivery may be desirable to establish good and safe early mother-infant bonding, and that it should be considered for adoption as regular hospital policy. Further randomized studies with larger samples over the long term are warranted.

  7. Effect of Low Dose of Mifeprostone in Capsules combined with Misoprostol on Termination of Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄紫蓉; 王巧风; 杜明昆; 王卫芳; 顾林金

    2001-01-01

    Objective In this double-blind randomized trial, we compare the effect of 75 mg mifeprostone in capsules on termination of early pregnancy was compared with that of 150 mg in tablets combined with misoprostol. Methods A total of 160 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 80 for each group. The capsule group was administered with mifeprostone 75 mg in capsules,placebo tablets and misoprostol 0. 6 mg. The tablet group was administered with mifeprostone 150 mg in tablets, placebo capsules and misoprostol 0. 6 mg.Results The complete abortion rate in the capsule group and in the tablet group was 98. 8% and 97. 5% respectively, with no significant difference (P> 0. 05). There were no significant differences in bleeding time after abortion, side effects, recovery of menstruation or length of menstrual period between the two groups.Conclusion The clinical effect of mifeprostone capsule is the same with that of tablet in combination with misoprostol in terminating early pregnancy, while dose and cost is lower and the side effect is smaller. Mi feprostone capsule is recommended to be widely used for terminating early pregnancy.

  8. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Bilski, Jerzy J.; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from natural mating (NAT-ET), or in vitro fertilization (IVF) or activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared to NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM), and for NAT-ET, IVF and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT-1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin (NP) 1 and 2, angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for VEGF, FLT-1, PGF, ANGPT1 and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development. PMID:24472816

  9. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy:an analysis of 500 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunqian Zhang; Jintao Li; Tingjuan Wang; Jianlin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Afifl-iated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control sub-jects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were signiifcantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. More-over, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The ampli-tude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, as-ymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  10. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-07-15

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  11. The Effect of Early Excessive Weight Gain on the Development of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Bastek, Jamie A; Thomas, Ann; Mcelrath, Thomas F; Parry, Samuel I; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-10-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between total excessive gestational weight gain and hypertension in pregnancy. However, this may be a reflection of excessive water retention associated with the pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early excessive weight gain, prior to the third trimester, results in greater maternal fat deposition and inflammation, which has also been associated with the development of hypertension. By focusing on early excessive weight gain, the association between maternal weight gain and the future development of hypertension can be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between early excessive maternal weight gain and the development of hypertension during pregnancy. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of 1,441 women without chronic hypertension who were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating maternal angiogenic factors and the prediction of preeclampsia. Initial body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height at the first study visit. Early excessive maternal weight gain was defined as weight gain by 28 weeks that exceeded the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and was calculated utilizing the maximum amount of weight gain per week recommended by the IOM based on the patient's starting BMI (normal: 0.45 kg; overweight: 0.32 kg; obese: 0.27 kg). Hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between early excessive weight gain, initial BMI, and the development of hypertension, including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, during pregnancy. Results Of 1,441 women, 767 (53.2%) had weight gain that exceeded the IOM guidelines in the first 28 weeks and 154 (10.8%) developed hypertension during pregnancy. Women whose weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines were more likely to develop

  12. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Foulon

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers.Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood. Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence.A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years.This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

  13. Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces physiological adaptations that may involve, or contribute to, alterations in the genomic landscape. Pregnancy also increases the nutritional demand for choline, an essential nutrient that can modulate epigenomic and transcriptomic readouts secondary to its role as a methyl donor. Nevertheless, the interplay between human pregnancy, choline and the human genome is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a controlled feeding study, we assessed the influence of pregnancy and choline intake on maternal genomic markers. Healthy third trimester pregnant (n = 26, wk 26-29 gestation and nonpregnant (n = 21 women were randomized to choline intakes of 480 mg/day, approximating the Adequate Intake level, or 930 mg/day for 12-weeks. Blood leukocytes were acquired at study week 0 and study week 12 for microarray, DNA damage and global DNA/histone methylation measurements. A main effect of pregnancy that was independent of choline intake was detected on several of the maternal leukocyte genomic markers. Compared to nonpregnant women, third trimester pregnant women exhibited higher (P<0.05 transcript abundance of defense response genes associated with the innate immune system including pattern recognition molecules, neutrophil granule proteins and oxidases, complement proteins, cytokines and chemokines. Pregnant women also exhibited higher (P<0.001 levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes, a genomic marker of oxidative stress. No effect of choline intake was detected on the maternal leukocyte genomic markers with the exception of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation which was lower among pregnant women in the 930 versus 480 mg/d choline intake group. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

  14. Effect of progesterone on adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyn, K; Smolinska, N; Szeszko, K; Kiezun, M; Maleszka, A; Rytelewska, E; Kaminski, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of progesterone (P4) on adiponectin system genes and protein expression in the endometrium and myometrium during early gestation. Twenty-five gilts were assigned to 1 of 5 groups ( = 5): d 10 to 11 (embryo migration), 12 to 13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy), 15 to 16 (implantation), and 27 to 28 (end of implantation) of pregnancy and d 10 to 11 of the cycle (fully active corpora lutea, corresponding to the corpora lutea activity during gestation). The endometrial and myometrial tissues were cut into 100 mg slices, treated with P4 (10, 100, 1000 nM) and incubated for 24 h. Gene expression was analyzed by the real-time PCR method. Adiponectin secretion was determined by ELISA. Receptor protein content was defined using Western Blot analysis. In the endometrium, on d 10 to 11 of pregnancy, P4 stimulated adiponectin protein secretion. On those days, P4 enhanced adiponectin receptor type 1 () and type 2 () gene expression but inhibited both receptors' protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. During those period, P4 enhanced gene expression but suppressed both receptors' protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 increased adiponectin gene expression but inhibited the protein secretion. During those days, P4 suppressed gene expression and enhanced AdipoR2 protein content. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 enhanced gene and AdipoR1 protein expression ( adiponectin and genes and AdipoR1 protein expression but decreased AdipoR2 protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 enhanced gene and protein expression. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 decreased adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 increased the myometrial AdipoR2 protein concentration and decreased gene protein expression ( adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy, which may suggest the involvement of this adipokine in

  15. The patterns of peripheral plasma renin concentration in the early post-renal-transplant period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J

    1979-01-01

    Serial determinations of peripheral plasma renin concentration (PRC) were performed in 11 kidney transplant recipients during the early post-transplant period. In 5 recipients with late onset of graft function, PRC values were increased during the anuric phase and, subsequently, PRC values declined in every during restoration of graft function. In 4 recipients with an acute renal allograft reaction, PRC values were increased at the onset of the allograft reaction in 3 with hypertension whereas PRC values were normal in one normotensive recipient. Subsequently, PRC normalized in the hypertensives coincident with increasing body weights. In 2 recipients with an uncomplicated course and with a normal graft function immediately after transplantation and throughout the study period, PRC values were constantly normal. The results indicate that acute anuria in the early phase after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased release of renin. The results also suggest that an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system may be counterbalanced by sodium and fluid retention in hypertension following an acute renal allograft reaction.

  16. Expression of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, N; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Szeszko, K; Maleszka, A; Kaminski, T

    2015-11-01

    Orexin A and B are hypothalamic peptides derived from the prepro-orexin (PPO) precursor. Orexins stimulate food intake and arousal. Those peptides bind and activate two G protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Numerous authors have suggested that orexins play an important role in the regulation of the reproductive functions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast (chorioallantois) during early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the highest PPO and OX1R gene expression was detected on days 15 to 16 of gestation. The OX2R mRNA content in the endometrium was higher on days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 than on days 12 to 13 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, PPO gene expression was higher on days 30 to 32 than on days 27 to 28. The highest PPO protein content in the endometrium was noted on days 12 to 13. The highest OX1R protein content in the endometrium was detected on days 10 to 11, whereas OX2R protein on days 15 to 16. In the trophoblasts, PPO and OX1R protein levels were more pronounced on days 27 to 28 than on days 30 to 32, but OX2R expression was higher on days 30 to 32. The expression of PPO, OX1R and OX2R was different in the conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. Local orexin production and the presence of the specific orexin receptors suggest that the orexin system may participate in the control of porcine reproductive functions by exerting endocrine and auto/paracrine effects on the uterus, conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of orexins and their receptors in the uteri, conceptuses and trophoblasts in pigs during early pregnancy. The local orexin system is dependent on the stage of pregnancy.

  17. The role of magnesium and thyroid function in early pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization (IVF: New aspects in endocrine physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibilla Stuefer

    2015-06-01

    General significance: We propose that magnesium plays a role in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy success independently from anti-Müllerian hormone. Neither thyroid hormones nor thyroid antibodies were related to outcome.

  18. Safety of lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yi; Min Liu; Hao-Dong Cai

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety of lamivudine (LAM) treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy.METHODS:A total of 92 pregnant women who received LAM treatment either before pregnancy or in early pregnancy were enrolled in this study.All of the pregnant women volunteered to take lamivudine during pregnancy and were not co-infected with hepatitis C virus,human immunodeficiency virus,cytomegalovirus,or other viruses.All infants received passiveactive immunoprophylaxis with 200 IU hepatitis B immunoglobulin and three doses of 10 μg hepatitis B vaccines (0-1-6 mo) according to the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B.Adverse events were observed throughout the entire pregnancy and perinatal period,and the effectiveness of lamivudine treatment for blocking mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was evaluated.All adverse events in mothers and infants during pregnancy and the perinatal period and the HBV motherto-infant transmission blocking rate were compared with the literature.RESULTS:Among the 92 pregnant women,spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 cases,while 3 mothers had a second pregnancy after the initial abortion; 72 mothers delivered 73 live infants,of whom 68 infants were followed up for no less than 6 mo,and 12 mothers were still pregnant.During pregnancy,the main maternal adverse events were vaginitis (12/72,16.7%),spontaneous abortion (11/95,11.6%),and gestational diabetes (6/72,8.3%); only one case had 1-2 degree elevation of the creatine kinase level (195 U/L).During the perinatal period,the main matemal adverse events were premature rupture of the membranes (8/72,11.1%),preterm delivery (5/72,6.9%),and meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (4/72,5.6%).In addition,2 infants were found to have congenital abnormalities; 1 had a scalp hemangioma that did not change in size until 7 mo,and the other had early cerebral palsy,but with rehabilitation training,the infant's motor functions became

  19. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  20. Early nocturnal meal skipping alters the peripheral clock and increases lipogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Chika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, skipping meals, especially breakfast, has been associated with obesity and other related syndromes. Recent studies in rodents suggest that fasting and feeding times are potential factors that affect the peripheral circadian clocks and metabolism. However, the link between fasting and obesity in rodents has yet to be fully demonstrated. Method We conducted early nocturnal fasting (ENF from zeitgeber time (ZT 12 to 18 for 4 consecutive days in C57B6 mice. The first set of experiments was performed under ad libitum conditions, where ENF and free-feeding (FF control groups were compared. The second set was performed under isocaloric adjustment by restricting the diet to 90% of the basal intake of ENF mice. Calorie-restricted ENF (ENF-CR mice were then compared with isocaloric controls (IC-control. Body weight, food intake, core body temperature, activity, adiposity, and clock-related gene expression levels in the liver and adipose tissues were investigated. A stable isotopic analysis was also conducted to estimate de novo lipogenesis fluxes. Results In the ad libitum condition, the ENF mice ate more during the day, increased their overall daily food intake and gained more weight than FF-control mice. The amplitude of the body core temperature rhythm in ENF mice was also lower than in the FF-controls. Under isocaloric conditions, ENF-CR attenuated the CR-induced body weight loss, compared with the IC-control. ENF-CR also altered the acrophase time of the expression of the clock genes, which is associated with time-shift of genes involved in lipid metabolism and increased lipogenesis, compared with the IC-control. Conclusions ENF in nocturnal mice disturbs the peripheral clock and increases de novo lipid synthesis and results in a predisposition to obesity.

  1. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  4. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  5. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.

  7. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, U S; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, M; Kilburn, T R; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Mortensen, E L

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1617 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. WPPSI-R. There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes, except that binge drinking in gestational weeks 1-2 significantly reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.96) when adjusted for core confounding factors. The results were otherwise not statistically significantly related to the number of binge episodes (with a maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. We found no systematic association between binge drinking during early pregnancy and child intelligence. However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  8. Fetal outcomes following emergency department point-of-care ultrasound for vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Catherine; Balaban, Dahlia; McLeod, Shelley; Carver, Sally; Borgundvaag, Bjug

    2016-07-01

    To determine 20- and 40-week fetal outcomes following documentation of fetal cardiac activity (FCA) and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) in women at less than 20 weeks' gestation presenting to the emergency department (ED) with vaginal bleeding. Prospective observational cohort study. Single-centre tertiary care ED. Pregnant women at less than 20 weeks' gestation presenting to the ED with vaginal bleeding. All study participants underwent ED point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to document IUP and FCA. Prevalence of spontaneous abortion or pregnancy loss by 40 weeks' gestational age following ED POCUS documentation of FCA or IUP in women at less than 20 weeks' gestation. A total of 85 of 111 eligible patients were enrolled; FCA and IUP were detected in 43 (50.6%) and 54 (63.5%) participants, respectively. Participants with documented FCA on ED POCUS were less likely to experience pregnancy loss than participants without documented FCA were (5.0% vs 92.7%; Δ = 87.7%; 95% CI 71.0% to 93.7%), and participants with documented IUP were less likely to experience pregnancy loss than participants without documented IUP were (22.0% vs 93.5%; Δ = 71.5%; 95% CI 52.1% to 81.9%). Compared with radiologist-interpreted ultrasound, ED POCUS had sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI 75.9% to 96.2%) and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 89.6% to 100.0%) for documenting FCA, and sensitivity of 96.0% (95% CI 86.3% to 99.4%) and specificity of 93.1% (95% CI 77.2% to 99.0%) for documenting IUP. In this cohort of women presenting to the ED with bleeding in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, detection of IUP and especially FCA using POCUS performed by providers certified by the Canadian Emergency Ultrasound Society was associated with ongoing viable pregnancy at 20 and 40 weeks' gestational age. These data might be useful for ED physicians counseling women with symptomatic early pregnancies about the chance of miscarriage after an episode of vaginal bleeding.

  9. Predictive value of serum β-hCG for early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinglin; Liu, Yukun; Li, Xuejiao; Jiao, Xuedan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    To examine peak serum levels of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) for prediction of early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In a retrospective study, the medical records of pregnant women with a history of RSA treated at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, China, between January 2011 and July 2013 were reviewed. Serum β-hCG had been measured twice weekly from 5 to 13weeks of pregnancy, and pregnancy was monitored by transvaginal ultrasonography to 13(+6)weeks. Optimal cutoff for peak β-hCG level was determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Youden index. Women were divided into four groups on the basis of optimal peak β-hCG cutoff and pregnancy outcome (pregnancy at 13weeks or spontaneous abortion). Peak β-hCG levels and length of pregnancy at this peak were examined. Overall, 1240 patients were included. The optimal cutoff value of peak β-hCG was 88 468IU/L, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for successful pregnancy of 95.6%, 88.0%, 95.6%, and 89.0%, respectively. A faster rise in β-hCG, higher peak β-hCG, and longer pregnancy length at peak β-hCG were associated with successful early pregnancy. A cutoff value of serum β-hCG of 88 000IU/L could be used to predict early pregnancy outcomes for women with a history of RSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  11. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  12. Maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the ewe. IV. Changes in luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha throughout early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Niswender, G D

    1986-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the temporal aspects of luteal resistance to the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha during early pregnancy. In Exp. 1, 14 pregnant and 12 nonpregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha either on d 10 or 13 post-estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -30 min, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection for quantification of progesterone. The difference (delta P) between pre-treatment and post-treatment concentrations of progesterone was calculated for each ewe. There was a significant interaction between pregnancy status and day of treatment on delta P (P less than .05). Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes treated on d 10 showed a large delta P. A large delta P also was observed in nonpregnant ewes treated on d 13 post-estrus. However, delta P in pregnant ewes treated on d 13 was smaller than in the other three groups (P less than .05). The temporal patterns of concentrations of progesterone in serum were different among treatment groups (P less than .05). A suppression in the concentration of progesterone was observed by 24 h post-injection in all four treatment groups. Progesterone returned to pre-treatment levels only in pregnant ewes treated on d 13. In Exp. 2, 47 pregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha on d 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26 or 30 postestrus. Blood samples were collected and data were analyzed as described for Exp. 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1 on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2. A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features of the target stimulus can be decisive for the appearance of the facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus.

  14. The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, E L; Squella, S A; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L E

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1) on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2). A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features of the target stimulus can be decisive for the appearance of the facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus.

  15. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnant. PMID:27916904

  16. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  17. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  18. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  19. EFFECTS OF MIFEPRISTONE ON THE MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF RABBIT UTERUS IN VIVO DURING EARLY-PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGChang-Song; ZHOUYou-You; XIONGCheng-Liang; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of mifepristone on the mechanical and elec trical activitles of uterus and the sensitivity of myometrium to 15-methyl-PGF2a in early-pregnant rabbits. The effect of termination of early-pregnancy was also observed.

  20. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  1. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  2. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  3. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  4. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines\\/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  5. Prediction of pregnancy outcomes with combined ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and serum CA125 determinations in early threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y J; Chen, M; Chen, S J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of the combination of ultrasound scanning, yolk sacs and CA125 levels for pregnancy outcomes in early threatened abortion. A total 196 pregnant women at less than 12 weeks gestation were enrolled. They were assigned into: (A) normal pregnancy (n = 61); (B) early threatened abortion but with favorable outcomes after active treatment (n = 56); (C) pregnancy with spontaneous miscarriage and threatened abortions (n = 79). The yolk sacs were examined and serum CA125 levels were measured. The visualization rate in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C. For the mean yolk sac diameter, there was a statistically significant difference between groups A and C (p 0.05). The mean serum CA125 levels were significantly different (p ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and measurement of serum CA125 levels is of great value for predicting pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Effect of progesterone, mifepristone, and estrogen treatment during early pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Christenson, R K

    2004-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the influence of progesterone at Days 2 and 3 of pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity. In experiment 1, unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO) white crossbred gilts were given no treatment, estradiol valerate (5 mg given on Days 11 and 12), or progesterone (200 mg/day on Days 2 and 3 after mating). On Day 105 of pregnancy, each fetus and its associated placenta were weighed, and the number of live and dead fetuses was recorded for each litter. Early progesterone treatment reduced (P gestation length was decreased (P swine influence the rate of conceptus development during early pregnancy and uterine capacity during later pregnancy.

  7. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...

  8. Allopregnanolone and social stress: regulation of the stress response in early pregnancy in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Plush, Kate; Yawno, Tamara; Langendijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid metabolite from progesterone, modulates the stress response during early pregnancy. Twenty-five nulliparous sows (Sus scrofa) were allocated to one of three treatments: pregnant, ovariectomized or ovariectomized administered daily intravenously with alfaxalone as a synthetic allopregnanolone analog. On days 5, 12 and 19 of pregnancy, all sows were subjected to social stress by submitting them individually to a resident-intruder test, acting as the intruder. Blood samples were collected to analyze plasma progesterone, allopregnanolone, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations. On day 26, 10 sows across the three treatments were subjected to a dexamethasone suppression test followed by a corticotrophin-releasing hormone administration to test the functionality of their hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through cortisol release. Pregnant sows returned more rapidly to baseline cortisol concentrations following the resident-intruder test (p = 0.006). However, there were no other differences in cortisol or ACTH concentrations according to treatment or day, or to the HPA responsivity test on day 26. Allopregnanolone concentration in pregnant sows was higher than in ovariectomized sows (p pregnancy. Allopregnanolone concentration was correlated with longer resident-intruder test duration (pregnant: r = 0.66, p = 0.0003; ovariectomized: r = 0.47, p = 0.03), reflecting lower aggressiveness, and with progesterone concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.03). Alfaxalone administration raised plasma allopregnanolone concentration in alfaxalone-administered sows but resulted in little behavioral and physiological effects. These findings did not support the hypothesis that the stress response of the female pig changes in the first third of pregnancy. Allopregnanolone was associated with lower aggression in social encounters.

  9. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca(2+) free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca(2+)-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy.

  10. Engaging pregnant and parenting teens: early challenges and lessons learned from the Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheer, Subuhi; Berger, Amanda; Meckstroth, Alicia; Kisker, Ellen; Keating, Betsy

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on data from the ongoing federal Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches to discuss the early implementation experiences of two new and innovative programs intended to delay rapid repeat pregnancy among teen mothers: (1) AIM 4 Teen Moms, in Los Angeles County, California; and (2) Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy (T.O.P.P.), in Columbus, Ohio. Program staff report common challenges in working with teen mothers, particularly concerning recruitment and retention, staff capacity and training, barriers to participation, and participants' overarching service needs. Lessons learned in addressing these challenges provide useful guidance to program developers, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders working with similar populations.

