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Sample records for early pregnancy loss

  1. Grieving after early pregnancy loss--a common reality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Purandare, N

    2013-05-24

    A miscarriage can be very traumatic for a couple and their immediate family. The aim of this study was to assess, using the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), whether the type of early pregnancy loss influences the severity of grief and whether the presence of living children influences the severity of grief. Over a period of 6 months in 2008, seventy five patients were recruited for the study, of which 7 (9.3%) had molar pregnancies, 20 (26.7%) had ectopic pregnancies, 43 (573%) had a miscarriage and 5 (6.7%) had recurrent miscarriages. In this study there was no significant difference in severity of grief, between women that had a miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.14) or, between women that had a miscarriage and a molar pregnancy (p = 0.85). Women who had experienced a ectopic pregnancy did not have a higher grief intensity than the women that had a molar pregnancy (p = 0.75). However, for women with a child, the grief intensity significantly increases with the number of miscarriages (p = 0.015). Women with no children with an ectopic pregnancy grieve significantly more than those with a child (p = 0.019). An appointment for the \\'Miscarriage Clinic\\' should be offered to all of these women but special attention should be paid to those in the categories most at risk

  2. Effects of early pregnancy loss on hormone levels in the subsequent menstrual cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of hormone patterns after clinical miscarriage suggest reduced pituitary function. Hormonal effects of very early pregnancy loss (before six weeks gestation) have not been described. We used within-woman differences between menstrual cycles in urinary hormone measurements from women in the North Carolina Early Pregnancy Study to describe hormonal changes after very early pregnancy loss (n=28 early losses; 80 non-conception comparison cycles). We found lower pre-ovulatory lute...

  3. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  4. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad1, Aishe Memari1, Siamak Naji1, Nikol Mladkova2, Vida Saeedi1 1Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; 2Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UK Background: There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. Material and methods: We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks. Results: The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.13; P = 0.040 but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8–208.4; P = 0.014. Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28–131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47–80.03; P = 0.020, respectively. There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, early pregnancy loss, early abortion, infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm

  5. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Memari, Aishe; Naji, Siamak; Mladkova, Nikol; Saeedi, Vida

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks). The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.13; P = 0.040) but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8-208.4; P = 0.014). Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28-131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47-80.03; P = 0.020, respectively). There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines). In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.

  6. Ischemia-modified albumin as an oxidative stress biomarker in early pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Kanawati, Ammar; Suzen Çaypinar, Sema; Yesil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yasar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between early pregnancy loss and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations. Serum samples of 180 women that included healthy pregnant women, women admitted for termination of pregnancy due to the absence of fetal cardiac activity or absence of fetal pole on ultrasonographic examination, and healthy non-pregnant women attending for gynecological examination. Each group included 60 patients. Serum concentrations of IMA were compared among the groups, and the correlations with patients' age, gravidity, BMI, gestational age and total serum albumin concentrations were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to IMA concentrations, the group with early pregnancy loss was found to have significantly higher IMA concentrations (p 163 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 55% to discriminate between healthy pregnant patients and patients with early pregnancy loss in first trimester. Our findings support the theory that possible oxidative stress, a more hypoxic environment and defective placentation lead to increased serum IMA concentrations. These findings may help to shed light on the complicated pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  7. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trohimovych O.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  8. Early pregnancy loss in women stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver, José; Albert, Carmen; Labarta, Elena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of early pregnancy loss in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. University of Valencia. Spain. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine patients, aged <36, stimulated with GnRH antagonists for IVF between January 1, 2000 and November 1, 2005. Reproductive outcome was compared based on the application (or not) of OCP pretreatment: 944 women were included in the OCP group and 595 in the non-OCP group. The Student's t test was used for statistics. Pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early clinical pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and ongoing pregnancy rates. No significant differences were observed in any of the outcome parameters. Early pregnancy loss rates were similar: 23% in the OCP pretreatment group versus 19.2% in the non-OCP pretreatment group. However, longer periods of ovarian stimulation and higher doses of gonadotropins needed to be employed in the OCP group. There is not sufficient evidence to confirm OCP pretreatment as a risk factor for miscarriage in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols.

  9. Human leucocyte antigen class Ib molecules in pregnancy success and early pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2013-01-01

    AND CONCLUSIONS The HLA class Ib molecules seem to induce suppression of the maternal immune system, but are not necessarily fundamental factors for pregnancy success. However, evidence points towards low expression of these proteins, especially HLA-G, being associated with reduced fertility. To clarify...

  10. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  11. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  12. Recurrent early pregnancy loss and antiphospholipid antibodies: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L F; Porter, T F; de Jesús, G R

    2014-10-01

    Evidence from basic science studies supports a causative relationship between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and recurrent early miscarriage (REM) (prior to 10 weeks of gestation). However, human studies have not consistently found a relationship between aPL and REM. Members of the Obstetric Task Force of the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies performed a literature review of the association of aPL and REM and searched for clinical trials in women with REM who tested positive for aPL. Of the 46 studies that investigated the relationship between aPL and REM, 27 found a positive association, seven found no association, and the remaining 12 papers could not report an association (lack of control group). The main identified problems for such conflicting results were varying definitions of REM (two or three abortions, not necessarily consecutive; different gestational age at which pregnancy losses occurred); analysis of patients with previous fetal death (>10 weeks) in the same group of REM; and different definitions of "positive aPL" (cutoffs not following international recommendations; small number of studies confirmed persistence of positive aPL after six to 12 weeks). The 10 identified randomized trials with proposed treatments for women with REM who test positive for aPL also had heterogeneous inclusion criteria, with only one trial limited to subjects who would meet the current criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by both clinical and laboratory criteria. Against this background, we conclude that the association between REM and aPL remains inconclusive and that the findings of treatment trials are at best inconsistent and at worst misleading. More convincing data are critically needed. Studies that identify, or at least stratify, according to international consensus criteria and include standardized core laboratory testing results are crucial if we are to establish an evidence-based association between aPL and REM and treatment

  13. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Piroux

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss but they occur in a variety of diseases. Despite many efforts, a correlation between the specificity of particular subgroups of APA and particular clinical situations remains to be established. The antigens at the origin of APA remain to be identified. We discuss here the possible links between cell apoptosis or necrosis, leading to plasma membrane alterations, and the occurrence of APA in response to sustained stimulation. The pathogenic potential of APA is also considered with respect to recurrent pregnancy loss.

  14. Early Pregnancy Loss Following Laparoscopic Management of Ovarian Abscess Secondary to Oocyte Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Goksan Pabuccu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe pelvic infections following ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR are rare but challenging. Ovarian abscess formation is one of the consequences and management of such cases as highly debated in pregnant patients. In this case report, an early fetal loss following laparoscopic management of ovarian abscess is described and possible etiologies are discussed.

  15. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  16. Recurrent pregnancy loss and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL.

  17. Hypofibrinogenemia and the α-Fibrinogen Thr312Ala Polymorphism may be Risk Factors for Early Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Yuki; Wada, Hideo; Ikejiri, Makoto; Nakatani, Kaname; Sugiyama, Takashi; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murabayashi, Nao; Habe, Koji; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Ohishi, Kohshi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a cohort of 36 females with pregnancy loss. In addition to 11 patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and 2 patients with congenital antithrombin (AT) or protein C deficiency, we identified 5 patients with low fibrinogen levels (median 110 mg/dL) prior to 10 weeks of gestation. Four of these 5 patients underwent a fibrinogen gene analysis, and all 4 were found to be heterozygotes for the α-fibrinogen (FGA) Thr321Ala polymorphism. One female without hypofibrinogenemia with a history of 8 pregnancy losses was found to be homozygous for the same polymorphism, and she also showed hypercoagulability without thrombosis. In conclusion, there was a relatively high frequency of pregnancy loss in the setting of hypofibrinogenemia and/or the FGA Thr312Ala polymorphism, and this may be an important risk factor for pregnancy loss and a hypercoagulable state in later pregnancy.

  18. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor:Novel markers for unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Fathy; Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the role of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(sFlt-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) for prediction of pregnancy loss in patients with history of unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss(RPL).Methods:A prospective case control study was conducted in42 women with history of unexplained earlyRPL, and170 pregnant controls with history of uncomplicated pregnancy.We measured maternal serum sFlt-1 andVEGF at gestational age6-9 weeks as predictor for pregnancy loss.Results:Mean serum levels of sFlt-1 andVEGF were significantly higher inRPL group than controls(10439.7±385.4vs3304.5±104.8;P<0.0001, for sFlt-1, and1885.0±98.3 vs709.8±24.8;P<0.0001, forVEGF).Receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curves analyses established that sFlt-1 andVEGF were able to discriminate women at risk of developing pregnancy loss with area underROC curve0.970 for sFlt-1 and0.953 forVEGF.Cutoff value of5159.5 pg/mL for sFlt-1 was predictor for early pregnancy loss with 95.2% sensitivity,91.2% specificity, and odds ratio(OR)206 [95%confidence interval(CI),45.4-941].Cutoff value of915.5 pg/mL forVEGF was predictor for early pregnancy loss with92.9% sensitivity,90.6% specificity, andOR125 [95%CI:34.7-451].Conclusion:These data advocate a relationship between sFlt-1,VEGF, andRPL suggesting that the high levels of sFlt-1 andVEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis ofRPL.

  19. High periconceptional protein intake modifies uterine and embryonic relationships increasing early pregnancy losses and embryo growth retardation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Herrera, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Hawkins, D E; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2010-08-01

    The effects of supplemented protein level (PL) during the periconceptional period and their interaction with body condition were evaluated in sheep. Multiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 12) received two PL of rumen undegradable protein (UIP) during a 30-day pre-mating and 15-day post-mating period: low [LPL, 24% crude protein (CP), 14 g UIP and 36 g/CP animal/day] and high [HPL, 44% CP, 30 g UIP and 50 g/CP animal/day]. While ovulation rate (OR) did not differ between treatments (1.6 +/- 0.5, mean +/- SEM), a lower fertility rate, a decreased embryo number and a reduced uterine pH (UpH) was observed in the HPL group (p UpH also had lower conceptus weight (Cwt; p < 0.05, r = 0.65) and conceptuses with lower mass tended to secrete less INF-tau and IGF-1, and the correspondent endometrial explants had a higher basal PGF(2alpha) release. Current study indicates that high protein diets during the periconceptional period in sheep modify uterine and embryonic relationships, increasing early pregnancy losses and inducing embryo growth retardation. Surviving embryos were affected by weight reductions, which could compromise later foetal growth and birth weight. Results evidence the key role of a balanced diet in reproductive success and indicate that the quality and nutrient composition of the maternal diet are essential for an adequate establishment of pregnancy, having paramount effects on the interplay of the embryo and the uterus.

  20. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  1. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population--evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Desjardins, B; Charbonneau, H; Légaré, J; Miura, T

    1998-12-01

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n = 21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P = 0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P = 0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  2. Pregnancy Loss: How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy loss, you might experience a range of emotions, including: Denial. At first, it might be impossible ... ones, including the baby's grandparents, might experience similar emotions including anxiety, bitterness and helplessness. Grieving takes time. ...

  3. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  4. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    OpenAIRE

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Margaret A Fischl; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed...

  5. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  6. Hyperhomocysteinemia in women with unexplained sterility or recurrent early pregnancy loss from Southern Italy: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollo Antonio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia has been described as a risk factor for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Increased levels of homocysteine may be due to inadequate dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and inherited defects within the methionine-homocysteine pathway such as MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. However, the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and sterility problems have been underlined only for recurrent pregnancy loss while a relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and female sterility is still matter of discussion. Aim This study sought to find out a possible relationship between sterility (primary sterility or secondary sterility due to recurrent pregnancy loss and homocysteine metabolism. Patients and Methods We selected 20 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, 20 patients with unexplained female sterility and 20 healthy women as control group. Several whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture. Firstly homocysteinemia and other related variables were tested (i.e. folate and vitamin B12 levels; thereafter DNA was extracted by a further whole blood sample collected in EDTA in order to screen MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. Statistical analysis was performed by chi square test; differences were considered to be significant if p Results The median fasting total plasma homocysteine concentration was 19.2 ± 6.14 μM for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, while was 21.05 ± 8.78 μM for patients with unexplained sterility, vs 7.85 ± 3.31 μM of control group (p Discussion MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism is frequent in the studied populations. These data raise questions on the role of the homocysteine metabolism in sterility problems. Even though increased homocysteine (i.e. > 15 μM and MTHFR C677T homozigosity have already been described as risk factors for recurrent pregnancy loss, few studies evaluated their role in women with unexplained sterility. Further studies on larger series are needed to

  7. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a birth control method. You can use any contraceptive method, including having an intrauterine device inserted, immediately ... blood cells. Sperm: A cell produced in the male testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous ...

  8. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a birth control method. You can use any contraceptive method, including having an intrauterine device inserted, immediately ... Embryo: The developing organism from the time it implants in the uterus up to 8 completed weeks ...

  9. Analysis on related factors of early pregnancy loss in 618 cases%618例早期妊娠胚胎丢失相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亦心; 裴玉; 李耀龙; 吕丽华; 高章圈; 李国正; 田慧艳; 刘效群; 陈拽生; 崔巍; 赵慧芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the causes and the related factors of early pregnancy loss and to provide scientific basis for reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and birth defects. Methods The data of patients in 15 counties of Hebei, with early pregnancy loss after pre-pregnancy physical examination from July 2010 to March 2012, were analyzed. Results Among 618 cases with early pregnancy loss, 15.4% had history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and 6. 1% were pregnant women ≥35 years. Among the individual adverse addiction and environmental factors, female passive smoking and male smoking ranked at the first place, and they occupied 15. 7% and 24. 8% , respectively. Overweight and obesity were common factors of males and females, and they occupied 10. 8% and 11. 8% , respectively. Conclusion It has important value for the prevention and reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes again by exploring the causes, and it has great significance to study the suspicious factors of birth defects and taking intervention strategies.%目的 对早期妊娠胚胎丢失原因和相关因素进行调查,为降低不良妊娠和出生缺陷发生风险提供科学依据.方法 对2010年7月至2012年3月河北省15个县(市)孕前优生检测后妊娠随访中发现的早期胚胎丢失者病例进行分析.结果 在618例早期妊娠胚胎丢失者中,既往有不良妊娠史者占15.4%,女方年龄≥35岁者占6.1%;女性被动吸烟、男性吸烟在个人不良嗜好和不良环境因素中排在首位,分别占15.7%和24.8%;超重及肥胖是女、男双方排在前面的共同因素,分别占10.8%和11.8%.结论 分析不良妊娠结局发生的原因对于预防和减少其再次发生具有重要价值,对于研究出生缺陷可疑因素及制定相应的干预措施具有重要意义.

  10. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  11. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  12. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  13. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  14. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  15. Association of recurrent pregnancy loss with chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: Parental chromosomal abnormality was detected in 28 cases (2.8% of all cases, 5.7% of the couples) most of which ... Key words: chromosomal abnormality, recurrent pregnancy loss, thrombophilia ..... significant role in infertility.

  16. [Characteristics of miscarriage and women's rights after pregnancy loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Magdalena; Sulima, Magdalena; Pyć, Maria; Stawarz, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The term "miscarriage" refers to the end of pregnancy before the 22nd week of gestation, or taking into account the criterion of foetal weight (less than 500 g). Approximately 15-20% of recognized pregnancies and miscarriage involve spontaneous expulsion of the blastocyst from the uterine cavity. This constitutes about 80% of miscarriages in the first 12 weeks of gestation. The literature lists a number of factors which cause the loss of pregnancies. The most frequently cited causes of abortion are: genetic, anatomical, immunological and hormonal factors, and infections. A large number of miscarriages remain unexplained (idiopathic miscarriages). Clinical signs of miscarriage include bleeding and pain. Bleeding or spotting is the earliest sign of miscarriage. Data from the patient's history, physical examination, ultrasound examination and tests for hCG level can enable diagnosis of bleeding in early pregnancy, help to assess the degree of risk, and implement an appropriate treatment regimen and care for pregnant women adapted to their needs. Loss of pregnancy is an interdisciplinary problem involving obstetrics, epidemiology, public health, psychology, and other specialities. The role of medical personnel in the care of women after the loss of a child, regardless of the week and therapeutic procedures, as well as for giving adequate information regarding the rights of women after pregnancy loss. The obligation to inform women of their rights concerns medical staff, and it is important to promote knowledge in this field among doctors, nurses and midwives who care for women after miscarriage.

  17. Chromosomal anomaly spectrum in early pregnancy loss in relation to presence or absence of an embryonic pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Arigita, Marta; Bennasar, Mar; Soler, Anna; Sanchez, Aurora; Borrell, Antoni

    2010-12-01

    To compare the cytogenetic findings in a series of missed miscarriages evaluated by chorionic villus sampling, in relation to embryonic pole presence (embryonic or anembryonic). Prospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral hospital. Women presenting with a missed miscarriage. Transcervical chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic studies in the chorionic villi with use of the semidirect method. Embryonic pole presence or absence assessed by transvaginal ultrasound examination. Type of chromosomal anomalies found in both subgroups. Although the chromosomal abnormality rate was similar for miscarriages with absent or present embryo (61% vs. 68% respectively), frequencies for viable autosomal trisomies (2.3% vs. 19%) and monosomy X (0% vs. 9.2%) were significantly lower when no embryonic pole was seen. Viable autosomal trisomies and monosomies X appear not to be a common cause of miscarriage with an early fetal demise (anembryonic miscarriage). Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  19. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Levente L. Orbán; Farhad N. Dastur

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to...

  20. Reproductive Endocrinology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Maria C; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole B

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptions may be important in patients experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This review focuses on data available on RPL and the endocrine system to investigate relevant, and perhaps modifiable, endocrine factors of importance for the disorder. Evidence indicates that some...... hormones may be important as immune modulators and a better understanding of this interplay has potential for improving pregnancy outcome in RPL. To date there is a lack of consensus on the effect of endocrine treatment options in RPL and there is a strong need for large randomized-controlled trials....

  1. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  2. [Recent recommendations in the management of early pregnancy failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupak, Aleksandra; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion refers to pregnancy loss up to the end of 22 weeks' (21(+7)) gestation. Currently, the terminology suggests early pregnancy loss or early pregnancy failure. Miscarriage occurs in 10-20% of pregnancies, and most of them take place up to 13 weeks'gestation. Management in the case of vaginal bleeding in women with a confirmed pregnancy requires a physical examination (with a speculum), and a biochemical and ultrasound diagnosis. Conservative, pharmacological or surgical management can be offered to patients with an incomplete miscarriage. The pharmacological method of proceeding in miscarriages is recommended by many scientific societies (ACOG, RCOG), and WHO, as well as in manuals for students and for obstetrician-gynecologists developed by leading experts in Poland. The procedure for pharmacological treatment with mizoprostol is: 1. Pregnancy under 9 weeks gestation: 800 mg vaginally, and if there is no effect after 4 h another 400 mg vaginally or orally. 2. Pregnancy over 9 weeks gestation: up to 4 x 400 mg every 3 hours. 3. In the absence of any effect after 36 hours from the start of the treatment, a surgical procedure is recommended. 4. The prevention of chlamydia infection in each patient: 1 g of metronidazole rectally and one dose of 1 g azithromycin, or 2 x 100 mg of doxycycline for 7 days. The legal aspects regarding the administrative proceedings after early pregnancy failure relate to the correct reporting of feat death on proper forms.

  3. Pregnancy loss and risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maino, Alberto; Siegerink, Bob; Algra, Ale|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X; Martinelli, Ida; Peyvandi, Flora; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether pregnancy loss increases the risk of arterial thrombosis in young women. Women (age 18–50 years) with ischaemic stroke (IS) or myocardial infarction (MI) and at least one pregnancy were compared for pregnancy loss in a control group. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence inter

  4. Mannose-binding lectin-2 genotypes and recurrent late pregnancy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Lund, Marie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) predispose to various infectious and inflammatory disorders and have been reported to be associated with recurrent early miscarriages. Recurrent late pregnancy losses (RLPL) in the second trimester is a rare but devastating syndrome where...... maternal rather than fetal causes are likely to play a stronger role than in early recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: We identified 75 patients with at least two late losses of pregnancies with apparently normal fetuses between gestational week 14 and 30 among patients with recurrent pregnancy losses referred...... is strongly associated with idiopathic RLPL. This may point towards a role for excessive inflammatory disturbances as a cause of the syndrome....

  5. A molar masquerading as an ectopic pregnancy in the early first trimester: a salutary lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Abha; Lakhi, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case in which a molar pregnancy was mistaken for an ectopic pregnancy in the early first trimester. This confusion delayed diagnosis and caused distress; follow-up led to the final diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole. Correct preoperative diagnosis of molar pregnancy by ultrasound in early pregnancy may be tricky. It is important to obtain histological evidence to make the final diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. While relatively rare, consideration of molar pregnancy in the differential diagnosis of early pregnancy loss may avoid unnecessary distress.

  6. Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress after pregnancy loss: A prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, I.M.; van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.; Arntz, A.; Schouten, E.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined (1) predictors for peritraumatic dissociation, (2) its relations with acute and chronic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and (3) pathways regarding these relations in response to pregnancy loss. In early pregnancy, about 1,370 women volunteers completed

  7. Prognosis for couples who have experienced repeated pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Barsel-Bowers, G

    1983-12-01

    To determine whether amniocentesis should be recommended to couples who have had multiple spontaneous abortions, we obtained information on the subsequent pregnancy outcome for 70 couples who had had two or more pregnancy losses. Fifty-two (74%) had one or more successful pregnancies, resulting in 64 newborns, all but 1 of whom were normal; the abnormal infant had a normal chromosome analysis.

  8. Pregnancy loss and later risk of atherosclerotic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension.......Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension....

  9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Chandak, P; Tiptaft, R; Glass, J; Dasgupta, P

    2004-08-01

    Most cases of urolithiasis in pregnancy are managed conservatively either with ureteric stents or percutaneous nephrostomy tubes, which need to be changed at regular intervals. Definitive management of the stone is usually delayed till after delivery. We describe a patient who presented with pyonephrosis in the fifth week of gestation, due to a stone obstructing the right ureteropelvic junction. This was managed by insertion of a nephrostomy tube. She declined nephrostomy tube/stent changes during the rest of her pregnancy and requested termination as an alternative. She successfully underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the 14th week of pregnancy, with radiation exposure strictly localised to the kidney for 6 s. A healthy male baby was delivered at term.

  10. [Chronic maternal diseases and pregnancy losses. French guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, J; Guettrot-Imbert, G; Plu-Bureau, G; Ciangura, C; Jacqueminet, S; Leenhardt, L; Nedellec, S; Gallot, V; Vialard, F; Quibel, T; Huchon, C; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N

    2014-12-01

    To review the available data on maternal chronic diseases and pregnancy losses. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane library with pregnancy loss, stillbirth, intrauterine fetal demise, intrauterine fetal death, miscarriage and each maternal diseases of this paper. Antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin, anti-beta-2-glycoprotein, lupus anticoagulant) should be measured in case of miscarriage after 10WG confirmed by ultrasound (grade B) and an antiphospholipid syndrome should be treated by a combination of aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin during a subsequent pregnancy (grade A). We do not recommend testing for genetic thrombophilia in case of first trimester miscarriage (grade B) or stillbirth (grade C). Glycemic control should be a goal before pregnancy for women with pregestational diabetes to limit the risks of pregnancy loss (grade A) with a goal of prepregnancy HbA1c<7%. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidisms should be treated by L-thyroxin during pregnancy to reduce the risks of pregnancy loss (grade A). Women who are positive for TPOAb should have TSH concentrations follow-up during pregnancy and subsequently treated by L-thyroxin if they develop subclinical hypothyroidism (grade B). Prepregnancy management of most chronic maternal diseases, ideally through prepregnancy multidisciplinary counseling, reduces the risks of pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  12. Chronic sleep loss during pregnancy as a determinant of stress: impact on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy.

  13. The unfortunate sufferer: discursive dynamics around pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Sijpt

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy losses are ambiguous affairs in East Cameroon. Childbearing is not always people's primary aim within their fragile sexual and marital relationships, and it is often unclear to outsiders whether a pregnancy interruption is intended or unintended. Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork, I explor

  14. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  15. Seropositivity of cytomegalovirus in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Sherkat; Mohsen Meidani; Hossein Zarabian; Abbas Rezaei; Ali Gholamrezaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence has shown a relationship between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and pregnancy loss. However, whether recurrent or latent CMV infection or altered immune response to CMV is related to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is unclear. We evaluated CMV infection and avidity of antibodies to CMV in women with RPL. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 43 women with RPL referred to a clinical immunology out-patient clinic in Isfahan (Iran), and 4...

  16. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in curvilinear fashion. Termination providers

  17. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  18. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy outcome in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, M C; Ande, A B; Olagbuji, B N

    2011-12-01

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women with obesity and 201 non-obese controls in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in early pregnancy was 9.63%. Obesity was significantly associated with advanced maternal age and parity > or =1. It was also a risk factor for pregnancy induced hypertension, admissions during pregnancy, caesarean delivery and associated with 5th minute apgar score Obesity in early pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome among pregnant Nigerian women. This information should be utilised by physicians to improve the outcome of pregnancy and promote safe motherhood.

  19. Serum Leptin and Insulin Hormone Level in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayah S. Baban

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum leptin and insulin levels in women with recurrent pregnancy loss using modified methods of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and to examine their influence on recurrent loss at different pregnancy trimesters.Methods: A case control study was conducted from, 1 September 2008 to 30 December 2009 in the Obstetric and Gynecological Department-Al-Khadimiya Teaching Hospital. HPLC technique with new modified method was used to estimate serum leptin and insulin hormones in samples of women with recurrent pregnancy loss (patients group, n=64 and healthy pregnant women at the end of the third gestational trimester as a control group (n=51.Results: Both serum leptin and insulin levels were high in women with pregnancy loss in their three trimesters. A significant correlation was found between age (r=0.535, p<0.018 and serum total leptin in women with RPL during the first trimester. Also, a highly significant correlation was found between serum total leptin and insulin in women with RPL during the first, second and third trimesters (r=0.894, r=0.931, and r =0.995 respectively. The number of women who lost their pregnancy during the first trimester was higher than those losing during other trimesters.Conclusion: It can be concluded that recurrent pregnancy loss in women at different trimester is associated with endocrine abnormalities where serum leptin and insulin levels increase in a different way compared with normal healthy pregnant women.

  20. A meta-analysis of risk of pregnancy loss and caffeine and coffee consumption during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Zhao, Hong; Song, Ju-Min; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Yin-Lan; Xin, Chang-Mao

    2015-08-01

    Previous reports of the relationship between pregnancy loss and caffeine/coffee consumption have been inconsistent. To evaluate the association between pregnancy loss and caffeine and coffee consumption. PubMed was searched for reports published before September 2014, with the keywords "caffeine," "coffee," "beverage," "miscarriage," "spontaneous abortion," and "fetal loss." Case-control and cohort studies were included when they had been reported in English, the exposure of interest was caffeine/coffee consumption during pregnancy, the outcome of interest was spontaneous abortion or fetal death, and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios were provided or could be calculated. Data were extracted and combined ORs calculated. Overall, 26 studies were included (20 of caffeine and eight of coffee). After adjustment for heterogeneity, caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss (OR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.40), as was coffee consumption (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21). A dose-response analysis suggested that risk of pregnancy loss rose by 19% for every increase in caffeine intake of 150 mg/day and by 8% for every increase in coffee intake of two cups per day. Consumption of caffeine and coffee during pregnancy seems to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Petersen, Morten; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2013-01-01

    The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated...... with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations....

  2. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161748.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications Women ... Oct. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who undergo weight-loss surgery gain major benefits when it comes to ...

  3. Early detection of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schade, Götz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement and 2 (AABR testing need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric acoustician specialized on children.

  4. Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background0 : Human chimerism is rare and usually uncovered through investigations of ambiguous genitalia or blood grouping or prenatal diagnosis. Most of the publications on placental chimerism are mainly case reports. There is no systematic search with sensitive techniques for placental chimerism in human. Aim0 : This study was aimed to asses placental chimerism through two sensitive molecular techniques i.e., interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative fluorescent PCR. Material and methods0 : Placental chimerism was analyzed using X & Y dual color fluorescent in-situ hybridization onto 154 placentae from natural conceptions, obtained at termination of pregnancy between 7 to 16 weeks of gestation. Results0 : Three cases of placental sex chromosome chimerism were observed (1.95%. Exclusion of maternal contamination and diagnosis was confirmed later by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conclusion0 : This finding indicates that placental chimerism in early human pregnancy is not rare.

  5. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  6. Recurrent pregnancy loss in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjali Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Review: Thyroid disturbances are common in women during their reproductive years. Thyroid dysfunction interferes with human reproductive physiology, reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and adversely affects pregnancy outcome, thus becoming relevant in the algorithm of reproductive dysfunction. This review highlights the "gap" in knowledge regarding the contribution of thyroid dysfunction in reproduction. Literature Reviewed: Following implantation, the maintenance of the pregnancy is dependent on a multitude of endocrinological events that will eventually aid in the successful growth and development of the fetus. It is estimated that approximately 8-12% of all pregnancy losses are the result of endocrine factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease is present in around 4% of young females and up to 15% are at risk because they are thyroid antibody-positive. There is a strong relationship between thyroid immunity on one hand and infertility, miscarriage, and thyroid disturbances in pregnancy and postpartum, on the other hand. Even minimal hypothyroidism can increase rates of miscarriage and fetal death and may also have adverse effects on later cognitive development of the offspring. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may also have adverse consequences. Summary: Pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid antibodies have an increased risk of complications, especially pre-eclampsia, perinatal mortality, and miscarriage. Universal screening for thyroid hormone abnormalities is not routinely recommended at present, but thyroid function must be examined in female with fetal loss or menstrual disturbances. Practitioners providing health care for women should be alert to thyroid disorders as an underlying etiology for recurrent pregnancy loss.

  7. Pregnancy Loss and Distress among U.S. Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Although pregnancy loss--especially miscarriage--is a relatively common experience among reproductive-aged women, much of our understanding about the experience has come from small clinic-based or other nonrepresentative samples. We compared fertility-specific distress among a national sample of 1,284 women who have ever experienced a stillbirth…

  8. Is the incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmark Roepke, Emma; Matthiesen, Leif; Rylance, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The prevalence of RPL defined as ≥3 consecutive miscarriages before gestation week 22, is often stated to be 1%. To our knowledge no study has estimated the incidence of RPL, which might be more i...

  9. [Support for teenage pregnancies and early emotional deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andro, Gwénäelle

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal psychology and psychiatry unit of Caen university hospital has put in place two systematic intervention protocols relating to pregnancy: teenage pregnancy and denial of pregnancy. Professionals are particularly concerned with teenagers with a history of early emotional deprivation and mistreatment, with the spectre of repetition. A partnership with a motherhood centre helps all concerned to work together to build resilience.

  10. Early pregnancy diagnosis by serum progesterone and ultrasound in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Coppola, G; Mastromonaco, G F; St John, E; Reyes, E R; Betts, D H; King, W A

    2008-04-01

    Early pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring play an important role following embryo transfer in sheep. The aims of the current study were to investigate (i) the pattern of serum progesterone profiles in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived (clone) pregnancies, and (ii) the frequency of pregnancy loss during development following SCNT embryo transfer. Sheep SCNT embryos were made using standard nuclear transfer techniques. Day 7 embryos were surgically transferred to oestrus-synchronized recipients (n = 27). As a control, normal fertile ewes (n = 12) were bred by natural breeding. Serum was collected from all the ewes on the day of estrus (day 0 sample), 7 days post-estrus (day 7 sample) and 19 days post-estrus (day 19 sample) and every 10 days thereafter until lambing or pregnancy loss occurred. Serum progesterone (P4) was assessed using enzyme immunoassay. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound scanning on day 35 of pregnancy followed by subsequent scanning every 10 days. In control ewes, pregnancy rate on day 35 was 83.3% (10/12), whereas in the ewes that received SCNT embryos, it was 22.2% (6/27; p sheep. Further, the serum P4 levels directly reflect the degree of placental development in these two groups.

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左祥生; 苏宝田; 魏道严

    1994-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor(EPF)was purified from the pooled sera of 210 pregnant women at 3-8weeks of gestation.Sera from healthy nonpegnant women used as control.The samples (G-Ⅱ,G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ) ob-tained from pregnant women had EPF activity but no HCG activity.Polyacrylamide gel electrophopesis showed that the amjor bands in pregnant G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ were at similar positions in tube gels.The results of SDS-PAGE showed 3 bands in pregnant G-Ⅳ:57.0 kD,38.0 kD and 19.0 kD.The basic active form of EPF may be a small peptide of 19.0 kD. The isoelectric points of pregnant G-Ⅳ were 6.45 and 8.20.

  12. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  13. Hereditary thrombophilia and recurrent pregnancy loss: a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome and obstetric complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Nielsen, H S; Hviid, T V

    2010-01-01

    The association among hereditary thrombophilia, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and obstetric complications is yet uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the prognostic value of the factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PT) mutations for the subsequent chance of live birth for women...

  14. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  15. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  16. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  17. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  18. Hereditary thrombophilia and recurrent pregnancy loss: a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome and obstetric complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Nielsen, H S; Hviid, T V

    2010-01-01

    The association among hereditary thrombophilia, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and obstetric complications is yet uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the prognostic value of the factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PT) mutations for the subsequent chance of live birth for women...

  19. Non-visualized pregnancy losses are prognostically important for unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; van Oppenraaij, R H; Quenby, S

    2014-01-01

    -visualized pregnancy losses following spontaneous conception or homologous insemination. The category 'non-visualized pregnancy losses' combines biochemical pregnancy loss (positive hCG, no ultrasound performed) and failed PUL (pregnancy of unknown location, positive hCG, but on ultrasound, no pregnancy location...... consecutive pregnancy losses before 12 weeks' gestation, and we included only women with unexplained RM after thorough evaluation. It is uncertain whether the findings apply to other definitions of RM and among women with known causes for their miscarriages. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: To our...

  20. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Busschers, Wim B; Spierings, Eline J M; Roseboom, Tessa J; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in the prospective ABCD study and the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of early pregnancy lipid profile in this association was determined. We included 2500 normal weight (lipids [median (IQR): 13 (12-14) weeks of gestation] and blood pressure during pregnancy [mean (SD) = 10 (2.3)]. Lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids) were divided into tertiles. Multilevel piecewise linear spline models were used to describe the course of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in four time periods during gestation for overweight and normal weight women. Both SBP (5.3 mmHg) and DBP (3.9 mmHg) were higher in overweight compared to normal weight women and this difference remained the same over all four time periods. The difference in SBP and DBP was not mediated or moderated by the lipid profile. Lipid profile had an independent positive effect on both SBP (range 1.3-2.2 mmHg) and DBP (0.8-1.1 mmHg), but did not change blood pressure course. Both pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile independently increase blood pressure during pregnancy. Improving pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile might result in a healthier blood pressure course during pregnancy.

  1. Treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss by Levothyroxine in women with high Anti-TPO antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Aflatoonian; Tahere Jahaninejad; Fatemeh Mohsenifar; Mohammad Hosein Mosaddegh; Nasrin Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more consecutive pregnancy losses before twenty weeks of gestation. It is caused by a variety of genetics and non-genetics factors. Thyroid autoimmunity could associate with pregnancy loss. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Levothyroxine in treatment of RPL in women with high auto-thyroid antibodies. Materials and Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, 900 women who had a history of recurrent pregnancy...

  2. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja; Magnussen, Britta Kjeldberg; Shawe, Jill; Stern, Jenny; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. RESULTS Most (77%) of the participants reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p planning and 98% of those with a low degree of planning had not taken folic acid prior to pregnancy. Binge drinking during early pregnancy was reported by 20% of women with a high degree of planned pregnancy and 31% of those with a low degree (p = 0.1). CONCLUSION Pregnancy planning was associated with a healthier lifestyle but still many women could improve their lifestyle in connection to pregnancy. Their level of alcohol consumption is higher than that recommended for best pregnancy outcome.

  3. Cytogenetic studies in couples experiencing repeated pregnancy losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Braekeleer, M; Dao, T N

    1990-07-01

    A computerized database generated from the literature on cytogenetic studies in couples experiencing repeated pregnancy losses has been set up at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi. At the present time, it contains data on 22,199 couples (44,398 individuals). The statistical analyses showed a relationship between the distribution of the chromosome abnormalities and the number of abortions. An uneven distribution of the chromosomal structural rearrangements according to the sex of the carrier was found (P less than 0.05). Overall, 4.7% of the couples ascertained for two or more spontaneous abortions included one carrier. It also appeared that only translocations (both reciprocal and Robertsonian) and inversions were associated with a higher risk of pregnancy wastage. Therefore, genetic counselling should be offered to these couples and investigations performed on their extended families.

  4. History of pregnancy loss increases the risk of mental health problems in subsequent pregnancies but not in the postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Chojenta

    Full Text Available While grief, emotional distress and other mental health conditions have been associated with pregnancy loss, less is known about the mental health impact of these events during subsequent pregnancies and births. This paper examined the impact of any type of pregnancy loss on mental health in a subsequent pregnancy and postpartum. Data were obtained from a sub-sample (N = 584 of the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a prospective cohort study that has been collecting data since 1996. Pregnancy loss was defined as miscarriage, termination due to medical reasons, ectopic pregnancy and stillbirth. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress or distress, sadness or low mood, excessive worry, lack of enjoyment, and feelings of guilt. Demographic factors and mental health history were controlled for in the analysis. Women with a previous pregnancy loss were more likely to experience sadness or low mood (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.76, p = 0.0162, and excessive worry (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.24, p = 0.0043 during a subsequent pregnancy, but not during the postpartum phase following a subsequent birth. These results indicate that while women who have experienced a pregnancy loss are a more vulnerable population during a subsequent pregnancy, these deficits are not evident in the postpartum.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Groen, Henk; Roberts, Claire; Dekker, Gus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR

  6. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics...

  7. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time......An estimated 11%–20% of clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion. The literature finds elevated risk of spontaneous abortion among women who report adverse financial life events. This work suggests that, at the population level, national economic decline—an ambient...

  8. Evidence-based investigations and treatments of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Bosch, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of currently used investigations and treatments offered to women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and, from an evidence-based point of view, to evaluate the usefulness of these interventions. DESIGN: Ten experts on epidemiologic, genetic, anatomic, endocrinologic......, and an extensive investigation for all major factors should always be undertaken. There is an urgent need for agreement concerning the thresholds for detecting what is normal and abnormal, irrespective of whether laboratory tests or uterine abnormalities are concerned. A series of lifestyle factors should...

  9. Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164428.html Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of ... researchers said. "This means more severe grades of obesity correspond to increasingly higher risk," said study co- ...

  10. Pregnant women on thyroxine substitution are often dysregulated in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Bengt; Lantz, Mikael; Andreasson, Bengt; Grennert, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for normal fetal development. Maternal hypothyroidism during early pregnancy is associated with impaired neuropsychological development of children and other adverse outcomes. The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine whether thyroxine-treated pregnant women with hypothyroidism are adequately thyroxine substituted in early pregnancy. A secondary aim was to determine if fetal loss differed between females with thyrotropin (TSH) values within and outside the reference range at their first TSH test, scheduled for 1-2 weeks after verification of pregnancy. This was a prospective open-labeled study. During the years 1997-2002, 119 consecutive pregnancies in 101 females with thyroid diseases were followed at the Department of Endocrinology, Malmö University Hospital. At the first visit, 63 patients, median age 30 years (range 17-45 years), were on thyroxine substitution therapy for hypothyroidism. In these patients 83% were in their first trimester at the time of the initial test. Of the 63 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 32 (51%; Group A) patients had serum TSH values within the reference range at their initial test and 31 (49%; Group B) had serum TSH values outside the reference range. Twelve (19%) had TSH values of 4.0 mIU=l. The fetal loss was 2 of 32 (6%) in Group A compared to 9 of 31 (29%) in Group B ( p pregnant women on thyroxine substitution, serum TSH values were outside the reference range when first tested, generally in the first trimester. Fetal loss was significantly greater in pregnant women with abnormal TSH values compared to those with normal TSH values. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored early in pregnancy and carefully followed during pregnancy. The thyroxine dose should be increased as needed early in pregnancy to avoid hypothyroidism.

  11. Severe stress following bereavement during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss: results from a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Parner, Erik; Olsen, Jørn; Li, Jiong

    2016-05-01

    Previous findings on the association between stress during pregnancy and pregnancy loss are inconsistent. We aimed to estimate this association using a large prospective cohort. This population-based study included all 1 303 660 clinically recognised pregnancies in Denmark between 1995 and 2008. We categorised women as exposed to severe stress if they lost a child, sibling or parent during pregnancy. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to study the association between exposure and rate of fetal death, starting with the follow-up on the day of completion of week 4 of pregnancy. In an attempt to control for unknown potential confounders, we also designed a pregnancy-matched analysis in which each woman had her own baseline risk of pregnancy loss and controls therefore for genetic and time-stable environmental factors. A total of 146 031 pregnancies ended in clinically recognised fetal loss (11.2%) and a total of 10 808 (0.8%) women were categorised as exposed. The overall risk of pregnancy loss was similar in the exposed and unexposed (aHR=1.05, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.15). Results from the pregnancy-matched analysis (performed in 423 women) showed stronger and significant associations (aHR=1.83, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.25). All the analyses indicated a stronger effect of bereavement when the mother lost a child or when the death was unexpected. Our main results suggested no strong association between severe stress during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss. Results from the pregnancy-matched analyses considered information from a selected and small group of women for whom there may exist a stronger association between stress during pregnancy and pregnancy loss. The fact that an unexpected death or the loss of a child had a stronger effect in both analyses may indicate that severe stressful situations increase the risk of pregnancy loss. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Infertility and pregnancy loss in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Uccelli, Alessia; Papini, Francesca; Simi, Giovanna; Di Berardino, Olga Maria; Ruggiero, Maria; Cela, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity is the most prevalent autoimmune state that affects up to 5-20% of women during the age of fertility. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity is significantly higher among infertile women, especially when the cause of infertility is endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome. Presence of thyroid autoimmunity does not interfere with normal embryo implantation and have been observed comparable pregnancy rates after assisted reproduction techniques in patients with or without thyroid autoimmunity. Instead, the risk of early miscarriage is substantially raised with the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, even if there was a condition of euthyroidism before pregnancy. Furthermore the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, used as preparation for assisted reproduction techniques, can severely impair thyroid function increasing circulating estrogen levels. Systematic screening for thyroid disorders in women with a female cause of infertility is controversial but might be important to detect thyroid autoimmunity before to use assisted reproduction techniques and to follow-up these parameters in these patients after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and during pregnancy.

  13. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  14. Beta-2 GPI induced tissue factor and placental apoptosis for the pathophysiology of pregnancy loss in antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Velayuthaprabhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on large concurrent studies on human and in vivo results from experimental animals, it is evident that antiphospholipid syndrome (APS plays a vital role in pregnancy failure in human being. Many underlying pathophysiology including venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and placental apoptosis have been demonstrated for the APS-mediated pregnancy loss. On the other hand, Tissue factor (TF remains considered as a crucial factor for pregnancy morbidity in women with APS globally. Hence, we hypothesize that TF and/or beta-2 glycoprotein and ndash; I (beta2GPI-induced TF might play an important role for the increased index of apoptosis in placenta, especially during early stages of fetal development. Further, this could represent as potentially preventable etiology of APS-mediated pregnancy loss in women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3109-3113

  15. Management of women with recurrent pregnancy losses and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Agcaoili, Maria Socorro L; Aleta, Lara; Liao, Aihua; Ota, Kuniaki; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Beaman, Kenneth; Kim, Joon Woo; Gilman-Sachs, Alice

    2013-06-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been associated with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and other obstetrical complications. The diagnostic criteria for the classical antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) have been utilized for the detection of obstetrical APS in women with RPL. However, laboratory findings and immunopathology of obstetrical APS are significantly different from those of classical APS. In addition, many women with RPL who have positive aPL do not have symptoms consistent with the current APS criteria. The induction of a proinflammatory immune response from trophoblasts and complement activation by aPL rather than thromboembolic changes has been reported as a major immunopathological feature of obstetrical APS. Heparin treatment has been reported to be effective in prevention of early pregnancy loss with APS but not for the late pregnancy loss or complications. The complex effects of heparin may explain the limited efficacy of heparin treatment in RPL. New diagnostic criteria for obstetrical APS are needed urgently, and new therapeutic approaches should be explored further.

  16. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  17. Canine and feline pregnancy loss due to viral and non-infectious causes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J; Dhaliwal, G; Verstegen-Onclin, K

    2008-08-01

    Among the causes for pregnancy loss, viruses and non-infectious factors are among the most important. In both dogs and cats, research and clinical evidence provide proof that there is an increasing incidence of pregnancy loss associated with infectious diseases like herpesvirus, as well as the presence of toxicants or chemicals in the animal's diet and environment. Endocrine causes must be taken into consideration when dealing with pregnancy loss. This review will cover the most recent knowledge regarding viral and non-infectious of pregnancy losses in the dog and cat.

  18. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Flood-Nichols

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion.Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years. Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057.Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  20. Pregnancy and early-stage melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daryanani, D; Plukker, JT; De Hullu, JA; Kuiper, H; Nap, RE; Hoekstra, HJ

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Cutaneous melanomas are aggressive tumors with an unpredictable biologic behavior. It has been suggested that women who present with melanoma during pregnancy have a worse prognosis due to more aggressive behavior of the melanoma. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the lo

  1. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  2. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  3. Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones.