  11. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-11-30

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  12. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  13. Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: a prospective observational study in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered peripheral perfusion is strongly associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. We wanted to determine whether repeated assessments of peripheral perfusion during the days following surgery could help to early identify patients that are more likely to develop postoperative complications. Methods Haemodynamic measurements and peripheral perfusion parameters were collected one day prior to surgery, directly after surgery (D0) and on the first (D1), second (D2) and third (D3) postoperative days. Peripheral perfusion assessment consisted of capillary refill time (CRT), peripheral perfusion index (PPI) and forearm-to-fingertip skin temperature gradient (Tskin-diff). Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict severe complications within ten days after surgery based on Clavien-Dindo classification. Results We prospectively followed 137 consecutive patients, from among whom 111 were included in the analysis. Severe complications were observed in 19 patients (17.0%). Postoperatively, peripheral perfusion parameters were significantly altered in patients who subsequently developed severe complications compared to those who did not, and these parameters persisted over time. CRT was altered at D0, and PPI and Tskin-diff were altered on D1 and D2, respectively. Among the different peripheral perfusion parameters, the diagnostic accuracy in predicting severe postoperative complications was highest for CRT on D2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83 to 0.92)) with a sensitivity of 0.79 (95% CI = 0.54 to 0.94) and a specificity of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.86 to 0.97). Generalized mixed-model analysis demonstrated that abnormal peripheral perfusion on D2 and D3 was an independent predictor of severe postoperative complications (D2 odds ratio (OR) = 8.4, 95% CI = 2.7 to 25.9; D2 OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 2.1 to 19.6). Conclusions In a group of patients assessed following major abdominal surgery

  14. Urinary iodine in early pregnancy is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in Tianjin, China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengao; Zhang, Wanqi; Wang, Hao; Ding, Li; Liu, Yaxin; Lin, Laixiang; Zhang, Shuang; Zhu, Mei

    2017-02-17

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and neurodevelopment disorders. Both iodine deficiency and excess are associated with SH; however, few data regarding iodine nutrition status of pregnant women with SH are available. This study aimed to clarify whether iodine deficiency or excess is associated with SH, especially, when test results for anti-thyroid autoantibodies are negative. A total of 115 women with SH and 104 women with euthyroidism (EH) in early pregnancy in Tianjin, China were investigated, and their serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), anti-thyroid globulin antibody (TGAb), urinary iodine (UIC), and urinary creatinine (UCr) concentrations were measured. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed to determine thyroid echogenicity and volume. The UIC, UIC/UCr ratio, prevalence of TPOAb and TGAb positivity, and thyroid gland volume were compared between the EH and SH groups. UIC and ultrasonographic features were analysed in subjects in the SH group who were negative for TPOAb and TGAb. Median UIC of SH (154.0 μg/L) and EH (150.1 μg/L) met the World Health Organization criterion for iodine sufficiency in pregnant women. Neither UIC nor the UIC/UCr ratio differed significantly between groups. The prevalence of TPOAb and TGAb positivity in the SH group was significantly higher than that in the EH group (P Women in early pregnancy with SH in Tianjin were iodine sufficient, but still at risk of iodine deficiency as pregnancy progressed. UIC ≥ 250 μg/L was associated with increased risk of SH. Serological negative autoimmune thyroiditis and UIC ≥ 250 μg/L may play a role in pathogenesis of SH cases with negative results for autoantibodies.

  15. Mexican adolescents’ goals as determinants in the prevention of early pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E Atienzo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to explore adolescents’ intentions related to the early formation of a family. Materials and methods. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974. Results. Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents’ expectations for their child’s education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13. Conclusions. In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.

  16. Social and emotional adjustment following early pregnancy in young Australian women: a comparison of those who terminate, miscarry, or complete pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Craig A; Horwill, Emily; Moore, Elya; Eisenberg, Marla E; Venn, Alison; O'Loughlin, Christina; Patton, George C

    2014-06-01

    To compare social and emotional adjustment including educational attainment and substance use in women who had a child, pregnancy termination, or miscarriage by young adulthood. Data were from a population-based longitudinal study of the health and well-being of 1,943 young Australians (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study) followed from 15 to 24 years of age. The sample was restricted to female participants and based on pregnancies reported by age 24 years. Analyses were adjusted for early teenage depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and parent socioeconomic context. A total of 208 pregnancies (in 170 women) were reported from a sample of 824 young women by 24 years of age. Compared with those who had never been pregnant, those who had a child had lower tertiary education completion and a higher risk of nicotine dependence; those who terminated a pregnancy were more commonly single and had a higher risk of smoking and alcohol use as well as nicotine and alcohol dependence; and those who had a miscarriage had a higher risk of depressive symptomatology and binge drinking as well as nicotine and cannabis dependence. Young women who have been pregnant by their mid-twenties report a range of difficulties in social and emotional adjustment that vary across the different pregnancy outcomes. Broad-based psychosocial health care is essential not only for young women whose pregnancies proceed to live birth, but also for those whose pregnancies end with miscarriage or induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus development or pregnancy outcomes in Korean pregnant women in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyun-Koo; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Han, You Jung; Lee, Si Won; Park, Bo Kyung; Park, So-Young; Yim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The association between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and GDM development remains controversial in various ethnicities. We prospectively assessed whether pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy had an increased likelihood of GDM development or poor fetal growth or pregnancy outcomes compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels. Serum 25-OH-D measurements and fetal ultrasonograms were carried out at 12-14, 20-22, and 32-34 wk in 523 pregnant women. Each woman was screened for GDM at 24-28 wk. There were no differences in serum 25-OH-D levels at 12-14 wk or 22-24 wk of pregnancy between GDM and non-GDM women after adjusting for maternal age, BMI at prepregnancy, BMI at first visit, BMI at GDM screening, gestational age at sampling, previous history of GDM, vitamin D intake, and seasonal variation in sampling. The risk of GDM, insulin resistance, and impaired β-cell function had no association with serum 25-OH-D levels in crude or adjusted logistic regression analysis. GDM was not associated with maternal serum 25-OH-D deficiency during the first trimester or fetal growth during the first and second trimesters. Pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, Apgar 1, Apgar 5 and birth weight were independent of maternal serum 25-OH-D levels during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, neither GDM prevalence nor fetal growth during pregnancy is associated with vitamin D deficiency at the first trimester in Korean women. Pregnancy outcomes are also independent of maternal vitamin D status.

  18. Changes in vascular extracellular matrix composition during decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha D; Choudhury, Ruhul H; Matos, Patricia; Horn, James A; Lye, Stephen J; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Jones, Rebecca L; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    Uterine spiral arteriole (SA) remodeling in early pregnancy involves a coordinated series of events including decidual immune cell recruitment, vascular cell disruption and loss, and colonization by placental-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT). During this process, decidual SA are converted from narrow, muscular vessels into dilated channels lacking vasomotor control. We hypothesized that this extensive alteration in SA architecture must require significant reorganization and/or breakdown of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). First trimester decidua basalis (30 specimens) was immunostained to identify spiral arterioles undergoing trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling. Serial sections were then immunostained for a panel of ECM markers, to examine changes in vascular ECM during the remodeling process. The initial stages of SA remodeling were characterized by loss of laminin, elastin, fibrillin, collagen types III, IV and VI from the basement membrane, vascular media and/or adventitia, and surrounding decidual stromal cells. Loss of ECM correlated with disruption and disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the majority of changes occurred prior to extensive colonization of the vessel wall by EVT. The final stages of SA remodeling, characterized by the arrival of EVT, were associated with the increased mural deposition of fibronectin and fibrinoid. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal loss of ECM from the walls of remodeling decidual SA in early pregnancy.

  19. Effects of professional support on nausea, vomiting, and quality of life during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chao-Po; Yang, Yung-Mei; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a professional support (PS) intervention (including individualized health education and supportive phone calls) in reducing the severity of nausea and vomiting (NV) and improving the quality of life (QOL) of women in early pregnancy. An experimental pretest/posttest design with a control group was used. Participants were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The women in the experimental group (n = 40) received the PS intervention, while those in the control group (n = 39) only received routine nursing care. Analysis of covariance and mixed models were used to compare the experimental and control groups while adjusting for covariates. The severity of NV and the perceived level of symptom distress were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group during weeks 2 and 4, and the women in the experimental group showed a significant improvement in their QOL in week 4 (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in body weight at week 4 (p = .501). These findings provide empirical evidence in support of the effectiveness of PS in reducing the severity of NV and improving QOL for women during early pregnancy. This intervention could be routinely applied in prenatal nursing health education. Future studies could apply the concept of PS to different populations and health issues.

  20. Influence of mefloquine administration during early pregnancy on rat embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakdoky, Mai Helmy

    2015-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) is a potent effective antimalarial drug against multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It has been proved that MQ can be given safely during the second and third trimesters. However, there is very limited information on the drug safety during the first trimester. The aim of the present work was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MQ during critical periods of early development. Wistar rats were orally administered with a single dose of MQ (45 mg/kg bwt or 187 mg/kg bwt) on the 1st, 6th or 13th days of pregnancy. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) was chosen as a positive control. On the 21st day of gestation, standard parameters of reproductive performance and fetal examination were estimated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione reductase activity and glutathione (GSH) content were evaluated in placenta and liver homogenates of mothers and fetuses. The results indicated that MQ did not adversely affect the number of implantation, resorption, litter size and fetal body weight and length. Only groups treated with MQ on the 1st day of gestation exhibited significant decrease in fetal body weight. Examination of fetuses for external, visceral and skeletal changes showed minimal variations involving extension of lateral brain ventricles and renal pelvis and signs of delayed ossification. These variations were accompanied with significant elevation of MDA level and reduction of GSH content of fetal liver. Prenatal exposure to MQ at early pregnancy did not cause any embryolethal or teratogenic effect. It could slightly exacerbate minor variations.

  1. Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15-16 and 27-28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30-32 of gestation and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15-16 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10-11 and days 12-13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10-16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27-32 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10-11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10-11 and 30-32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12-28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10-13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15-16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin

  2. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  3. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length in pregnancies scheduled for a cesarean delivery: prediction of early spontaneous onset of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Aiello, Elisa; Pietrolucci, Maria Elena; Arduini, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether the cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation is predictive of spontaneous early onset of labor in pregnancies scheduled for elective cesarean section (CS). This was a prospective observational study on 167 women scheduled for elective CS at 39 weeks of gestation. The cervical length was measured ultrasonographycally at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation and the pregnancies characteristics were recorded. The presence or absence of spontaneous onset of labor before the time scheduled for elective CS was related to cervical length and pregnancies characteristics. Of the 167 pregnancies enrolled, 25 (14.97%) underwent early spontaneous onset of labor before the time scheduled for the elective CS. The cervical length was significantly shorter in these women when compared with those delivering with an elective CS (21 vs. 30 mm z=5.49 Ponset of labor in univariate analysis (P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cervical length (adjusted odds ratio 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.61; P≤0.0001) was the only predictor for the early onset of labor. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for the prediction of early onset of labor was 0.844 (95% CI 0.738-0.950) for cervical length as test variable. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that a cervical length onset of labor in pregnancies scheduled for CS and may be useful in individualizing the gestational age for elective CS.

  5. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  6. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake.

  7. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many

  8. Changes in cytokine production and composition of peripheral blood leukocytes during pregnancy are not associated with a difference in the proliferative immune response to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Lisa E E L O; van der Hoorn, Marie-Louise P; van der Mast, Barbara J; Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Lee, Nadine; van der Keur, Carin; van Beelen, Els; Roelen, Dave L; Claas, Frans H J; Scherjon, Sicco A

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed peripheral blood from women at term pregnancy for leukocyte composition, in vitro proliferative responses and cytokine production after nonspecific and fetus-specific stimulation. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and stimulated with umbilical cord blood (UCB) of the mother's own child, third-party UCB, nonspecific stimulus phytohemagglutinin, and anti-CD3 antibody, with PBMCs of nonpregnant women (cPBMC) as controls. Nine combinations of patient, child, third party child, and controls were selected on basis of sharing one human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antigen. The response of mPBMC upon specific stimulation with fetal antigens was similar to that of cPBMC. No differences were found when comparing the mother's response upon stimulation to her own child with stimulation to that with a control child. Nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin and anti-CD3 antibody did not reveal a difference in proliferation rate between mPBMC and cPBMC. However, mPBMC contained a higher percentage of CD14(+) cells (p = 0.001) and activated T cells (CD25(dim), p < 0.0001), but a lower percentage CD16(-)CD56(bright) natural killer (NK) cells (p = 0.001) and CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells (p = 0.003). mPBMC produced more interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-17 compared with cPBMC (p < 0.05). We found differences in lymphocyte composition and cytokine production between mPBMC and cPBMC. These differences did not result in quantitative changes in proliferative responses during pregnancy compared with responses in nonpregnant controls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early pregnancy: utility for prediction of postpartum thyroid dysfunction and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Parkes, A B; John, R; Harris, B; Lazarus, J H

    2004-08-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in pregnancy are a marker for postpartum (PPTD) and long-term thyroid dysfunction, with variable sensitivity and specificity in PPTD prediction. To test its utility in prediction, we recruited 308 TPOAb-positive (147 developed PPTD (PPTD group) and 161 remained euthyroid [PPTE group]) and 102 TPOAb-negative women (none developed PPTD), in early pregnancy (median, 18; range, 9-19 weeks' gestation). TPOAb levels were higher in the PPTD group (median) (125.2 kIU/L; p < 0.001), and in its hypothyroid (162.4 kIU.; p < 0.0001), hyperthyroid (114.2 kIU/L; p < 0.007), and biphasic (105.1 kIU/L; p < 0.02) variants, compared to the PPTE group (66.7 kIU/L) The incidence of PPTD was significantly higher with TPOAb levels above 58.2 kIU/L (early pregnancy versus postpartum; relative risk, 1.37 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.61] versus 0.78 [95% CI 0.5-1.2]) compared to levels below. The integrated postpartum TPOAb response was higher in the PPTD group (median) (159 kIU/L per week) and its variants (hypothyroid; 199 kIU/L per week; biphasic, 180 kIU/L per week; hyperthyroid, 120 kIU/L per week), compared to the PPTE group (86 kIU/L per week p < 0.004). Median early pregnancy TPOAb levels in the PPTD and PPTE groups correlated well with the postpartum antibody response (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TPOAb in PPTD prediction was 100% (early pregnancy and postpartum), specificity 62% (early pregnancy) versus 41% (postpartum) and positive predictive value 48% (early pregnancy and postpartum). The timing of TPOAb testing, the sensitive assay used and the absence of PPTD in TPOAb-negative subjects contributed to this high sensitivity. We recommend TPOAb in early pregnancy as a useful predictor of PPTD, particularly in populations where PPTD does not occur in TPOAb-negative women.

  10. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24 kg/m(2). High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24 kg/m(2) and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially.

  11. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  12. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sacerdoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  13. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  14. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  15. Increased oxidative stress from early pregnancy in women who develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Vandita; Rani, Alka; Patil, Vidya; Pisal, Hemlata; Randhir, Karuna; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder, defined as new onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Our earlier study has shown increased maternal oxidative stress at delivery to be associated with poor birth outcome in PE. However, these results were observed when the pathology had progressed and may have been secondary to the effects of the disorder. To understand the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in PE right from early pregnancy, in this prospective study, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in maternal blood at 3 time-points of gestation [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2), at delivery (T3)] and in cord blood. Gene expression of SOD and GPx and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme were also analyzed in the placenta. MDA levels were higher at T1 (p stress right from 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. This may alter placental development and lead to fetal programming of adult non-communicable disease in the offspring.

  16. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  17. Early pregnancy maternal vitamin D concentrations and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dodie L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Qiu, Chungfang; Huang, Jonathan; Grote, Nancy; VanderStoep, Ann; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-05-01

    While associations of vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetes have been well demonstrated, investigations of vitamin D and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reported inconsistent findings. We examined associations of vitamin D status with GDM. In a nested case-cohort study (135 GDM cases and 517 non-GDM controls), we measured maternal serum vitamin D status (total 25[OH]D and 25[OH]D3 ) in early pregnancy (16 weeks on average) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. We calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression models. GDM cases had lower mean total 25[OH]D (27.3 vs. 29.3 ng/mL) and 25[OH]D3 (23.9 vs. 26.7 ng/mL) concentrations compared with women who did not develop GDM (both P-values pregnancy vitamin D status, particularly 25[OH]D3 , is inversely associated with GDM risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A random protein-creatinine ratio accurately predicts baseline proteinuria in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Adi; Draper, Jennifer; Curley, Cara; Sammel, Mary D; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-12-01

    Data surrounding the use of a random urine protein:creatinine ratio (PCR) in the diagnosis of preeclampsia is conflicting. We sought to determine whether PCR in early pregnancy can replace the 24-hour urine collection as the primary screening test in patients at risk for baseline proteinuria. Women requiring a baseline evaluation for proteinuria supplied a urine sample the morning after their 24-hour collection. The PCR was analyzed as a predictor of significant proteinuria (≥150 mg). A regression equation to estimate the 24-hour protein value from the PCR was then developed. Sixty of 135 subjects enrolled completed the study. The median 24-hour urine protein and PCR were 90 mg (IQR: 50-145) and 0.063 (IQR: 0.039-0.083), respectively. Fifteen patients (25%) had significant proteinuria. PCR was strongly correlated with the 24-hour protein value (r = 0.99, p proteinuria (AUC = 0.86). A PCR cut-point of 0.079 yielded a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 57.8%. The resulting regression equation [total protein = 46.5 + 904.2*PCR] accurately estimates the actual 24-hour protein (95% CI: ±88 mg). A random urine PCR accurately estimates the 24-hour protein excretion in the first half of pregnancy and can be used as the primary screening test for baseline proteinuria in at-risk patients.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  20. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Mendes, Roberta Hack; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-02-13

    Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2) was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (parto imediato segundo o índice de massa corporal (IMC) no início da gravidez. Métodos: A PAS e a PAD foram medidas no 1º, 2º e 3º trimestres gestacionais e aos 30-45 dias pós-parto em uma coorte prospectiva de 189 mulheres com idade entre 20 e 40 anos. O IMC (kg/m2) foi aferido até a 13a semana e classificado como normal (parto (βPAS=0,010; IC95%:0,006-0,014 e βPAD=0,015; IC95%:0,012-0,018). As mulheres com IMC excessivo apresentaram média de PAS maior em todos os trimestres, e de PAD maior no primeiro e no terceiro trimestres. O IMC excessivo no início da gestação esteve positivamente associado com mudanças na PAS (βPAS=7,055; IC95%:4,499-9,610) e na PAD (βPAD=3,201; IC95%:1,136-5,266). Conclusão: A PAS e a PAD diminuíram do primeiro para o segundo trimestre e aumentaram do segundo trimestre até o pósparto. Mulheres com IMC excessivo no início da gestação apresentaram valores mais elevados de PAS e PAD ao longo da gravidez, mas não no pós-parto, quando comparadas às de IMC normal.

  1. Effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, R.; Sharma, S.; Mathur, S.; Prakash, A.O.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium is widely used in fatigue-resistant alloys, nuclear reactors, space device, missiles parts, electronics and other specialized purposes. Workers both in industries and mines are constantly exposed through inhalation or direct skin contact. A number of investigations have been made in different laboratories in relation to its toxicological effects in laboratory animals and humans. The lethal dose (LD/sub 50/) of beryllium nitrate through intravenous route in rats has been reported from our laboratory to be 3.16 mg/kg body weight. But not much is known about its effects on reproductive physiology. The present communication deals with the effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in the albino rats.

  2. Distributions of PCNA and Cas-3 in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Oner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the distributions of proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA and Cas-pase-3 (Cas-3 and their possible roles in implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy at immunohistochemical level. The tissue samples from pregnant animals between gestational days 1-5 were incubated by PCNA and Cas-3 antibodies and the obtained results were evaluated quantitatively. It was observed that PCNA immunoreactivity in uterine luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium reduced as from day 2 of gestation and disappeared as from day 4 of gestation. PCNA staining intensity in stromal cells and myometrium increased gradually with progressing gestation. While Cas-3 immunoreactivity was strongly detected in luminal and glandular epithelium throughout the whole gestational period, its reactivity markedly increased as from day 3 of gestation. In conclusion, it may suggest that the blastocyst implantation induces the uterine luminal epithelial cell death and stromal cell proliferation around the embryo in the uterus.

  3. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  4. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Barrios, Yasmin V; Redline, Susan; Drake, Christopher L; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test questionnaire (FIRST-S) when used in early pregnancy. A cohort of 647 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation to collect information regarding lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. The factorial structure of the FIRST-S was tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed by evaluating the association between the FIRST-S with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted to complement classical test theory (CTT) analytic approaches. The mean score of the FIRST-S was 13.8 (range: 9-33). The results of the EFA showed that the FIRST-S contained a one-factor solution that accounted for 69.8% of the variance. The FIRST-S items showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.81). CFA results corroborated the one-factor structure finding from the EFA; and yielded measures indicating goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.902) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.057). The FIRST-S had good construct validity as demonstrated by statistically significant associations of FIRST-S scores with sleep quality, antepartum depression and anxiety symptoms. Finally, results from IRT analyses suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. The FIRST-S was found to have good construct validity and internal consistency for assessing vulnerability to insomnia during early pregnancy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Assesment of The Efficacy of Thyroid Function Screening in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Temur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To asses the efficacy of screening thyroid function during early pregnancy. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty five pregnant women who attended a secondary center for their first antenatal visits (6-12 weeks of gestation between May 2012 and August 2012 were divided into two groups comprising 94 women regarded as high-risk and 91 low-risk. Maternal serum concentrations of TSH, fT4 and fT3 were measured. The thyroid function of the study group was evaluated for euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism according to TSH, fT3 and fT4 results. Analysis of data were performed, using the SPSS software version 11.5. In all tests, p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: We screened thyroid function in 185 pregnant women, of whom 151 (81.62% were euthyroid and 34 (18.38%  had thyroid dysfunction, with 24 (12.98% in the high-risk group and 10 (5.4% in the low-risk group. When the results of thyroid function tests were evaluated as normal and abnormal, the most statistically significant characteristics for abnormal results were found to be history of antithyroid therapy and thyroid surgery (p=0.005, p=0.015. We would fail to spot about one third of thyroid dysfunctions if only high-risk women were screened. Discussion: Risk-stratified screening for maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy may led to neglected diagnoses of thyroid disorders. Results here indicated universal screening, but the debate regarding the targeting of high-risk cases seems set to continue into the future.