  4. Etiologic characteristics and index pregnancy outcomes of recurrent pregnancy losses in Korean women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201

  5. Parental exposure at periconception to environmental adverse factors and early embryo loss in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Hai-yan; Wang Dan; Yang Zhen-hua; Zou Xiao-ping; Chen Ya-qiong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of environmental adverse factors with early embryo loss, and explore the possible risk factors in daily life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 93 new cases of embryo loss (case group) collected in four general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2007 to April 2008 and 93 matched cases of induced abortion (control group) in normal pregnant women who sought the abortion by other reasons. The questionnaire covered information on parental exposure to various environmental factors during and before pregnancy, and the information on daily life. Data were analyzed by single-factor analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis. Possible risk factors were identified and odds ratio calculated.Results: Cooking frequently during pregnancy, more daily traffic hours, and decoration history in early pregnancy and paternal exposure to toxic matters three months before pregnancy were associated with early embryo loss, while maternal education was a protective factor. Conclusion: Women exposed to the harmful substances from traffic emissions, cooking and decoration could be at an increased risk of early embryo loss.

  6. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  7. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pregnancy Loss or Miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to check for the level of hCG, the pregnancy hormone, or an internal pelvic examination to determine if ... her last menstrual period, and the level of pregnancy hormone in the blood, she may need to have ...

  8. Annexin A5 Promoter Haplotype M2 Is Not a Risk Factor for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Nõmmemees, Diana; Rull, Kristiina;

    2015-01-01

    factor in early pregnancy success because: i) no RPL disease risk was associated with the haplotype in two clinically well-characterized RPL case-control study samples, ii) high prevalence of the haplotype among fertile controls and world-wide populations is inconsistent with the previously proposed......INTRODUCTION: Annexin A5 is an essential component of placental integrity that may potentially mediate susceptibility to phenotypes of compromised pregnancy. A promoter haplotype termed M2 of the coding gene ANXA5 has been implicated in various pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia...... and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), however with inconclusive results. STUDY SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study combining resequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was undertaken in 313 women with unexplained RPL and 214 fertile women from Estonia...

  9. SEASONAL EFFECT ON ACCURACY OF IN - HOME URINARY PREGNANCY TEST FOR DETECTION OF EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : A study was planned to find out the cause of false positive urinary pregnancy test in early pregnancy as some times when ultrasonography is done on these women with positive pregnancy test , they are found to be non - pregnant . Such reports on false positive urinary pregnancy test , confirmed by ultrason ography are few and therefore the study was planned. METHOD: A total number of 218 women who came to the Deptt. o f Radiology Era’s Lucknow Medical College Lucknow , for routine first trimester ultrasonographies from April 2012 to Dec 2012 were analyzed . All th ese women had their urinary pregnancy test positive tested by commonly available test kits. Some of them were found to be non - pregnant on ultrasonography. The study was conducted for nine months . RESULT: Out of the 218 women who came with positive urinary pregnancy test were examined by ultrasonography. Out of these 18(8.2% cases were found to be non - pregnant and the test was false positive. These women had performed the urinary pregnancy test by themselves and out of these 4 cases were confirmed by hospit al/ lab. These women had performed the urinary pregnancy test in the months from April 2012 to September 2012 , when atmospheric temperature is high and weather is dry. CONCLUSION : Care should be taken to avoid drying of the test membrane in the pregnancy car d test kit by replacing it in its packet soon after adding the urine sample. The result should be noted within the time mentioned on the pack. Such instructions should be followed strictly while testing the urine for pregnancy.

  10. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    . Similarly, between the groups, there were no differences in pregnancy adaptation with similar trends in cardiovascular function changes from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. Whilst this is the first study to investigate preconception and early pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function in relation to viability, the relatively modest number of miscarriages may not be sufficient to show subtle differences in haemodynamic changes if these were present. This study suggests that pre-pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function is unlikely to be the causal link between miscarriages and future cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggests that factors other than the presence of a viable embryo drive cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy. This study raises new questions about miscarriages as an independent risk event which predisposes women to increased cardiovascular risk later in life. The investigators are funded by NIHR Imperial BRC, NIHR Cambridge BRC, Action Medical Research, Imperial College Healthcare Charity and Tommy's Charity. We acknowledge the loan of ultrasound equipment from Samsung Medison (South Korea)/MIS Ltd and provision of fertility monitors from SPD Development Company Ltd (Bedford, UK). There are no competing interests. C.C.L. is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust and Imperial College London. N/A.

  11. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation.

  12. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  13. Impact of early pregnancy on prenatal development in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, van der T.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study aspects of the impact of early pregnancy on the average prenatal development per litter and on the within-litter weight distribution at birth have been investigated. The aims of the present study are given in the introduction (chapter 1). A brief review of the literatur

  14. Recurrent pregnancy loss in a subject with heterozygote factor V Leiden mutation; a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Azam, Roza; Ghazarian, Arvin; Hajesmaeili, Mogge; Ranji, Najmeh; Ezzati, Mohammad Reza; Sadri, Mehrdad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Khavandi, Siamak

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss is usually defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 5% of reproductive-aged women. It has been suggested that women with thrombophilia have an increased risk of pregnancy loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thrombophilia is an important predisposition to blood clot formation and is considered as a significant risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. The inherited predisposition to thrombophilia is most often associated with factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene variants. The net effect is an increased cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin and excessive blood coagulation. PMID:26989729

  15. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  16. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sacerdoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  17. Early pregnancy B vitamin status, one carbon metabolism, pregnancy outcome and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Navais, Pol; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Murphy, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Periconception supplementation with folic acid is recommended until 12 gestational weeks to prevent neural tube defects. Doses of folic acid contained in supplements and timing and length of use during pregnancy vary. The effects of status in periconception and pregnancy folate, cobalamin, betaine and their interactions on one carbon metabolism (1C), as well as the global effect of 1C on foetal growth and pregnancy outcome, are reviewed. Results from prospective studies are reviewed. Cessation of folic acid supplement use after the first trimester is associated with a sharp drop in plasma folate status and enhanced conversion of betaine to dimethylglycine. Dimethylglycine production is also higher in mothers with low folate status than in those with normal-high folate status. The effects of high doses of folic acid on one carbon metabolism in mothers with low early pregnancy cobalamin status and on foetal growth are also reviewed. Several studies report that moderately elevated early pregnancy fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is inversely associated with birth weight and a predictor of intrauterine growth retardation. There is also evidence for increased risk of preterm birth when maternal folate status is low.

  18. The Paradox of Time Post-Pregnancy Loss: Three Things Not to Say When Communicating Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michaela D E

    2016-11-01

    In this essay, I interrogate the role time plays in the three most common social support messages I received post-pregnancy loss. In doing so, I illustrate how our most common "social support" responses to pregnancy loss, while uttered from caring, intentional places of support, can actually serve to marginalize and invalidate experiences of pregnancy loss.

  19. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Madonna; Dodds, Linda; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Armson, B. Anthony; Woolcott, Christy; Agellon, Sherry; Spencer, Anne; Weiler, Hope A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in early pregnancy and the subsequent diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN This was a nested case-control study from 2 prospective Canadian cohorts conducted in Quebec City, Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 2002 through 2010. Participants were pregnant women (n=169 cases with PE and 1975 controls). Maternal serum was drawn child-bearing age should be explored as a strategy for reducing PE and for promoting a healthier pregnancy. PMID:25446694

  20. EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL IN TERMINATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of all confirmed pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. Misoprostol’s use in early pregnancy failure is varied and dose and route are not well established. AIM: To study the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in causing expulsion of products of conception in early pregnancy failure. METHODS: Women with an ultrasound diagnosis of early pregnancy failure, less than 12 weeks gestation were included in the study. Tablet Misoprostol 600 mcg was given six hourly sublingually for 3 doses. All observations were noted and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 7.946+1.2 weeks. Mean induction abortion interval was 18.241+1.2 hours. Women with gestational age six to eight weeks had least mean induction-abortion interval time of 17.38+2. Mean dose required was 1564mcg.Efficacy of protocol was 92.85% in achieving complete abortion. CONCLUSION: The regime had 92.85% efficacy, acceptability (90% and few side effects. Thus by using a lower dose and appropriate interval between two doses (six hours, the side effects were lessened with high efficacy

  1. A rare case of recurrent pregnancy loss associated with high-titer positivity for perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Vasudeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent pregnancy loss associated with unusual constellation of utoimmunity-related features such as hypertension, severe hrombocytopenia, hypothyroidism and persistent high titers of perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies. Her clinical features did not fit into a particular diagnosis of vasculitides, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE or other known autoimmune diseases where this autoantibody is found in high titers. We report the unusual association of this autoantibody with recurrent early fetal demise in this case.

  2. Issues in early identification of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, P W; Hyde, M L; Riko, K; Corbin, H; Fitzhardinge, P M

    1985-04-01

    In a general hospital, an early detection research program based on a high risk register and brain stem electric response audiometry (BERA) using click and frequency-specific stimuli identified 631 at-risk neonates from the well baby nursery and the neonatal intensive care nursery (ICN). BERA tests were done before discharge and four months later; comparison of outcomes revealed substantial discrepancies. From the follow-up test, 51 cases of mild to severe hearing loss were identified. Experience from the research program has raised some issues relevant for establishment of service programs. Evaluation of all babies (general nursery and ICN) is justified on the basis of yield but is resource consuming; strategies for minimizing work load are discussed. Risk factor criterion levels affect case loading and yield. Frequency-specific BERA identifies cases which would not be detected by click stimuli and which raise management questions. Deferral of testing to four months is feasible and desirable.

  3. Mental health in early pregnancy is associated with pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, N F; Secher, A L; Cramon, P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of early pregnancy health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression and locus of control for pregnancy outcome in women with pregestational diabetes. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 148 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (118 with Type 1 diabetes and 30......-Emotional [58.3 (38.1) vs. 82.9 (31.3); P = 0.0005] and Mental Health [67.7 (20.4) vs. 75.2 (15.8), P = 0.04], and a lower score for the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey scale Mental Component Summary (42.8 (13.1) vs. 48.8 (9.7), P = 0.03) in early pregnancy, compared with women with term deliveries. Depression...... symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score ≥ 8) were more frequent in women with preterm vs. term deliveries (seven (25%) vs. six women (5%); P = 0.003), while levels of anxiety and locus of control were similar in these two groups. No difference in early pregnancy scores for health...

  4. Diffuse loss of sensitivity in early glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, D B; Artes, P H; Chauhan, B C

    1999-12-01

    To establish whether there is significant diffuse loss of sensitivity in a population of patients with early glaucoma. The differential light sensitivities at the 10 most sensitive locations from within the central 24 degrees of program 30-2 of the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) were compared in 38 pairs of age-matched subjects, one of each pair with early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and the other with normal eyes. All subjects had had experience with automated perimetry and had clear media, visual acuity of 20/25 or better, and one or fewer false-positive or false-negative responses to catch trials. The mean difference in age between the subjects with glaucoma and normal subjects was 29 days (P = 0.44, maximum 1.42 years). The mean paired difference in pupil size was 0.16 mm (P = 0.26), and visual acuity was higher in the glaucoma-affected subjects (P = 0.044). The 10 highest sensitivity measurements in the POAG-affected subjects were found to be lower by a median of between 1.0 and 2.0 dB than those in the normal pair members (0.0001pupil size and media opacity.

  5. Delayed Interval Delivery following Early Loss of the Leading Twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Udealor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a case of a nulliparous woman with reduced chance of conception following unilateral salpingectomy and years of infertility. She eventually conceived following ovulation induction resulting in twin pregnancy. She had miscarriage that led to loss of one of the twins at 17 weeks of gestational age. The pregnancy was however continued for 116 days following meticulous management with eventual delivery of a live female baby with good outcome.

  6. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004 in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal ( Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml = 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.27 and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 1.46–6.97, and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.54. The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.76; 95% CI 1.25–6.08. Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to

  7. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD preeclampsia (FDR preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D-associated transcriptomes implicated the emergence of an early pregnancy, distinctive immune response in women who went on to develop preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621. Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation and Genome Canada Innovation Network. This trial was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For details see Acknowledgments.

  8. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  9. Pregnancy outcomes following the administration of high doses of dexamethasone in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar Ahmadabad, Hasan; Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Use of tramadol in early pregnancy and congenital malformation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, Bengt; Reis, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies exist regarding the risk of a teratogenic effect of tramadol when used in early pregnancy. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, women (deliveries in 1997-2013) who had reported the use of tramadol in early pregnancy were identified. Maternal characteristics and concomitant drug use were analyzed. Among 1,682,846 women (1,797,678 infants), 1751 (1776 infants) had used tramadol, 96 of the infants had a congenital malformation and 70 of them were relatively severe. The adjusted odds ratio for a relatively severe malformation was 1.33 (95% CI 1.05-1.70). The odds ratios for cardiovascular defects (1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.29) and for pes equinovarus (3.63, 95% CI 1.61-6.89) were significantly increased. The study suggests a teratogenic effect of tramadol but the risk increase is moderate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy at an early age has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents. Postulated mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include alterations in the relative dynamics of hormone and growth factor-initiated cell fate-determining signaling pathways within the hierarchically organized mammary gland epithelium. Recent studies in epithelial cell subpopulations isolated from mouse and human mammary glands have shown that early pregnancy decreases the proportion of hormone receptor-positive cells and causes pronounced changes in gene expression as well as decreased proliferation in stem/progenitor cells. The changes include downregulation of Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. These new findings highlight the importance of cell-cell interactions within the mammary gland epithelium in modulating cancer risk and provide potential targets for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  12. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan [Aju University SChool of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  13. Pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality in Rwanda : The differential role of inter-pregnancy intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Habimana Kabano, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rwanda has so far paid little attention to 'healthy' intervals between pregnancies awareness programs on family planning and maternal and child health. Results of this thesis shed some light on the contribution of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome on fetal survival, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity in Rwanda. By using the combined effect of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome instead of Inter-Birth Interval (IBI), it became clear that analysis using IBI leave ...

  14. The association of factor V leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Sumreen; Kashif, Muhammad Ali; Saeed, Anjum

    2015-11-01

    To determine the association of factor V Leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss. The case-control study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2012, and comprised women of 18 to 45 years of age who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and controls with no history of pregnancy loss. All the subjects belonged to Punjabi ethnic group. Three ml blood was taken from cases and controls and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, polymerase chain reaction method was utilised combined with the amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Of the 112 subjects, 56(50%) were in each of the two groups. The presence of factor V Leiden mutation among the cases was 3(5.4%) while it was absent among the controls. The mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (p=0.017).Recurrent pregnancy loss was higher in cases than controls (p=0.001). Factor V Leiden mutation, Recurrent pregnancy loss, PCR (Polymerase chain reaction).

  15. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  16. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; Mclay, James S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and explore predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use during early pregnancy. A questionnaire survey of pregnant women (500) attending for mid trimester scan at the maternity services in Grampian, North-East Scotland. Outcome measures included; CAM used; vitamins and minerals used; independent predictors of use; views and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The response rate was 66%. Two thirds of respondents (63%) reported using CAM, excluding vitamins and minerals, during early pregnancy. Respondents reported using a total of 28 different CAM modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (37% of respondents, 25 different products). The independent predictors of CAM use identified were: use by family and friends (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.3, ppregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.014). In comparison to prescribed medicines, most users were uncertain if CAM were safer (63%), more effective (66%), free from possible adverse effects (46%) or drug-CAM interactions (50%). Despite the majority of respondents being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, CAM modalities and CAM products are widely used during the early stages of pregnancy in this study population. The role of family and friends rather than health professionals in the decision to use CAM may be of concern and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  19. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset pre

  20. Pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality in Rwanda : The differential role of inter-pregnancy intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habimana Kabano, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rwanda has so far paid little attention to 'healthy' intervals between pregnancies awareness programs on family planning and maternal and child health. Results of this thesis shed some light on the contribution of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome on fetal survival, neonatal mortality

  1. Pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality in Rwanda : The differential role of inter-pregnancy intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habimana Kabano, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rwanda has so far paid little attention to 'healthy' intervals between pregnancies awareness programs on family planning and maternal and child health. Results of this thesis shed some light on the contribution of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome on fetal survival, neonatal mortality a

  2. Pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality in Rwanda : The differential role of inter-pregnancy intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habimana Kabano, I.

    2015-01-01

    Rwanda has so far paid little attention to 'healthy' intervals between pregnancies awareness programs on family planning and maternal and child health. Results of this thesis shed some light on the contribution of IPI and the type of previous pregnancy outcome on fetal survival, neonatal mortality a

  3. [Early pregnancy risk: development and validation of a predictive instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R; Rosales, M E; Díaz, M; Muzzo, S

    1994-06-01

    An early pregnancy risk scale, with scores ranging from 11 to 66 points from lower to higher risk, was constructed using variables associated with teenager's pregnancy. This scale was applied to 3000 female teenagers, coming from Metropolitan Santiago public schools. The sample was divided in three risk groups: group A (high risk) with scores equal or over 35 points, group B (low risk) with scores equal or below 20 points and group B (intermediate risk) with scores between 20.1 and 34.9 points. These girls were followed during 2 years. During this period, 84 girls became pregnant, 24 of 184 (13%) in group A, 60 of 2332 (2.6%) in group C and none of 307 in group B. There were 104 school desertions in group A and 37 in group B. To study associations and analyze risk, the sample was divided in two risk groups: high, with scores over 27 and low, with scores below 27. There was a high association between pregnancy risk score and the occurrence of pregnancy (RR 5.25 p school desertion (RR 3.32 p School desertion was predicted with a 74% sensitivity and 56% specificity. The importance variable weighing using multiple regression models, to improve the predictor's sensitivity and specificity, is discussed.

  4. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  5. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

  6. Changes in vascular extracellular matrix composition during decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha D; Choudhury, Ruhul H; Matos, Patricia; Horn, James A; Lye, Stephen J; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Jones, Rebecca L; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    Uterine spiral arteriole (SA) remodeling in early pregnancy involves a coordinated series of events including decidual immune cell recruitment, vascular cell disruption and loss, and colonization by placental-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT). During this process, decidual SA are converted from narrow, muscular vessels into dilated channels lacking vasomotor control. We hypothesized that this extensive alteration in SA architecture must require significant reorganization and/or breakdown of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). First trimester decidua basalis (30 specimens) was immunostained to identify spiral arterioles undergoing trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling. Serial sections were then immunostained for a panel of ECM markers, to examine changes in vascular ECM during the remodeling process. The initial stages of SA remodeling were characterized by loss of laminin, elastin, fibrillin, collagen types III, IV and VI from the basement membrane, vascular media and/or adventitia, and surrounding decidual stromal cells. Loss of ECM correlated with disruption and disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the majority of changes occurred prior to extensive colonization of the vessel wall by EVT. The final stages of SA remodeling, characterized by the arrival of EVT, were associated with the increased mural deposition of fibronectin and fibrinoid. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal loss of ECM from the walls of remodeling decidual SA in early pregnancy.

  7. Role of anti-human lymphocyte culture cytotoxic antibodies in recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarkumar Umapathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Recurrent spontaneous pregnancy (RSA is defined as a sequence of three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. One of the major causes of RSA is immunological where alloimmune antibodies develop towards human leucocyte antigen (HLA antigens. Earlier research had suggested that anti-HLA antibodies are produced in normal women; studies have been reported that normal pregnant women develop anti-HLA antibodies, mostly after 20-28 weeks of gestation. Aim : To evaluate the role of anti-HLA antibodies in RSA patients Materials and Methods : A total of 80 randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSA and control group of 50 normal pregnant women were screened for anti-HLA A and B antibodies. The anti-HLA antibodies were analyzed following the standard two-stage NIH microlymphocytotoxicity assay. Results : In our study group a high frequency of anti-HLA antibodies among women with RSA (26.25% was detected compared to normal pregnant women (8.0%. Most of the sera showed HLA-A and HLA-B antibodies which had high titer, up to a dilution of 1: 4096. Conclusion : This incidence of high anti-HLA antibodies in RSA women during early weeks of gestation may explain the recurrent pregnancy loss.

  8. Endocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstad, E; Veiberg, V; Säkkinen, H; Dahl, E; Kindahl, H; Holand, O; Beckers, J F; Eloranta, E

    2005-04-01

    The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E2 and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer.

  9. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF THE ENDOMETRIUM RECEPTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION IN REFRACTORY PREGNANCY LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Marinkin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Cyclic hormonotherapy in combination with complex metabolic therapy as a pre-conceptional preparation contributing to pregnancy illustrates much higher effectiveness of pathogenetically proved preconceptional hormonotherapy KEY WORDS: refractory pregnancy loss, endometrium receptivity, hormone therapy, ultrastructure.

  10. Paternal factor V Leiden and recurrent pregnancy loss: a new concept behind fetal genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, S; Aranda, F M; Latino, J O; de Larrañaga, G F

    2014-05-01

    In up to 50% of couples affected by recurrent pregnancy loss, no identifiable cause is established. Fetal and maternal factors may be equally important in the establishment and maintenance of the placental/maternal arteriovenous anastomoses. Therefore,the inheritance of thrombophilia-related genes may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss. Most of the research on recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombophilia has focused on maternal factors, but little is known about the paternal contribution. On that basis, we studied the association between inherited paternal thrombophilias and recurrent pregnancy loss in a narrowly selective group of 42 Argentine males from couples that presented without any known risk factors for recurrent pregnancy loss. The genotypic distributions of factor (F) V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A among cases were compared with those from a reference group composed of 200 Argentine men. We found a significant difference in the distribution of FV Leiden between both groups (16.7% vs. 3.0%), but no difference was found in the distribution of prothrombin G20210A (2.4% vs.2.0%). Those couples with paternal FV Leiden carriage would be six times more likely to experience recurrent pregnancy loss despite no other apparent cause (OR = 6.47; 95% CI, 2.06–20.39). We found evidence of an association between the paternal carriage of FV Leiden and the predisposition to recurrent pregnancy loss, thereby supporting the hypothesis that genetic contributions from both parents are essential factors in the development of this obstetric disorder.

  11. A critical review of the concept of pathological grief following pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.J.E.M.; Cuisinier, M.C.J.; Hoogduin, K.A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It has often been suggested in the literature on pregnancy loss, that parents run a high risk of complicated or pathological grief as a result of the specific characteristics of such loss. What confuses the issue is that pathological grief has been defined in various ways. In the interest of improvi

  12. Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2010-09-13

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15±1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15±1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  13. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Louise C

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  14. Waist hip ratio in early pregnancy as a clinical indicator of serum lipid levels and predictor of pregnancy complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khare

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The waist hip ratio in early pregnancy has the potential to serve as a clinical indicator of lipid levels. It can also be explored as a predictor of pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension in larger cohort studies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1709-1713

  15. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckl Heidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial

  16. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments.

  17. Unhappy endings: a feminist reappraisal of the women's health movement from the vantage of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Linda L

    2003-05-01

    This essay contrasts the rosy birth scenarios of the natural childbirth movement with reproductive disaster stories of members of pregnancy loss support groups and women from toxically assaulted communities in the US who have suffered pregnancy loss. I argue that both biomedical obstetrics and the women's health movement critique of it share a belief in the ability to control reproduction so that there will be a positive outcome. I show that this emphasis on happy endings (whether believed to be the result of medical intervention, or women's natural inborn powers to reproduce) exacerbates the experience of those whose pregnancies do not end happily. I show how the women's health movement's emphasis on the importance of women being in control of their own bodies is related to a broader "culture of meritocracy" which contributes to maternal blame (and self-blame) when pregnancies are not perfect.

  18. Fetal outcomes following emergency department point-of-care ultrasound for vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Catherine; Balaban, Dahlia; McLeod, Shelley; Carver, Sally; Borgundvaag, Bjug

    2016-07-01

    To determine 20- and 40-week fetal outcomes following documentation of fetal cardiac activity (FCA) and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) in women at less than 20 weeks' gestation presenting to the emergency department (ED) with vaginal bleeding. Prospective observational cohort study. Single-centre tertiary care ED. Pregnant women at less than 20 weeks' gestation presenting to the ED with vaginal bleeding. All study participants underwent ED point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to document IUP and FCA. Prevalence of spontaneous abortion or pregnancy loss by 40 weeks' gestational age following ED POCUS documentation of FCA or IUP in women at less than 20 weeks' gestation. A total of 85 of 111 eligible patients were enrolled; FCA and IUP were detected in 43 (50.6%) and 54 (63.5%) participants, respectively. Participants with documented FCA on ED POCUS were less likely to experience pregnancy loss than participants without documented FCA were (5.0% vs 92.7%; Δ = 87.7%; 95% CI 71.0% to 93.7%), and participants with documented IUP were less likely to experience pregnancy loss than participants without documented IUP were (22.0% vs 93.5%; Δ = 71.5%; 95% CI 52.1% to 81.9%). Compared with radiologist-interpreted ultrasound, ED POCUS had sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI 75.9% to 96.2%) and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 89.6% to 100.0%) for documenting FCA, and sensitivity of 96.0% (95% CI 86.3% to 99.4%) and specificity of 93.1% (95% CI 77.2% to 99.0%) for documenting IUP. In this cohort of women presenting to the ED with bleeding in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, detection of IUP and especially FCA using POCUS performed by providers certified by the Canadian Emergency Ultrasound Society was associated with ongoing viable pregnancy at 20 and 40 weeks' gestational age. These data might be useful for ED physicians counseling women with symptomatic early pregnancies about the chance of miscarriage after an episode of vaginal bleeding.

  19. Forensic DNA expertise of incest in early period of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovski, Zlatko; Jankova, Renata; Nikolova, Ksenija; Spasevska, Liljana; Jovanovic, Rubens; Janeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Proving incest from tissue obtained by abortion early in pregnancy can be a challenge. Problems include the small quantity of embryonic tissue in the products of conception, and the mixing of DNA from mother and embryo. In many cases, this amorphous material cannot be grossly segregated into maternal and fetal components. Thus, morphological discrimination requires microscopy to select relevant tissue particles from which DNA can be typed. This combination of methods is reliable and efficient. In this article, we present two cases of incest discovered by examination of products of conception.

  20. Pregnancy loss after frozen-embryo transfer--a comparison of three protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Candido; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Martikainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    of embryos and ET. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy test rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and pregnancy loss rate. RESULT(S): The natural cycle followed by P (NC + P) was used in 26% of cycles, the natural cycle with hCG (NC + hCG) in 10%, and the substituted cycle with estrogen and P (E + P) in 64...... was similar in all groups (27.7%, 29.1%, and 24.3%, respectively). Moreover, no differences were seen between groups regarding the live-birth rate (20.1%, 23.5%, and 20.7%, respectively). A logistic regression analysis showed that the type of protocol was the only predictor of pregnancy loss, while age......, irregular cycles, endometrial thickness, number, and quality of embryos transferred did not correlate to pregnancy loss. CONCLUSION(S): A higher positive pregnancy test rate was obtained in E + P frozen ET cycles in comparison with other protocols; however, due to an increased preclinical and clinical...

  1. Association of genetic variants in the 3'UTR of HLA-G with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, Giada; Canti, Valentina; Maggio, Luana; Rosa, Susanna; Castiglioni, Maria Teresa; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Gregori, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is involved in reprogramming immune responses at fetal-maternal interface during pregnancy. We evaluated the genetic diversity of the 3' Un-Translated Region (UTR) of HLA-G, previously associated with HLA-G mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, in women with unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL), with 2 pregnancy losses (RPL-2, n=28), or 3 or more pregnancy losses (RPL-3, n=24), and in 30 women with a history of successful pregnancy. Results showed in RPL-2, but not in RPL-3, women compared to controls: i) higher frequency of the 14bp Ins allele, in single and in double copy; ii) significantly lower frequency of DelG/X genotype, iii) reduced frequency of the UTR-2, and UTR-3 haplotypes; iv) higher frequencies of the UTR-5, UTR-7, and UTR-8 haplotypes. This pilot study supports the relevance of performing 3'UTR HLA-G genetic screening, not limited to a specific polymorphism, but considering the extended haplotypes, as a possible predictor of pregnancy outcome.

  2. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    , diversity, and evenness during pregnancy (P preterm birth is associated with increased vaginal microbiome instability compared to term birth. No distinct taxa were associated with preterm birth. In a predominantly African-American population, a significant decrease of vaginal microbial community richness and diversity is associated with preterm birth. The timing of this suppression appears early in pregnancy, between the first and second trimesters, suggesting that early gestation may be an ecologically important time for events that ordain subsequent term and preterm birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    ) develops type 2 diabetes within a ten-year period. Early detection can prevent or delay the onset of late complications, for which follow-up screening is important. The women are recommended follow-up screening every 1-2 years after birth do to the potentials in early detection of diabetes and prevention...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...... and their participating in follow-up screening were identified. Diagnosis of diabetes or treatment with glucose-lowering agents after giving birth were also identified. Results: Attendance in follow-up screening significantly decreased with time after giving birth. Women attending follow-up screening had a significantly...

  4. Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period in a woman\\'s life where nutrition is of key importance for optimal pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to assess maternal nutrient intakes during early pregnancy and to examine potential levels of energy underreporting.

  5. Doppler Assessment of Uterine Blood Flow in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion affects 2%-5% of"ncouples. Uterine perfusion is considered as one of the"nfactors that influences the success of implantation."nDuring the normal menstrual cycle, the impedance"nto uterine artery blood flow diminishes progressively"nduring the luteal phase, reaching the lowest values"nin the period coinciding with the implantation time."nImpedance of uterine arteries is a good indicator of"nthe possibility of a subsequent pregnancy. High blood"nflow resistance is associated with a reduced conception"nrate and women with lower pulsatility index values"nhave the highest possibility of becoming pregnant. An"nimpaired uterine perfusion could play a major role in"nthe pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion. In"nthis study, we examined sixty women with recurrent"nspontaneous abortion and a control group including"nthirty normal women with at least one previous"nuncomplicated pregnancy and without history of any"nabortion. Transvaginal sonography associated with"nDoppler flow measurement was performed during"nthe midluteal phase of a cycle in all women. The"nmeasurement of the ascending branch of both right"nand left uterine arteries was taken lateral to the cervix"nat the level of the internal os. The pulsatility and"nresistance index of both uterine arteries were calculated"nand compared in both groups. In this presentation we"nreport our finding in two groups. We also explain the"nexact method of study and present some interesting"ncases

  6. Intact HCG, free HCG beta subunit and HCG beta core fragment: longitudinal patterns in urine during early pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Ruth; Wilcox, Allen J; O'Connor, John F; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D; Schlatterer, John P; McConnaughey, D Robert; Birken, Steven; Canfield, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    Detecting and monitoring early pregnancy depend on the measurement of HCG. Little is known about how production of various forms of HCG may evolve over the earliest weeks of pregnancy, particularly in naturally conceived pregnancies...

  7. Luteal phase HCG support for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss - a low hanging fruit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Chelsea; Azores-Gococo, Denise; Swart, Linda; Holoch, Kristin; Savaris, Ricardo F; Likes, Creighton E; Miller, Paul B; Forstein, David A; Lessey, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by two or more failed pregnancies and accounts for only 1-5% of pregnancy failures. Treatment options for unexplained RPL (uRPL) are limited. Previous studies suggest a link between delayed implantation and pregnancy loss. Based on this, a timely signal for rescue of the corpus luteum (CL) using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) could improve outcomes in women with uRPL. This retrospective cohort study included 98 subjects with uRPL: 45 underwent 135 monitored cycles without HCG support; and 53 underwent 142 cycles with a single mid-luteal HCG injection. Based on Log-rank Mantel-Cox survival curves, miscarriage rate and time to pregnancy decreased in the HCG group (P = 0.0005). Women receiving luteal HCG support had an increased chance of an ongoing pregnancy compared with those not receiving it (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.6; number need to treat (NNT) = 7; 95% CI 4-18). Subjects receiving HCG support had a significant absolute risk reduction (ARR) of miscarriage (P HCG in women with RPL appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of serum fructosamine and recurrent pregnancy loss: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Stephanie T; Sharshiner, Rita; Stoddard, Gregory J; Ware Branch, D; Silver, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Pre-gestational diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy loss, but it is unclear whether subclinical glucose intolerance is associated with pregnancy loss, especially recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of this study was therefore to compare maternal serum fructosamine (a marker of glycemic control) in patients with and without RPL. A case-control study was carried out of 117 women with unexplained RPL, defined as two or more pregnancy losses with no more than one live birth, and 117 age-matched controls with at least one full-term uncomplicated pregnancy and no more than one pregnancy loss. No RPL patients or controls had a clinical diagnosis of pre-gestational or gestational diabetes. Maternal serum was analyzed for fructosamine on quantitative spectrophotometry. Mean body mass index (BMI) of RPL patients was 26.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) compared with 26.6 ± 5.8 kg/m(2) (P = 0.40). Fructosamine was higher in women with RPL (224.1 ± 28.79 μmol/mL) compared with controls (188.9 ± 19.3 μmol/mL, P 285 μmol/L) was similar in RPL patients and controls. The RPL patients and controls had a similar proportion of women with elevated fructosamine considered diagnostic of diabetes. Serum fructosamine was increased in women with RPL compared with controls. Thus, subclinical glucose intolerance may be associated with an increased risk of RPL. These data support further investigation into the mechanisms of RPL associated with glucose intolerance, but do not support testing for subclinical glucose intolerance in women with RPL. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  10. Postpartum Blood Loss in Women Treated for Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Romana; Winter, Katharina; Schäffer, Leonhard; Zimmermann, Roland; Burkhardt, Tilo; Haslinger, Christian

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate postpartum blood loss in women with treated intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In a retrospective case-control study, 15,083 deliveries including 348 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (2.3%) were analyzed from 2004 to 2014. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, a propensity analysis was performed and women in the control group were matched to the women in the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group in a 5:1 ratio. Blood loss was analyzed by estimated blood loss and Δ hemoglobin (Hb, difference between prepartum and postpartum Hb). A subgroup analysis regarding severity of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy based on maximum bile acid level (mild [less than 40 micromoles/L], moderate [40-99 micromoles/L], and severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy [100 micromoles/L or greater]) was performed. Differences in estimated blood loss, ΔHb, and meconium staining between subgroups were analyzed. A Spearman rank correlation was performed to evaluate the association of bile acid levels and blood loss within subgroups. Estimated blood loss (median 400 [300-600] mL compared with 400 [300-600] mL, P=.22), ΔHb (14.0 [5.0-22.0] compared with 12.0 [4.0-21.0] g/L, P=.09), meconium staining (14.5% compared with 11.4%, P=.12), and number of stillbirths after 26 weeks of gestation (0.6% compared with 1.8%, P=.10) were not significantly different in the study compared with the control group. In moderate and severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, meconium staining was observed significantly more often compared with that in a control group (23.0% and 32.3% compared with 11.4%, Pintrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In our cohort of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy who are treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and have planned delivery (induction of labor or planned cesarean delivery) at 38 weeks of gestation, no differences in postpartum blood loss were seen.

  11. Parvovirus B19 Infection in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Fetal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jonathan; Jensen, Anne K V; Bager, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Because parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of fetal loss in small or selected study populations, the authors evaluated the risk in a population-based study. A nested case-control study was conducted by using a population-based screening for syphilis...... were tested for parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M positivity. Parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M positivity was associated with a 71% increased risk of fetal loss (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.86). Adjustment for number of children or stratifying for gestational age at loss did...... not change the risk estimate. Assuming causality, only 0.1% of fetal losses were attributable to parvovirus B19 positivity, a proportion which could increase to approximately 1% during epidemic periods. In conclusion, acute parvovirus B19 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated...

  12. Intervention Effect of Taishan Panshi San on Early Pregnancy Loss in PCOS Rats with Ovulation Induction%泰山磐石散对 PCOS 促排卵大鼠早期妊娠丢失的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘音吟; 谈勇

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To investigate the possible mechanism of early pregnancy loss in PCOS rats with ovulation induc-tion and the intervention effect of Taishan Panshi San on pregnancy loss.METHODS To select normal pregnant rats mated with male rats as group A.The PCOS rats model by dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)was stimulated ovulation by clomiphene (CC),then mated with male rats to establish the rat model of pregnancy.They were randomly divided into two groups:treated by normal saline(group B) and by Taishan Panshi San(group C).According to the pregnancy third days,fourth days,fifth days,group B was divided into group B3,group B4,group B5.To detect the mRNA and protein expression of endometrium HOXA10,integrinαvβ3,EMX2,LIF by RT-PCR and Western blot in each group.RESULTS In group B of PCOS Pregnant rats with ovulation induction:The expression of mRNA HOXA10 in Group B4 was higher than group B3 and group B5(P <0.05~0.01),the expression of mRNA integrinαvβ3 was significantly higher than group B3 and group B5(P <0.01),but the expression of mRNA EMX2 was lower than group B5(P <0.05);the expression of mRNA LIF was highest in group B3,high-er than group B4(P <0.05).In the planting window period:the mRNA expression of endometrium HOXA10,integrinαvβ3, LIF in Group B5 were significantly lower than Group A and Group C(P <0.05~0.01);the expression of endometrium EMX2 in Group A was significantly lower than Group B5 and Group C(P <0.01);the protein expression of endometrium HOXA10, integrinαvβ3,LIF in Group B5 were significantly lower than Group A and Group C ,but the protein expression of EMX2 higher than Group A and Group C (P <0.01).CONCLUSION PCOS rats with ovulation induction occurred early pregnancy loss may be related to the low expression of endometrial HOXA10,integrinαvβ3,LIF and the high expression of EMX2 in the im-plantation window phase.This may also be related to the abnomal expression of HOXA10,integrinαvβ3,LIF,EMX2 before the planting window

  13. [Influence of some anesthesiologic methods on blood loss in procedures for voluntary termination of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, F S; Granese, D; Fattori, A

    1980-03-01

    120 patients in good health, aged 25-38, all in the first trimester of pregnancy, and requesting interruption of pregnancy, were divided into 4 groups and given different types of anesthesia; 1) general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics; 2) general anesthesia without volatile anesthetics; 3) dissociated anesthesia with Ketamin; and, 4) paracervical block with Mepivacain 1%. All interventions were done through curettage, and lasted 7-18 minutes; in all cases blood loss was carefully collected and measured. Minimum amount of bleeding was noted with paracervical block; maximum amount with volatile anesthetics such as ethrane. For every type of anesthesia blood loss increased with age of pregnancy. There were no postoperative complications. As confirmed by the published literature anesthesia by paracervical block is an easy, uncomplicated method, which requires little preparation time and which can be done at low cost.

  14. Depression and emotional stress is highly prevalent among women with recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Olsen, L R; Mikkelsen, E M

    2015-01-01

    completed an online questionnaire before their first consultation at the Danish RPL Unit. In addition, we included data from a comparison group of 1813 women who participated in the Soon Parents Study (www.SnartForældre.dk). The Major Depression Index (MDI) was used to assess symptoms of depression......STUDY QUESTION: Is the prevalence of psychological stress and moderate/severe depression higher for women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) than pregnancy planners trying to conceive naturally? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both psychological stress and major depression are significantly more common among...... and depression among 301 women with RPL and 1813 women attempting to conceive naturally. We defined RPL as three or more pregnancy losses before 12 weeks' gestation. RPL patients were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 and the comparison group from 2011 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: RPL patients...

  15. Perinatal Loss: The Effect on Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    manifested when a couple experiences a perinatal loss. Perinatal death can have a profound effect on parent’s emotional, psychological, social, and... deaths associated with prematurity and complications of the newborn. He used telephone interviews with open-ended questions to elicit responses regarding...Stillbirth, and Infant Death . Boston: Beacon Press. Bourne, Stanford. (1979) Coping With Perinatal Death , Part 1-After Effects and Theory. Midwife

  16. Factors affecting pregnancy loss from gestation Day 38 to 90 in lactating dairy cows from a single herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Rutllant, J; López-Béjar, M

    2002-03-01

    The present study was designed to establish whether factors such as previous estrus synchronization, corpus luteum and embryo number at the time of pregnancy diagnosis, changes in body condition score, milk production, clinical disease (mastitis or lameness) and the inseminating bull affect pregnancy loss from 38 to 90 days of gestation. We derived data from 601 pregnant lactating dairy cows from a single herd. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography between Day 38 and 44 following insemination. We also recorded corpus luteum and embryo number at this time. Pregnancy loss was defined as a negative pregnancy diagnosis on the second palpation per rectum undertaken between 90 and 96 days after insemination. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods. Cows that had an additional corpus luteum were eight times less likely to miscarry. The risk of pregnancy loss was 3.1 times higher in cows bearing twins. A one unit reduction in body condition score from previous partum to 30 days postpartum resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in pregnancy loss. We noted a higher incidence of pregnancy loss in cows inseminated using semen from one of the six bulls used. This particular bull led to a 3.4-fold increase in the rate of pregnancy loss. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant effects of previous estrus synchronization, milk production, clinical disease, body condition at previous partum or at pregnancy diagnosis, or body condition change between previous partum and pregnancy diagnosis. Our findings indicate a positive relationship between the presence of an additional corpus luteum and the maintenance of gestation. Risk factors for pregnancy loss were twin pregnancy, reduced body condition after previous parturition and the inseminating bull.

  17. Role of Uterine Shape and Volume Abnormalities in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana A Kongathi

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that 10 percent of our cases of recurrent pregnancy loss are due to uterine malformations. HSG and 2D TVS has equal sensitivity in detecting uterine malformations. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 277-279

  18. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Henry; Castañeda, Serguei A.; Cardona Maya, Wálter; Alvarez, Leonor; Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez, Jorge; Torres, José; Tobón, Luis; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cadavid, Ángela P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases) and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls) in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population. PMID:22577540

  19. Preconception perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and incident pregnancy loss, LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Sapra, Katherine J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lu, Zhaohui; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    Equivocal findings are reported for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and self-reported pregnancy loss. We prospectively assessed PFASs and pregnancy loss in a cohort comprising 501 couples recruited preconception and followed daily through 7 post-conception weeks. Seven PFASs were quantified: 2-N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH); 2-N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH); perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA); perfluorononanoate (PFNA); perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Women used home pregnancy test kits. Loss denoted conversion from a positive to a negative pregnancy test, onset of menses or clinical confirmation (n=98; 28%). Chemicals were log transformed and rescaled by their standard deviations to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. No significantly elevated HRs were observed for any PFASs suggesting no association with loss: Et-PFOSA-AcOH (1.04; 0.87, 1.23), Me-PFOSA-AcOH (0.79; 0.61, 1.00; p<0.05), PFDeA (0.83; 0.66, 1.04), PFNA (0.86; 0.70, 1.06), PFOSA (0.74; 0.50, 1.09), PFOS (0.81; 0.65, 1.00), and PFOA (0.93; 0.75, 1.16).

  20. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population.

  1. Misoprostol versus curettage in women with early pregnancy failure after initial expectant management : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; Mol, BWJ; Reuwer, PJH; Drogtrop, A; Bruinse, HW

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least

  2. Anti-laminin-1 Autoantibodies, Pregnancy Loss and Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Inagaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-1 is a major component and multifunctional glycoprotein of basement membranes that consists of three different subunits, α1, β1 and γ1 chains. It is the earliest synthesized network-forming protein during embryogenesis and plays an important role in embryonic development, embryonic implantation and placentation. We have recently shown that IgG anti-laminin-1 antibodies were significantly associated with recurrent first-trimester miscarriages and with subsequent pregnancy outcome. Interestingly, these antibodies were also observed in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility but not in patients with other causes of infertility, including tubal factors, hormonal and uterine abnormalities. Laminin-α1, -β1 and -γ1 mRNAs have been detected in 90% of endometriotic lesions and all laminin-α1, -β1 and -γ1 chains were localized in the basement membranes of glandular epithelium in endometriotic peritoneal lesions. Western blot analysis showed that anti-laminin-1 antibodies from those patients reacted with all laminin-1's chains. ELISA also confirmed that one of the target epitopes for these antibodies was located in a particular region of the laminin-1 molecule, i.e. the carboxyl-terminal globular G domain of α1 chain. IgM monoclonal anti-laminin-1 autoantibody, that we recently established, also recognized the G domain. Anti-laminin-1 antibodies from mice immunized with –mouse— laminin-1, caused a higher fetal resorption rate with lower embryonic and placental weights. Thus, anti-laminin-1 antibodies may be important in development of autoimmune-mediated reproductive failures and the assessment of the antibodies may provide a novel non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

  3. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  4. Progestogens and early pregnancy:prevention and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolf E.Schindler

    2013-01-01

    During human and mammalian pregnancy,endogenous progesterone is the dominant hormone since it is not only essential for conception and implantation,but also needed throughout pregnancy.Progesterone provided the effects of prevention and treatment in human pregnancy by certain mechanisms.If one considers prevention or treatment with progestogens in human pregnancy,that all progestogens are progestogenic,if one condsiders the progestogens for prevention and therapeutic approaches,nowadays,only two progenstogens can be considered fully suitable for prevention and treatment in human pregnancy:progesterone and dydrogesteone.This review introduced the mechanism of progesterone and dydrogesterone in pregnancy and treatment in human.

  5. Comparison of Pregnancy Stress Between In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer and Spontaneous Pregnancy in Women During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Fen-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Chiao, Chia-Yi; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Women who undergo in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) face complicated psychological stress and negative emotions, which may affect health during pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The current literature does not address the question of whether women who become pregnant spontaneously and women who undergo IVF face similar levels of pregnancy stress. This study investigates the differences in pregnancy stress between women with spontaneous pregnancy and women with IVF/ET pregnancy living in central Taiwan during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures, generalized estimated equations model, Wilks' λ, and Bonferroni test was used. Purposive samples of 163 women who had undergone IVF/ET and of 94 women who had undergone spontaneous pregnancy were enrolled as participants. Pregnancy stress was measured using the Chinese version of the self-administered Pregnancy Stress Scale at the 9th, 12th, and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The psychological stress experienced by IVF participants significantly increased with gestational week during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p pregnancy participants. Gestational week was the main factor found to influence stress ratings for "identifying maternal role." "Altering body structure and body function" was the main factor found to influence pregnancy stress (p pregnancy stress during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p > .05). The results of this study provide clinical evidence that IVF/ET does not cause more stress for women than spontaneous pregnancy. However, the intensity and trend of stresses differed between these two groups. These findings suggest that nurses should consider method of pregnancy when assessing the risk of stress in expectant mothers for each gestational week and when providing appropriate care and support.