  7. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  8. Early life trauma is associated with decreased peripheral levels of thyroid-hormone T3 in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, T D; Salum, G A; Bosa, V L; Goldani, M Z; Meaney, M J; Agranonik, M; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2015-12-01

    An adverse early life environment can induce changes on behavioral and metabolic responses later in life. Recent studies in rats showed that the quality of maternal care as measured by high levels of pup licking and grooming (LG) was associated with changes in the relationship between the precursor thyroid-hormone T4 and the more active T3. Here we investigated if early exposure to childhood abuse is associated with thyroid-hormone levels in human adolescents. Given the empirical evidence from animal models showing that good maternal care was associated with increased conversion of T4 to T3, we hypothesized that early adversity would be associated with a decreased peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. A sample of 80 adolescents (10-18 years) participated in this study. We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to investigate early life stress. We calculate the body mass index (BMI) assessing weight and height and sexual maturation stage was determined by self-assessment. Blood samples were collected to measure T3 and T4 levels. ANCOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the Physical Abuse domain of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire as the early life stress variable in T3 and T4 separately, adjusted for potential confounders such as pubertal status, gender, socioeconomic status and BMI. Early life trauma was associated with reduced T3 levels in adolescents, when adjusted for potential confounders (p=0.013), but not with peripheral T4 levels (p=0.625). We extended findings from animal models showing that adverse early experience persistently impacts on the individual's responses to stress, which is marked by an abnormal metabolism of thyroid hormones. Further studies are needed to further investigate the nature of such associations.

  9. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  10. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered

  11. Seeking safety and empathy: adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-08-01

    To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions (FGDs) among adolescent girls (10-19 years) and key informant (KI) interviews with health workers. Age for FGD participants ranged from 16 to 19 years. The FGD participants were recruited while seeking antenatal care for their first pregnancy or immunization service for their first child, not being older than 6 months. Six health facilities were selected. Key informants were purposefully selected on the basis of being in-charge of maternity units. Thirteen FGDs comprising of a total of 92 adolescent girls were conducted. The FGDs were held with homogeneously constituted categories; married pregnant adolescents (5), unmarried pregnant adolescents (3) and married or not married adolescents with children (5). Semi structured interviews were held with six KIs who were in-charge of maternity units of health facilities. Latent content analysis technique was used for data analysis. Two main themes emerged; 'feeling exposed and powerless', and 'seeking safety and empathy'. The categories identified in the first theme were "the dilemma of becoming an adolescent mother" and "lack of decision power". In the second theme the following categories were identified: "cultural practices and beliefs about birth", "expectations and experiences", "transport, a key determinant to health seeking", and "dealing with constraints". Adolescents felt exposed and powerless due to the dilemma of early motherhood and lack of decision making power. The adolescent mothers seemed to be in continuous quest for safety and empathy. In so doing they are part of cultural practices and beliefs about birth. They had expectations about the health

  12. Subclinical iron deficiency is a strong predictor of bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claeys Geert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the single most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age and associated with a sizeable infectious disease burden among both non-pregnant and pregnant women, including a significantly elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Overall, little progress has been made in identifying causal factors involved in BV acquisition and persistence. We sought to evaluate maternal iron status in early pregnancy as a putative risk factor for BV, considering that micronutrients, and iron deficiency in particular, affect the host response against bacterial colonization, even in the setting of mild micronutrient deficiencies. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared maternal iron status at entry to prenatal care (mean gestational age 9.2 ± 2.6 weeks between eighty women with healthy vaginal microflora and eighteen women with vaginosis-like microflora. Vaginal microflora status was assessed by assigning a modified Nugent score to a Gram-stained vaginal smear. Maternal iron status was assayed by an array of conventional erythrocyte and serum indicators for iron status assessment, but also by more sensitive and more specific indicators of iron deficiency, including soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR as an accurate measure of cellular and tissue iron deficiency and the iron deficiency log10[sTfR/ferritin] index as the presently most accurate measure of body storage iron available. Results We found no statistically significant correlation between vaginal microflora status and routinely assessed iron parameters. In contrast, a highly significant difference between the healthy and vaginosis-like microflora groups of women was shown in mean values of sTfR concentrations (1.15 ± 0.30 mg/L versus 1.37 ± 0.38 mg/L, p = 0.008 and in mean iron deficiency log10[sTfR/ferritin] index values (1.57 ± 0.30 versus 1.08 ± 0.56, p = 0.003, indicating a strong association between iron deficiency and

  13. Economic evaluation of misoprostol in the treatment of early pregnancy failure compared to curettage after an expectant management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; van der Steeg, JW; Reuwer, PHW; Drogtrop, AP; Bruinse, HW; Mol, BWJ

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased pressure on health care expenses implies that physicians should consider economic aspects as part of the clinical decision-making process. Direct and indirect costs of a strategy starting with misoprostol in treatment of early pregnancy failure as compared to curettage is t

  14. Physiology: Capacity for Hormone Production of Cultured Trophoblast Cells Obtained from Placentae at Term and in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Problem: There is an increased doubt about the identity of isolated cytotrophoblast cells at term. Therefore, we compared pregnancy serum levels of three hormones [human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and leptin] with the capacity for hormone production of early placentae [EP; 8–13 weeks of gestation (WG)] and term placentae (TP; 38–42 WG).

  15. Deviant early pregnancy maternal triglyceride levels and increased risk of congenital anomalies : a prospective community-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, M.; de Walle, H. E. K.; van Poppel, M. N. M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gademan, M. G. J.

    ObjectiveThe maternal lipid profile could be of importance in congenital anomaly development. This study therefore investigates whether the maternal lipid profile during early pregnancy is associated with major nonsyndromic congenital anomalies (MNCA). DesignProspective community-based cohort study.

  16. Effect of Repeated Stress Treatments During the Follicular Phase and Early Pregnancy on Reproductive Performance of Gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Roelofs, J.B.; Verheijen, R.J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    In pig husbandry, stress is being considered an important cause of impaired reproductive performance. Therefore, an experiment was performed to quantify effects of repeated stressors during the follicular phase and/or during early pregnancy on reproductive performance of gilts. Eighty-one cyclic

  17. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  18. Thyroid hormone availability during pregnancy and early life: determinants, interpretation and consequences : Translating thyroid physiology into clinical epidemiology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis contains studies that investigates determinants of thyroid function during pregnancy and early life. We identified novel determinants such as angiogenic factors, known factors such as hCG and also clinical factors that were incorporated into a prediction model. We also

  19. Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 in rhesus monkey endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Haiyan; WANG Hongmei; LI Qinglei; WANG Juan; ZHANG Xuan; LIU Donglin; LIU Huitu; ZHU Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in the endometrium of rhesus monkey on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the normal menstrual cycle and on Days 12, 18 and 26 of early pregnancy was detected using in situ hybridization. The results showed that Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs were mainly localized in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. The expression of Smad2 mRNA in glandular epithelium was sustained at moderate level on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the menstrual cycle, while the expression of Smad4 gradually increased with the menstrual cycle. Both Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in functionalis glandular epithelium were expressed at the highest levels on Day 12 of early pregnancy, while in basalis glandular epithelium the most abundant expression of both Smads occurred on Days 12 and 18 of pregnancy. On Day 26, both Smads mRNAs were expressed at the lowest levels either in functionalis or in basalis. The data suggest that the epithelium is the major compartment where TGF-βs/activins exert their biological effects via Smads, and that Smad4 may play a role in the maintenance of endometrial gland function during secreting period of the menstrual cycle. During lacunar stage of early pregnancy, Smad2 and Smad4 are implicated in the tissue remodeling of endometrial functionalis and basalis, and during early villous stage both Smads are functional primarily in basalis.

  20. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  1. Parity and tanned white skin as novel predictors of vitamin D status in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lb; Abrahamsen, B; Dalgård, Christine

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)......CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)...

  2. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per; Ringholm, Lene; Watt, Torquil; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks. From early to late pregnancy, the SF-36 scales Physical Function, Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Component Summary worsened (p anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P;

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  4. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  5. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Simpson

    Full Text Available Objective: Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1 to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2 to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3 to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Methods: Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women’s Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph’s Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Results: Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001, IL-6 (p = 0.025, and IL-10 (p = 0.006 were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS score. Conclusions: Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  6. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....

  7. Risk of docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy among 1,725 Danish patients with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, L; Knoop, A S; Jensen, M-B; Ejlertsen, B; Ewertz, M

    2013-11-01

    Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) can lead to sub-optimal treatment in women with early breast cancer. Here, we compare the frequency of dose reduction as a result of PN in two different adjuvant regimens. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group READ trial we included 1,725 patients with early stage breast cancer who randomly were assigned to three cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by three cycles docetaxel (D100) or six cycles of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel (D75). Eligible patients completed chemotherapy, received docetaxel, and provided information on patient-reported outcome (secondary outcome of trial) including PN. Associations between PN and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Overall 597 patients (34 %) reported PN, grades 2-4, during treatment, 194 (11 %) after the first cycle [early onset peripheral neuropathy (EPN)] and 403 (23 %) after subsequent cycles [later-onset peripheral neuropathy (LPN)]. The odds ratio (OR) of EPN was significantly increased for the D100 regimen (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.18-4.42) while this regimen was associated with reduced OR of LPN (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88). Patients with PN received significantly lower cumulative doses of docetaxel than patients with no PN. Explorative analysis showed that OR of PN was significantly reduced if patients wore frozen gloves and socks during treatment (OR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.38-0.81) in the EPN group. Patients developing PN after the first cycle are less likely to receive docetaxel at the planned dose intensity and usage of frozen gloves and socks may modify the risk.

  8. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  9. Gene expression in the mouse brain following early pregnancy exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3,4]. Improvement of neurobehavioural outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure requires greater understanding of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the brain. Here we use a mouse model of relatively moderate ethanol exposure early in pregnancy and profile gene expression in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of adult male offspring. The effects of offspring sex and age on ethanol-sensitive hippocampal gene expression were also examined. All array data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accession number GSE87736.

  10. Effects of Mifepristone Compound on the Receptors of Estrogen and Progesterone in Early Pregnancy Deciduas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金力; 沈维雄; 孙志达; 范光升; 乌毓明; 王寒正

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of mifepristone compound (mifepristone + anordrin) on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in early pregnancy decidua.Materials & Methods A Controlled study was carried out among 60 normal early pregnant volunteers ( ≤ 49 d) in the department of obstetric and gynecology of Peking Union Medical Hospital. The concentrations of ER and PR were measured by radioligand and were compared with the control subjects after oral administration of mifepristone or mifepristone compound in different doses.Results The concentration of PR decreased while that of ER increased significantly in the decidua from all subjects administrated with mifepristone compound. We also found the concentration of EcR in Group 5 (mifepristone 30 mg + AF- 53 5 mg) was the highest among 6 groups. The compound may be in favor of estrogen's action on endometrium.Conclusion The results indicate that mi f epristone compound with AF-53 has a coordinated function and can change the proportion of PR and ER. Hence, it can facilitate abortion. The compound dose of mifepristone 30 mg q- AF- 53 5 mg is in favor of the endometrium recovering.

  11. A preliminary report on the toxicity of arecoline on early pregnancy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Tung; Young, Gau-Chyi; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Areca nut (Areca catechu) is chewed by roughly 10% of the world population, including India, Taiwan and parts of China. Lower mean birth-weight and higher neonatal jaundice were reported in the babies of betel chewing pregnant women in 1982. Although areca nut chewing during pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight and premature delivery, the mechanism of such complications is not entirely understood. A possible contributor, arecoline, a major alkaloid in the areca nut, has been reported to be cytotoxic and genotoxic. To determine the influence of arecoline on reproduction, we study the effects of arecoline on embryos during peri-implantation stages in mice. Mice consuming varying dosages of arecoline were checked for their ability to successfully produce viable embryos. In addition, trophoblast outgrowth from mice blastocysts was evaluated the survival status of the embryos. Our investigation revealed that arecoline decreased the number of implanted embryos in early pregnant mice. In addition, trophoblast outgrowth expansion of blastocysts was also inhibited by arecoline. These observations suggest that arecoline is toxic to mouse embryos as early as peri-implantation. Improved understanding of the effects of arecoline during embryogenesis may help to establish public health policies and to develop potential treatments for such patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy among 1,725 Danish patients with early stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, L; Knoop, A S; Jensen, M-B

    2013-01-01

    ,725 patients with early stage breast cancer who randomly were assigned to three cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by three cycles docetaxel (D100) or six cycles of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel (D75). Eligible patients completed chemotherapy, received docetaxel, and provided information......)] and 403 (23 %) after subsequent cycles [later-onset peripheral neuropathy (LPN)]. The odds ratio (OR) of EPN was significantly increased for the D100 regimen (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.18-4.42) while this regimen was associated with reduced OR of LPN (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88). Patients with PN received...

  13. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  14. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  15. Early disruption of pregnancy as a manifestation of seasonal infertility in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tast, A; Peltoniemi, O A T; Virolainen, J V; Love, R J

    2002-11-15

    All gilts and sows in production from which the detailed production information was available in a 160-sow unit were included to the study. In winter-spring, there were complete data available from 47 animals and in summer-autumn from 64 animals. The farm had a consistent history of the seasonally reduced farrowing rate in summer-autumn. Success of inseminations was monitored during a 4-month breeding period in winter-spring and in summer-autumn. Each animal was bled twice a week for 6 weeks starting a day before insemination and the blood samples were assayed to determine serum progesterone concentration. The blood samples were also assayed for cortisol to detect any acute infectious response. Starting on day 18, animals were pregnancy tested by transcutaneous real time ultrasound twice a week. In winter-spring, the farrowing rate was 72% (58 inseminations, 1.2 inseminations/sow) and in summer-autumn 63% (81 inseminations, 1.3 inseminations/sow). In winter-spring, there was only one detected case of early disruption of pregnancy (EDP), whereas nine such cases were recognised in summer-autumn. Five out of those nine animals returned to oestrus with a mean insemination to oestrus interval of 25.8+/-1.6 days. One sow returned to oestrus 35 days after insemination and three sows did not return to oestrus within 45 days. However, two of these sows had progesterone profiles that indicated an undetected oestrus around day 25. In those nine animals, no acute phase infectious response as indicated by a rise in serum cortisol was evident. Serum progesterone concentrations in the animals eventually loosing the pregnancy tended to be lower on day 13 (no significant difference) and were significantly lower on day 20 when compared with animals remaining pregnant. There was no difference in serum progesterone levels of pregnant animals between winter-spring and summer-autumn. Litter size was not affected by the season. The weaning to oestrus interval tended to be longer in

  16. Early Pregnancy Factor Enhances the Generation and Function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quangang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Chen, Renjin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Peng; Hu, Ankang; Wu, Lianlian; Hua, Hui; Yuan, Honghua

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of fetal semi-allograft acceptance by the mother's immune system have been the target of many immunological studies. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a molecule present in the serum of pregnant mammals soon after conception that has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether immune cells such as CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the suppressive mechanism of EPF. Accordingly, CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells were isolated from spleens of female C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, anti-CD28 antibody and IL-2 in the presence or absence of EPF. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells to CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. We thus found a remarkable rise in the Treg ratio in the EPF-treated cells. Higher mRNA and protein levels of fork head box P3 (Foxp3), a marker of the Treg lineage, were also observed in cells treated with EPF. Furthermore, the effect of EPF on Treg immunosuppressive capacity was evaluated. EPF treatment induced the expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β1 in Tregs. The suppressive capacity of Tregs was further measured by their capability to inhibit T cell receptor-mediated proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. We thus found that EPF exposure can enhance the immunosuppressive functions of Tregs. Overall, our data suggest that EPF induces the differentiation of Tregs and increases their immunosuppressive activities, which might be an important mechanism to inhibit immune responses during pregnancy.

  17. Clinical Pharmacodynamies of Mffepristone (RU486) for Terminationof Early-Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 王忠兴; 汪嵘卿; 范倩; 桂幼伦; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy female volunteers with amenorrhea for seven weeks or less,asking .for legal termination of pregnancy were recruited and divided into 4 groups (6each), The subjects were orally administered with RU486 of 50mg (Group I), 50mgQ12h×6 (Group Ⅱ ), 200mg (GroupⅢ) or 600mg (Group Ⅳ ). Vacuum aspiration( Group Ⅰ) or Methyl Carprost Suppository ( PG05 1.0mg) (Group Ⅱ-Ⅳ) was given 72h after the first dose followed by a 6-hour medical surveillance. Blood samples were collected on day 1-6, 8, 15, 43 to measure the serum levels of β-hCG, E2, P, PRL,ACTH, Cortisol. T3, T4 and TSH in eaeh subject. The results showed that no significant dose-effect relationship was observed in terms of clinical efficacy, vaginal bleeding or side effects, All four groups shared the same tendency of changes in serum levels of β-hCG, E2 and P, β-hCG levels increased by 50-100% (P 0.05). This study indicated that RU486 has no dose-effect relationship when used for interruption of early pregnancy and its main action site seems neither in ovary nor in villi. It has some effects on pituitary-adrenat axis, especially in large dosage, however, it has no obvious impact on pituitary-thyroid axis. It seems that the changes in PRL serum levels were directly due to the drug itself, its clinical significance should be further studied,

  18. HLA-G in human early pregnancy: Control of uterine immune cell activation and likely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Bouteiller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of controversies, the functional importance of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G in early human pregnancy is now sustained by a large amount of sound data. Membrane-bound and soluble HLA-G isoforms, either as β2-microglobulin-free or -associated as monomers or dimers, are expressed by different trophoblast subpopulations, the only fetal-derived cells that are directly in contact with maternal cells (maternal-fetal interfaces. Trophoblast HLA-G is the specific ligand of multiple cellular receptors present in maternal immune and non-immune cells, including CD8, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR B1, LILRB2, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 2DL4, and possibly CD160. Trophoblast HLA-G specific engagement of these cellular receptors triggers either inhibitory or activating signals in decidual CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, natural killer (NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, or endothelial cells. Such HLA-G-receptor specific interactions first contribute to limit potentially harmful maternal anti-paternal immune response by impairment of decidual NK cell cytotoxicity, inhibition of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell and B-cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis of activated CD8 + T cells. Second, these HLA-G specific interactions contribute to stimulate placental development through secretion of angiogenic factors by decidual NK cells and macrophages, and to provide a protective effect for the outcome of pregnancy by the secretion of interleukin (IL-4 by decidual trophoblast antigen-specific CD4 + T cells.

  19. Management of Membranous Glomerulonephritis in Pregnancy: A Multidisciplinary Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifat Ope-Adenuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 28-year-old female, who had a past obstetrical history complicated by uncontrolled blood pressure, early onset preeclampsia, and a fetal demise at 29 weeks. Her blood pressure normalized after each pregnancy, and no diagnosis of renal disease was ever established. In her most recent pregnancy, she remained normotensive and initially presented with normal blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. However, after the early first trimester, she developed nephrotic range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. After delivery of the baby, all clinical symptoms rapidly resolved and laboratory values normalized. We review the clinical course, diagnosis, and management of new onset nephrotic syndrome in pregnancy.

  20. A laminin-2-derived peptide promotes early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration in a dual-component artificial nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Y; Min, S-K; Bae, H K; Roh, D; Kang, H K; Roh, S; Lee, S; Chun, G-S; Chung, D-J; Min, B-M

    2013-10-01

    The DLTIDDSYWYRI motif (Ln2-P3) of human laminin-2 has been reported to promote PC12 cell attachment through syndecan-1; however, the in vivo effects of Ln2-P3 have not been studied. In Schwann cells differentiated from skin-derived precursors, the peptide was effective in promoting cell attachment and spreading in vitro. To examine the effects of Ln2-P3 in peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo, we developed a dual-component poly(p-dioxanone) (PPD)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) artificial nerve graft. The novel graft was coated with scrambled peptide or Ln2-P3 and used to bridge a 10 mm defect in rat sciatic nerves. The dual-component nerve grafts provided tensile strength comparable to that of a real rat nerve trunk. The Ln2-P3-treated grafts promoted early-stage peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancing the nerve regeneration rate and significantly increased the myelinated fibre density compared with scrambled peptide-treated controls. These findings indicate that Ln2-P3, combined with tissue-engineering scaffolds, has potential biomedical applications in peripheral nerve injury repair. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 胎盘早剥合并妊高症的诊疗分析%Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy induced hypertension in placental early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新菊; 王晓丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析胎盘早剥合并妊高症的临床诊治措施和治疗效果。方法回顾分析2012年1月至2015年1月期间我院收治的30例胎盘早剥合并妊高症产妇的临床资料,总结产妇的临床诊治措施和治疗效果。结果在本次研究的30例胎盘早剥合并妊高症的患者中,通过常规的治疗和密切监护,30例患者中11例产妇为自然分娩,19例产妇进行剖宫产。其中2例因子宫胎盘卒中而行子宫切除术,2例产妇因胎儿宫内窘迫出现死胎,其余产妇经过治疗后病情得到控制,顺利手术或生产。结论妊高症中最危险的并发症是胎盘早剥,及时有效的治疗措施在胎盘早剥合并妊高症产妇的恢复过程中有着非常重要的作用,临床医师必须做到早发现、早诊断以及早治疗,以使产妇、胎儿转危为安。%Objective to analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of placental early pregnancy complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension.Methods the clinical data of 30 cases of early pregnancy associated with pregnancy induced hypertension in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed retrospectively,and the clinical diagnosis and treatment measures were summarized.Results in this study,30 cases of patients with pregnancy induced hypertension were treated by routine treatment and close monitoring,30 cases of 1 1 cases of ma-ternal natural childbirth,19 cases of maternal cesarean section.Of which 2 cases of uteroplacental apoplexy underwent hysterectomy,2 cases of maternal fetal distress occurred after treatment of maternal fetal death,the disease under control,operation or production.Conclusion the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension in the complications of placental abruption,timely and ef ective measures in the treatment of placental abruption has a very important role in the recovery process with rengaozheng maternal,clinicians must be total =early discovery,early diagnosis and ear-ly

  2. Peripheral thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroid hormone deiodinase gene expression in dairy heifers on the day of ovulation and during the early peri-implantation period

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerholz, Marie Margarete; Mense, Kirsten; Linden, Matthias; Raliou, Mariam; Sandra, Olivier; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hoedemaker, Martina; Schmicke, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background Before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone production, the transplacental delivery of maternal thyroid hormones is necessary for embryonic and fetal development. Therefore, the adaptation of maternal thyroid hormone metabolism may be important for pregnancy success and embryo survival. The aims of this study were to determine the thyroid hormone levels during the early peri-implantation period until day 18 and on the day of ovulation, to determine whether pregnancy success is depend...