  6. Low-molecular-weight heparin for women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: a multicenter trial with a minimization randomization scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Ekkehard; Kamin, Gabriele; Seliger, Gregor; Rogenhofer, Nina; Ebner, Susanne; Toth, Bettina; Schenk, Michael; Henes, Melanie; Bohlmann, Michael K; Fischer, Thorsten; Brosteanu, Oana; Bauersachs, Rupert; Petroff, David

    2015-05-05

    A daily injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is often prescribed to women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), although evidence suggesting a benefit is questionable. To determine whether LMWH increases ongoing pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with unexplained RPL. Controlled, multicenter trial with randomization using minimization conducted from 2006 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00400387). 14 university hospitals and perinatal care centers in Germany and Austria. 449 women with at least 2 consecutive early miscarriages or 1 late miscarriage were included during 5 to 8 weeks' gestation after a viable pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography. Women in the control group received multivitamin pills, and the intervention group received vitamins and 5000 IU of dalteparin-sodium for up to 24 weeks' gestation. Primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy at 24 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes included the live-birth rate and late pregnancy complications. At 24 weeks' gestation, 191 of 220 pregnancies (86.8%) and 188 of 214 pregnancies (87.9%) were intact in the intervention and control groups, respectively (absolute difference, -1.1 percentage points [95% CI, -7.4 to 5.3 percentage points]). The live-birth rates were 86.0% (185 of 215 women) and 86.7% (183 of 211 women) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage point [CI, -7.3 to 5.9 percentage points]). There were 3 intrauterine fetal deaths (1 woman had used LMWH); 9 cases of preeclampsia or the hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme level, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome (3 women had used LMWH); and 11 cases of intrauterine growth restriction or placental insufficiency (5 women had used LMWH). Placebo injections were not used, and neither trial staff nor patients were blinded. Daily LMWH injections do not increase ongoing pregnancy or live-birth rates in women with unexplained RPL. Given the burden of the injections, they are not

  7. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G

    2015-01-01

    the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. METHODS......: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met...... the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding...

  8. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Filippi, Veronique; Watts, Charlotte; Mbwambo, Jessie K K

    2012-03-05

    Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 Stöckl et al

  9. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  10. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G.; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation....... Methods A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. Main outcome measures: intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. Results Most (77%) of the participants...... reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p...

  11. Mefloquine gap junction blockade and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington Lee

    2012-09-01

    Obstetric use of the antimalarial drug mefloquine has historically been discouraged during the first trimester and immediately before conception owing to concerns of potential fetal harm. With the rise of resistance to the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), mefloquine is now being considered as a replacement for SP for universal antenatal administration to women from malaria-endemic regions. Recent recommendations have also suggested that mefloquine may be used cautiously among pregnant travelers who cannot otherwise avoid visiting these areas. Mefloquine has been demonstrated to cause blockade of gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1) gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), and recent evidence suggests that GJA1 GJIC is critical to successful embryonic implantation and early placental development. During routine use, mefloquine accumulates in organ and peripheral tissue, crosses the blood-placental barrier, and may plausibly accumulate in developing decidua and trophoblast at concentrations sufficient to interfere with GJA1 GJIC and, thus, cause deleterious effects on fetal outcomes. This conclusion is supported by epidemiological evidence that demonstrates use of the drug during early development is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Confirmatory studies are pending, but the available experimental and epidemiological evidence support renewed adherence, where feasible, to existing mefloquine package insert guidance that women avoid the drug during the periconceptional period.

  12. Ultrasound imaging in the management of bleeding and pain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Jure; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-07-01

    Bleeding and pain are experienced by 20% of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most pregnancies complicated by pain and bleeding tend to progress normally, these symptoms are distressing for woman, and they are also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first and often the only diagnostic modality that is used to determine location of early pregnancy and to assess its health. Ultrasound is an accurate, safe, painless and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool, which all contributed to its widespread use in early pregnancy. Pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are sometimes caused by concomitant gynaecological, gastrointestinal, and urological problems, which could also be detected on ultrasound scan. In women with suspected intra-abdominal bleeding, ultrasound scan can be used to detect the presence of blood and provide information about the extent of bleeding. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy complications. We include information about the diagnosis of gynaecological and other pelvic abnormalities, which could cause pain or bleeding in pregnancy. We also provide a summary of the current views on the safety of ultrasound in early pregnancy.

  13. Karyotype Analysis on Chorionic Villus of Early Pregnancy Loss in Relation to Different Ultrasound Findings%早期妊娠自然流产患者的超声表现与绒毛染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉昆; 刘颖琳; 杜涛; 陈立斌; 刘梅兰; 陈慧; 谭剑平; 张建平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨早期妊娠自然流产患者的不同超声表现与绒毛染色体异常的关系.[方法]2008年1月至2011年12月,在我院诊治的早期自然流产患者,流产前有定期B超和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)测定,流产后成功行绒毛细胞培养和染色体核型分析者共183例.根据流产前的B超分为有胎心组和无胎心组,比较两组的染色体核型分析结果有无差异.[结果]183例绒毛染色体核型分析中,检出异常核型109例(59.6%),正常核型74例(40.4%).有胎心组102例,异常染色体发生率61.8%,无胎心组81例,异常染色体发生率56.8%,两组比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).有胎心组中最常见的异常染色体为(45,X)、三倍体和16三体,而无胎心组中最常见的异常染色体为16三体,无1例(45,X)和三倍体.有胎心组中可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体29例,占异常染色体的(46.0%),明显高于无胎心组,仅3例,占异常染色体的6.5%,(P<0.05).在有胎心组中,可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体的胚芽长度平均(17.7±6.4)mm,明显大于其他异常染色体的胚芽长度(8.8±5.3)mm (P< 0.05)和正常染色体的胚芽长度(11.1±8.4) mm(P< 0.05).[结论]绒毛染色体异常是早期自然流产的主要原因,可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体多发生于已有胎心的自然流产者.%[ Objective ] To compare the chromosomal karyotype of chorionic villus in early pregnancy loss in relation to different ultrasound findings. [Methods] From January 2008 to December 2011, 183 patients with early pregnancy loss were evaluated by regular ultrasound and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) during pregnancy and karyotyping was performed on chorionic villus after curettage. The proportion and type of chromosomal anomalies in two groups defined by presence or absence of cardiac activity before

  14. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G; Damm, Peter; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2015-11-27

    Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding Danish language and a low educational level were all factors associated a lower probability for meeting the recommendations. The preferred types of exercise before and during pregnancy were bicycling, brisk walking, running and strength training. The proportion of women engaged in any type of exercise decreased in early pregnancy with the exception of swimming and aquatic exercise. In this cohort, more than one-third met the Danish recommendation for exercise during early pregnancy. Exercise in pregnancy is still an issue to address because the most vulnerable groups of pregnant women do not exercise. This is a cause of concern because it may reflect social inequalities in health and highlights the need for a structural and systematic approach to preconception care and early antenatal counselling.

  15. Coping with grief after involuntary pregnancy loss: perspectives of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-01-01

    To present the coping strategies used by African American women following their miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, fetal deaths, and still-births, which the authors have termed involuntary pregnancy losses or IPLs. Semistructured audiotaped interviews; grounded theory methods used to collect and analyze the data. Urban community-based sites in the Western United States. 20 African American adult women who reported a history of involuntary pregnancy loss within 3 years of interview. In this study, the women's responses to their IPL were grouped into four areas. They coped with personal reactions, reactions of others, memories of the baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The women in this study used inner resources to develop self-help strategies to cope with reactions following IPL. Nurses are challenged to harness the influence of family, friends, religion, and cultural traditions to assist women in processing the cognitive, emotional, and social traumas associated with IPL. Educating women to recognize grief responses after IPL and to manage these responses effectively may prevent adverse outcomes to their physical and mental health. A culturally sensitive framework of clinical assessment and intervention for African American women experiencing IPL has been developed.

  16. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  17. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  18. Reproductive Outcome after Hysteroscopic Metroplasty in Patients with Infertility and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Gligor Tofoski; Jadranka Georgievska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reproductive outcome can be negatively affected in patients with congenital uterine anomalies (CUA), increasing the number of unsuccessful pregnancies and obstetric complications. Compared with the population with normally formed uterus, patients with CUA have higher abortion rate, higher fetal loss rate and decreased live birth rate. Hysteroscopic metroplasty (HM) is a standard, safe and minimally invasive method for the treatment of correctible types of congenital uterine anom...

  19. [Loss and grieving: the experiences of women who terminate a pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the grieving experiences of women who terminated pregnancies under judicial authorization, due to life-incompatible fetal malformation. Ten women attended in the Fetal Medicine Department of Botucatu Clinical Hospital participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews forty days after termination. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full, with the data analyzed from the thematic content analysis perspective. The results revealed that the mothers sought explanations and meanings for the loss, with religious responses and self-blame being very frequent. The reports were marked by feelings of sadness, longing and sensations of emptiness due to the loss of the child, revealing the need of the mothers to dwell on the issue. The mothers were and continued to be linked to their children; the termination of the pregnancy, although being a choice to minimize the pain of an inevitable loss, did not spare the women from experiences of great suffering.>The study includes input for the discussion and planning of health approaches and care for women who terminate their pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformation, by means of judicial authorization.

  20. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, D/I polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Shakarami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL refers to the occurrence of two or more consecutive losses of clinically recognized pregnancies prior to the 20th week of gestation. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL is associated with a common insertion-deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene.. Methods: The present paper intended to study the ACE deletion (D/insertion (I polymorphism in women with recurrent abortion. One hundred patients with recurrent abortions (at least two as cases and one hundred healthy female with two or more normal term deliveries and without a history of abortion selected as controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in intron 16 was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. For the statistical analysis, SPSS software version18 was used and Chi-square tests were calculated. Results: Seven patients, (7 %, and non from the control group, were homozygote (I/I for ACE polymorphism (OR=22.82 95% CI=1.26-412.69 p=0.034, depicting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL. Conclusion: The present study showed no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL.

  1. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  2. First Trimester Pregnancy Loss and the Expression of alternatively spliced NKp30 isoforms in Maternal Blood and Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishai eShemesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate whether first trimester pregnancy loss is associated with differences in expression of NKp30 splice variants (isoforms in maternal peripheral blood or placental tissue. We conducted a prospective case-control study; a total of 33 women undergoing dilation and curettage due to first trimester pregnancy loss were further subdivided into groups with sporadic or recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group was comprised of women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The qPCR approach was employed to assess the relative expression of NKp30 isoforms as well as the total expression of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors between the selected groups. Results show that in both PBMC and placental tissue, NKp46 and NKp30 expression was mildly elevated in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. In particular, NKp46 elevation was significant. Moreover, expression analysis of NKp30 isoforms manifested a different profile between PBMC and the placenta. NKp30-a and NKp30-b isoforms in the placental tissue, but not in PBMC, showed a significant increase in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. Placental expression of NKp30 activating isoforms -a and -b in the pregnancy loss groups was negatively correlated with PLGF expression. In contrast, placental expression of these isoforms in the elective group was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-10 and VEGF-A expression. The altered expression of NKp30 activating isoforms in placental tissue from patients with pregnancy loss compared to the elective group and the different correlations with cytokine expression point to the involvement of NKp30-mediated function in pregnancy loss.

  3. Tissue factor in antiphospholipid antibody-induced pregnancy loss:a pro-inflammatory molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, G.; MACKMAN, N.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal loss in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been ascribed to thrombosis of placental vessels. However, we have shown that inflammation, specifically complement activation with generation of the anaphylotoxin C5a, is an essential mediator of fetal injury. We have analysed the role of tissue factor (TF) in a mouse model of aPL-induced pregnancy loss. TF is the major cellular activator of the coagulation cascade but also has cell signaling activity. Mice that received aPL-I...

  4. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  5. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  6. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  7. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  8. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  9. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  10. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Burger, H.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxie

  11. Early Pregnancy and Academic Achievement of African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Loretta Pinkard

    1992-01-01

    Case studies of 10 unmarried, African-American adolescent mothers at risk of dropping out of school are presented, revealing the stressful situations created by competing demands of school and home. Educational deficits that existed prior to pregnancy and their influence on contraceptive behavior and pregnancy resolution are noted. Intervention…

  12. Evaluation of the effects of methanol during early pregnancy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent attention to methanol (MeOH) as a potential alternative fuel prompted an evaluation of the chemical's effects during very early pregnancy. Rats were dosed by gavage during Days 1-8 of pregnancy at 0, 1.6, 2.4 or 3.2 g MeOH/kg/day. Groups of animals were killed on Days 9, 11 or 20 of pregnancy, and maternal, embryonic, or fetal parameters were assessed, depending on the stage of pregnancy. The decidual cell response (DCR) technique was also applied to rats treated with MeOH during pseudopregnancy. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.).

  13. Depression in Early Pregnancy Linked to Gestational Diabetes, NIH Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Monday, September 19, 2016 Depression in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes, NIH ... Women with gestational diabetes at risk for postpartum depression. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have ...

  14. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  15. T-HELPER 1 CYTOKINES INCREASE DURING EARLY PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH A HISTORY OF RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaei A. Dabbagh

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurment of various cytokines may provide a different tool for evaluation of the immune system. Recent investigations have shown that the number and function of peripheral natural killer cells (NK- cells increase during early pregnancy in women with a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA. NK-cells activity may be responsible for some cases of RSA. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the Thl cytokines (IL-2, IFN-y, TNF-a ; TNF-/0 in this phenomenon, and detection of Thl cytokines in women with RSA. The control group consisted of 40 women with no history of pregnancy loss and complication. The abortion group comprised of 92 women having at least 3 pregnancy losses. Blood from the control group and women with RSA was taken at the end of first trimester of gestational age and at the time of abortion, respectively. Sera were separated and peripheral blood lymphocytes were challenged with PHA using RPMI medium. All samples were tested for concentration of Thl cytokines using ELISA methods. It was considered that sera from women with RSA produced higher concentration of TNF-«, TNF-/? , and IL-2 in comparison with sera from normal pregnant women (NPW (P<0.001. We were not able to detect IL-2 in (NPW whereas in 31% sera from RSA group, IL-2 was detectable (P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between IFN-y, concentration in sera from patients and control group (P<0.182. Tissue culture supernatant from women with RSA also produced higher concentration of TNF-a. IFN-y, TNF-/* and IL2, than control group. These data may explain the increase NK-cells cytotoxicity during early pregnancy in women with a history of RSA. It may also provide a diagnostic tool to predict the outcome of pregnancy.

  16. Successful outcome from empirical use of heparin and aspirin in unexplained pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babita Panda; Sasmita Das; Lita Mohapatra; Mahesh C Sahu; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Success in pregnancy of a 42-years old woman with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is described. She had a sub-septate uterus with free spillage bilaterally, based on hysterosalpingogram, and it was corrected by hysteroscopy in October 2009, which was followed by transcervical septal resection (TCRS). Clomiphene citrate was given ovulation. She was treated with folic acid supplementation, aspirin 75 mg, micronized progesterone 400 mg/d, and low molecular heparin 2500 IU/d, from the diagnosis of pregnancy at 5 weeks, until the delivery. However, at 28 weeks glucose tolerance test with 100 g glucose revealed mild derangement in first (159 mg/dL) and second (164 mg/dL) hour values;metformin was given for the control of sugar. Heparin injections were given to the patient continuously during the antenatal period. No major bleeding episode was noted during pregnancy or delivery. A male child weighing 3.2 kg with a good APGAR score was delivered at the end of the term. Both anatomical abnormality and advanced maternal age had determinative role in pregnancy loss, but TCRS and antithrombotic heparin and aspirin treatment had the blithesome effect.

  17. Endometrial caspase 1 and interleukin-18 expression during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of porcine pregnancy and response to early exogenous estrogen administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Daniel R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role for endometrial secretion of cytokines during the establishment of pregnancy in a number of mammals is well established. The current study determined endometrial expression of caspase 1 (CASP1 and interleukin-18 (IL18 during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following early estrogen administration, which induces conceptus loss during early development in pigs. Methods Gilts were hysterectomized on either D 0, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle, or D 10, 12, 15 or 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of endometrial CASP1 mRNA was unaffected by day of the estrous cycle, however there was a 6 and 10-fold increase in expression on D 15 and 18 of pregnancy. Endometrial expression of IL18 mRNA increased 5-fold between D 10 to 18 in cyclic and pregnant gilts. Total recoverable IL18 in uterine flushings was greater in pregnant compared to cyclic gilts on D 15 and 18. In the second experiment, mated gilts were treated with either corn oil (CO or estrogen (E on D 9 and 10 and hysterectomized on either D 10, 12, 13, 15 or 17 of pregnancy. The current study localizes the presence of CASP1 to the epithelial layer of the endometrium for the first time. Further, a day × treatment interaction was detected for endometrial CASP1 mRNA and protein abundance as E stimulated an earlier increase on D 13 compared to CO gilts. Although IL18 mRNA expression remained unaltered from the E treatment, protein abundance was significantly attenuated on D 15 and 18 in response to E treatment. Conclusions Endometrial expression of CASP1 and IL18 is associated with establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Alteration of CASP1 and IL18 following premature exposure of the uterus to estrogen during early pregnancy may contribute to conceptus loss between Days 15 to 18 of pregnancy.

  18. Inherited and acquired thrombophilia in Indian women experiencing unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rucha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vora, Sonal; Shetty, Shrimati

    2015-10-01

    The most frequently hypothesized cause of unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) refers to a defective maternal haemostatic response leading to uteroplacental thrombosis. Approximately 20% women suffering from pregnancy loss (PL) are associated with autoimmune disorders and more than 50% remain idiopathic after common traditional investigations. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of different genetic and acquired thrombophilia markers in a large series of Indian women with RPL. Such studies will help analyze the markers which pose maximum risk and help in the appropriate treatment in subsequent pregnancies. The study comprised of 587 women with no apparent etiological causes of RPL and 115 healthy women controls. p values were calculated with two tailed Fisher's exact test; statistical significance was assumed at pthrombophilia, the risk of PL was highest with protein S deficiency (16%, p=0.006) followed by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/4G (23%, p=0.007) polymorphism. Among acquired markers, the risk of PL was the highest in women with anti-cardiolipin antibodies (24%, p=0.0001), followed by anti-annexin V antibodies (23%, p=0.0009) and lupus anticoagulants (8%, p=0.02). Thrombophilia, inherited and acquired, is an important contributing factor in unexplained RPL and should be screened in the order of its prevalence.

  19. Investigation on estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in Iranian women with recurrent pregnancy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavipour, Marzieh; Idali, Farah; Zarei, Saeed; Talebi, Saeed; Fatemi, Ramina; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Pahlavan, Somayeh; Rajaei, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. Environmental factors and genetics can affect pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Conflicting data suggest an association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and RPL. In this study, such association was investigated in Iranian women with RPL. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, blood samples were collected from 244 women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and 104 healthy women with at least two live births. Using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), we studied -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1 gene in case and control subjects. Results: The genotypic frequencies of -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1were not significantly different between RPL and control groups (p=0.20 and p=0.09, respectively). A significantly negative correlation was observed between -397C/T and -351A/G (r=-0.852, p<0.001) in RPL women and complete linkage disequilibrium between the investigated polymorphisms was found (D’: 0.959; r-square= 0.758, p<0.001). Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the analyzed polymorphisms on ESR1gene are not associated with an increased risk of RPL in the studied population. PMID:25071847

  20. B族维生素及同型半胱氨酸与复发性流产的关系%Correlation between serum FA, VitB12, HCY and red blood cell FA level in patients with early unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓娟; 董雪梅; 柳素芬; 孙庆梅; 赵翠生; 张翀; 杜晓钟; 孙朋; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定血清叶酸、维生素B12、同型半胱氨酸及红细胞叶酸水平,探讨其与早期原因不明复发性流产的关系.方法 分别采用磁微粒酶免疫分析方法、ELISA方法及电化学发光法测定流产组与对照组外周血中血清叶酸、维生素B12、同型半胱氨酸及红细胞叶酸水平.结果 76例早期原因不明复发性流产患者(流产组)与40例正常同期育龄期妇女(对照组)比较,血清叶酸( t=-3.631,P<0.005)、维生素B12(t=-4.790,P<0.005)、同型半胱氨酸(t=3.019,P<0.005)及红细胞叶酸(t=-3.640,P<0.005),均有显著性差异.流产组A组(补充0.4mg/d叶酸片)与B组(补充5mg/d叶酸片及复合维生素B),2组补充叶酸后1个月与首诊比较,血清叶酸(t=2.131,P<0.005)及同型半胱氨酸(t=2.685,P<0.05),均有显著性差异.结论 体内叶酸水平低下可能是早期原因不明复发性流产发生、发展的一个重要因素,它的检测对于早期原因不明复发性流产患者的预防及治疗具有一定的临床意义.%Objective To determine the serum levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 , homocysteine ( HCY ) and red blood cell folic acid and explore the correlation between them and early unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss ( URPL ). Methods The serum levels of serum folic acid, vitamin B12, HCY and red blood cell folic acid in abortion group and control group were measured by magnetic beads enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) and electrochemiluminescence assay ( ECLA ) methods, respectively. Results The mean levels of serum folic acid, vitamin B12 , HCY and red blood cell folic acid were significantly different between 76 cases of URPL ( abortion group ) and 40 cases of simultaneous women of childbearing age ( control group )( t value was - 3. 631, - 4. 790, 3.019and -3.640, respectively, allP<0.005). Compared with the levels of serum folic acid and HCY at initial diagnosis, they were significantly different one

  1. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  2. Maternal complications in pregnancy and wheezing in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugna, Daniela; Galassi, Claudia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    complications and wheezing symptoms in the offspring. Exposures of interest included hypertension and preeclampsia, diabetes, as well as pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index between 25 and 29.9) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) compared with normal weight (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9). Outcomes...... wheezing (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with an increase risk of wheezing in the offspring.......BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of maternal complications in pregnancy on wheezing in offspring is still insufficient. METHODS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual participant data from fourteen European birth cohorts to assess the relationship between several maternal pregnancy...

  3. Management of drug-induced hyperbilirubinaemia in early pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal hyperbilirubinaemia during pregnancy worsens perinatal ... delivery and intra-uterine death.2 However, the effects of maternal ... multiple spontaneous abortions. .... is only one case report describing high levels of unconjugated.

  4. Early Pregnancy Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... mother and fetus, include changes in the expression of the coagulation ... inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and determined its relationship .... The continuous variables (age, body mass index [BMI],.

  5. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation.