  3. The dysfunction of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells contributes to the abortion of mice caused by Toxoplasma gondii excreted-secreted antigens in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling Chen

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that is highly prevalent in human and warm-blooded animals throughout the world, leading to potentially severe congenital infections. Although the abortion caused by T. gondii is believed to be dependent on the timing of maternal infection during pregnancy, the mechanism remains unclear. This study was focused on the effects of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens on pregnant outcomes and CD4(+CD25(+ Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells at different stages of pregnancy. The results showed that in mice the frequency and suppressive function of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells were diminished after injection of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early and intermediate stages of pregnancy. The abortion caused by T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early pregnancy could be partly prevented by adoptively transferring of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from the mice injected with T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at late pregnancy, but not from the mice with the same treatment at early pregnancy. Furthermore, T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens induced apoptosis of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells of mice in early and intermediate stages of pregnancy by down-regulating their Bcl-2 expressions and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study provides new insights into the mechanism that T. gondii infection is the high risk factor for abortion in early pregnancy.

  4. First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is a predictive factor for early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Banu; Dane, Cem; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) or free β-hCG (fβhCG) in the first trimester can identify women at increased risk of subsequent preterm delivery in the absence of hypertensive disorders. Preterm and early preterm deliveries are defined as those deliveries before completing 37 and 34 weeks, respectively. A total of 868 women were enrolled into this study. According to the level of the markers, the patients were evaluated in three groups: 1 - maternal serum level ≤ 5 th percentile, 2 - between 5th and 95th percentiles, 3 - ≥ 95 th percentile. In the group of patients with a PAPP-A level ≤ 5 th percentile [≤ 0.35 multiples of the median (MoM)], mean gestational age (GA) at delivery, mean birth weight and the number of the cases with early preterm delivery were significantly lower than the others. Mean level of PAPP-A was significantly lower in cases with early preterm than term deliveries (0.58 ± 0.32 versus 1.09 ± 0.69; p = 0.01). Maternal serum level of fβhCG did not show significant difference between these groups (0.84 ± 0.45 versus 1.17 ± 0.77; p = 0.15). Low levels of maternal serum PAPP-A (≤ 0.35 MoM) (Odds ratio = 7; 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.7; p = 0.0048) significantly predicted early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies. Women with low levels of PAPP-A at first trimester have a higher risk of early preterm delivery even in the absence of hypertensive disorders.

  5. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  6. Unique appearance of proliferating antigen-presenting cells expressing DC-SIGN (CD209) in the decidua of early human pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammerer, U; Eggert, AO; Kapp, M; McLellan, AD; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; Dietl, J; Kooijk, van Y.; Kampgen, E

    2003-01-01

    Intact human pregnancy can be regarded as an immunological paradox in that the maternal immune system accepts the allogeneic embryo without general immunosuppression. Because dendritic cell (DC) subsets could be involved in peripheral tolerance, the uterine mucosa (decidua) was investigated for DC p

  7. A Study of Changes in Uterine Leucocytes During Early Pregnancy in the Mouse-vole Interspesific Pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diah Tri Widayati; Tatsuya Tada; Naoko Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Mouse and vole embryos were allogeneically and xenogeneically transferred into pseudopregnant CD.1 and immunodeficient (seid)female mice,and we investigated the distribution of uterine leucocytes cells in the implantation sites on days 5,6,and 7 of pregnancy. Maerophages were evenly distributed in the endometrium on days 5-7.Neutrophils were rarely seen on days 5-7,but lymphocytes were found throughout the endometrium,often in groups associated with glands or the luminal epithelium.The number of uNK cells increased markedly at the mesometrial uriangle and the outer decidual area in the CD-1 uteri containing vole embryos;by contrast,seid uteri having vole embryos showed almost the same number as those having mouse embryos.Mast cells were present in large numbers at the myometrium,but rarely in the decidua in all types of pregnant uteri.Cells at the myometrium were more numerous in xenogeneic than in allogeneic transfer.Maay mast cells appeared in the inner decidua where xenogeneically transferred vole embryos were dead and aborted.These results suggest the possibility that uterine leucocytes mediate various immunological events in the mouse-vole interspesific pregnancies.

  8. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  9. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  10. Sex determination using free fetal DNA in early pregnancy: With the approach to sex linked recessive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Monfaredan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prenatal diagnosis is testing for detection of diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. Most of prenatal diagnostic (PD techniques are invasive and done in late stages of pregnancy. Using fetal DNA in maternal blood for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy might help in management of X-linked genetic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of sex determination using fetal DNA in maternal blood at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 pregnant women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The sex-determining region Y (SRY gene expression with the internal control (IC glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was investigated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers and probes. Results: Accuracy of sex determination with SRY gene expression in 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were 85%, 85%, 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that fetal sex determining using fetal DNA in maternal blood is a reliable method for early stage of pregnancy.

  11. The role of eating disorders for pregnancy, neonatal outcome and the child's early development

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of eating disorders (ED) on pregnancy, infant growth and cognitive development. Preliminary reports indicate increased complications during pregnancy and lower birth weight in children of mothers with ED. There is need of prospective long-term follow-up of growth and cognitive development of the children of these mothers. Aims: To study the impact of ED on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, maternal adjustment, and infant growth and cognitive development c...

  12. Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B

    2009-01-01

    score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe...... pregnancy with an OR > 2.0 after complications in the index pregnancy are the risk of LBW and very low birthweight (VLBW) after a threatened miscarriage, the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age and low 5-min Apgar...

  13. Impact of oxidative stress during pregnancy on fetal epigenetic patterns and early origin of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Jose Guillermo Ortega; Echeverri, Isabella; de Plata, Cecilia Aguilar; Castillo, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have led scientists to postulate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases are not well understood. In various animal models, it has been observed that oxidative stress during pregnancy is associated with the early development of endothelial dysfunction in offspring. This phenomenon suggests that endothelial dysfunction may initiate in the uterus and could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Currently, it is known that many of the fetal adaptive responses to environmental factors are mediated by epigenetic changes in the genome, especially by the degree of methylation in cytosines in the promoter regions of genes. These findings suggest that the establishment of a particular epigenetic pattern in the genome may be generated by oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Obesity prevalence in a cohort of women in early pregnancy from a neighbourhood perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alricsson Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence of an association between neighbourhood deprivation and overweight is established for different populations. However no previous studies on neighbourhood variations in obesity in pregnant women were found. In this study we aimed to determine whether obesity during early pregnancy varied by neighbourhood economic status. Methods A register based study on 94,323 primiparous pregnant women in 586 Swedish neighbourhoods during the years 1992–2001. Multilevel technique was used to regress obesity prevalence on socioeconomic individual-level variables and the neighbourhood economic status. Five hundred and eighty-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001, were included. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. Results Seven per cent of the variation in obesity prevalence was at the neighbourhood level and the odds of being obese were almost doubled in poor areas. Conclusion Our findings supports a community approach in the prevention of obesity in general and thus also in pregnant women.

  15. EFFECT OF EARLY PREGNANCY BODY MASS INDEX ON PREGNANCY OUTCOMES IN WOMEN DELIVERING SINGLETON BABIES- AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vishnu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Maternal overweight/obesity causes many complications during pregnancy and delivery. It can also increase neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. BMI is an important measure of under/overweight. This observational study examines the correlation between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI with maternal outcome in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, for a period of one year. A sample of 300 pregnant women with intrauterine pregnancy of gestational age <12 weeks at first visit was taken for this study with an age between 18 and 35 years with singleton pregnancy. BMI of these women were calculated and they were classified into two categories (BMI <23 kg/m2 and BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . The Chi-square test was done to find the association of BMI and various maternal outcomes. RESULTS In the sample of 300 pregnant women, 39% were having BMI <23 kg/m2 and 61% were having BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . Pregnant women with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 were found to have significantly increased risk of developing gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes and macrosomia. We found that a significantly increased need of induction and increased risk of developing intrapartum and postpartum complications in those with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . Our study also found out that an increased incidence of elective as well as emergency caesareans and increased risk of neonatal complications in women whose BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . CONCLUSION Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes are significantly related to extremes of BMI categories and least complications were seen in normal BMI group. Therefore, it is ideal to reduce the body weight to an optimal level so that the complications, which are attributed to overweight and obesity can be reduced. We recommended future research on the association of BMI and maternal outcomes involving large samples comparable to those done in developed countries.

  16. Expression of regulatory T cell (Treg) activation markers in endometrial tissues from early and late pregnancy in the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, N N; Scott, V L; Boudreaux, C E; Clay, B T; Pruett, S B; Ryan, P L; Coats, K S

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) support pregnancy maintenance by suppressing placental inflammation, while diminished Treg function may accompany reproductive failure. Experimental FIV infection frequently results in vertical transmission and increased pregnancy failure in the cat. The mechanism of reproductive compromise is unknown. We hypothesized that FIV infection alters endometrial Treg population dynamics and function, potentiating vertical transmission and reproductive failure. RNA collected from early and late gestation reproductive tissue and fetuses from FIV infected and control cats was probed for expression of FIV gag and Treg markers CD25, FOXP3, and CTLA4, using real time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Frequent placental and fetal infection and reproductive failure were detected at early and late pregnancy. Expression of FOXP3 and CTLA4 was higher in early gestation tissues from control cats. FIV infection significantly reduced expression of FOXP3 and CTLA4 at early, but not late pregnancy. At late pregnancy, CTLA4 was expressed to higher levels in infected tissues. The number of tissues with decreased co-expression of FOXP3 and CTLA4 was significant in infected cats at early pregnancy. No significant changes in CD25 expression occurred between FIV-infected and control animals at early or late pregnancy. Differences in Treg marker expression were not significant between viable and non-viable pregnancies in infected cats. The detection of Treg markers in these feline tissues provides the first evidence of feline endometrial Tregs and suggests that such cells diminish as pregnancy progresses. These cells may be depleted or rendered less functional by viral infection, but understanding their role in pregnancy requires further study.

  17. Impact of new society of radiologists in ultrasound early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maowen; Poder, Liina; Filly, Roy A

    2014-09-01

    New early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound via a multispecialty consensus panel extended the diagnostic size criteria of crown-rump length from 5 to 7 mm for embryos without a heartbeat and mean sac diameter from 16 to 25 mm for "empty" sacs. Our study assessed the potential impact of the new criteria on the number of additional follow-up sonograms these changes would engender. A retrospective study of all first-trimester sonograms in women with first trimester bleeding from 1999 to 2008 was conducted. Everyone included in the study had a visible gestational sac in the uterus. There were no pregnancies of unknown location or ectopic pregnancies included in this study cohort. Pregnancy of unknown location was used to describe cases in which there were no signs of pregnancy inside or outside the uterus on transvaginal sonography despite a positive pregnancy test result. A total of 1013 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seven hundred fifty-two patients (74%) had identifiable embryos, and 261 (26%) did not. Of those with an identifiable embryo, 286 (38%) had no detectable embryonic cardiac activity. The breakdown of crown-rump lengths in this group was as follows: 100 measuring less than 5 mm, 36 measuring 5 to 7 mm, and 150 measuring 7 mm or greater. The breakdown of mean sac diameters in those without a visible embryo was as follows: 120 measuring less than 16 mm, 90 measuring 16 to 25 mm, and 51 measuring 25 mm or greater. When diagnosing a failed pregnancy, there can be no room for error. Only 126 of 1013 early pregnancies threatening to abort (12%) fell into the more conservative zones defined by the new compared to the former size criteria (crown-rump length, 5-7 mm; mean sac diameter, 16-25 mm). Therefore, the potential impact of the new guidelines on follow-up sonograms does not appear inordinate. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. The added value of mifepristone to non-surgical treatment regimens for uterine evacuation in case of early pregnancy failure: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Gordon, B.B.; Snijders, M.P.M.L.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.; Coppus, S.F.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): Early pregnancy failure (EPF) is a common complication of pregnancy. Surgical intervention carries a risk of complications and, therefore, medical treatment appears to be a safe alternative. Unfortunately, the current medical treatment with misoprostol alone has complete evacuation rat

  19. Prenatal exposure to non-ionizing radiation: effects of WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome, peripheral B-cell compartment and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    During embryogenesis, the development of tissues, organs and systems, including the immune system, is particularly susceptible to the effects of noxious agents. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome and the immune B-cell compartment, including antibody production. Sixteen mated (plug-positive) female mice were assigned to each of the following groups: cage control, sham-exposed and microwave-exposed (WiFi signals at 2.45 GHz, whole body, SAR 4 W/kg, 2 h/day, 14 consecutive days starting 5 days after mating). No effects due to exposure to WiFi signals during pregnancy on mating success, number of newborns/mother and body weight at birth were found. Newborn mice were left to grow until 5 or 26 weeks of age, when immunological analyses were performed. No differences due to exposure were found in spleen cell number, B-cell frequency or antibody serum levels. When challenged in vitro with LPS, B cells from all groups produced comparable amounts of IgM and IgG, and proliferated at a similar level. All these findings were consistently observed in the female and male offspring at both juvenile (5 weeks) and adult (26 weeks) ages. Stress-associated effects as well as age- and/or sex-related differences were observed for several parameters. In conclusion, our results do not show any effect on pregnancy outcome or any early or late effects on B-cell differentiation and function due to prenatal exposure to WiFi signals.

  20. 〈Cases Reports〉Early solitary angiokeratoma with a single dark lacuna and a peripheral whitish veil-like ring in dermoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Solitary angiokeratomas are dark reddish to blue-blackish warty papules. It may clinically mimic malignant melanomas, verrucas, pigmentedbasal cell carcinomas, blue nevi, or melanocytic nevi. We report a case of early solitary angiokeratoma with a single dark lacuna and a peripheral whitish veil-like ring in dermoscopy. A single dark lacuna may be a simulator of homogenous blue pigmentation such as blue nevus, though it usually has no peripheral whitish veil-like ring. Our case imp...

  1. Peripheral biomarkers in Autism: secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha as a probable key player in early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Giunta, Brian N; Obregon, Demian; Nikolic, William V; Tian, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sutton, Danielle T; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairments in socialization and communication. There is currently no single molecular marker or laboratory tool capable of diagnosing autism at an early age. The purpose of this study is to explore the plausible use of peripheral biomarkers in the early diagnosis of autism via a sensitive ELISA. Here, we measured plasma secreted amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPP-alpha) levels in autistic and aged-matched control blood samples and found a significantly increased level of sAPP-alpha in 60% of the known autistic children. We then tested 150 human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) samples and found significantly elevated levels of plasma sAPP-alpha in 10 of 150 samples. As an additional confirmatory measure, we performed Western blot analysis on these samples which consistently showed increased sAPP-alpha levels in autistic children and 10 of 150 HUCB samples; suggesting a group of autistic patients which could be identified in early childhood by levels of sAPP-alpha. While there is need for further studies of this concept, the measurement of sAPP-alpha levels in serum and human umbilical cord blood by ELISA is a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism.

  2. Synergistic effects of DL111-IT in combination with mifepristone and misoprostol on termination of early pregnancy in preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-jun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Wei-fang; Wu, Hong-Hai; Fang, Rui-ying

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and acute toxicity of DL111-IT combined with mifepristone (RU486) and misoprostol (MISO) on early pregnancy termination. In the pregnant rats experiments, the ED(50) values of RU486 in two-drug combinations were 0.16 (combined with DL111-IT) and 0.40 (combined with MISO) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while in three-drug combination treatment group (DL111-IT 9.0 mg x kg(-1) (toxicity, the LD(50) values and 95% confidence limit of DL111-IT (i.p.) alone and in combination with RU486 and MISO were 1379.4 (1278.2-1514.7) mg x kg(-1) and 1574.1 (1407.8-1762.7) mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference. All data suggested that DL111-IT in combination with RU486 and MISO significantly increased the effect on early pregnancy termination without increasing acute toxicity compared to the treatment of DL111-IT alone, and this combination may be a promising regimen for early pregnancy termination.

  3. Effects of clomiphene citrate on early pregnancy in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Hutchinson, J S

    1991-05-01

    Clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg body wt) given on the day of mating can block or interrupt pregnancy in guinea-pigs. Corpus luteum function, uterine histology, implantation and embryo development were studied in clomiphene-treated and control animals on Days 5, 9 and 20 of pregnancy. Following treatment, only 25% of the females were regularly pregnant, presenting large and healthy foetuses. The other females examined showed either pregnancy with embryos undergoing resorption or no sign of pregnancy. In these females, corpus luteum size was reduced, progesterone concentrations were very low and the endometrial glands and the epithelium were often altered. It is concluded that clomiphene causes a reduction in fertility by altering the uterus and, by directly or indirectly inducing luteolysis, causes later pregnancy loss.

  4.  The Values of CA-125, Progesterone, ß-HCG and Estradiol in the Early Prediction of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdul Qadir Al-Moayed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: To explore the diagnostic value and measurement of serum CA-125, the single measurement of progesterone (P,ß-HCG, and estradiol (E2 in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.Methods: Serum levels of CA-125, progesterone, ß-HCG and estradiol were measured by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA techniques in 40 symptomatic women with ectopic pregnancy and 24 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy during gestational age of 4-10 weeks at Al-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, between November 2010 and June 2011.Results: The mean ±SEM serum levels of CA-125, progesterone, ß-HCG, and estradiol in patients with ectopic pregnancies (16.51±2.39U/ml; 2.54±0.47ng/ml; 72.75±12.27mIU/ml; 13.4±2.14pg/ml; respectively were significantly lower than the levels in normal intrauterine pregnancies (74.25±18.5U/ml; 28.36±3.7ng/ml; 249.54±18.0mIU/ml; 112.7±23.6pg/ml; respectively. When using a CA-125 concentration of 20.5 U/ml as a cut-off value for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, sensitivity was 75.7�20specificity 100�20the positive predictive value was100�0and the negative predictive value 71.4�onclusion: The measurement of CA-125 and progesterone levels is useful in discriminating ectopic from normal gestations.

  5. Early Expression of Pregnancy-Specific Glycoprotein 22 (PSG22) by Trophoblast Cells Modulates Angiogenesis in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M.; Tirado-González, Irene; Wu, Julie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Johnson, Briana; Warren, James; Freitag, Nancy; Klapp, Burghard F.; Irmak, Ster; Ergun, Suleyman; Dveskler, Gabriela S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse and human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are known to exert immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy by inducing maternal leukocytes to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote a tolerogenic decidual microenvironment. Many such anti-inflammatory mediators also function as proangiogenic factors, which, along with the reported association of murine PSG with the uterine vasculature, suggest that PSG may contribute to the vascular adaptations necessary for successful implantation and placental development. We observed that PSG22 is strongly expressed around the embryonic crypt on Gestation Day 5.5, indicating that trophoblast giant cells are the main source of PSG22 during the early stages of pregnancy. PSG22 treatment up-regulated the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in murine macrophages, uterine dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. A possible role of PSGs in uteroplacental angiogenesis is further supported by the finding that incubation of endothelial cells with PSG22 resulted in the formation of tubes in the presence and absence of VEGFA. We determined that PSG22, like human PSG1 and murine PSG17 and PSG23, binds to the heparan sulfate chains in syndecans. Therefore, our findings indicate that despite the independent evolution and expansion of human and rodent PSG, members in both families have conserved functions that include their ability to induce anti-inflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic factors as well as to induce the formation of capillary structures by endothelial cells. In summary, our results indicate that PSG22, the most abundant PSG expressed during mouse early pregnancy, is likely a major contributor to the establishment of a successful pregnancy. PMID:22423048

  6. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture on early peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-hu

    2007-07-01

    To observe therapeutic effects of acupuncture at different opportunities on peripheral facial paralysis. Fifty-two cases were randomly divided into a treatment group (n=28) and a control group (n=24). The treatment group at the acute stage (1-10 days) were treated with acupuncture at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yangbai (GB 14), etc., with less than 4 points selected on the face and with shallow puncture, and 10 days later electroacupuncture were added at acupoints selected routinely; the control group were treated with the same methods as the treatment group but acupuncture was not given at the acute stage. The cured rate of 78.6% in the treatment group was significantly higher than 50.0% in the control group (P acupuncture is a key for achieving the best therapeutic effect on facial paralysis.

  7. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falgreen Eriksen, H‐L; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2012-01-01

    ..., Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191–1200. Objective...