  6. The trophoblast plug during early pregnancy: a deeper insight

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Gregor; Sundl, Monika; Glasner, Andreas; Huppertz, Berthold; Moser, Gerit

    2016-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, foetal endovascular trophoblasts invade into maternal spiral arteries, accumulate and form plugs in the lumen of the vessels. These plugs only allow blood plasma to seep through. Hence, during the first trimester of pregnancy, a first flow of fluids through the placental intervillous space is established, resulting in a physiological oxygen gradient between mother and foetus. The trophoblast plugs block spiral arteries until the beginning of the second...

  7. Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: early diagnosis and intervention are important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Shing, Koh Kai; Tan, Khim Khee; Krasu, Mary; Bickle, Ian; Chong, Vui Heng

    2014-05-01

    Bowel obstruction is rare in pregnancy, and delay in recognition can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Most reported causes of bowel obstruction in pregnancy (adhesions, intussusception, hernia, and carcinoma) require surgical intervention. Sigmoid volvulus is an acute surgical cause that can now be managed successfully without surgery. We report the case of 33-year-old lady who presented with a sigmoid volvulus that was successfully managed with urgent endoscopic decompression.

  8. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Microarray Ploidy Analysis of Paraffin-Embedded Products of Conception in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Budinetz, Tara; Sueldo, Carolina; Anspach, Erica; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2015-07-01

    To compare the analysis of chromosome number from paraffin-embedded products of conception using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray with the recommended screening for the evaluation of couples presenting with recurrent pregnancy loss who do not have previous fetal cytogenetic data. We performed a retrospective cohort study including all women who presented for a new evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss over a 2-year period (January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013). All participants had at least two documented first-trimester losses and both the recommended screening tests and SNP microarray performed on at least one paraffin-embedded products of conception sample. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray identifies all 24 chromosomes (22 autosomes, X, and Y). Forty-two women with a total of 178 losses were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded products of conception from 62 losses were sent for SNP microarray. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray successfully diagnosed fetal chromosome number in 71% (44/62) of samples, of which 43% (19/44) were euploid and 57% (25/44) were noneuploid. Seven of 42 (17%) participants had abnormalities on recurrent pregnancy loss screening. The per-person detection rate for a cause of pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the SNP microarray (0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.64) compared with recurrent pregnancy loss evaluation (0.17; 95% CI 0.08-0.31) (P=.002). Participants with one or more euploid loss identified on paraffin-embedded products of conception were significantly more likely to have an abnormality on recurrent pregnancy loss screening than those with only noneuploid results (P=.028). The significance remained when controlling for age, number of losses, number of samples, and total pregnancies. These results suggest that SNP microarray testing of paraffin-embedded products of conception is a valuable tool for the evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss in patients without prior fetal

  9. Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Sommer, Miriam Colstrup; Ringholm, Lene

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia present in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed was conducted in April 2017. Inclusion criteria were largely unselected cohort......, including at least 100 women with type 1 diabetes, dealing with either the prevalence of preeclampsia or possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia identified in early pregnancy. RESULTS: Based on 11,518 pregnancies in 11 articles, the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes was 17%, five...... to six times more than in the background population. In early pregnancy, the following clinical predictors were associated with increased prevalence of preeclampsia: diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.7-23.5), microalbuminuria (OR 3.8-11.7), diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.9-2.9) and pre-existing hypertension (OR 3...

  10. Pregnancy and infant loss support: a new, feminist, American, patient movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Linda L

    2006-02-01

    Using as examples three of the earliest pregnancy and infant loss organizations and multiple recent initiatives, I argue this is a unique patient movement, in part due to the particularities of pregnant patienthood. Although during the first 20 years of this distinctively US movement, pregnancy and infant loss support was hospital-based, there was remarkably little attention to the "medical" dimensions of these losses, e.g. etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The thrust was instead on changing ideas and feelings. It is only since the turn of the century that bereaved parents have started to forge collaborations with physicians to work toward prevention. During the first phase (mid-1970s to mid-1990s), it was a women's movement, though it did not present itself as such, and although it was indebted to the feminist movement and included some feminist initiatives, the movement was dominated by a traditionally feminine ethos and included pro-life elements. During the second phase, as physicians and researchers have become more involved, leadership has become somewhat less female-centric while at the same time, more initiatives are explicitly feminist.

  11. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  12. Are female orphans at risk for early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tia; Peterman, Amber

    2009-06-01

    Female orphans are widely cited as being at risk for early marriage, early childbearing, and risky sexual behavior; however, to date no studies have examined these linkages using population-level data across multiple countries. This study draws from recent Demographic and Health Surveys from ten sub-Saharan African countries to examine the relationship between orphanhood status and measures of early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy among adolescent girls aged 15 to 17. Results indicate that, overall, little association is found between orphanhood and early marriage or teen pregnancy, whereas evidence from seven countries supports associations between orphanhood and early sexual debut. Findings are sensitive to the use of multivariate models, type of orphan, and country setting. Orphanhood status alone may not be a sufficient targeting mechanism for addressing these outcomes in many countries; a broader, multidimensional targeting scheme including orphan type, schooling, and poverty measures would be more robust in identifying and aiding young women at risk.

  13. Effects of clomiphene citrate on early pregnancy in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Hutchinson, J S

    1991-05-01

    Clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg body wt) given on the day of mating can block or interrupt pregnancy in guinea-pigs. Corpus luteum function, uterine histology, implantation and embryo development were studied in clomiphene-treated and control animals on Days 5, 9 and 20 of pregnancy. Following treatment, only 25% of the females were regularly pregnant, presenting large and healthy foetuses. The other females examined showed either pregnancy with embryos undergoing resorption or no sign of pregnancy. In these females, corpus luteum size was reduced, progesterone concentrations were very low and the endometrial glands and the epithelium were often altered. It is concluded that clomiphene causes a reduction in fertility by altering the uterus and, by directly or indirectly inducing luteolysis, causes later pregnancy loss.

  14. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  15. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L; Petersen, Morten; Broedbaek, Kasper; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Nielsen, Torben K; Poulsen, Henrik E; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2016-08-01

    Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. We identified 1,338,824 pregnancies (970,491 births, 142,147 miscarriages, 226,145 induced abortions). One hundred sixty-six were exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in the early pregnancy of which 28.3 % (47) ended up in a miscarriage compared to 10.6 % among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol in the first trimester was 3.6 (CI 95 % 2.6-4.9). We found an increased risk of miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol during the early pregnancy. Women in the fertile age should not be treated with the combination of diclofenac/misoprostol if other options were available.

  16. Re: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Detects Increased Sperm Aneuploidy in Men with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Ramasamy,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male factor infertility can be overcome with the use of assisted reproductive technologies and for this purpose the mostly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was used. Although using sperm from men with relatively normal semen parameters with high-tech methods, many couples fail to achieve pregnancy or face recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. In this study, the authors tried to find an answer for potential causes of RPL and in vitro fertilization (IVF failure by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. FISH analysis was used to detect numerical abnormalities in sex chromosomes (X,Y and autosomes (13,18, 21 in ejaculated sperm. Significantly higher percentage of sperm aneuploidy was found in men with RPL within the sex chromosomes and chromosomes 18,13 and 21. Although men with normal sperm parameter, 40% of abnormal sperm aneuploidy was found in all the chromosomes analyzed. In addition to that, men with abnormal sperm density and motility had a higher percentage of sex chromosome aneuploidy than men with normal density and motility. In conclusion, sperm FISH analysis can be suggested in men with RPL and normal sperm density/motility to understand the reason of pregnancy failure. Also, this study showed that men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT might have a greater percentage of sperm aneuploidy compared to those with normal sperm parameters.

  17. Fear of pregnancy loss and fetal karyotyping: a place for third-trimester amniocentesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Olivier; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Rosenblatt, Jonathan; Audibert, François; Tachdjian, Gerard; Frydman, Rene

    2008-01-01

    To assess the complications of third-trimester amniocentesis for fetal karyotyping in women unwilling to accept the fetal loss risks of second-trimester amniocentesis. Retrospective study of singleton pregnancies that underwent a third-trimester amniocentesis for karyotyping. 150 complete charts between 1998 and 2005 were reviewed. The indications were: isolated abnormal second-trimester biochemical markers (n = 57), isolated maternal age >38 years (n = 46), integrated risk (maternal age, first-trimester nuchal translucency, second-trimester maternal serum markers) >1/250 (n = 22), history of chromosomal abnormality (n = 17) or maternal choice (n = 8). The median maternal age and gestational age at sampling were: 40 years (23-48), 32.4 weeks (29.7-37.1). Median interval between amniocentesis, definitive result of amniocentesis, and delivery were 14 days (7-42), and 49 days (10-67) respectively. There were no abnormal karyotypes and no termination of pregnancy. Six women out of 150 (4%) had spontaneous labor before 36 weeks (2% after 36 weeks). The risk of spontaneous labor before 37 weeks after late amniocentesis is 4% (2% before 36 weeks). This technique provides a late but safe reassurance to women who are unwilling to accept the risks of earlier fetal karyotyping. This is of interest to countries such as France where legislation permits late termination of pregnancy. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  19. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake.......12-0.95), respectively, in zero fish consumers. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounding by factors such as maternal smoking, height, and prepregnant weight. We conclude that never consuming fish in the first two trimesters of pregnancy was an extremely strong risk factor for preterm delivery but was also...

  20. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake...

  1. Beta2-glycoprotein I dependent anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study was aimed to define the incidence of antiphospholipid antibodies of different types lupus anticoagulant (LAC, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and Beta2-glycoprotein I dependent anticardiolipin antibodies Beta2 I aCL in our cohort of population experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL from Andhra Pradesh, South India. SETTING AND DESIGN: A referral case-control study at a tertiary centre over a period of 5 years. PARTICIPANTS: 150 couples experiencing 3 or more recurrent pregnancy losses with similar number of matched controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: LAC activity was measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT according to the method of Proctor and Rapaport with relevant modifications. VDRL analysis was performed by the kit method supplied by Ranbaxy Diagnostics Limited and Beta2 Glycoprotein I dependent anticardiolipin antibodies were estimated by ELISA kit (ORGen Tech, GmbH, Germany with human Beta2 Glycoprotein I as co-factor. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed using Student′s t test. RESULTS: LAC activity was found positive in 11 women (10.28%. The mean +/- SE Beta2 I aCL concentration in the study group was 14.53 (micro/ml +/- 1.79 (range 0 to 90.4 micro/ml which was higher than the control group with a mean +/- SE of 7.26 (micro/ml +/- 0.40 (range 0 to 18 u/ml. The binding of the antibodies to the antigen was observed in 40.24% (n=33 of the cases compared to 6.09% (n=5 in controls. VDRL test was positive in 7(2.34% individuals (3 couples and 1 male partner and none among controls. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates the importance of antiphospholipid antibodies in women experiencing RPL and suggests the usefulness of screening for these antibodies as a mandatory routine for instituting efficient therapeutic regimens for a successful outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Does Amniocentesis Increase the Rates of Fetal Loss and Poor Pregnancy Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk of fetal loss and poor pregnancy outcomes associated with amniocentesis procedures on patients in our clinic in the last 5 years. Material and Method: This retrospective study was conducted by examining the hospital records and genetic centre records of 387 patients who underwent amniocentesis at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Medical Faculty between January 2011 and July 2015. A control group was formed of 250 low-risk patients who attended the clinic and did not have amniocentesis applied. Results:Throughout the study period there were 688 patients with an indication for amniocentesis. Of these, amniocentesis was applied to 387 patients and 43.8% refused the amniocentesis. The most common amniocentesis indication was the scanning test for Downs syndrome (57.6% followed by older maternal age (22.5%. Of the patients who underwent amniocentesis, chromosomal abnormality was determined in 24 (6.2%, the most common of which was Downs syndrome (54%. Fetal loss following amniocentesis was seen in 2 patients (0.5%. When the total poor pregnancy outcomes were examined, a poor outcome was determined in 8 of the amniocentesis group and in 5 of the control group and the difference beween the 2 groups was not statistically significant (p=0.263. Discussion: Amniocentesis is an invasive prenatal test in frequent current use. No increase in pregnancy complications was observed associated with the procedure. Before the application of amniocentesis, the patient must be given detailed information about the procedure and the outcomes.

  3. Coagulation inhibitors and activated protein C resistance in recurrent pregnancy losses in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lalita Jyotsna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombophilias, both acquired and inherited, have been investigated in the etiopathogenesis of unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Aim: To study coagulation inhibitors and activated protein C resistance (APCR in recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL occurring in second and third trimesters. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 pregnant women (group A with two or more recurrent unexplained fetal loses were evaluated for APCR, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, and antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA. Thirty age-matched controls were taken (group B comprising of pregnant women with at least one live issue. Statistical Analysis: Comparisons between two group frequencies and group means were made using Chi square test and Student′s t test, respectively. Results: Protein C and protein S levels were reduced in group A compared with group B and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.005 and P=0.032, respectively. The mean value of antithrombin was slightly reduced in group A compared with group B. APCR was observed in 16.6% cases and 3.3% controls. However, the difference was not statistically significant. APLA was observed in 20% cases and none of the controls. Of these, lupus anticoagulant was positive in 16.6% cases and anticardiolipin antibodies in 10% cases. Combined defects were seen in seven patients. Conclusion: There is a significant risk of RPL in pregnant women with thrombophilias. Therefore, screening for thrombophilias may be justified in pregnant women with unexplained recurrent fetal wastage, especially in second and third trimester.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5% of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30 and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31. BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P 0.05. These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77% of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks and 14 (23% of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks. There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05. Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.

  5. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  6. Differential expression of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 in rat uterus during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Shi; Ma, X. H.; Diao, H.L.; Ni, H.; Xu, L.B.; Zhu, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Yang, Z. M.

    2005-01-01

    PGE2 is essential for mammalian female reproduction. This study was to examine the expression of EP2 gene in the rat uterus during early pregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. There was no detectable EP2 mRNA expression in the uterus from days 1 to 4 of pregnancy (day 1 = day of vaginal sperm). A low level of EP2 immunostaining was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium from da...

  7. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  8. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  9. Early Hearing Detection and Vocabulary of Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L; Wiggin, Mallene; Chung, Winnie

    2017-08-01

    To date, no studies have examined vocabulary outcomes of children meeting all 3 components of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, diagnosis of hearing loss by 3 months, and intervention by 6 months of age). The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the current EHDI 1-3-6 policy on vocabulary outcomes across a wide geographic area. A secondary goal was to confirm the impact of other demographic variables previously reported to be related to language outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 448 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 39 months of age (mean = 25.3 months, SD = 7.5 months). The children lived in 12 different states and were participating in the National Early Childhood Assessment Project. The combination of 6 factors in a regression analysis accounted for 41% of the variance in vocabulary outcomes. Vocabulary quotients were significantly higher for children who met the EHDI guidelines, were younger, had no additional disabilities, had mild to moderate hearing loss, had parents who were deaf or hard of hearing, and had mothers with higher levels of education. Vocabulary learning may be enhanced with system improvements that increase the number of children meeting the current early identification and intervention guidelines. In addition, intervention efforts need to focus on preventing widening delays with chronological age, assisting mothers with lower levels of education, and incorporating adults who are deaf/hard-of-hearing in the intervention process. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  11. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  12. Are women in early pregnancy following the national pyramid recommendations?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J L

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg\\/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.

  13. Management of recurrent pregnancy loss associated with a parental carrier of a reciprocal translocation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Stephenson, Mary D

    2011-11-01

    This study reviews systematically the effectiveness of management strategies for carriers of a reciprocal translocation involving two chromosomes, ascertained on the basis of recurrent pregnancy loss. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes were tabulated based on whether management was medical or involved in vitro fertilization/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF/PGD). A total of 129 cases from 13 articles met the criteria, of which 89% were managed medically. Before management, the overall live birthrate was 4% (19 of 484 pregnancies). Management was medical in 109 cases and IVF/PGD in 20 cases. Cumulative live birthrate was 74% (81 of 109 cases) in the medical management group and 35% (7 of 20) in the IVF/PGD group. Based on this systematic review, successful pregnancy outcomes are high following either medical management or IVF/PGD for carriers of a reciprocal translocation, ascertained on the basis of recurrent pregnancy loss. But it is difficult to compare outcomes directly for these two strategies because of the different end points reported. Understanding the differences is essential for effective counseling. Until a well-designed study comparing the two strategies is performed, or at least prospective cohort studies with strict entry criteria and definitions, the cumulative experience and success of both medical management and IVF/PGD must be used to counsel patients who are carriers of a reciprocal translocation, ascertained on the basis of recurrent pregnancy loss.

  14. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Influence of Early Pregnancy Termination by Focused Ultrasound Beams on Menstrual Recovery of Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong DU; Zheng-ai XIONG; Jian-zhong ZOU; Yi TAN; Jin BAI; Zhi-biao WANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects on macaques' menstrual recovery after terminating early pregnancy by focused ultrasound beams (FUB)Methods FUB was used to terminate early pregnancy in 5 macaques with gestation duration ranging from 37-66 d. Two circles after the recovery of menstruation, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to estimate the shape, size and blood flow of uterus, and pathological examinations were performed to check against any lesions to uterine endometrium and ovary.Results Forty days after FUB abortion, menstruation recovered and the volume and duration of each macaque's menstruation were not changed compared with those before gestation. CDFI and MRI suggested that the siz.e and shape of uterus were normal.The endometrial line was clear and no lesions were found in adjacent organs.Conclusion FUB termination of early pregnancy in macaques did not damage their ovarian tissue and had no influence on subsequent menstrual recovery.

  16. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekumary Radha; Bindu Nambisan; Nisha Kizhekkepurakkal Prabhakaran; Shahida Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of ...

  17. Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Hong-fei; JIANG Ling-ying; ZHANG Song-ying; LIANG Feng-bing

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.Data sources The PubMed database (1992-2012) was searched for the words "conservative "OR" fertility sparing "OR"fertility preserving" AND "endometrial neoplasms" (MeSH).All relevant articles in English and the relevant references were collected.Study selection Data from published articles about fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer,including the response and recurrence rate of conservative treatment,strategies of infertility treatment,pregnancy,and obstetric outcomes,were selected.Data were mainly extracted from 41 studies,which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Hormone therapy was the most common method used for early-stage endometrial carcinoma in patients who wished to preserve fertility.Sixty percent of the patients became pregnant after remission of the carcinoma.The percentage of patients who conceived in the assisted reproductive technology group was higher than that of the natural pregnancy group (80.0% vs.43.2%,P<0.01).A higher rate of preterm labor and multiple pregnancies was observed in the assisted reproductive technology group than that in the natural pregnancy group.The majority of pregnancies (71.4%) in the assisted reproductive technology group were achieved by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.The clinical pregnancy rate of transfer cycles in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 34.1%.Conclusions Assisted reproductive technology is a good option in well-selected patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who have completed conservative treatment.In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer offers an opportunity to achieve an immediate pregnancy.

  18. Early pregnancy ultrasound and management – effect of a multifaceted training on physician knowledge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Leary, B

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal bleeding is a common event in early pregnancy, with 20-40% of pregnancies affected. Prompt diagnosis and management of bleeding is important, both to reduce morbidity and to avoid excessive emotional distress. This was a prospective study of an educational programme aimed at Obstetrics and Gynaecology BST trainees in the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. The educational programme consisted of didactic lectures, and simulation and practical sessions. A questionnaire reviewing early pregnancy complications was used to assess participant knowledge. Six trainees participated in the programme, with five (83%) answering the questionnaire. The pre-education questionnaire showed a generally poor level of knowledge of early pregnancy complications with 8\\/50 (16%) questions answered correctly. Following the educational intervention there was a statistically significant increase in participant knowledge with 45\\/50 (90%) questions answered correctly. A significant increase in participant knowledge of early pregnancy complications followed our multifaceted educational programme. Study limitations exist, however we have shown the potential value of our educational programme.

  19. A Comparison of Pattern of Pregnancy Loss in Women with Infertility Undergoing IVF and Women with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriages Who Conceive Spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Tamhankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women with infertility and recurrent miscarriages may have an overlapping etiology. The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy loss in pregnancies after IVF treatment with spontaneous pregnancies in women with recurrent miscarriages and to assess differences related to cause of infertility. Methods. The outcome from 1220 IVF pregnancies (Group I was compared with 611 spontaneous pregnancies (Group II in women with recurrent miscarriages. Subgroup analysis was performed in Group I based on cause of infertility: tubal factor (392 pregnancies; male factor (610 pregnancies; and unexplained infertility (218 pregnancies. Results. The clinical pregnancy loss rate in Group I (14.3% was significantly lower than that of Group II (25.8%, p<0.001 and this was independent of the cause of infertility. However the timing of pregnancy loss was similar between Groups I and II. The clinical pregnancy loss rate in Group I was similar in different causes of infertility. Conclusions. The clinical pregnancy loss rate following IVF treatment is lower than that of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages who conceived spontaneously. This difference persists whether the infertility is secondary to tubal factors, male factors, or unexplained cause.

  20. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  1. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lozoya

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs, in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (deregulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  2. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Teresa; Domínguez, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  3. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  4. inherited thrombophilia and recurrent pregnancy loss Trombofilias heredadas y pérdida gestacional recurrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Patricia Cadavid Jaramillo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of recurrent pregnancy loss is thrombophilia, defined as a tendency to thrombosis or hypercoagulability, with various clinical manifestations dependent on the vascular region affected by the absence of blood flow. Thrombophilias can be classified as inherited or acquired, according to the nature of their cause. The former are factor V Leiden, the prothrombin G20210A, the methilenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants antithrombin III, protein C and protein S, dysfibrinogens and homocystinuria. The group of acquired thrombophilias includes antiphospholipid syndrome, activated protein C resistance without alterations in the gene of factor V and mild or moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. This article reviews several recent studies looking for association between different thrombophilias and recurrent pregnancy loss. Also diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic recommendations are included, for women with thrombophilia and pregnancy loss Una de las causas de pérdida gestacional recurrente es la trombofilia, que se define como una tendencia a la trombosis o hipercoagulabilidad, con variabilidad en las manifestaciones clínicas dependiente de la región vascular afectada por la ausencia de flujo sanguíneo. Las trombofilias se pueden clasificar como heredadas y adquiridas de acuerdo con la naturaleza de su causa. Entre las trombofilias heredadas están el factor V Leiden, la protrombina G20210A, la metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa C677T, las deficiencias de los anticoagulantes naturales antitrombina III, proteína C y proteína S, las disfibrinogenemias y la homocistinuria. En el grupo de las trombofilias adquiridas se encuentran el síndrome antifosfolípido, la resistencia a la proteína C activada sin alteraciones en el gen del factor V y la hiperhomocisteinemia leve o moderada. Este artículo es una revisión de la literatura de estudios recientes que han buscado la asociación entre las

  5. Development of a mobile health application for those who have experienced pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Lynch

    2015-10-01

    A professional website was created for the Pregnancy Loss Research Group to provide information relating to pregnancy loss and also the facilities at CUMH. A tailored content management system (CMS was created to push articles written to both website and mobile platforms so they only need to update articles once with changes appearing on both platforms without having to alter any code. The app was built using the mobile development framework PhoneGap which incorporates Javascript, HTML5 and CSS. Once the app is opened articles are pulled from the database into local storage so that there are no barriers to accessing information. When the app has a network connection a function calls the articles from the database to sync with the articles in local storage. This keeps articles up to date and facilitates offline reading. Articles are accessed via a fixed navigation bar in sections that mirror the main website. The app has a separate ToolKit with sections that are only available after the app user creates a profile. The Toolkit allows the user to map and record their experience of pregnancy loss using a number of tools including diary entries and photos. Users can write a diary entry or take a photo and save to review. Once the user submits a diary entry or photo the overall sentiment, negative or positive, is calculated against a word list with related scores. Emojis included in diary entries can also be calculated in the sentiment rating so that the informal way in which app users communicate with mobile devices can be properly assessed. For additional research purposes, the mobile app also includes a number of validated psychometric scales including Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and Self Evaluation Scale for the users to complete. The mobile app calculates the score for each scale and the scores per scale are displayed to allow researchers to investigate the emotional wellbeing of the users. The CMS then operates as a web user

  6. 3D power Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the relationship of corpus luteum morphology and vascularity by 3 dimensional power Doppler ultrasound and the pregnancy outcome in early pregnancy. Design: prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Zagazig University Hospital. Materials and methods: this is a prospective observational cohort study of thirty six pregnant patients examined by two dimensional and three dimensional transvaginal sonography for corpus luteum volume, echostructure and corpus luteum vascularization index in the period after documentation of fetal heart activity and nine weeks. Results: there were 36 study women, ultrasound morphologic features of corpus luteum: volume ranged from 0.91 to 42.8 ml with median of 6.85, vascularization index ranged from 0.05 to 23.8 with a median of 6.85, echostructure was cystic in 12 women (33.3%, hemorrhagic in 18 (50% and solid in 6 women (16.7%. The relation between CL volume and pregnancy outcome was significant (p-value was 0.02, being smaller in group of missed abortion. The relation between CL VI and pregnancy outcome was non significant (p-value was 0.229. The relation between CL echostructure and pregnancy outcome was highly significant (p-value was 0.009. The prognosis was worst in group of solid echostructure. Conclusion: the corpus luteum volume and echostructure assessed by 3D power Doppler ultrasound have statistical relationship with the early pregnancy outcome.