  8. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  9. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  10. The value of chest CT scan and tumor markers detection in sputum for early diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu; CAO Aihong; PENG Mengqing; HU Chunfeng; LIU Delin; GU Tao; LIU Hui

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of chest CT scan combined with telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation from exfoliated cells of sputum in 55 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN; ≤30 mm)suspected early peripheral lung cancer. Methods The sputum specimens from 34 cases of cancer nodules and 21 cases of benign lesion were detected for telomerase activity by TRAP-PCR-ELISA and p16 gene methylation by PCR-based methylation analysis. Results The qualitative diagnostic accuracy of CT scan was 61.8%(34/55) for SPN provided by pathology. Cytology analysis of sputum was positive in 13 cases (38.2%). Telomerase activity was positive in 29 cases: sensitivity was 79.4%, specificity was 90.5%, accuracy was 83.6%; p16 gene methylation was found in 11 cases: sensitivity was 32.4%, specificity was 100.0%, and accuracy was 58.2%. The sensitivity was increased to 86.1% by combination of telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation. Compared with nodules without malignant CT signs, expression of telomerase activity and p16 methylation of SPN with malignant CT signs (lobulation or spiculate protuberance or spicule sign) had a significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion The results suggest that chest CT scan combined with telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation detection in sputum for patients with peripheral lung cancer may enhance the diagnostic value of radiology and conventional cytology.

  11. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kohei; Jwa, Seung-Chik; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium) to 0.401 (vitamin C), and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from -0.015 (alcohol) to 0.572 (yogurt), and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy.

  13. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Ogawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. Method: We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Results: Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium to 0.401 (vitamin C, and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from −0.015 (alcohol to 0.572 (yogurt, and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. Conclusions: The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan.

  14. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  15. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in a Mexican-American Cohort: Variability in Early and Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Holland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People are exposed to phthalates through their wide use as plasticizers and in personal care products. Many phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, knowledge gaps exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of exposure in early and late pregnancy. In this study, we examined the relationship of eleven urinary phthalate metabolites with isoprostane, an established marker of oxidative stress, among pregnant Mexican-American women from an agricultural cohort. Isoprostane levels were on average 20% higher at 26 weeks than at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations suggested relatively consistent phthalate exposures over pregnancy. The relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations and isoprostane levels was significant for the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and the sum of high molecular weight metabolites with the exception of monobenzyl phthalate, which was not associated with oxidative stress at either time point. In contrast, low molecular weight metabolite concentrations were not associated with isoprostane at 13 weeks, but this relationship became stronger later in pregnancy (p-value = 0.009 for the sum of low molecular weight metabolites. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may influence oxidative stress, which is consistent with their relationship with obesity and other adverse health outcomes.

  16. Osteopontin is expressed in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy and promotes mouse blastocyst attachment and invasion in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Rong Qi

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a decisive step for successful mammalian pregnancy. Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein family and participates in cell adhesion and invasion. In this study, we showed that Opn mRNA levels are up-regulated in the mouse uterus on day 4 and at the implantation sites on days 5 and 8 of pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry localized the OPN protein to the glandular epithelium on day 4 and to the decidual zone on day 8 of pregnancy. OPN mRNA and proteins are induced by in vivo and in vitro decidualization. OPN expression in the endometrial stromal cells is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator during decidualization. As a secreted protein, the protein level of OPN in the uterine cavity is enriched on day 4, and in vitro embryo culturing has indicated that OPN can facilitate blastocyst hatching and adhesion. Knockdown of OPN attenuates the adhesion and invasion of blastocysts in mouse endometrial stromal cells by suppressing the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the trophoblast. Our data indicated that OPN expression in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy is essential for blastocyst hatching and adhesion and that the knockdown of OPN in mouse endometrial stroma cells could lead to a restrained in vitro trophoblast invasion.

  17. Low expression of soluble human leukocyte antigen G in early gestation and subsequent placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozio, Luca; Garofalo, Anna; Berchialla, Paola; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2017-07-10

    Abnormal placentation is a common pathogenic mechanism of many placenta-mediated complications of late pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, and placental abruption. During successful placentation, the trophoblast (which is a semi-allograft) is not rejected by decidual immune cells because of maternal immune tolerance, mainly induced by human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G). Deficient HLA-G expression seems to be associated with the development of complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether low soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels in maternal blood at the beginning of pregnancy may be associated with subsequent placenta-mediated complications. For this retrospective case-control study, 117 cases of placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy and 234 controls with uneventful pregnancy were selected. Plasma sHLA-G levels were measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in blood samples previously obtained at first-trimester prenatal screening for chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Women who subsequently developed placenta-mediated complications had significantly lower sHLA-G levels at the beginning of pregnancy (median, 43.08 IU/mL) than controls (median, 49.10 IU/mL; P = 0.008). An sHLA-G level lower than 43.50 IU/mL at the end of the first trimester was associated with a twofold increased risk of developing a pregnancy complication (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.73). The strongest association, although only moderately strong, was observed with severe pre-eclampsia (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.56). Placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy may be associated with low sHLA-G levels in the first trimester, suggesting a potential role of sHLA-G in the early stages of placentation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Remission, continuation, and incidence of eating disorders during early pregnancy: A validation study on a population-based birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to validate previously published rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy. The previous rate modeling was done by our group (Bulik et al. 2007) and yielded participants halfway into recruitment of the planned 100,000 pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This study aimed to internally validate the findings with the completed cohort. Methods 77267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were included. Participants were split into a “training” sample (n=41243) based on participants in the MoBa version 2 dataset of the original study and a “validation” sample (n=36024) comprising individuals in the MoBa version 5 dataset that were not in the original study (Bulik et al. 2007). Internal validation of all original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the “training” and “validation” samples as well as bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. Results Remission, continuation, and incidence estimates from the “training” sample remained stable when evaluated via a split sample validation procedure. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the “validation” sample were 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.0% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.3% for binge eating disorder (BED), and 0.1% for purging disorder (EDNOS-P). In early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% for BN, 4.8% for BED, and eating disorders during pregnancy. Eating disorders during pregnancy were relatively common, occurring in nearly 1 in every 20 women, although almost all were cases of BED. Pregnancy was a window of remission from BN but a window of vulnerability for onset and continuation of BED. Training to detect the signs and symptoms of eating disorders by obstetricians/gynecologists and interventions to enhance pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

  19. Early induction of labor in high-risk intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: what are the costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Anne Katrine; Zingmark, Vera; Lyndrup, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Induction of labor among pregnant women with high levels of total bile acid (TBA) is common among clinicians. We examined, if women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and TBA ≥ 40 μmol/l have a higher risk of maternal-fetal complications, when labor is induced at 37 weeks of gestation, compared with induction of labor at term in women with low-risk ICP. Retrospective cohort study of 16,185 women delivering at Roskilde University Hospital in the period 2006-2011. Women with high-risk ICP (TBA ≥ 40 μmol/l) had labor induced at 37 weeks of gestation; women with low-risk ICP (TBA < 40 μmol/l) at term. Mode of delivery, duration of induction procedures, highest level of TBA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and for the neonates: Apgar scores at 5 min, umbilical cord pHs and SBEs, NICU admissions and birthweights. The incidences of ICP was 1.2 % (95 % CI 1.05-1.39 %) altogether and for high-risk ICP 0.4 % (95 % CI 0.27-0.46 %). No difference was found in mode of delivery, length of induction of labor nor in neonatal outcomes, except for an expected difference in birthweight. In high-risk ICP, ALT was not raised in 10.3 % (95 % CI 2.5-18.2 %). Early induction of labor at 37 weeks of gestation seems justified in high-risk ICP, as, except for abbreviating gestational age by 9 days with 296 g smaller babies, induction of labor was not followed by detectable maternal-fetal disadvantages and is favored by an expected major reduction in ICP stillbirth risk.

  20. Recurrent early pregnancy loss and antiphospholipid antibodies: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L F; Porter, T F; de Jesús, G R

    2014-10-01

    Evidence from basic science studies supports a causative relationship between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and recurrent early miscarriage (REM) (prior to 10 weeks of gestation). However, human studies have not consistently found a relationship between aPL and REM. Members of the Obstetric Task Force of the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies performed a literature review of the association of aPL and REM and searched for clinical trials in women with REM who tested positive for aPL. Of the 46 studies that investigated the relationship between aPL and REM, 27 found a positive association, seven found no association, and the remaining 12 papers could not report an association (lack of control group). The main identified problems for such conflicting results were varying definitions of REM (two or three abortions, not necessarily consecutive; different gestational age at which pregnancy losses occurred); analysis of patients with previous fetal death (>10 weeks) in the same group of REM; and different definitions of "positive aPL" (cutoffs not following international recommendations; small number of studies confirmed persistence of positive aPL after six to 12 weeks). The 10 identified randomized trials with proposed treatments for women with REM who test positive for aPL also had heterogeneous inclusion criteria, with only one trial limited to subjects who would meet the current criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by both clinical and laboratory criteria. Against this background, we conclude that the association between REM and aPL remains inconclusive and that the findings of treatment trials are at best inconsistent and at worst misleading. More convincing data are critically needed. Studies that identify, or at least stratify, according to international consensus criteria and include standardized core laboratory testing results are crucial if we are to establish an evidence-based association between aPL and REM and treatment

  1. Mice endometrium receptivity in early pregnancy is impaired by maternal hyperinsulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runqin; Wu, Juan; He, Junlin; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Tong, Chao; Ding, Yubin; Su, Yan; Chen, Wenqi; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Rufei

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established. The serum levels of insulin, progesterone and estradiol were subsequently detected by ELISA assay analysis. The number of implantation sites was recorded using Trypan blue dye and the morphology of mice uteri was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression levels of molecular markers associated with endometrial receptivity were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the importance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression following insulin treatment was determined. Mice treated with insulin developed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The number of implantation sites following insulin treatment did not differ between the control and insulin-treated groups. Additionally, no significant morphological alterations in mice uteri between control and insulin-treated groups were observed. However, the expression levels of estrogen receptor (Esr) 1, Esr2, progesterone receptor and homeobox A10 associated with endometrial receptivity, were imbalanced during endometrium receptivity when maternal hyperinsulinemia was induced. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of endometrial phosphorylated (p)-mTOR and p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 were significantly greater in the insulin-treated group. These results demonstrated that although an embryo may implant into endometrium, mice endometrium receptivity in early

  2. In vivo quantification of {sup 18}F-Fdg uptake in human placenta during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Jan, S.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, F-91401 Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Inst Phys, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Antoine, AP-HP, F-75571 Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IMDCT, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, F-75221 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    {sup 18}F-FDG is the most widely used PET radiopharmaceutical. Nevertheless, no data for {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the human placenta have been reported. We recently reported on embryo dosimetry in a woman who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan during early pregnancy. In the present work we attempt an in vivo quantification of the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by the placenta. The 27-y-old woman received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG for a follow-up study for Hodgkin's lymphoma and was later discovered to be pregnant (embryo age 8 wk). Imaging started 1 h after injection. The maximum placental tissue uptake (SUVmax) was 2.5. This value was conservatively attributed to the entire placental volume, i.e., 45 mL, a value representative of the average dimensions of a normal placenta at 8 wk. On the basis of these measurements, placenta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in our patient was 0.19% of the injected activity. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to derive the photon dose to the embryo from the placenta (0.022 * 10{sup -2} mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG) and from the surrounding amniotic fluid (0.017 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}). This increases our previously calculated dose (3.3 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}) by only a small fraction (1.18%), which does not justify modifying the previous estimate given the overall uncertainties. (authors)

  3. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  4. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population--evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Desjardins, B; Charbonneau, H; Légaré, J; Miura, T

    1998-12-01

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n = 21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P = 0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P = 0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  5. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  6. Relationship between early onset severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and higher risk of meconium-stained fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiú, Maria C; Frailuna, Maria A; Otero, Carla; Dericco, Marcela; Williamson, Catherine; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013. The patients were classified into three groups according to the severity of hypercholanemia at diagnosis; mild (10-19.9 μmol/L), moderate (20-39.9 μmol/L) and severe (≥40 μmol/L). Their clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were investigated in a prospective observational study. Higher risk of MSAF was observed when ICP appeared early in gestation or when hypercholanemia was more severe. Taking both parameters into account an MSAF risk factor (MRF) was defined. Based on a model of positive/negative predictive values, a cut-off point of MRF = 3 was selected, which prioritized sensitivity versus specificity. In ICP patients with MRF>3, the probability of MSAF was enhanced 4-fold. An increase in the frequency of MSAF was also associated with higher serum levels at diagnosis of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin. The risk of MSAF is associated not only with the magnitude of hypercholanemia at diagnosis but also with the early gestational onset of raised maternal serum bile acids.

  7. Risk of Vaginal Infections at Early Gestation in Patients with Diabetic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Marschalek

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are reported to be at increased risk for infections of the genital tract. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV and Candida colonization at early gestation between pregnant women with and without diabetic conditions during pregnancy. We included data from 8, 486 singleton pregnancies that underwent an antenatal infection screen-and-treat programme at our department. All women with GDM or pre-existing diabetes were retrospectively assigned to the diabetic group (DIAB, whereas non-diabetic women served as controls (CON. Prevalence for BV and Candida colonization was 9% and 14% in the DIAB group, and 9% and 13% in the CON group, respectively (n.s.. No significant difference regarding stillbirth and preterm delivery (PTD, defined as a delivery earlier than 37 + 0 (37 weeks plus 0 days weeks of gestation was found. We could not find an increased risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens at early gestation in pregnant women with diabetes, compared to non-diabetic women. Large prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens during the course of pregnancy in these women.

  8. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-09-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood.

  9. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For the pres

  10. Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, E J

    1980-09-01

    The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line

  11. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2016-10-15

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  12. Study about the Function of the Thyroid Gland in Early Pregnancy%妊娠早期甲状腺激素变化观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓坤; 余红星

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hormone about the function of thyroid gland in early pregnancy.Method:The information parameters of thyroid function in the non pregnant and the early pregnancy women,including serum free triiodothyronine(FT3),free thyroxin(FT4),total triiodothyronine(TT3),total thyroxin(TT4)and TSH,were measured with radioimmunoassay methods.Result:Serum TT3 and TT4 concentration in early pregnancy were all above that of non-pregnancy,moreover,serum concentration of TSH in early pregnancy was below that of non-pregnancy. Conclusion:Parameters of thyroid function in early pregnancy is different from that of non-pregnancy,it is valuable for bear and rear better children to evaluate thyroid function by examinating the concentration related thyroid function during pregnancy.%  目的:观察妊娠早期甲状腺激素变化,为相关疾病的诊治提供理论依据。方法:测定孕前及妊娠早期的血清甲状腺激素水平,比较分析其变化。结果:妊娠早期血清 TT3、TT4均高于妊娠前水平,血清 TSH 水平在孕早期低于孕前的测定值。结论:妊娠早期血清甲状腺激素不同于非妊娠时水平,检测妊娠时甲状腺功能变化有助于防治相关疾病及优生优育。

  13. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, A S; Skuladottir, G V; Thorsdottir, I; Hauksson, A; Steingrimsdottir, L

    2006-03-01

    To identify dietary factors related to the risk of gaining weight outside recommendations for pregnancy weight gain and birth outcome. An observational study with free-living conditions. Four hundred and ninety five healthy pregnant Icelandic women. The dietary intake of the women was estimated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering food intake together with lifestyle factors for the previous 3 months. Questionnaires were filled out at between 11 and 15 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. Comparison of birth outcome between the three weight gain groups was made with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Dietary factors related to at least optimal and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were represented with logistic regression controlling for potential confounding. Of the women, 26% gained suboptimal and 34% excessive weight during pregnancy. Women in late pregnancy with at least optimal, compared with women with suboptimal, weight gain were eating more (OR = 3.32, confidence interval (CI)=1.81-6.09, P lifestyle modifications affecting consequent weight gain during pregnancy. They are most likely to gain excessive weight and therefore most likely to suffer pregnancy and delivery complications and struggle with increasing overweight and obesity after giving birth.

  14. Early pregnancy prediction of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, combining clinical risk and biomarkers: the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Louise C; Black, Michael A; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Rennae; Myers, Jenny E; Baker, Philip N; McCowan, Lesley M; Simpson, Nigel A B; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T; Rodems, Kelline; Noland, Brian; Raymundo, Michael; Walker, James J; North, Robyn A

    2014-09-01

    More than half of all cases of preeclampsia occur in healthy first-time pregnant women. Our aim was to develop a method to predict those at risk by combining clinical factors and measurements of biomarkers in women recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study of low-risk nulliparous women. Forty-seven biomarkers identified on the basis of (1) association with preeclampsia, (2) a biological role in placentation, or (3) a role in cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia were measured in plasma sampled at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation from 5623 women. The cohort was randomly divided into training (n=3747) and validation (n=1876) cohorts. Preeclampsia developed in 278 (4.9%) women, of whom 28 (0.5%) developed early-onset preeclampsia. The final model for the prediction of preeclampsia included placental growth factor, mean arterial pressure, and body mass index at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation, the consumption of ≥3 pieces of fruit per day, and mean uterine artery resistance index. The area under the receiver operator curve (95% confidence interval) for this model in training and validation cohorts was 0.73 (0.70-0.77) and 0.68 (0.63-0.74), respectively. A predictive model of early-onset preeclampsia included angiogenin/placental growth factor as a ratio, mean arterial pressure, any pregnancy loss preeclampsia in populations of mixed parity and risk. In nulliparous women, combining multiple biomarkers and clinical data provided modest prediction of preeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  16. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11years together with 44 newly recruited...... children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  17. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking......The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...

  18. A randomized crossover trial on the effect of compression stockings on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Erika; Amsler, Felix

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of wearing compression stockings on women's quality of life (QoL) associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP). In this randomized, open, single-center, crossover study, 74 women were assigned 1:1 to 2 weeks with compression stockings followed by 2 weeks without or vice versa. The main outcomes were NVP-associated QoL, leg-related QoL, and dizziness, as assessed by the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Quality of Life (NVPQOL) questionnaire, Chronic Venous Disease Quality of Life (CIVIQ) questionnaire, and questions on dizziness at baseline and after each 2-week period, respectively. Daily NVP was assessed using the modified Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests. Fifty-eight women completed the study. QoL scores improved with compression treatment; changes in mean total scores were as follows: NVPQOL, -36.7 with compression vs -21.7 without (P<0.0001); and CIVIQ, -4.5 with compression vs +1.4 without (P=0.001). Mean dizziness scores were -3.2 with compression vs -0.4 without (P<0.0001). PUQE mean total score (standard deviation) was 4.9 (2.3) with compression vs 5.5 (2.2) without (P=0.042). Wearing of compression stockings in early pregnancy may improve nausea and vomiting-associated symptoms in addition to improving QoL factors.

  19. Maternal serum heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 concentrations have been recently reported to be elevated in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, no study has examined the association between HO-1 concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: In a case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort of pregnant women (186 GDM cases and 191 women who remained eu-glycemic through pregnancy, we assessed the association of maternal serum HO-1 concentrations, measured in samples collected at 16 weeks gestation, on average, with subsequent risk of GDM. Maternal serum HO-1 concentrations were determined using ELISA. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to derive estimates of odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Median serum HO-1 concentrations in early pregnancy were lower in women who subsequently developed GDM compared with those who did not (1.60 vs. 1.80 ng/mL, p-value=0.002. After adjusting for maternal age, race, family history of T2DM and pre-pregnancy body mass index, women with HO-1 ≥ 3.05 ng/mL (highest decile experienced a 74% reduction of GDM risk (95% CI; 0.09-0.77 compared with women whose concentrations were<1.23 ng/mL (lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: Serum HO-1 concentrations were inversely associated with subsequent GDM risk. These findings underscore the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of GDM. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the clinical utility of serum HO-1 in diagnosis of GDM, particularly in the early pregnancy.

  20. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation: a register based nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Trærup Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all women in Denmark with a known conception between 1997 and 2007. The Fertility Database was used to identify all women giving birth and the National Hospital Register was used to identify all women with a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Prescription data was obtained from the National Prescription Register. The primary outcome was the number of miscarriages and offspring with major congenital malformations among users of clarithromycin compared to non-users. RESULTS: We identified 931 504 pregnancies (705 837 live births, 77 553 miscarriages, and 148 114 induced abortions. 401 women redeemed a prescription of clarithromycin in the first trimester of which 40 (10.0% experienced a miscarriage and among the live born nine (3.6% had offspring with malformations. The hazard ratio (HR of having a miscarriage after exposure to clarithromycin was 1.56 (CI95% 1.14-2.13. There was no increased hazard of having a miscarriage when being exposed to penicillin or erythromycin. There was no increased prevalence (OR = 1.03 (CI95% 0.52-2.00 of having offspring with malformations after exposure to clarithromycin. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased hazard of miscarriage but no increased prevalance of having offspring with malformations among women redeeming a prescription of clarithromycin in early pregnancy. This is supported by previous studies in animals and humans. However, further research is required to explore the possible effect of treatment indication on the associations found.

  1. Lifestyle patterns in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnoses when using IADPSG criteria. The St Carlos gestational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gracia, Teresa; Duran, Alejandra; Fuentes, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Carrera, Evelyn F; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Valle, Laura Del; García de la Torre, Nuria; Bedia, Ana R; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-06-01

    Early-pregnancy lifestyle (EPL) could influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), depending on the diagnostic criteria used. We studied EPL in 1750 pregnant women using Carpenter-Coustan criteria(CCc), and in 1526 with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria(IADPSGc). GDM risk factors were assessed in women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age during two consecutive years. A semiquantitative frequent-food-consumption questionnaire was used to evaluate lifestyle during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess GDM risk with different lifestyle patterns. Using IADPSGc, the GDM ORs (95%CI) for intake/week were: nuts >3 times: 0.59 (0.39-0.91; p < 0.015), refined cereals ≤1 serving: 0.72(0.58-0.89; p < 0.003), juices <4 servings: 0.77 (0.62-0.95; p < 0.017), cookies and pastries <4 servings: 0.71(0.57-0.89; p < 0.003) as compared to opposite habits. No significant nutritional patterns were found to be significant using CCc. The OR (95%CI) for GDM with none of the four risk patterns as compared to having three-four risk factors was 0.21(0.07-0.62; p < 0.005), remaining significant after stratification by BMI, age, obstetric events, parity and family history. The multiple logistic regression model including nutritional categories and pregestational BMI, age, obstetric history, parity, personal/family history, had an area under the curve(AUC) of the receiver operating curve(ROC) for the probability to predict GDM of 0.66 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.69; p < 0.001). Our study is the first to identify four early-pregnancy nutritional patterns associated with the GDM when using IADPSGc. Adherence to a low-risk nutritional pattern from early pregnancy on could be an effective strategy for GDM prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Early diagnosis of peripheral nervous system involvement in Fabry disease and treatment of neuropathic pain: the report of an expert panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by progressive lysosomal accumulation of lipids in a variety of cell types, including neural cells. Small, unmyelinated nerve fibers are particularly affected and small fiber peripheral neuropathy often clinically manifests at young age. Peripheral pain can be chronic and/or occur as provoked attacks of excruciating pain. Manifestations of dysfunction of small autonomic fibers may include, among others, impaired sweating, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and abnormal pain perception. Patients with Fabry disease often remain undiagnosed until severe complications involving the kidney, heart, peripheral nerves and/or brain have arisen. Methods An international expert panel convened with the goal to provide guidance to clinicians who may encounter unrecognized patients with Fabry disease on how to diagnose these patients early using simple diagnostic tests. A further aim was to offer recommendations to control neuropathic pain. Results We describe the neuropathy in Fabry disease, focusing on peripheral small fiber dysfunction - the hallmark of early neurologic involvement in this disorder. The clinical course of peripheral pain is summarized, and the importance of medical history-taking, including family history, is highlighted. A thorough physical examination (e.g., angiokeratoma, corneal opacities and simple non-invasive sensory perception tests could provide clues to the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Reported early clinical benefits of enzyme replacement therapy include reduction of neuropathic pain, and adequate management of residual pain to a tolerable and functional level can substantially improve the quality of life for patients. Conclusions Our recommendations can assist in diagnosing Fabry small fiber neuropathy early, and offer clinicians guidance in controlling peripheral pain. This is particularly important since management of pain in young patients with

  3. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ090 “Early Pregnancy Loss”). What is an ectopic pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg does not implant ... vaginal bleeding is the only sign of an ectopic pregnancy. Other symptoms may include abdominal, pelvic, or shoulder ...

  4. The type I interferon signature in leukocyte subsets from peripheral blood of patients with early arthritis: a major contribution by granulocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The type I interferon (IFN) signature in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has shown clinical relevance in relation to disease onset and therapeutic response. Identification of the cell type(s) contributing to this IFN signature could provide insight into the signature’s functional consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of peripheral leukocyte subsets to the IFN signature in early arthritis. Methods Blood was collected from 26 patients with early arthritis ...

  5. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  6. Pregnancy hypertension and the risk for neuropsychological difficulties across early development: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Despite documented effects on fetal brain development, little is currently known about the relationship between maternal pregnancy hypertension and child neuropsychological outcomes. This brief report examined the association between maternal hypertension during pregnancy and children's social cognition and executive functioning when children were 18 months, 3 years, and 4.5 years. A community sample of 501 families (23 hypertensive mothers; 478 nonhypertensive) was recruited when children were newborns. Social cognition (including theory of mind [ToM]) and executive functioning (EF) were measured using a battery of age-appropriate standardized and/or observational tasks. Information on pregnancy and prenatal factors were measured via maternal report when children were newborns. After controlling for prenatal and demographic covariates, the presence of hypertension difficulties during pregnancy was associated with all measures of social cognition, ToM, and EF. A secondary analysis comparing the hypertension group (n = 23) to a nonhypertensive matched control group (n = 23) supported the effect of pregnancy hypertension on children's social-cognitive and EF development. Future studies using obstetrical records are encouraged based on these preliminary findings.

  7. Folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affects the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    Full Text Available Folate deficiency (FD during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying

  8. 药物流产对妇女再次妊娠早孕期的影响探讨%IMPACT OF MEDICAL ABORTION ON EARLY PREGNANCY OF WOMEN WITH SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翠红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the medical abortion on subsequent pregnancy.[Methods]A retrospective study was used to analyze the 368 pregnant women aged 23-33 years, among whom 126 cases with medical abortion history, 242 healthy pregnant women without medical abortion history.Compared the situations at early pregnancy (embryos whether to slop growing, whether with inevitable abortion or threatened abortion, the degree of response at early pregnancy, incidence rale of ectopie pregnancy).[Results]The situations al early pregnancy in medical abortion group and control group were not significantly different (P> 0.05).[Conclusion]Medical abortion has no significant adverse effects on early pregnancy of subsequent pregnancy, which is a safe, convenient and effective remedial measure after failed contraception.%[目的]探讨药物流产对再次妊娠的影响.[方法]采用回顾性研究,分析年龄在23~33岁有药物流产史后再次妊娠的健康妇女126例和无药物流产史的健康妊娠妇女242例,对早孕期(胚胎有无停育、难免流产有无、先兆流产有无、早孕反应程度、异位妊娠发生率)情况进行比较.[结果]药物流产组与无药物流产组妇女早孕期情况差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).[结论]药物流产对再次妊娠孕早期无明显不良影响,是一种安全、方便、有效的避孕失败后的补救措施.

  9. Morphological evaluation of the placenta and fetal membranes during canine pregnancy from early implantation to term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralla, Marina; Groppetti, Debora; Caldarini, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto; Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-08-01

    To describe the histological changes of fetal adnexa throughout the physiological pregnancy, canine samples were obtained during natural delivery and caesarean section, as well as during ovariohysterectomy performed at any stage of undesired pregnancies (N=12). The first period of pregnancy (multiple samples collected at 10, 12, 14 days) was consistent with pre- and peri-implantation events, i.e. apposition and initial invasion steps into the endometrium. The second period (multiple samples collected at 18, 38, 40, 45 days) was related to the development of extra-embryonic structures, placenta establishment and labyrinth formation. At the end of this period the maximum morphological complexity of the endotheliochorial placenta was achieved, characterized by complete erosion of the endometrial epithelium and underlying interstitium with exposure of maternal capillaries to the chorial cells. The third period of gestation (multiple samples collected at 50, 53, 57, 60, 63 days) was characterized by enhancement either of placental and extra-embryonic tissues.

  10. Pattern of thyroid function during early pregnancy in women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism and treated with l-thyroxine is similar to that in euthyroid controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Christian; Steimann, Sabine; Müller, Beat; Kränzlin, Marius E; Meier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with a higher miscarriage rate. It is unclear how the thyroid function in SCH differs from that in euthyroidism during early pregnancy. We intended to determine the regulation of thyroid function in women with SCH receiving constant l-thyroxine (T4) replacement during early pregnancy as compared to euthyroid controls. This was a prospective cohort study with weekly serum sampling in eight women in early pregnancy with SCH and eight euthyroid women from week 5 to week 12 of pregnancy. Thyroid function was assessed before pregnancy. Women with SCH were treated with T4 (50 microg daily) and continued on an unchanged dose until week 12. The following parameters were measured weekly: thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and prolactin. Although the pregestational levels of TSH were significantly higher among women with SCH as compared to euthyroid controls, the self-limited estrogen-induced increment of TSH during early pregnancy was similar in both groups. Although both SCH and ovarian hyperstimulation were associated with an intermediate rise in TSH, the pattern of thyroid function followed similar changes as in euthyroid controls and is unlikely to cause the higher miscarriage rate observed in SCH.

  11. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period

  12. The Effect of Lilopristone (ZK 98.734) on Early Pregnancy in the Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.A.Resch; L.Kovacs; M.Bygdeman; P.F.A.vanlook; E.belsey; M.L.swahn; GY.Ugocsai

    1992-01-01

    A two-centre dose-finding study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of the antiprogestin lilop ristone (ZK 98,734) when used,for the termina-tion of early pregnancy, Pregnant women with amenorrhoea of not more than 49 days'duration were treated orally jot.four days with 12.5, 25 or 50 mg of lilopristone twicedaily. All women were reviewed at the hospital on each day of treatment and on furtherfollow-up visits at one, two and six weeks after the start of treatment.

  13. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  14. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles body, ovaries with follicles and corpora lutea) using a 5-10 MHz linear-array probe with a 70 cm-long extension. A single pregnancy was detected in 14 of 17 seals (82.4%) as a circular or guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause.

  15. Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohlabeln, Hermann; Rach, Stefan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    -deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical...... during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from...... pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate...

  16. Associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bai (Guannan); I.J. Korfage (Ida); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Mautner, E. (Eva); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Islam, Suhayla; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV) with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST]) and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during early pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using logistic regression procedures. Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17) and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81). Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI) for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83), sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05), and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96). The corresponding aORs (95% CI) for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61), 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81), respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97) during pregnancy. Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  19. Study of Vitamin B 12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in metformin-treated early Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Prasad Roy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term therapy with metformin was shown to decrease the Vitamin B 12 level and manifested as peripheral neuropathy. Aim: The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of Vitamin B 12 deficiency in early Type 2 diabetic patients (duration ≤5 years or drug treatment ≤3 years and the relationship among metformin exposure and levels of cobalamin (Cbl, folic acid, and homocysteine (Hcy with severity of peripheral neuropathy. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected ninety patients (male 56, female 34 between age groups of 35 and 70 years, comparing those who had received >6 months of metformin (Group A (n = 35 with those without metformin (Group B (n = 35 and patients taking metformin with other oral hypoglycemic agent (Group C (n = 20. Comparisons were made clinically, biochemically (serum Cbl, fasting Hcy, and folic acid, and with electrophysiological measures (nerve conduction studies of all four limbs. Comorbidities contributing to neuropathy were excluded from the study. Results: Group A patients (54.28% were prone to develop peripheral neuropathy comparing Group B (28.57% and Group C (35%. There was significantly low plasma level of Cbl in Group A (mean 306.314 pg/ml than in Group B (mean 627.543 pg/ml and Group C (mean 419.920 pg/ml. There was insignificant low-level plasma folic acid in Group A (16.47 ng/ml than in Group B (16.81 ng/ml and Group C (22.50 ng/ml. There was significantly high level of Hcy in Group A (mean 17.35 µmol/L and Group C (mean 16.99 µmol/L than in Group B (mean 13.22 µmol/L. Metformin users even for 2 years showed evidence of neuropathy on nerve conduction velocity though their body mass index and postprandial blood sugar were maintained. There was significant difference in between groups regarding plasma Cbl, folic acid, and Hcy level as significance level <0.05 in all three groups (F [2, 87] = 28.1, P = 0.000, (F [2, 87] = 7.43, P = 0.001, (F [2, 87] = 9.76, P

  20. Telephone follow-up and self-performed urine pregnancy testing after early medical abortion: a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon T; Glasier, Anna; Dewart, Helen; Johnstone, Anne; Burnside, Audrey

    2012-07-01

    Telephone follow-up with a self-performed low-sensitivity urine pregnancy (LSUP) test was introduced at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, as an alternative to routine ultrasonography for confirming successful abortion at 2 weeks following early medical abortion (ultrasound. A service evaluation was conducted of the first 8 months of telephone follow-up consisting of a review of the numbers choosing this method of follow-up, the proportion successfully contacted and the efficacy for detecting ongoing pregnancies. In the last 3 months of the study, women were surveyed about their satisfaction with this method of follow-up. Opting for telephone follow-up were 476 out of 619 women (77%). Four women (1%) attended the clinic before telephone follow-up because of pain or bleeding. A total of 410 (87%) of the remaining 472 women were successfully contacted by telephone. Sixty women (15%) screened 'positive', three of whom had ongoing pregnancies, and one woman falsely screened 'negative'. The sensitivity of the telephone follow-up was 75% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.1-95.4], and specificity was 86% (95% CI 82.2-89). The negative predictive value was 99.7% (95% CI 98.4-99.9), and positive predictive value was 5% (95% CI 1.7-13.7). All women surveyed (n=75) would recommend telephone follow-up to a friend. A telephone follow-up and an LSUP test at 2 weeks are effective for detecting ongoing pregnancy, have good follow-up rates and are popular choices for women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Bieleninik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3, including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III and subjectively by their mother. Additionally, medical and nursing documentation was analyzed. Individual psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy is different with regards to various spheres, and has different rates and dynamics throughout consecutive years. Psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancies is determined by gender and postnatal clinical parameters, i.e. birth weight, head circumference, postnatal morbidity, and prematurity-related conditions.

  2. Uterine artery remodeling in pseudopregnancy is comparable to that in early pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, O.W. van der; Essers, Y.P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Mey, J.G. de; Eys, G. van; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    During pregnancy, the lumenal diameter and wall mass of the uterine artery (UA) increase, most likely in response to the increased hemodynamic strain resulting from the chronically elevated uterine blood flow (UBF). In this remodeling process, the phenotype of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMC) is

  3. Early Pregnancy Cravings, Dietary Intake, and Development of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between pregnancy cravings, maternal diet, and development of abnormal glucose tolerance. We examined relationships of pregnancy cravings with dietary intake and risk of developing isolated hyperglycemia (IH), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or gestational diabetes (GDM) later in pregnancy. Among 2,022 mothers in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort recruited from medical practices in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002, we assessed type of pregnancy craving based on self-report at mean gestation of 10.9 weeks. The outcomes were cross-sectional dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire and incident IH, IGT, or GDM determined by glucose tolerance screening at 26 to 28 weeks. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional relationships between pregnancy cravings and dietary intake and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the prospective relationships among pregnancy cravings and development of IH, IGT, or GDM. During the first trimester, 443 (22%) women craved sweets, 225 (11%) craved salty foods, 261 (13%) craved savory foods, and 100 (4.9%) craved starchy foods. Sweet cravings were associated with increased intake of sucrose (1.9 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 3.7), total fat (1.5 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9), and saturated fat (0.8 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4); salty cravings were associated with increased fiber (0.7 servings/day; 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6); savory cravings were associated with increased n-3 fatty acids (0.10 g/day; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); and starchy cravings were associated with increased carbohydrates (8.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.3 to 15.7) and decreased total fat (-2.6 g/day; 95% CI -5.2 to -0.1). Salty cravings were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97). New cravings in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with dietary intake. Craving salty foods may predict reduced risk of developing GDM, whereas craving sweet food does not appear to alter one

  4. Endometrial caspase 1 and interleukin-18 expression during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of porcine pregnancy and response to early exogenous estrogen administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Daniel R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role for endometrial secretion of cytokines during the establishment of pregnancy in a number of mammals is well established. The current study determined endometrial expression of caspase 1 (CASP1 and interleukin-18 (IL18 during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following early estrogen administration, which induces conceptus loss during early development in pigs. Methods Gilts were hysterectomized on either D 0, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle, or D 10, 12, 15 or 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of endometrial CASP1 mRNA was unaffected by day of the estrous cycle, however there was a 6 and 10-fold increase in expression on D 15 and 18 of pregnancy. Endometrial expression of IL18 mRNA increased 5-fold between D 10 to 18 in cyclic and pregnant gilts. Total recoverable IL18 in uterine flushings was greater in pregnant compared to cyclic gilts on D 15 and 18. In the second experiment, mated gilts were treated with either corn oil (CO or estrogen (E on D 9 and 10 and hysterectomized on either D 10, 12, 13, 15 or 17 of pregnancy. The current study localizes the presence of CASP1 to the epithelial layer of the endometrium for the first time. Further, a day × treatment interaction was detected for endometrial CASP1 mRNA and protein abundance as E stimulated an earlier increase on D 13 compared to CO gilts. Although IL18 mRNA expression remained unaltered from the E treatment, protein abundance was significantly attenuated on D 15 and 18 in response to E treatment. Conclusions Endometrial expression of CASP1 and IL18 is associated with establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Alteration of CASP1 and IL18 following premature exposure of the uterus to estrogen during early pregnancy may contribute to conceptus loss between Days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.

  5. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory”

    OpenAIRE

    Akadiri Yessoufou; Kabirou Moutairou

    2011-01-01

    The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring t...

  6. Maternal Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency in Early Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Thiago; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Ghassabian, Akhgar

    2015-09-01

    Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy can affect children's cognitive development. Nevertheless, the behavioral outcomes of children exposed prenatally to mild thyroid hormone insufficiency are understudied. To examine whether exposure to maternal mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in early pregnancy was related to symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children at 8 years of age. The study was embedded within the Generation R, a population-based birth cohort in the Netherlands. Children in the Generation R Study are followed up from birth (April 1, 2002, through January 31, 2006) until young adulthood. Of the 4997 eligible mother-child pairs with data on maternal thyroid levels (excluding twins), 3873 pairs of children and caregivers (77.5%) visited the Generation R research center for in-depth assessments and were included in the main analyses. Data collection in Generation R started December 1, 2001 (enrollment of pregnant women), and is ongoing. For this study, we used the data that were collected until January 1, 2014. Data analyses started on January 31 and finished June 30, 2014. Maternal hypothyroxinemia, characterized by low levels of free thyroxine coexisting with reference thyrotropin levels, and children's symptoms of ADHD. Maternal thyroid hormone levels (thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibodies) were measured at a mean (SD) of 13.6 (1.9) weeks of gestation. Children's ADHD symptoms were assessed at 8 years of age using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short Form; higher scores indicate more ADHD symptoms (possible range, 0-36). Maternal hypothyroxinemia (n = 127) in early pregnancy was associated with higher scores for ADHD symptoms in children at 8 years of age after adjustments for child and maternal factors (ie, sex, ethnicity, maternal age, maternal educational level, and income) (increase in ADHD scores, 7% [95% CI, 0.3%-15%]). The results remained essentially unchanged when

  7. Fibrin glue repair leads to enhanced axonal elongation during early peripheral nerve regeneration in an in vivo mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios Koulaxouzidis; Gernot Reim; Christian Witzel

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of ifbrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradic-tory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might inlfuence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching) of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow lfuorescent protein mice (YFP;n = 10). Pieces of nerve (1cm) were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10) into those expressing YFP. We per-formed microsuture coaptations on one side and used ifbrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and ar-borizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue signiifcantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regen-eration after ifbrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after ifbrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coap-tation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair.

  8. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  9. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.

  10. The regular distribution and expression pattern of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35 in mouse uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Erhui; Wang, Chenfang; Hu, Qianqian; Jin, Guangming; Li, Shenghe

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines within the uterus are critical in the maternal-fetal immune regulation. Immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35 was recently discovered inhibitory cytokine, which were pivotal in the establishment of immune tolerance against self-antigens and antigens encountered in foreign implantation. In order to analyze the role of IL-35 in maternal-fetal immune tolerance, the expression patterns of IL-35 in mouse endometrium were studied during early pregnancy by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. As results, we found that IL-35 positive cells in the uterus showed significant distribution difference after fetal implantation, which mainly distributed in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium of mouse uterus from gestational day 1 to 2, and glandular epithelium and stroma from gestational day 4 to 7. The number of positive cells, immunoreactive scores, protein and mRNA expression of IL-35 showed firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of pregnancy day. The largest contents of IL-35 in the uterus were detected on gestational day 4. Compared with non-pregnant mice, pregnant mice showed the significantly increased mRNA expression of Ebi3 (Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3, IL-35 subunit) in the endometrium on gestational day 2 and the highest level of expression on gestational day 4. The mRNA expression of p35 (IL-35 subunit) was significantly lower than that of Ebi3 gene and showed the inconsistent change from gestational day 5 to 7. However, the significant correlation existed between the immunohistochemical expression, contents and mRNA expression of IL-35. These results indicated that IL-35 contributed to the establishment and maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance during early pregnancy.

  11. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P

  12. Low levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone during early pregnancy are associated with precocious maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A

    2008-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Low Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Precocious Maturation of the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. PMID:19127063

  14. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  15. NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Banjari, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The health of the new-born is largely a function of the mother's nutritional, general and reproductive health status. Therefore, pregnancy is considered as a critical window in child’s growth and development. Several characteristics of a woman prior or in early pregnancy, as well as external, environmental factors affect pregnancy outcomes. External factors account for 30% of the pregnancy outcome and infant's birth weight, and mother’s diet during pregnancy is one of the most important ones....

  16. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  17. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be a sign of a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. Contact the health care provider right away. During ... Cervical polyp or growth Early labor (bloody show) Ectopic pregnancy Infection of the cervix Trauma to the cervix ...

  18. Early Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A Concentrations are Associated with Third Trimester Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2017-01-01

    -A concentrations are related to the subsequent risk of GDM and gestational hypertension. Patients, Design and Setting: We measured serum PAPP-A concentrations around week 15 of pregnancy and related these to indices derived from week 28 oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and blood pressures across pregnancy...... in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort. Results: Increased PAPP-A concentrations were associated with reduced GDM risk (odds ratio 0.623 (0.453, 0.856), P=3.5 x 10-3, n=777) and reduced mean arterial blood pressures (β=-0.202- -0.177, P=1.7-6.9 x 10-3, n=347-355). They were also negatively associated with week...

  19. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Danileviciute, Asta; Vencloviene, Jone; Grazulevicius, Tomas; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s...

  20. Oral health during pregnancy and early childhood: barriers to care and how to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana

    2010-09-01

    This brief supplements recommendations developed by the California Dental Association Foundation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists that recommended practice guidelines during the perinatal period. This brief addresses the importance and safety of oral health care during pregnancy and outlines some of the multiple system-level barriers that make it difficult for many women to access oral health services, as well as offers specific strategies for mitigating these barriers.