  7. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (psmoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  8. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P; Reynolds, James P; Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Juchem, Sérgio O; Overton, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Objectives were to determine factors associated with conception rate (CR) and pregnancy loss (PL) in high producing lactating Holstein cows. In Study 1, CR was evaluated in 7633 artificial inseminations (AI) of 3161 dairy cows in two dairy farms. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by palpation per rectum 39+/-3 days after AI. Environmental temperature was recorded at different intervals prior to and after AI. In Study 2, 1465 pregnancies from 1393 cows diagnosed at 31+/-3 days after AI by ultrasonography on three dairy farms were re-examined 14 days later to determine PL. Temperature > or =29 degrees C was considered to be heat stress (HS). Exposure to HS was defined as following: NH, no heat stress; HS1, exposure to at least 1 day of maximum temperature > or =29 degrees C and average daily maximum temperature (ADMT) or =29 degrees C. In Study 1, exposure of cows to HS1 and HS2 from 50 to 20 prior to AI was associated with reduced CR compared to cows not exposed to HS (28.8, 23.0, and 31.3%, respectively). Post-AI HS was not associated with CR. Cows inseminated following estrus detection or timed AI had similar CR. As the number of AI increased, CR decreased. Multiparous cows had lower CR than primiparous cows, and occurrence of milk fever and retained placenta was associated with decreased CR. In Study 2, PL was not associated with exposure to HS either prior to or after AI. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis experienced increased PL, but parity, number of AI, AI protocol, milk production, and days postpartum at AI were not associated with PL. In conclusion, CR was affected by HS prior to AI, parity, number of AI, and postparturient diseases, whereas PL was affected by clinical mastitis.

  9. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Li, Yu-Fen; Langholz, Bryan; Gilliland, Frank D

    2005-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy may affect children's asthma risk by modulating early-life immune development. Type of fish intake may be important because of differences in fatty acid content. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a nested case-control study, selecting subjects from the Children's Health Study, a population-based study of school-aged children in southern California. Cases had physician-diagnosed asthma and controls were asthma-free by age 5 years. Mothers or guardians provided information on fish consumption during pregnancy in telephone interviews. We computed odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using conditional logistic regression models that accounted for the sampling. In children born to mothers with a history of asthma, the OR of asthma was 0.20 (95% CI = 0.06-0.65) when mothers ate oily fish at least monthly during pregnancy compared with no consumption (p(trend) = 0.006). Maternal oily fish consumption during pregnancy did not benefit children of non-asthmatic mothers. In contrast, fish stick (a source of trans-fats) consumption during pregnancy increased asthma risk in children (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.18-3.51). Our results suggest that maternal oily fish intake during pregnancy may protect offspring from asthma; however, eating fish sticks during pregnancy may increase asthma risk in children.

  10. The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Aytul; Bakir, Vuslat Lale; Akbayir, Ozgur; Cilesiz Goksedef, Behiye Pinar; Akca, Aysu

    2012-07-01

    Female sexual function is negatively influenced by pregnancy due to the physical and emotional changes. Although the most significant effect is seen in the third trimester of pregnancy, a considerable decrease in the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire in the first trimester has also been shown. To investigate the factors that affect sexuality in early pregnancy and the impact of awareness of pregnancy on female sexual function in the first trimester of pregnancy using two self-reported questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, 130 healthy, married pregnant women who were admitted to the gynecology clinic between the 4th and 10th week of gestation were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and the female sexual function index (FSFI). The factors associated with FSFI score and monthly sexual activity frequency in the first trimester, as well as the differences in sexual activity frequency and FSFI scores between the women who were previously aware of their pregnancy and those who were yet unaware of their pregnancy. Women who were unaware of their pregnancy had significantly higher coitus frequency in comparison with the aware group (P = 0.002). Total FSFI score was 21.99 ± 8.13 in the aware group and 24.66 ± 3.76 in the unaware group (P = 0.02). None of the obstetric and sociodemographic variables had an influence on desire and pain scores. Arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction scores were adversely affected by awareness of pregnancy. Orgasm scores were influenced negatively by awareness and positively by love marriage; however, in multivariate linear regression analysis none of these were defined as independent factor for orgasm scores. Overall FSFI scores and monthly frequency of sexual activity were only affected by awareness. The results of this study suggest that in early gestation, awareness of pregnancy is associated with lower female sexual function. Furthermore, obstetric and sociodemographic factors seem to be

  11. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors...... of TSH and free T4 (fT4) reference limits in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Measurement of TSH and fT4 in biobank sera collected in pregnancy weeks 5-19 from a random sample of the Danish National Birth Cohort that enrolled 101 032 pregnant in 1996-2002. SETTING: National cohort of pregnant...... women. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants (n = 6671) were identified and individual characteristics retrieved using interview data and data from Danish national health registers. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reference limits for TSH and fT4 in each first trimester pregnancy week...

  12. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumary Radha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of the urinary tract. The primary objective was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancies less than 28 weeks gestation in our hospital and to study the various adverse pregnancy outcomes in the study group. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done over a period of 12 months at this tertiary care centre in Government sector in Trivandrum, Kerala. A sample size was calculated statistically and 400 women with gestational age less than 28 weeks attending the outpatient department were included in this study. A structured proforma, urine microscopy and urine culture and sensitivity were the study tools. Results: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our study population was 8.25%. Commonest pathogen isolated was E.coli in 57.14% cases. Maternal morbidity was higher in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (24.2% than those without (12.5%. Fetal morbidity in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was 24% whereas it was 12.5% in those without it. Preterm labour, preeclampsia and prematurity were the common morbidities noted. Conclusions: Since pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria were at an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcome, routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria preferably in the first trimester is highly recommended.

  13. Association of Inherited Thrombophilia with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Palestinian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Abu-Asab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed at analyzing the association between recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL and factor V G1691A (FVL, prothrombin G20210 (FII; and MTHFR C677T (MTHFR in Palestinian women. Method. We studied 329 Palestinian women with RPL and/or stillbirth (SB; and compared them to 402 healthy reproductive Palestinian women. Cases and controls were tested for the above mutations. Odds ratio (OR at confidence interval (CI of 95% was used as a measure of association between the mutations and RPL. Results. Our statistical analysis showed a slightly increased association, which was not significant between FVL and RPL (OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.90–1.94, and no association between FII (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.38–1.92, MTHFR (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.32–1.03, and RPL. Further analysis of RPL subgroups revealed an association between FVL and first-trimester loss (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.892–1.989, and second-trimester loss (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.480–2.426, both were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the only statistically significant association was between FVL and SB (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.05–3.70. Conclusion. Our analysis had failed to find a significant association between FVL, FII, MTHFR; and RPL in either the first or second trimester. FVL was significantly associated with fetal loss if the loss was a stillbirth.

  14. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation: a register based nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Trærup Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all women in Denmark with a known conception between 1997 and 2007. The Fertility Database was used to identify all women giving birth and the National Hospital Register was used to identify all women with a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Prescription data was obtained from the National Prescription Register. The primary outcome was the number of miscarriages and offspring with major congenital malformations among users of clarithromycin compared to non-users. RESULTS: We identified 931 504 pregnancies (705 837 live births, 77 553 miscarriages, and 148 114 induced abortions. 401 women redeemed a prescription of clarithromycin in the first trimester of which 40 (10.0% experienced a miscarriage and among the live born nine (3.6% had offspring with malformations. The hazard ratio (HR of having a miscarriage after exposure to clarithromycin was 1.56 (CI95% 1.14-2.13. There was no increased hazard of having a miscarriage when being exposed to penicillin or erythromycin. There was no increased prevalence (OR = 1.03 (CI95% 0.52-2.00 of having offspring with malformations after exposure to clarithromycin. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased hazard of miscarriage but no increased prevalance of having offspring with malformations among women redeeming a prescription of clarithromycin in early pregnancy. This is supported by previous studies in animals and humans. However, further research is required to explore the possible effect of treatment indication on the associations found.

  15. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  16. Pregnancy Loss Following Amniocentesis or CVS Sampling—Time for a Reassessment of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ogilvie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk of procedure-related pregnancy loss is currently widely quoted in the UK as 1% for amniocentesis and 1.5% for chorionic villus sampling. Published data suggest that these risk figures are out of date and inaccurate, and that new guidelines are required for pre-test counseling. It is our opinion that accurate and evidence-based information concerning miscarriage risk is vital when counseling women, as exaggeration of this risk may deter women from testing, or cause unjustified remorse if a miscarriage ensues. It is also essential that health-care economists are aware of the up-to-date evidence on “procedure-related risk” when applying risk-benefit analysis to assess new technology for non-invasive screening.

  17. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  18. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate...... if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion...... and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. RESULT: We identified 1...

  19. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...

  20. Elevated procoagulant endothelial and tissue factor expressing microparticles in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Patil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 15% of reproducing couples suffer from pregnancy loss(PL and recurs in 2-3%. One of the most frequently hypothesized causes of unexplained PL refers to a defective maternal haemostatic response leading to uteroplacental thrombosis. Hereditary thrombophilia and antiphospholipid antibodies have been extensively described as risk factors for PL in women with unknown aetiology. Recently, a new marker has emerged: the cell-derived procoagulant circulating microparticles(MPs which have been reported to have a major role in many thrombosis complicated diseases. This study aims to analyze the significance of procoagulant MPs in women suffering from unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss(RPL, and characterize their cellular origin. METHOD AND FINDINGS: 115 women with RPL were analyzed for common thrombophilia markers and different cell derived MPs-total annexinV, platelet(CD41a, endothelial(CD146,CD62e, leukocyte(CD45, erythrocyte(CD235a and tissue factor(CD142(TF expressing MPs and were compared with 20 healthy non-pregnant women. Methodology for MP analysis was standardized by participating in the "Vascular Biology Scientific and Standardization Committee workshop". RESULTS: Total annexinV, TF and endothelial MPs were found significantly increased(p<0.05, 95% confidence interval in women with RPL. The procoagulant activity of MPs measured by STA-PPL clotting time assay was found in correspondence with annexinV MP levels, wherein the clot time was shortened in samples with increased MP levels. Differences in platelet, leukocyte and erythrocyte derived MPs were not significant. Thirty seven of 115 women were found to carry any of the acquired or hereditary thrombophilia markers. No significant differences were seen in the MP profile of women with and without thrombophilia marker. CONCLUSION: The presence of elevated endothelial, TF and phosphatidylserine expressing MPs at a distance (at least 3 months from the PL suggests a continued chronic

  1. Comparison between allantochorion membrane and amniotic sac detection by per rectal palpation for pregnancy diagnosis on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Juan E; Pinedo, Pablo; Bryan, Kelsey; Ramos, Roney S; Solano, Karol G; Merchan, Daniel; Velez, Juan

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the pregnancy diagnosis by detection of either the allantochorion membrane (FMS) or amniotic sac (ASP) by per rectum palpation (PRP) during late embryonic or early fetal period on pregnancy loss (PRL) at reexamination, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled randomized blind design with 800 lactating dairy pregnant cows diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between Days 35 and 57 of gestation from one dairy farm were included. The cows were randomly divided according to detection of allantochorion membrane (FMS group; n = 264), detection of amniotic sac (ASP group; n = 266), and TRUS (control [CON] group; n = 270). TRUS was considered as the criterion standard method of comparison. The entire PRP was performed by one experienced veterinarian. Then, all the cows were reexamined only by TRUS between 2 and 4 weeks later by two independent veterinarians to assess PRL. The calving rate one (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows initially pregnant) and calving rate two (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows pregnant at reexamination) for each group was calculated. All abortions and stillborns were necropsied, and calves alive were followed for 5 days. The overall initial PRL (between initial pregnant cows and reexamination) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 7.4% (19/258), 8.8% (23/262), and 9.2% (24/260), respectively (P = 0.75). The overall late PRL (between reexamination and calving) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 4.2% (9/213), 5.7% (12/209), and 4.2% (9/216), respectively (P = 0.71). The calving rate one for FMS, ASP, and TRUS groups was 79.1% (204/258), 75.2% (197/262), and 79.6% (207/260), respectively (P = 0.63). The calving rate two for the same groups was 85.4% (204/239), 82.4% (197/239), and 87.7% (207/236), respectively (P = 0.27). The number of fetuses aborted late, premature, and mature dead from FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 6

  2. Pregnancy weight gain and postpartum loss: avoiding obesity while optimizing the growth and development of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, S A

    2001-01-01

    Weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to obesity development. Concerns about possible adverse effects of pregnancy weight gain on later maternal weight and on labor and delivery must be rigorously evaluated in light of possible benefits for fetal growth and development. Birth-weight rises with increased pregnancy weight gain, and perinatal and neonatal mortality fall as birthweight increases in both preterm and term infants. The lowest mortality is observed at 3500 to 4500 g in infants of white women. Although often thought to be at high risk, infants termed "macrosomic" include infants of the lowest mortality rate. Thus, restricting weight gain may be detrimental to the baby. Weight gain that is optimal for the mother and the baby differs according to the mother's prepregnancy weight. Pregnancy weight gain exceeding current recommendations is associated with increases in maternal fat gain, pregnancy complications, and delivery problems and should be discouraged. Postpartum weight loss is essential to prevent permanent weight increase. Smoking cessation during pregnancy, reduced postpartum physical activity, and other lifestyle changes can contribute to increased postpartum weight. Health care providers can help to reduce obesity risk by regularly monitoring women's weight; promoting appropriate prepregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, and postpartum weight less; and explicitly encouraging maintenance of an active postpartum lifestyle.

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  4. FETAL HEART-RATE IN EARLY-PREGNANCY AND CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; VISSER, GHA; MANTINGH, A; BEEKHUIS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Objective To investigate normal fetal heart rate in early pregnancy and assess the hypothesis that abnormal fetal heart rate is associated with fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Design Prospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Antenatal clinic associated to the University Clinic of Obste

  5. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social disadvant

  6. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  7. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Seve...

  8. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDR OF DL-111-IT,A NEW NON-STEROID EARLY PREGNANCY TERMINATING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGRui-Ying; ZHOUHui-Jun; YANGBao-Zhu; LIUHe-Chu; XUJian-Hua; LOUYi-Jia; ZHANGYuan-Pei

    1989-01-01

    DL-111-IT (3-ethylpheny1-5- (3-methoxyphenyl) -1, 2, 4-triazole) is highly effective for terminating early pregnancy in several species of animals without delayoel embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the secondary embryo in rats. The present paper is a toxicological study of DI-111-IT.

  10. Birth defects after use of antithyroid drugs in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Lönn, Stefan; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    .0%). For subtypes of birth defects, MMI was associated with an increased incidence of septal heart defects (p=0.02). PTU was associated with ear (p=0.005) and obstructive urinary system malformations (p=0.006). A case of choanal atresia was observed after exposure to both MMI and PTU. The incidence of birth defects...... in children born to mothers who received ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy, was 8.8% and not significantly different from non-exposed (p=0.3), MMI exposed (p=0.4) or PTU exposed (p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: MMI and PTU were associated with subtypes of birth defects previously reported, but the frequency...

  11. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558 having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS: Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98 and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04, gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19 and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32 and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91 and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40. Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27, polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99, tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46 and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95. Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63 and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22 and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11 and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33. Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001 and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56 and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54. Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77. Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69 than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61 or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54. CONCLUSION: Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those

  12. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  13. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  14. Hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders, pregnancy losses and risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    between the RRs for groups of female predominant ADs and other ADs. Strong and potentially biological associations were observed for a number of specific ADs; including systemic lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia, and for some specific ADs associations......The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences...... and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first...

  15. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  16. Virginity loss and pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch teen girl magazines: a content-analytic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede’s cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature

  17. Virginity loss and pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch teen girl magazines: a content-analytic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede’s cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature

  18. Virginity Loss and Pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch Teen Girl Magazines: A Content-Analytic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchi P.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede's cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature stories from all issues of three U.S. and three…

  19. Virginity Loss and Pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch Teen Girl Magazines: A Content-Analytic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchi P.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede's cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature stories from all issues of three U.S. and…

  20. Virginity Loss and Pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch Teen Girl Magazines: A Content-Analytic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchi P.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede's cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature stories from all issues of three U.S. and three…

  1. RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT BY EXOGENOUS PROGESTERONE AND HCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue of bromodichloromethane-induced pregnancy loss in the F344 rat by exogenous progesterone and hCG.Susan R. Bielmeier1, Deborah S. Best2 and Michael G. Narotsky21 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA2 Reproductive Toxico...

  2. First-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbom, Ingegerd; Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2016-10-11

    The body of first-time pregnant women is affected in many ways, and the women may not know what to expect. Conversations between women and healthcare personnel about women's bodily experience in early pregnancy can contribute to increased body knowledge, which may have a positive impact in later stages of their pregnancy and in relation to delivery. The aim of the study was to describe first-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy (pregnancy weeks 10-14). Twelve women were asked to draw pictures and answer questions freely about their experiences of their first pregnant body. Hermeneutical text interpretation was used to obtain an overall view of the experiences. A main theme emerged: 'the body is connected to the cycle of life'. This theme comprised five subthemes: 'bodily longing and a sense of ambivalence', 'being doubtful', 'welcoming changes in body and mind', 'feeling inner strength and struggle to find strength' and 'accepting a different body and mind'. This main theme and the subthemes were further interpreted and were understood as an experience of 'me and my body'. The body reminded the women to take care of it and gave rise to positive thoughts. When the body exhibited uncomfortable reactions and sensations, these were taken as evidence of pregnancy, which was also seen positive but it also triggered a sense of dissatisfaction with the body and a feeling of it becoming alien. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Early pregnancy plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Nigerian women and its relationship with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, I C; Arikawe, A P; Makwe, C C

    2017-05-01

    This study compared early plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and determined its relationship with disease severity. This was a prospective cohort study of 195 normotensive, aproteinuric pregnant women without prior history of gestational hypertension. The women were attending the Antenatal Clinic at The Lagos University Teaching Hospital and were within 24 weeks gestation at recruitment. The outcome measures were PAI-1, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and significant proteinuria. The endpoint of the study was the development of preeclampsia. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by the attending Obstetrician. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistical software. Statistical significance was set at P women who later developed preeclampsia compared to those who had a normal pregnancy (P women who later developed preeclampsia, PAI-1 had an inverse relationship with gestational age (r = 0.878) whereas in normal pregnancy, PAI-1 and gestational age had a direct relationship (r = 0.017). Second trimester systolic and DBP values were also significantly higher in the women who later developed preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy, P = 0.007 and 0.004, respectively. There was, however, no correlation between PAI-1 values and SBP, DBP and proteinuria in the women who developed preeclampsia. Plasma levels of PAI-1 are increased early in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, but the lack of correlation of this marker with disease severity may limit its clinical utility.

  4. Early pregnancy alters the metabolic responses to restricted nutrition in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Forcada, F; Martin, G B; Palacín, I; Meikle, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether a 27-day period of nutrition at half-maintenance during early pregnancy (up to Day 14) could alter maternal endocrine responses. Forty-six ewes were fed all or half of their maintenance requirements and slaughtered on Day 14 of the oestrous cycle or pregnancy. We used real time RT-PCR to study gene expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin in adipose tissue and GHR, GHR1A and of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the liver. Blood profiles of metabolites and metabolic hormones were also determined. Throughout the experiment, underfed animals presented lower body weight and body condition, greater plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and lower plasma concentrations of leptin, compared to adequately fed animals. Undernutrition affected the patterns of gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissues, and the responses differed between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. In adequately fed ewes, pregnancy up-regulated leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue, a response that was impaired in underfed ewes. The hepatic expression of IGF-I mRNA was increased by pregnancy in underfed animals while no effect was observed in adequately fed ewes. It remains to be determined whether the changes in the endocrine milieu are paralleled by modifications in uterine gene expression that could alter the environment of the embryo during early pregnancy.

  5. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Andersen, Anita Sylvest; Lassen, Michael Rud

    2009-01-01

    published studies that a high, detectable soluble HLA-G concentration in maternal plasma or serum is not mandatory for a successful pregnancy. However, complications during pregnancy, such as (severe) pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortion, IUGR, and premature birth, are associated with a low or undetectable...... was to investigate the levels of different soluble HLA-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) can be detected in maternal blood, and in this study, two different isoforms of sHLA-G, namely sHLA-G1 generated by shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G1 and HLA......-G generated by specific HLA-G transcripts, have been investigated early [median of 16.4 weeks of gestation (GW)] and late (median: 38.9 GW) in pregnancy in an original cohort of 580 pregnant Caucasian women. RESULTS: Lower concentrations of sHLA-G1 were found late in pregnancy (>32 GW) in a group of women...

  6. The sheep conceptus modulates proteome profiles in caruncular endometrium during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmanesh, Mitra; Fowler, Paul A; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2016-12-01

    The stage-specific expression of functional proteins within the endometrium, and their regulation by conceptus-derived signals, are crucial for conceptus development and successful establishment of pregnancy. Accurate knowledge of endometrium-conceptus interactions is key for the development of effective strategies to improve conceptus implantation rates both following natural conception and/or assisted reproductive technologies. The unilateral pregnant ewe provides a powerful experimental model for the study of endometrial function in the presence or absence of conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics were used to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in caruncular endometrium collected from the gravid uterine horns and the non-gravid uterine horns at the time of conceptus attachment (day 16 of pregnancy) and early post-implantation period (day 20 of pregnancy). Fifty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 16 of pregnancy and twenty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 20 of pregnancy. Sixteen proteins with different functions such as protein metabolism, cholesterol and ion transport and cell adhesion were identified. In conclusion, the use of the unilaterally pregnant ewe model provides evidence that the early implantation and post-implanting conceptus-derived signals up-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA-II) and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1) and down-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) and heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (HSP60). These regulated proteins are likely involved in providing a suitable intra-uterine environment required for conceptus attachment, implantation, early post-implantation development and the successful establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

  7. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine endometrium and myometrium during early pregnancy and luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Kotwica, G

    2008-02-01

    Past studies of the source of estrogens secreted during maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs have focused on embryonic rather than uterine origin of these steroids. The present study documents: (1) the expression of the gene CYP 17, encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C(17-20) lyase and (2) the synthesis and secretion of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) in endometrial and myometrial tissues in gilts. The expression of CYP 17 gene was shown in porcine endometrium and myometrium. Basal endometrial secretion of E(2) was higher in pregnant gilts than in cyclic gilts (days 14-16). The myometrium secreted more E(2) during the expected time of luteolysis compared to early pregnancy. Basal secretion of E(2) during pregnancy was higher from the endometrium than from the myometrium. Conversely, during luteolysis E(2) secretion was higher from the myometrium and lower from the endometrium. In pregnant and cyclic gilts (days 14-16), progesterone (P(4), 10(-5)M) in vitro significantly increased E(2) secretion regardless of reproductive status. Oxytocin (OT, 10(-7)M) had no influence on E(2) secretion and did not change the stimulatory effect of P(4) in both tissues examined. In conclusions: (1) the CYP 17 gene transcript is present in porcine endometrium and myometrium; (2) porcine endometrium and myometrium release E(2) in vitro; (3) the endometrium releases more E(2) than the myometrium during early pregnancy; (4) the myometrium releases E(2) mainly during luteolysis; (5) the endometrium and myometrium can increase E(2) release in vitro if substrate (P(4)) is provided during early pregnancy and luteolysis. These data suggest active estrogen production by the myometrium and endometrium as an alternative source for this signal for recognition of pregnancy in the pig.

  8. Early pregnancy prediction of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, combining clinical risk and biomarkers: the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Louise C; Black, Michael A; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Rennae; Myers, Jenny E; Baker, Philip N; McCowan, Lesley M; Simpson, Nigel A B; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T; Rodems, Kelline; Noland, Brian; Raymundo, Michael; Walker, James J; North, Robyn A

    2014-09-01

    More than half of all cases of preeclampsia occur in healthy first-time pregnant women. Our aim was to develop a method to predict those at risk by combining clinical factors and measurements of biomarkers in women recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study of low-risk nulliparous women. Forty-seven biomarkers identified on the basis of (1) association with preeclampsia, (2) a biological role in placentation, or (3) a role in cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia were measured in plasma sampled at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation from 5623 women. The cohort was randomly divided into training (n=3747) and validation (n=1876) cohorts. Preeclampsia developed in 278 (4.9%) women, of whom 28 (0.5%) developed early-onset preeclampsia. The final model for the prediction of preeclampsia included placental growth factor, mean arterial pressure, and body mass index at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation, the consumption of ≥3 pieces of fruit per day, and mean uterine artery resistance index. The area under the receiver operator curve (95% confidence interval) for this model in training and validation cohorts was 0.73 (0.70-0.77) and 0.68 (0.63-0.74), respectively. A predictive model of early-onset preeclampsia included angiogenin/placental growth factor as a ratio, mean arterial pressure, any pregnancy loss preeclampsia in populations of mixed parity and risk. In nulliparous women, combining multiple biomarkers and clinical data provided modest prediction of preeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  10. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  11. A case of painless thyroiditis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shiori; Endo, Kei; Iizaka, Toru; Saiki, Ryo; Iwaku, Kenji; Sato, Shotaro; Takahashi, Yasuyoshi; Otsuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of painless thyroiditis detected during the first trimester of pregnancy. A 29-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized because of thyrotoxicosis and she was confirmed to be pregnant. The gestational age was 4 weeks. Blood examinations revealed negative TSH receptor antibodies, however, we started potassium iodide because we were unable to rule out Graves' disease. Thyroid hormone levels were normalized in 3 weeks and remained low even after discontinuation of medication. She received replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium hydrate till 3 months after delivery. Painless thyroiditis can be one of the differential diagnoses of thyrotoxicosis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

  12. Cervico-isthmic pregnancy: early diagnostic imaging and successful dual therapy for uterine-sparing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Koike, Wataru; Hayashi, Shotaro; Imoto, Sanae; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-isthmic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening form of ectopic gestation in which the blastocyst implants in the uterine cervico-isthmus between the histological and anatomical internal os, followed by subsequent extension to the lower uterine segment. Early diagnosis may allow a conservative therapeutic approach that avoids catastrophic hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy. Here we report the case of a 43-year-old primigravida woman whose cervico-isthmic pregnancy complicated by massive hematometra was diagnosed at 6 weeks gestation by multimodal imaging and successfully treated by hysteroscopic resection, securing adequate hemostasis, after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

  13. [Ultrasonic observation on early pregnancy in patients using IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z M

    1987-05-01

    The paper is a report of ultrasonic examinations of IUD positions in women who became pregnant with IUD in situ. 61 pregnant women aged 23 to 41 wearing stainless steel single ring IUD were examined between 1983 and 1985. The duration between the IUD insertion and pregnancy of these women ranged from one month to 5 years with 67.2% under 1 year. This indicated that the first year after IUD insertion is a critical period for method failure. Extra care should be taken in the follow-up of insertion. Among the cases studied, the IUD position of 42 women was below the embryo in the uterine cavity, including some around the cervix. The position change of IUD apparently lost its contraceptive effect. The declined position of IUD in the uterus could be associated with the skill of inserter, and the compatibility of the shape and the size of IUD with the uterine cavity. It was suggested that both the length and width of uterine cavity should be measured before the insertion, and IUD's of all sizes should be made available in the clinics where the insertions are conducted. IUD different shapes should also be kept too fit those women with irregularly shaped uteri.

  14. Focused-ultrasound termination of an early pregnancy in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hong; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Bai, Jin; Zhan, Yang; Wu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2012-12-01

    We explored the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of focused ultrasound in terminating undesired pregnancy. A high-intensity focused ultrasound therapeutic unit was employed to terminate early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. B-mode ultrasound incorporated within the system was used to locate and study the gestational sacs of 6 rhesus macaques with gestation ages of 37 to 66 days, and varying modes of ultrasound exposure were adopted in the termination of the early pregnancies of the rhesus macaques. After focused ultrasound exposure, B-mode ultrasound of the gestational sacs showed significant lethal changes. Of the 6 rhesus macaques, 5 underwent complete abortions whereas 1 rhesus macaque underwent an incomplete abortion. The rhesus macaques resumed their menstrual cycles 50 days after focused-ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that focused ultrasound could be safe, feasible, and effective in terminating early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. As a novel physical method, it may be a promising ablation for a potentially clinical application. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2α injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7

  16. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mitchell; A. Kwizera; M. Usta; H. Gebreselassie

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration fo

  17. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  18. Axonal loss and myelin in early ON loss in postacute optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, Alexander; Arvind, Hemamalini; Nguyen, Than; Garrick, Raymond; Paine, Mark; Graham, Stuart; O'Day, Justin; Grigg, John; Billson, Francis; Yiannikas, Con

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the relation between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and latency and amplitude of multifocal visual-evoked potentials (mfVEPs) in the postacute stage of optic neuritis in patients with early or possible multiple sclerosis. Thirty-two patients with clinical diagnosis of unilateral optic neuritis and magnetic resonance imaging lesions typical of demyelination and 25 control subjects underwent mfVEP and optical coherence tomography imaging. Although there was significant reduction of RNFL thickness in the affected eyes (18.7%), a considerably larger decrease was observed for the amplitude of the mfVEPs (39.8%). Latency of the mfVEPs was also significantly delayed in optic neuritis eyes. In fellow eyes, the amplitude of mfVEPs was significantly reduced and the latency prolonged, but RNFL thickness remained unaltered. RNFL thickness correlated highly with the mfVEP amplitude (r = 0.90). There was also strong correlation between optical coherence tomography measure of axonal loss and mfVEP latency (r = -0.66). Although our findings demonstrate strong associations between structural and functional measures of optic nerve integrity, the functional loss was more marked. This fact, together with amplitude and latency changes of the mfVEPs observed in clinically normal fellow eyes, may indicate greater sensitivity of mfVEPs in detecting optic nerve abnormality or the presence of widespread inflammation in the central nervous system, or both. The significant correlation of the mfVEP latency with RNFL thickness suggests a role for demyelination in promoting axonal loss.

  19. Recurrent thrombosis prevention with intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy in a patient with history of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Nataliya; Kosowicz, Rebecca; Hook, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year old patient with prior history of thrombosis in a setting of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) as well as pregnancy-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), resulting in multi-organ infarction and pregnancy loss. The episode of CAPS occurred while she was receiving antepartum low-dose aspirin and therapeutic-dose enoxaparin. This patient presented again at 6 weeks gestation and ultrasounds were consistent with fetal growth restriction, concerning for placental insufficiency and thrombosis. This time, hydroxychloroquine and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions were added to her prophylaxis regimen, resulting in a successful delivery. Platelet count and antiphospholipid antibody titers were routinely monitored throughout pregnancy as markers of disease activity for APS. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address therapeutic options to prevent further pregnancy morbidity in women who develop recurrent episodes of thrombosis or CAPS despite receiving adequate anti-thrombotic treatment. Use of hydroxychloroquine and IVIG has been associated with good outcomes in this subset of patients.

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for the early identification of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diana E; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia are major contributors to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of gestational hypertension still relies on conventional clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and thresholds of ≥140/90 mm Hg for systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP. However, the correlation between BP level and target organ damage, cardiovascular disease risk, and long-term prognosis is greater for ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than clinic BP measurement. Accordingly, ABPM has been suggested as the logical approach to overcoming the low sensitivity and specificity of clinic BP measurements in pregnancy. With the use of ABPM, differing predictable BP patterns throughout gestation have been identified for clinically healthy and hypertensive pregnant women. In normotensive pregnancies, BP steadily decreases up to the middle of gestation and then increases up to the day of delivery. In contrast, women who develop gestational hypertension or preeclampsia show stable BP during the first half of pregnancy and a continuous linear BP increase thereafter until delivery. Epidemiologic studies have also consistently reported sex differences in the 24-h patterns of ambulatory BP and heart rate. Typically, men exhibit a lower heart rate and higher BP than women, the differences being larger for SBP than DBP. Additionally, as early as in the first trimester of gestation, statistically significant increased 24-h SBP and DBP means characterize women complicated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. However, the normally lower BP in nongravid women as compared with men, additional decrease in BP during the second trimester of gestation in normotensive but not in hypertensive pregnant women, and significant differences in the 24-h BP pattern between healthy and complicated pregnancies at all gestational ages have not been taken into consideration when establishing reference BP thresholds for the

  1. Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Early Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Andersen, Nadia Lyhne; Horwitz, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in early pregnancy is associated with miscarriage. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. All births were identified using...... the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion or miscarriage were gathered from the National Hospital Register. Data on SSRI use were gathered from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed......,883) ended in miscarriage compared with 11.1% among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to an SSRI was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.33) compared with unexposed. Women discontinuing SSRI treatment 3-12 months before pregnancy also had an increased hazard...

  2. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  3. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Louise E; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-11-30

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  4. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise E. Simcox

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction. Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  5. Early Pregnancy Biomarkers in Pre-Eclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensée Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE complicates 2%–8% of all pregnancies and is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to reduce these complications and to develop possible treatment modalities, it is important to identify women at risk of developing PE. The use of biomarkers in early pregnancy would allow appropriate stratification into high and low risk pregnancies for the purpose of defining surveillance in pregnancy and to administer interventions. We used formal methods for a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the accuracy of all biomarkers that have been evaluated so far during the first and early second trimester of pregnancy to predict PE. We found low predictive values using individual biomarkers which included a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM-12, inhibin-A, pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, placental growth factor (PlGF and placental protein 13 (PP-13. The pooled sensitivity of all single biomarkers was 0.40 (95% CI 0.39–0.41 at a false positive rate of 10%. The area under the Summary of Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (SROC was 0.786 (SE 0.02. When a combination model was used, the predictive value improved to an area under the SROC of 0.893 (SE 0.03. In conclusion, although there are multiple potential biomarkers for PE their efficacy has been inconsistent and comparisons are difficult because of heterogeneity between different studies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for high quality, large-scale multicentre research in biomarkers for PE so that the best predictive marker(s can be identified in order to improve the management of women destined to develop PE.

  6. Early adult psychological consequences for males of adolescent pregnancy and its resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Robbins, C

    1990-08-01

    Using data front 2522 young men who were first surveyed as 7th-grade students in Houston, Texas in 1971, we examined the psychological consequences in early adulthood of having a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. By age 21, 15% of the young men were involved in a nonmarital pregnancy. Rates were higher for blacks (24%) than for whites (12%) or Hispanics (16%). Among whites, most adolescent pregnancies were ended by abortion (58%). Adolescent pregnancies to blacks most often resulted in single parenthood (56%). Hispanics tended to have the child, and marry or live together (55%). Consistent with the life course perspective, young men involved in adolescent pregnancies were more psychologically distressed as young adults than those who did not have a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. The greater distress in adulthood is not simply a function of accelerated role transitions, because men whose girlfriends had abortions are also distressed, and those who let their girlfriends assume major parenting responsibility are no less distressed than those who became fathers and married or lived with their girlfriends. Subgroup comparisons revealed that psychological distress levels of young black men were not influenced by adolescent pregnancy.

  7. Psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Fisher, J R W; Wynter, K H

    2008-01-01

    It is known that infertility affects emotional well-being, satisfaction with life and self-esteem and that failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is associated with diminished life satisfaction, reduced self-confidence and substantial psychological distress. Investigations of whether these persist when treatment results in a pregnancy and live birth have been undertaken. A systematic search for English-language research articles on psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and the first post-partum year after ART conception. Of 466 retrieved papers, 46 met inclusion criteria. These reported data from 28 studies. There is consistent evidence that marital satisfaction, emotional well-being and self-regard in pregnancy, attachment to the fetus and parent-infant relationship in ART groups are similar to comparison groups. Anxiety about the survival of the fetus and early parenting difficulties appear to be higher and post-natal self-confidence lower. Evidence about adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood and the experience of childbirth is inconclusive and reports of parental perceptions of infant temperament and behaviour are contradictory. Between-study methodological differences may explain the lack of consistency in findings of the influence of infertility and ART on some aspects of the transition to parenthood. Overall, this body of evidence is best described as emergent. It is possible that in pregnancy after ART, parenthood might be idealized and this might then hinder adjustment and the development of a confident parental identity.

  8. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  9. Much more than thrombosis and pregnancy loss: the antiphospholipid syndrome as a 'systemic disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraborelli, Mara; Andreoli, Laura; Tincani, Angela

    2012-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an auto-immune disorder characterised by recurrent thrombosis, pregnancy losses and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Although it was initially considered an auto-immune coagulopathy, it is now clear that it is a complex and systemic disease. A large number of manifestations in different organs and tissues (cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, renal, cutaneous, haematologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, skeletal and endocrinologic) have been described in these patients. A small group of patients can have a microvascular involvement, which is the most common pathological finding in patients affected by the catastrophic variant of the syndrome. A strong relationship exists between the antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, as demonstrated by common clinical, serological and genetic features and by the few but possible cases evolving from the first disease into the second one over years. Finally, the systemic nature of the antiphospholipid syndrome and the understanding of the mechanisms of antiphospholipid-mediated damage suggest a role of immunomodulation beyond anticoagulation in the therapeutic approach to the disease.

  10. TNFA gene promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss in Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; La Farina, Francesca; Ferroni, Patrizia; Ludovici, Giorgia; Nigro, Carmen; Savonarola, Annalisa; Raparelli, Valeria; Riondino, Silvia; Rampini, Maria Rita; Guadagni, Fiorella; Basili, Stefania

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNFA gene promoter (-376G/A, -308G/A, and -238G/A) in 100 Italian Caucasian women with reproductive failure and 100 fertile controls. Molecular analysis of TNFA SNPs showed higher frequencies of -238G allele (P = .028) as well as the presence of a 3-loci haplotype (-376G/-308A/-238G; P = .020) in fertile controls compared to women with reproductive failure. Serum TNF-alpha levels were higher in study women compared to controls ( P = .001). Of interest, the TNFA -376G/-308A/-238G haplotype was an independent predictor of low TNF-alpha levels (P = .021) and miscarriage (P = .023) in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these findings support the concept of an association of TNFA polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In particular, the TNFA -238GG variant and the TNFA -376G/-308A/-238G haplotype might represent protective factors, probably through reduced TNF-alpha production and/or mediated responses.

  11. Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chongjuan; Gong, Hongxia; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Zhao; Ma, Yongxin

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-10 promoter might be associated with the susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Owing to the inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the IL-10 promoter SNPs and RPL risk. A systematic search of studies on the association of the three SNPs with RPL was conducted in PubMed and Embase. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to pool the effect size. Eleven case-control studies on rs1800896, seven studies on rs1800871, and eight studies on rs1800872 were included. A significant association was identified between IL-10 rs1800896 with RPL risk (G versus A: OR = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.09-1.35). No evidence of association was found between rs1800871 and RPL when restricted to those studies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls (T versus C: OR = 1.25, 95 % CI 0.76-2.06). No statistical association was demonstrated between rs1800872 and RPL (C versus A: OR = 1.08, 95 % CI 0.83-1.42). IL-10 rs1800896 significantly increases the risk of RPL, while rs1800872 is not correlated with RPL risk. No significant association is demonstrated between rs1800871 and RPL risk but this requires further investigation.

  12. Serum fructosamine concentrations in relation to metabolic changes during late pregnancy and early lactation in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Natalija; Stojević, Zvonko; Prvanović, Nikica

    2010-01-01

    The changes in blood serum fructosamine concentrations as indicators of glycaemia during a longer period of time were investigated in mares during late pregnancy and early lactation, as well as their relationship to the changes in the concentration of biochemical indicators of energetic status. The samples were taken from eleven mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. Concentrations of serum fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides were higher during late pregnancy (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.0005), while the concentrations of beta- hydroxybutyrate increased significantly (P < 0.00001) during early lactation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of fructosamine and metabolic parameters was observed. The results indicate a relationship between energetic status and serum fructosamine in mares. Higher concentrations of fructosamine are related to the adaptation to late pregnancy. Therefore, the measurement of the serum fructosamine concentrations could serve as an indicator of energetic status of mares during pregnancy and lactation.

  13. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Sakumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3 were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1 expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows.

  14. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  15. Hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders, pregnancy losses and risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Jacobsen, Søren; Frisch, Morten

    2012-05-01

    The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first hospitalization rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, birth cohort, calendar period, marital status and childbirths. During 27.0 million person-years of follow-up 51,732 women were hospitalized with one or more ADs. Overall, compared with women without the specific pregnancy experiences, the risk of any AD was significantly increased for women with hyperemesis (RR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.30-1.51), gestational hypertensive disorders (1.21; 1.16-1.26), spontaneous abortions (1.10; 1.07-1.14), missed abortions (1.09; 1.04-1.13), stillbirths (1.25; 1.12-1.40), ectopic pregnancies (1.08; 1.02-1.14) and induced abortions (1.07; 1.04-1.09). Associations with female predominant ADs (i.e., ADs with a female:male ratio >2:1) were strongest in the first five years after the studied pregnancy experiences, but overall there was little difference between the RRs for groups of female predominant ADs and other ADs. Strong and potentially biological associations were observed for a number of specific ADs; including systemic lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia, and for some specific ADs associations persisted even more than five years after the abnormal pregnancy experience. Abnormal pregnancies are associated with increased risk of certain ADs, possibly because of underlying

  16. Significance of (sub) clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Emmy; Vissenberg, Rosa; Land, Jolande A.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Goddijn, Mariette; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity are prevalent among women of reproductive age and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid dysfunction has been proposed but is not widely accepted. We conducted a systematic review

  17. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  18. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  19. Significance of (sub) clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Emmy; Vissenberg, Rosa; Land, Jolande A.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Goddijn, Mariette; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity are prevalent among women of reproductive age and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid dysfunction has been proposed but is not widely accepted. We conducted a systematic review

  20. Drug use during early pregnancy: cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsdottir, Thury O; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A

    2014-09-01

    To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p pregnancy (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting.

  1. Timing of pregnancy, postpartum risk of virologic failure and loss to follow-up among HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoya, Dorina; Sineke, Tembeka; Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Fox, Matthew P

    2017-07-17

    We assessed the association between the timing of pregnancy with the risk of postpartum virologic failure and loss from HIV care in South Africa. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6306 HIV-positive women aged 15-49 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, initiated on ART between January 2004 and December 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The incidence of virologic failure (two consecutive viral load measurements of >1000 copies/ml) and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for a visit) during 24 months postpartum were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. The rate of postpartum virologic failure was higher following an incident pregnancy on ART [adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.7] than among women who initiated ART during pregnancy. This difference was sustained among women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl at delivery (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). Predictors of postpartum virologic failure were being viremic, longer time on ART, being 25 or less years old and low CD4 cell count and anaemia at delivery, as well as initiating ART on stavudine-containing or abacavir-containing regimen. There was no difference postpartum loss to follow-up rates between the incident pregnancies group (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.1) and those who initiated ART in pregnancy. The risk of virologic failure remains high among postpartum women, particularly those who conceive on ART. The results highlight the need to provide adequate support for HIV-positive women with fertility intention after ART initiation and to strengthen monitoring and retention efforts for postpartum women to sustain the benefits of ART.

  2. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  3. Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Jonathan R; Kim, Seungtaek; Price, Aryn A; Kohout, Jennifer A; McKnight, Kevin L; Prasad, Mona R; Lemon, Stanley M; Grakoui, Arash; Walker, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Globally, about 1% of pregnant women are persistently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Mother-to-child transmission of HCV occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and accounts for most new childhood infections. HCV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the clearance of acute HCV infections, but in the 60-80% of infections that persist, these cells become functionally exhausted or select for mutant viruses that escape T cell recognition. Increased HCV replication during pregnancy suggests that maternofetal immune tolerance mechanisms may further impair HCV-specific CTLs, limiting their selective pressure on persistent viruses. To assess this possibility, we characterized circulating viral quasispecies during and after consecutive