  1. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment among Women in Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…

  2. Brain somatostatinergic system at late pregnancy, parturition and the early postpartum period in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Puebla, L; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M N; Arilla, E

    1993-11-03

    During pregnancy and postpartum rats experience a wide variety of behavioural changes. Since the somatostatinergic system has been implicated in the control of some of these changes, the present study examined somatostatin (SS) content and specific binding in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus of non-pregnant, pregnant (17 to 18 days), parturition and postpartum (10 and 30 days) rats as well as in ovariectomized rats which were or were not treated with estradiol valerianate. The content of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) was increased at 17 days of pregnancy in frontoparietal cortex and decreased at parturition and 10 days postpartum in that region and the hippocampus under study when compared with SSLI levels in non-pregnant rats. At 30 days postpartum the SSLI content returned to non-pregnant values in both brain regions. Scatchard analysis showed that the decrease in [125I]Tyr11-SS binding observed at 17 days of pregnancy in the frontoparietal cortex was due to the decrease in the number of SS receptors. In contrast, on the day of delivery the number of SS receptors in the same brain region increased. The affinity of the SS receptors was consistently unchanged in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in both regions. At 10 days postpartum the value of specific binding of the tracer to SS receptors in the frontoparietal cortex was not significantly different from that in the non-pregnant rats, although the actual number of receptors was slightly higher. Pregnancy did not change SS binding in the hippocampus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three wome...

  4. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment among Women in Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…

  5. [46-OR] : Early and late onset preeclampsia versus small for gestational age risks in subsequent pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardes, Thomas P; Mol, Ben W; Ravelli, Anita C; van den Berg, Paul P; Stolk, Ronald P; Groen, Henk

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature suggests that early and late onset preeclampsia should be treated as distinct entities and that early onset preeclampsia shares pathophysiology aspects with intrauterine growth restriction. Our objective was to investigate whether 5th percentile small for gestational

  6. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Díaz-Rúa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  7. Changes in ovine maternal temperature, and serum cortisol and interleukin-6 concentrations after challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaroff, L; Boermans, H; Karrow, N A

    2006-08-01

    Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during late pregnancy and lactation. This attenuation, however, has not been well characterized in ruminant animals and may be relevant to their susceptibility to inflammatory diseases during these periods. Thus, the intent of this study was to characterize responsiveness of the ovine HPAA to inflammatory challenge during pregnancy and lactation. Ewes from early (33 d), middle (55 d), and late (138 d) pregnancy, as well as early lactation (10 d), were challenged i.v. with a bolus dose of 400 ng of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg of BW or saline. A corresponding group of nonpregnant ewes was also challenged with LPS to serve as positive control animals for each pregnancy and lactation study. Responsiveness of the HPAA was assessed by measuring the 4-h change in serum cortisol concentration after LPS challenge. The cortisol increase after LPS challenge was elevated (P HPAA responsiveness during pregnancy or lactation were attributed to changes in proinflammatory signaling to the HPAA. Interestingly, enhanced cortisol responsiveness during late pregnancy was correlated with increased (P HPAA responsiveness during this period. Serum IL-6 concentrations during early and midpregnancy did not increase in response to LPS challenge, indicating that HPAA activation during periods of pregnancy may be independent of IL-6 production.

  8. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachcar, P

    1990-01-01

    The number of adolescent pregnancies brought to term in France has continued to decline while the number of abortions remains stable. Adolescent pregnancies cannot be considered "accidents" either in their social or psychological aspects. Pregnant adolescents carrying to term tend to be more disadvantaged than those seeking abortions. Early pregnancy may be a response to difficult life conditions. Despite appearing to constitute an infraction of a social code, adolescent pregnancy may in fact represent an attempt at social integration through motherhood. Adolescents failing in school, with poor employment prospects and feeling family pressures may view pregnancy as a means of social recognition. But such factors by themselves do not explain pregnancy; the primordial role of psychological factors must be examined. For some adolescents, pregnancy may represent an attempt to understand their own sexual identity as the transformations of puberty unsettle their previous self-images. Or they may be failing to perceive or actively denying the possibility of pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancies may be the result of transgressions of prohibitions. The traditional prohibition of sexual activity has relaxed to the degree that it is being replaced by a new prohibition on adolescent pregnancy and a prescription to use contraception. But contraception deprives an adolescent in search of sexual identity of proof of fertility as well as of the image of spontaneity and naturalness. Use of contraception is in conflict with the questions, doubts, and anxieties of adolescence. For adolescents in a reactivated oedipal stage, heterosexuality is often at the service of incestuous fantasies involving the mother. Abortion and perhaps pregnancy itself may assume the character of a rite of passage into adulthood for some adolescents. The important thing for many is the ability to become pregnant, to be a mother like their own mother.

  9. 早发型妊高症的围产期管理及妊娠结局%Early-onset perinatal management of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its pregnancy outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩平

    2014-01-01

    Objective to discuss and analyze the early-onset perinatal management of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its pregnancy outcomes. Methods 30 cases of patients with early onset pregnancy-induced hypertension admitted in our hospital from May 2011 to May 2012 were selected. and their clinical data were analyzed to discuss the perinatal management and pregnancy outcomes. Results the analysis results revealed that in 30 cases of early-onset patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, 26 cases of perinatal deaths, the mortality rate was 86.7%, four cases of neonatal survival, and the survival rate was 13.3%. and there were no maternal mortality or other serious concurrent disease.Conclusions early-onset pregnancy-induced hypertension would seriously endanger the lives and health of pregnant women and newborns, and conducting appropriate perinatal management and termination of pregnancy in the case of pregnant women in the right time can effectively treat patients with early-onset pregnancy-induced hypertension, and thereby protecting the health of pregnant women and newborns.%目的:对早发型妊高症的围产期管理及妊娠结局进行探讨及分析。方法抽取我院在2011年5月至2012年5月收治的早发型妊高症患者30例,对这些患者的临床资料进行分析,从而对围产期管理以及妊娠结局进行分析。结果通过分析发现在30例早发型妊高症患者中围产儿死亡26例,死亡率为86.7%,新生儿存活4例,存活率为13.3%,均未出现孕妇死亡或者出现其他严重的并发症。结论早发型妊高症会严重危害了孕妇以及新生儿的生命健康,而进行恰当的围产期管理并在合适的时间内终止孕妇的妊娠情况可以有效的对早发型妊高症患者进行治疗,进而保护孕妇以及新生儿的健康。

  10. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor:Novel markers for unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Fathy; Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the role of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(sFlt-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) for prediction of pregnancy loss in patients with history of unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss(RPL).Methods:A prospective case control study was conducted in42 women with history of unexplained earlyRPL, and170 pregnant controls with history of uncomplicated pregnancy.We measured maternal serum sFlt-1 andVEGF at gestational age6-9 weeks as predictor for pregnancy loss.Results:Mean serum levels of sFlt-1 andVEGF were significantly higher inRPL group than controls(10439.7±385.4vs3304.5±104.8;P<0.0001, for sFlt-1, and1885.0±98.3 vs709.8±24.8;P<0.0001, forVEGF).Receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curves analyses established that sFlt-1 andVEGF were able to discriminate women at risk of developing pregnancy loss with area underROC curve0.970 for sFlt-1 and0.953 forVEGF.Cutoff value of5159.5 pg/mL for sFlt-1 was predictor for early pregnancy loss with 95.2% sensitivity,91.2% specificity, and odds ratio(OR)206 [95%confidence interval(CI),45.4-941].Cutoff value of915.5 pg/mL forVEGF was predictor for early pregnancy loss with92.9% sensitivity,90.6% specificity, andOR125 [95%CI:34.7-451].Conclusion:These data advocate a relationship between sFlt-1,VEGF, andRPL suggesting that the high levels of sFlt-1 andVEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis ofRPL.

  11. Thyroid hormone dysfunction during pregnancy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Aynadis; Terefe, Betelihem; Abebe, Molla; Biadgo, Belete

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Epidemiological data have shown the significant role of maternal thyroid hormone in fetal neurologic development and maternal health. It has been suggested that the deleterious effects of thyroid dysfunction can also extend beyond pregnancy and delivery to affect neuro-intellectual development in the early life of the child. Pregnancy poses an important challenge to the maternal thyroid gland as hormone requirements are increased during gestation as a result of an increase in thyroid- binding globulin, the stimulatory effect of HCG on TSH receptors, and increased peripheral thyroid hormone requirements. Maternal thyroid dysfunction is associated with increased risk for early abortion, preterm delivery, neonatal morbidity and other obstetrical complications. Early diagnosis for thyroid dysfunction of pregnant women and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is important and cost effective to avoid both fetal and maternal complications secondary to thyroid dysfunction. Therefore the aim of this review was to assess the thyroid function changes occurring during pregnancy, the different disorders with their maternal and fetal implications, the laboratory diagnosis and the best ways of management of these conditions. PMID:27981252

  12. Loss of CD28 on Peripheral T Cells Decreases the Risk for Early Acute Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burç Dedeoglu

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease patients have a dysfunctional, prematurely aged peripheral T-cell system. Here we hypothesized that the degree of premature T-cell ageing before kidney transplantation predicts the risk for early acute allograft rejection (EAR.222 living donor kidney transplant recipients were prospectively analyzed. EAR was defined as biopsy proven acute allograft rejection within 3 months after kidney transplantation. The differentiation status of circulating T cells, the relative telomere length and the number of CD31+ naive T cells were determined as T-cell ageing parameters.Of the 222 patients analyzed, 30 (14% developed an EAR. The donor age and the historical panel reactive antibody score were significantly higher (p = 0.024 and p = 0.039 respectively and the number of related donor kidney transplantation was significantly lower (p = 0.018 in the EAR group. EAR-patients showed lower CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers (p<0.01 and the same trend was observed for CD8+CD28null T-cell numbers (p = 0.08. No differences regarding the other ageing parameters were found. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers was associated with a lower risk for EAR (HR: 0.65, p = 0.028. In vitro, a significant lower percentage of alloreactive T cells was observed within CD28null T cells (p<0.001.Immunological ageing-related expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for EAR.

  13. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in early pregnancy with translocation t(15;17) and variant PML/RARA fusion transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sung; Lee, Seung Tae; Kim, Jin Seok; Song, Jaewoo; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Sue Jung; Seok, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Hyeon-Ji; Han, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Kee; Lee, Eun Yup; Choi, Jong Rak

    2009-01-01

    A 32-year-old pregnant woman in the 13th gestational week was brought to Severance Hospital with gum bleeding and easy bruising. Initial laboratory results revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia. In a peripheral blood smear, 81% of leukocytes were large, abnormal promyelocytes. Bone marrow aspiration showed a hypercellular marrow with packed leukemic promyelocytes, and chromosome study revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(15;17)(q22;q21)[10]/46,XX[10]. In addition, variant fusion transcripts of PML/RARA were detected in the marrow specimen. The patient was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and was treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and idarubicin. One month from the patient's initial diagnosis a follow-up bone marrow examination was performed, revealing complete remission (CR). We know of no previous reports of APL during pregnancy associated with variant PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Here, we describe a novel case of APL in a pregnant woman with a t(15;17) translocation and variant fusion transcripts.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  16. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  17. Pre-pregnancy and Early Prenatal Care are Associated with Lower Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Complications in the Medicaid Population: 2004-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta; Hasham Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44. Diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify ectopic pregnancies and associated complications. The primary outcomes were complications associated with ectopic pregnancy: blood transfusion, sterilisation, or hospitalisation with length of stay greater than 2 days. Independent variables were documentation of preventive care within 1 year prior to the ectopic pregnancy and prenatal care within 4 months prior. Controlling for race, age, and state of residence, women's risks of any ectopic pregnancy complication were independently higher among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered preventive care within 1 year before the ectopic pregnancy compared to those who did (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.16), and among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered prenatal care within 4 months prior, compared to those who did (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.83, 1.96). Pre-pregnancy and prenatal care are independently associated with decreased risk of ectopic pregnancy complications among Medicaid beneficiaries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  19. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    , on child motor function at age 5. METHODS: We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home...

  20. High periconceptional protein intake modifies uterine and embryonic relationships increasing early pregnancy losses and embryo growth retardation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Herrera, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Hawkins, D E; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2010-08-01

    The effects of supplemented protein level (PL) during the periconceptional period and their interaction with body condition were evaluated in sheep. Multiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 12) received two PL of rumen undegradable protein (UIP) during a 30-day pre-mating and 15-day post-mating period: low [LPL, 24% crude protein (CP), 14 g UIP and 36 g/CP animal/day] and high [HPL, 44% CP, 30 g UIP and 50 g/CP animal/day]. While ovulation rate (OR) did not differ between treatments (1.6 +/- 0.5, mean +/- SEM), a lower fertility rate, a decreased embryo number and a reduced uterine pH (UpH) was observed in the HPL group (p UpH also had lower conceptus weight (Cwt; p < 0.05, r = 0.65) and conceptuses with lower mass tended to secrete less INF-tau and IGF-1, and the correspondent endometrial explants had a higher basal PGF(2alpha) release. Current study indicates that high protein diets during the periconceptional period in sheep modify uterine and embryonic relationships, increasing early pregnancy losses and inducing embryo growth retardation. Surviving embryos were affected by weight reductions, which could compromise later foetal growth and birth weight. Results evidence the key role of a balanced diet in reproductive success and indicate that the quality and nutrient composition of the maternal diet are essential for an adequate establishment of pregnancy, having paramount effects on the interplay of the embryo and the uterus.

  1. Cigarette smoking during early pregnancy reduces the number of embryonic germ and somatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn; Lutterodt, M C; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first-trimeste......BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first...... confounders such as alcohol and coffee consumption (P = 0.002). The number of germ cells in embryonic gonads, irrespective of gender, was also significantly reduced by 41% (95% CI 58-19%, P = 0.001) in exposed versus non-exposed embryonic gonads. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke...... reduces the number of germ and somatic cells in embryonic male and female gonads. This effect may have long-term consequences on the future fertility of exposed offspring. These findings may provide one potential cause of the reduced fertility observed during recent years....

  2. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyakala Rajendran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. Intra operatively, uterus was enlarged to 14 weeks size. Both ovaries were replaced with multiloculated cysts of size 15x10 cm on left side and 10x10 cm on right side. Ovarian pedicle was found to be twisted once on right side and twice on left side. On right side, untwisting of pedicle was done and the ovarian cyst was punctured at multiple sites to drain the clear fluid. Biopsy was taken from the right ovarian cyst wall. On left side, ovariotomy was done. Histopathology revealed mucinous cyst adenoma of left ovary and multiple corpus luteum in right ovarian biopsy specimen. The patient was followed up with regular antenatal check-ups and ultrasound to rule out the recurrence of ovarian cyst on right side. The patient successfully delivered a term male baby at 39 weeks. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1598-1601

  3. [46-OR] : Early and late onset preeclampsia versus small for gestational age risks in subsequent pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardes, Thomas P; Mol, Ben W; Ravelli, Anita C; van den Berg, Paul P; Stolk, Ronald P; Groen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature suggests that early and late onset preeclampsia should be treated as distinct entities and that early onset preeclampsia shares pathophysiology aspects with intrauterine growth restriction. Our objective was to investigate whether 5th percentile small for gestational a

  4. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  5. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm;

    2012-01-01

    for 6 days at median 9 (range 6-14) gestational weeks and were asked to answer a semi-structured questionnaire on patient satisfaction. Results: Median HbA(1c) was 49 (range 34-86) mmol/mol) [6.6 (5.3-10.0) %] and duration of diabetes was 12 (0.5-37) years. Continuous glucose monitoring was used for 6......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...... monitoring during daytime and twelve (18%) during sleep. Many women reported improved diabetes understanding (52%) and would recommend continuous glucose monitoring to others (83%). Twenty-four patients (36%) had continuous glucose monitoring removed earlier than planned (before the intended 6 days...

  6. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  7. Does leisure time physical activity in early pregnancy protect against pre-eclampsia? Prospective cohort in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, M L; Strøm, M; Klemmensen, A K;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical activity in early pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 85,139 pregnant Danish women, recruited between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: The authors assessed leisure time physical...... activity in first trimester by a telephone interview and categorised women a priori into seven groups: 0 (reference), 1-44, 45-74, 75-149, 150-269, 270-419 and 420+ minutes/week. Pre-eclampsia diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Registry. A number of potential confounders were...... adjusted for by logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pre-eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia. RESULTS: The two highest physical activity levels were associated with increased risk of severe pre-eclampsia compared with the nonexercising group, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.65 (95% CI: 1...

  8. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Executive Function in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures  The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results  Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations......Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...

  9. Risk factors for adverse fetal outcomes among women with early- versus late-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Pan, Shi-lei; Huang, Li-ping; Yu, Yan-hong; Zhong, Mei; Zhang, Guo-wei

    2015-03-01

    To determine risk factors for adverse fetal outcomes (AFOs) among women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the basis of time of onset. In a retrospective analysis, data were obtained for all women with ICP admitted to two centers in Guangzhou, China, between February 1, 1993, and January 31, 2014. Patients were divided into group A (early-onset ICP) and group B (late-onset ICP), and were further divided on the basis of severity. The frequency of AFOs was assessed. Among 371 eligible women, 57 (15.4%) were in group A and 314 (84.6%) in group B. AFOs affected 20 (35.1%) women in group A and 67 (21.3%) in group B (P=0.024), and 12 (54.5%) of 22 women in group A and 21 (29.6%) of 71 in group B with severe ICP (P=0.032). Independent risk factors for AFO in group A were increased levels of serum bile acid (P=0.016) and alkaline phosphatase (P=0.004). Independent risk factors in group B were increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (P<0.001) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (P=0.001). Early-onset ICP is associated with a higher frequency of AFO than is late-onset ICP, especially in severe disease. The risk factors differ between early-onset and late-onset ICP. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential gene expression profile reveals deregulation of pregnancy specific β1 glycoprotein 9 early during colorectal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallinger Steven

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. Patients carrying germline APC mutations develop multiple colonic adenomas at younger age and higher frequency than non-carrier cases which indicates that silencing of one APC allele may be sufficient to initiate the transformation process. Methods To elucidate the biological dysregulation underlying adenoma formation we examined global gene expression profiles of adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa from an FAP patient. Differential expression of the most significant gene identified in this study was further validated by mRNA in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR and Northern blotting in different sets of adenomas, tumours and cancer cell lines. Results Eighty four genes were differentially expressed between all adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa, while only seven genes showed differential expression within the adenomas. The first group included pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 9 (PSG9 (p PSG9 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA/PSG family and is produced at high levels during pregnancy, mainly by syncytiotrophoblasts. Further analysis of sporadic and familial colorectal cancer confirmed that PSG9 is ectopically upregulated in vivo by cancer cells. In total, deregulation of PSG9 mRNA was detected in 78% (14/18 of FAP adenomas and 75% (45/60 of sporadic colorectal cancer cases tested. Conclusion Detection of PSG9 expression in adenomas, and at higher levels in FAP cases, indicates that germline APC mutations and defects in Wnt signalling modulate PSG9 expression. Since PSG9 is not found in the non-pregnant adult except in association with cancer, and it appears to be an early molecular event associated with colorectal cancer monitoring of its expression may be useful as a biomarker for the early detection of this disease.

  11. Postweaning Exposure to Dietary Zearalenone, a Mycotoxin, Promotes Premature Onset of Puberty and Disrupts Early Pregnancy Events in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found in contaminated livestock feed and human food with levels in the range of ppb and low ppm. It was hypothesized that ZEA, an endocrine disruptor, could affect puberty and early pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, newly weaned (3 weeks old) C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to 0, 0.002, 4, 10, and 40 ppm ZEA and 0.05 ppm diethylstilbestrol (positive control) in phytoestrogen-free AIN-93G diet. Females exposed to 10 and 40 ppm ZEA diets showed earlier onset of vaginal opening. Those treated with 40 ppm ZEA diet also had earlier first copulation plug and irregular estrous cyclicity. At 8 weeks old, all females were mated with untreated stud males on AIN-93G diet during mating. Treatment resumed upon identification of a vaginal plug on gestation day 0.5 (D0.5). Embryo implantation was assessed on D4.5. Exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet resulted in reduced percentage of plugged mice with implantation sites, distended uterine appearance, and retained expression of progesterone receptor in D4.5 uterine epithelium. To determine the exposure timing and mechanisms of disrupted embryo implantation, four groups of females were fed with 0 or 40 ppm ZEA diets during premating (weaning to mating) and postmating (D0.5–D4.5), respectively. Premating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet reduced fertilization rate, whereas postmating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet delayed embryo transport and preimplantation embryo development, which subsequently affected embryo implantation. These data demonstrate that postweaning exposure to dietary ZEA can promote premature onset of puberty and disrupt early pregnancy events. PMID:23291560

  12. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effect of IFN-γ/IL-10 on IL-10 Receptor Expression of Human Decidual Stromal Cells in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ying XING; Sui-qi GUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the role of IFN-γ /IL-10 cytokines on IL-10 receptor gene and protein expression of human decidual stromal cells(DSC) in human early pregnancy in vitro.Methods Human DSC was isolated and cultured in vitro, and the expression of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2 gene was analyzed after cells had been treated with TH2-type cytokines IL-10 and TH1-type cytokines IFN-γ within 60 min with semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, then the influence of IL-10 and IFN-γ on expression of IL-10R protein was examined by first trimester DSC using flow cytometry. In addition,the vitality of DSC was detected by MTT.Results IL-10R1 mRNA levels of DSC treated with IL-10 (10 ng/ml) reached the peak level within 15 min, and were significantly lower at 30 min, then were not detected at 45 min. The expression of IL-10R1 were induced to moderate level by IFN-γ(10 ng/ml)within 30 min, and reduced to undetected levels at 60 min. There was no significant difference of IL-10R2 expression (P>0.05) between treated and not with the abovementioned cytokines. The IL-10R protein expression and vitality of DSC were significantly enhanced by IL-10 (10 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (10 ng/ml) which treated DSC 48 h (P<0. 05).Conclusion IL-10 and IFN-γ may play an important role of biologic function in early pregnancy by influencing IL-10R expression of DSC.

  14. Simplified follow-up after early medical abortion: 12-month experience of a telephone call and self-performed low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Lucy; Cameron, Sharon T

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to determine if simplified follow-up after early medical abortion, consisting of a telephone call 2 weeks after the procedure plus a self-performed low-sensitivity urine pregnancy (LSUP) test, was successful for screening for ongoing pregnancies in the year following its introduction as standard service. A retrospective computerized database review of 1084 women at a hospital abortion service in Edinburgh, UK, who had a medical abortion (≤9 weeks) and went home to expel the pregnancy was performed. Women who screened 'positive' at telephone follow-up on the basis of ongoing pregnancy symptoms, scant bleeding or LSUP test result were scheduled for an ultrasound. The main outcome measures were the proportion of women scheduled for telephone follow-up successfully contacted and the proportion of ongoing pregnancies detected. A total of 943 women were scheduled for telephone follow-up. Ten women presented to the hospital before the time of the follow-up call. Of the remaining 933 women, 656 [70%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 67.7-73.2] were successfully contacted. Five hundred seventy-three (87%, 95% CI 84.5-89.7) of those contacted screened 'negative'; no false negatives occurred. Eighty-three (13%, 95% CI 10.2-15.5) screened 'positive,' and of those, three had ongoing pregnancies. Of the 277 (30%, 95% CI 26.7-32.7) who were not contacted, two ongoing pregnancies occurred. The sensitivity of telephone follow-up with LSUP to detect ongoing pregnancy was 100% (95% CI 30.9%-100%), and specificity was 88% (95% CI 84.9%-90.1%). The negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 99.1%-100%), and positive predictive value was 3.6% (95% CI 0.9%-10.9%). A telephone call and LSUP test at 2 weeks are suitable as a standard method of follow-up for screening for ongoing pregnancy after early medical abortion. For most women, a routine clinic follow-up after early medical abortion (to exclude ongoing pregnancy) can be replaced with a telephone call and a self

  15. Cytochrome P450 26A1 modulates natural killer cells in mouse early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao-Yang; Li, Zhong-Yin; Fang, Wen-Ning; Song, Zhi-Hui; Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Ying; Peng, Jing-Pian

    2017-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) has a spatiotemporal expression pattern in the uterus, with a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels during peri-implantation. Inhibiting the function or expression of CYP26A1 can cause pregnancy failure, suggesting an important regulatory role of CYP26A1 in the maintenance of pregnancy. However, little is known about the exact mechanism involved. In this study, using a pCR3.1-cyp26a1 plasmid immunization mouse model and a Cyp26a1-MO (Cyp26a1-specific antisense oligos) knockdown mouse model, we report that the number of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin-positive uterine natural killer (uNK) cells was reduced in pCR3.1-cyp26a1 plasmid immunized and Cyp26a1-MO-treated mice. In contrast, the percentage of CD3(-) CD49b(+) NK cells in the uteri from the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group in both models. Similarly, significantly up-regulated expression of CD49b (a pan-NK cell marker), interferon gamma, CCL2, CCR2 (CCL2 receptor) and CCL3 were detected in the uteri of pCR3.1-cyp26a1- and Cyp26a1-MO-treated mice. Transcriptome analysis suggested that CYP26A1 might regulate NK cells through chemokines. In conclusion, the present data suggest that silencing CYP26A1 expression/function can decrease the number of uNK cells and significantly increase the percentage of CD3(-) CD49b(+) NK cells in the uteri of pregnant mice. These findings provide a new line of evidence correlating the deleterious effects of blocking CYP26A1 in pregnancy with the aberrant regulation of NK cells in the uterus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were....../internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking...

  17. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  18. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Parraguez

    Full Text Available Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  19. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...

  20. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and early neonatal life: consequences for HIV-exposed, uninfected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available Women have emerged as the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected population worldwide, mainly because of the increasing occurrence of heterosexual transmission. Most infected women are of reproductive age and one of the greatest concerns for both women and their physicians is that more than 1,600 infants become infected with HIV each day. Almost all infections are a result of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, transmission rates lower than 2% have been achieved in clinical studies. Antiretroviral compounds differ from most other new pharmaceutical agents in that they have become widely prescribed in pregnancy in the absence of proof of safety. We reviewed antiretroviral agents used in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, and their consequences for infants.

  1. A research agenda for moving early medical pregnancy termination over the counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Grossman, Daniel; Jackson, Emily; Castleman, Laura; Brahmi, Dalia

    2017-03-19

    Given the overall safety profile and increasing availability of medical pregnancy termination drugs, we asked: would the mifepristone-misoprostol regimen for medical termination at ≤10 weeks gestation meet U.S. FDA regulatory criteria for over-the-counter (OTC) approval, and if not, what are the present research gaps? We conducted a literature review of consumer behaviors necessary for a successful OTC application for medical termination ≤10 weeks and identified crucial research gaps. If we were to embark on a development program for OTC or more generally, self-use of medical termination, the critical elements missing are the label comprehension, self -selection and actual use studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex-Specific Programming of Offspring Emotionality Following Stress Early in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Bridget R.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with an increased vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. To determine the critical time window when fetal antecedents may induce a disease predisposition, we examined behavioral responses in offspring exposed to stress during early, mid, and late gestation. We found that male offspring exposed to stress early in gestation displayed maladaptive behavioral stress-responsivity, anhedonia, and an increased sensitivity to SS...

  3. 孕妇外周血中有核红细胞数与妊娠期高血压疾病的关系%To Predict Hypertention by Pregnancy in Counting Nuclear Red Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽平; 龚瑞龙; 周洁琼; 戴翔; 宋晓婕

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过比较正常孕妇和妊娠期高血压疾病孕妇外周血中胎儿有核红细胞数量,了解孕妇外周血中胎儿有核红细胞数量变化与妊娠期高血压疾病之间的关系。方法:收集69例孕12~18周孕妇外周血,采用密度梯度离心法分离外周单个核细胞后使用 PE-GPA/FITC-CD71单克隆抗体标记胎儿有核红细胞后进行流式细胞计数,分析其与妊娠期高血压疾病之间的关联性。结果:妊娠期高血压疾病患者外周血中胎儿有核红细胞较正常妊娠者增多,对照组和病例组中 GPA+/CD71+百分比分别为(0.89±0.81)%和(3.57±3.48)%,其差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:妊娠期高血压疾病患者外周血中胎儿有核红细胞增多,孕妇外周血中胎儿有核红细胞增加提示有患妊娠期高血压疾病的可能,应积极采取干预措施。%Objective To predict the Hypertention by pregnancy in counting nuclear red blood cells pe-ripheral blood. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 69 pregnant women with the gestational age from 12 to 18 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and then analyzed the cells marked with PE-GPA/FITC-CD71 monoclonal antibodies on the flow cytometer. Correlations between them were analyzed after tracking of hypertention by pregnancy. Results Percentage of GPA+/CD71+ cells in healthy pregnant women was 0.89 ± 0.81%, while that in pregnant women with hypertention was 3.57 ± 3.48%. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05), and the percentage of GPA+/CD71+cells in the group of hypertention by pregnancy was much higher than that in the healthy group. Conclusions The increased nuclear red blood cells in maternal peripheral blood related to hypertention by pregnancy. The counting of nuclear red blood cells in maternal peripheral blood have potential value to predict hypertention by

  4. The role of elevated central-peripheral temperature difference in early detection of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussat, M; Vogtmann, C; Gebauer, C; Pulzer, F; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the association between clinical symptoms and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants with the aim of identifying a non-invasive tool for the early detection of LOS. This was a prospective study of 83 episodes of suspected LOS in 67 preterm infants. At the time LOS was suspected, we recorded a standardized set of clinical symptoms. A diagnosis of "clinical LOS" (Clin-LOS), "culture-proven LOS" (Prov-LOS) or "LOS not present" (No-LOS) was made on the basis of C-reactive protein (CrP) and blood culture results where Clin-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l, Prov-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l AND positive blood cultures, or it was established that there was no sepsis present (No-LOS). We examined univariable associations between clinical signs and LOS using odds ratio (OR) analysis and then adjusted the odds ratio (adOR) through binary regression analysis. Clin-LOS was diagnosed in 20/83 episodes, 19 cases were found to have Prov-LOS. Clinical signs which had a significant association with Clin-LOS were capillary refill time >2s (OR 2.9) and decreased responsiveness (OR 5.2), whereas there was a negative association between gastric residuals and LOS (OR 0.35). However, the most marked association was found for a greater central-peripheral temperature difference (cpTD) >2°C (OR 9). In Prov-LOS an increased heart rate (OR 3.1), prolonged capillary refill time (OR 3.3) and again an increased cpTD (OR 16) had a significant association with LOS, whereas gastric residuals were negatively associated (OR 0.29). Regression analysis showed that cpTD was the most striking clinical sign associated with both Clin- (adOR 6.3) and Prov-LOS (adOR 10.5). Prolonged capillary refill time and - more impressive - elevated cpTD were the most useful clinical symptoms for detection of LOS in preterm infants. We especially suggest using cpTD as a predictor of LOS. It is a cheap, non-invasive and readily available tool for daily routines. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  5. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  6. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  7. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  8. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  9. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women.

  10. Severe physical violence between intimate partners during pregnancy: a risk factor for early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia L; de Oliveira, Alessandra S D; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of severe physical violence during pregnancy (SPVP) between intimate partners in early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A health services survey. The revised Conflict Tactics Scale was used to characterize SPVP; premature breast-feeding cessation was identified using a current status data approach, which was based on the information reported from food recall during the preceding 7 d. The cumulative hazard function was estimated by complementary log-log transformation models, which allowed the ensuing estimation of early breast-feeding cessation rates in different age groups and the ratio of rates of weaning between women exposed and not exposed to violence. Five large public primary health-care facilities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children under 5 months of age who were waiting to be consulted. SPVP is an independent risk factor of cessation of EBF since, after controlling for socio-economic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, women exposed to violence presented an incidence density that was 31% higher than those who were not exposed (hazard ratio = 1·30, 95% CI 1·01, 1·69). The findings corroborate the hypothesis that SPVP is an important risk factor for EBF. This indicates the need for incentives to adequately train health-care personnel in dealing with lactating women in order to gain a broader view of breast-feeding beyond the biological aspects of lactation, including the maternal psychological dimension.

  11. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  12. Endocrinology in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential developmental factors, and Graves' disease (GD) may severely complicate a pregnancy. This review describes how pregnancy changes the risk of developing GD, how early pregnancy by several mechanisms leads to considerable changes in the results of the thyroid function...... tests used to diagnose hyperthyroidism, and how these changes may complicate the diagnosing of GD. Standard therapy of GD in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs. However, new studies have shown considerable risk of birth defects if these drugs are used in specific weeks of early pregnancy, and this should...... be taken into consideration when planning therapy and control of women who may in the future become pregnant. Early pregnancy is a period of major focus in GD, where pregnancy should be diagnosed as soon as possible, and where important and instant change in therapy may be warranted. Such change may...

  13. Assessment of hemodynamic parameters of uterus during physiological pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analysis of the hemodynamic parameters of the uterus and cervix during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Material and methods. It was conducted dynamic ultrasound in 240 women with physiological course for singleton pregnancies in the period from 12 weeks of gestation until term labor. Results. For the second trimester of pregnancy redistribution of total uterine blood flow in the direction of increasing blood flow in more of the body than the cervix has been considered to be typical. From the third trimester of pregnancy until term labor a significant increase of blood supply to the cervix has been found; there has been a tendency to increase the capacity of the vascular channel and the reduction in peripheral resistance vessels of cervix. Conclusions. Early detection of disorders of uterine and cervical hemodynamics allows to predict the occurrence of various pathological conditions.

  14. Maternal hCG concentrations in early IVF pregnancies: associations with number of cells in the Day 2 embryo and oocytes retrieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbo, T G; Eskild, A

    2015-12-01

    Do number of cells in the transferred cleavage stage embryo and number of oocytes retrieved for IVF influence maternal hCG concentrations in early pregnancies? Compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo, transfer of a 4-cell embryo results in higher hCG concentrations on Day 12 after transfer, and more than 20 oocytes retrieved were associated with low hCG concentrations. Maternal hCG concentration in very early pregnancy varies considerably among women, but is likely to be an indicator of time since implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, in addition to number and function of trophoblast cells. We followed 1047 pregnancies after IVF/ICSI from oocyte retrieval until Day 12 after embryo transfer. Women were recruited in Norway during the years 2005-2013. Successful pregnancies after transfer of one single embryo that had been cultured for 2 days were included. Maternal hCG was quantified on Day 12 after embryo transfer by chemiluminescence immunoassay, which measures intact hCG and the free β-hCG chain. Information on a successful pregnancy, defined as birth after >16 weeks, was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Transfer of a 4-cell embryo resulted in higher maternal hCG concentrations compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo (134.8 versus 87.8 IU/l, P 20) was associated with low hCG concentrations (P hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. Although embryo transfer was performed at the same time after fertilization, we do not know the exact time of implantation. A further limitation to our study is that the number of pregnancies after transfer of a 2-cell embryo was small (27 cases). Number of cells in the transferred embryo and number of oocytes retrieved may influence the conditions and timing for embryo implantation in different ways and thereby influence maternal hCG concentrations. Such knowledge may be important for interpretation of hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  15. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment Among Women in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-06-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad campaign yielded 6,094 clicks by 5,963 unique users at a mean cost of $0.63 per click and a unique click-through rate of 0.08%. Of those who clicked through to the study site, 18% (n = 1,075) consented to participate. The participant pool was reduced to 344 women after application of strict eligibility criteria. Participants represented 43 states and the District of Columbia, their mean age was 20.9 years (Mdn = 19.0, SD = 4.0), and their mean weeks' gestation was 11.5 (SD = 5.8). The campaign cost was $3,821.81 or $11.11 per eligible participant.

  16. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  17. Placental NAD(P)H oxidase mediated superoxide generation in early pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, M.; Burton, G.J.; Jauniaux, E.; Seed, P.T.; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Poston, L.

    2006-01-01

    Early placental development is characterised by rapid cell differentiation and migration, matrix remodelling and angiogenesis. The enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of superoxide anions implicated in signalling pathways regulating these processes in other systems. It is also thought to be

  18. Early Pregnancy Loss Following Laparoscopic Management of Ovarian Abscess Secondary to Oocyte Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Goksan Pabuccu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe pelvic infections following ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR are rare but challenging. Ovarian abscess formation is one of the consequences and management of such cases as highly debated in pregnant patients. In this case report, an early fetal loss following laparoscopic management of ovarian abscess is described and possible etiologies are discussed.

  19. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative revie

  20. Possible roles for folic acid in the regulation of trophoblast invasion and placental development in normal early human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula J; Bulmer, Judith N; Innes, Barbara A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona

    2011-06-01

    In addition to its role in the prevention of neural tube defects, folic acid has many other physiological functions, including cell proliferation, DNA replication, and antioxidant protection. The aim of this study was to determine the role that folic acid has in regulating placental trophoblast development. Placental explants from placentae at gestational age 7 wk (n = 3) were cultured in folic acid at concentrations of 10(-6) M, 10(-8) M, and 10(-10) M. Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion was assessed following 6-day culture, and explants were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation (MKI67) and apoptosis (active caspase 3). In addition, an array was performed on cell culture supernatants to examine a range of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Folic acid increased the invasion of EVT cells in this explant model by between 83% and 19% (P = 0.005), and this was associated with increased MKI67 positivity and decreased active caspase 3 positivity; this effect was concentration dependent and showed a biphasic response. In addition, culture in folic acid increased vascular density, as determined by anti-CD31 immunostaining (P = 0.05). The increase in EVT invasion correlated with increased placental explant secretion of MMP2 (P = 0.01), MMP3 (P = 0.01), and MMP9 (P = 0.02). This study demonstrates that folic acid is potentially important in a number of crucial early stages of placental development, including EVT invasion, angiogenesis, and secretion of MMPs, and highlights the need for further studies to address the benefit of longer-term folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy to prevent pregnancy disorders associated with deficient placental development, including preeclampsia.

  1. Relationship of early pregnancy waist to hip ratio versus body mass index with gestational diabetes and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basraon, Sanmaan K.; Mele, Lisa; Myatt, Leslie; Roberts, James M.; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Thorp, John M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Sorokin, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity defined by body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) or both combined. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in nulliparous low-risk women to prevent pregnancy associated hypertension. Women between 9–16 weeks with data for WHR and BMI were analyzed for GDM (n=2300). Those with fasting glucose and insulin between 22–26 weeks (n=717) were analyzed for IR by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; normal≤75thpercentile). WHR and BMI were categorized as normal (WHR<0.80; BMI<25kg/m2); overweight (WHR:0.8–0.84; BMI:25–29.9kg/m2); and obese (WHR≥0.85; BMI≥30kg/m2). ROC curves and logistic regression models were used. Results Compared with normal, the risks of GDM or IR were higher in obese by BMI or WHR. The subgroup with obesity by WHR but not by BMI had no increased risk of GDM. BMI was a better predictor of IR (AUC-0.71(BMI), 0.65(WHR), p=0.03) but similar to WHR for GDM (AUC-0.68(BMI), 0.63(WHR), p=0.18. Conclusion Increased WHR and BMI in early pregnancy are associated with IR and GDM. BMI is a better predictor of IR compared with WHR. Adding WHR to BMI does not improve its ability to detect GDM or IR. Trial Registration number NCT00135707 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:26352680

  2. The Role of Serum Beta hCG in Early Diagnosis and Management Strategy of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Kameswari; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2016-07-01

    The presentation of Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) can be highly variable and serum Beta hCG estimation plays an important role in early diagnosis. Aim of the study was to determine the trends of hCG levels in EP and to explore the role of hCG in decisions related to management and follow-up of EPs. A retrospective study of women who had EPs from January 2006 to December 2012 at an advanced tertiary care centre in southern India was carried out. These women had undergone treatment based on the hospital protocol. The study identified 337 women with EP. Thirty one surgically confirmed cases were diagnosed below the discriminatory zone of 1500 mIU/ml. Among women who had Beta hCG estimations 48 hours apart, plateauing was observed in 22.5% while decrease >15% was noted in 26.8%. Almost half (47.9%) of the cases had an increase >15% and a few (2.8%) demonstrated an initial fall followed by a rise in titres. In 23.9% of these women, there was a rise >53% similar to intrauterine pregnancy. The average pre-treatment Beta hCG was 429.8, 3866.2 and 12961.5 mIU/ml for those who received expectant, medical and direct surgical treatment respectively. 43 women with relative contraindications received medical management and 39 were lost to follow-up after medical and expectant management. Excluding them, the success rate of these two modalities was 76.6% and 85.0% respectively. No single level of Beta hCG is diagnostic of EP and serial levels can demonstrate atypical trends in some cases. Hence, interpretation of these results should be done in conjunction with clinical and sonographic findings to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

  3. In vitro effect of leptin on anterior pituitary cells LH secretory activity during early pregnancy in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siawrys, G; Gajewska, A

    2017-03-28

    Leptin modulates reproductive activity but its potential influence on LH secretion from anterior pituitary (AP) cells during implantation period in pigs (days 14-16 of pregnancy) remained unexplored. This study focused on determination whether leptin affects basal and GnRH-induced LH secretion and intracellular accumulation and whether leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA is expressed in the AP gland during implantation in pigs. Four individual AP glands were developed into separate primary cultures. 2×105 cells/ml were preincubated (72 h) and next, for 3.5 h, experimentally treated with GnRH (100 ng/ml), leptin (10-11, 10-9, 10-7, 10-6 M) alone, or given in respective combinations with GnRH. In the AP gland, OB-Rb mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR method. Leptin activated LH secretion and its concentration-dependent effect was observed as stimulation shown in a full range tested (culture 1) and exhibited only at 10-6 M (culture 2). A pooled data analysis revealed that basal LH secretion increased at 10-9, 10-7 and 10-6 M, but GnRH-induced LH release decreased at 10-6 M. Leptin down-regulated GnRH-induced LH secretion in all cultures, but only culture 3 exhibited sensitivity for all concentrations tested. Basal LH accumulation was activated in culture 1 (at 10-11 M) and inhibited in culture 4 (at 10-9 M). In the presence of GnRH leptin up-regulated LH accumulation with individual culture leptin-sensitivity (culture 1-3), while down-regulated LH accumulation in culture 4. Obtained data indicate that OB-Rb mRNA is expressed in the AP gland and leptin alone and in combination with GnRH specifically modulates LH activity during early pregnancy in pigs.

  4. Presenting Twins Are Exposed to Higher Levels of Inflammatory Mediators than Nonpresenting Twins as Early as the Midtrimester of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Presenting twins are less likely to develop respiratory complications than non-presenting twins. The precise reason for this difference is not well understood, although it is known that the presence of inflammation reduces the risk of respiratory morbidity at birth. To further investigate this association, we compared the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in mid-trimester amniotic fluid (AF of asymptomatic twin pairs.The study population consisted of women with twin pregnancies who underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis (15-20 weeks for routine clinical indications and delivered at term. AF was analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and chemokines (Complement Factor D/Adipsin, Serpin E1/PAI-1, Adiponectin/Acrp30, CRP, CCL2/MCP-1, Leptin, Resistin using Luminex Performance Assay multiplex kits. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test.A total of 82 twin pairs were enrolled. Mid-trimester AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, CRP, MCP-1, leptin, and resistin were significantly higher in the presenting twin compared with the non-presenting twin (p<0.05 for each. Differences in AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP persisted after adjustment for the fetal growth restriction at the time of birth and chorionicity.These data suggest that, as early as the mid-trimester, the presenting fetus in an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy is exposed to higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (especially IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP than its non-presenting co-twin. Whether this pro-inflammatory milieu reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity at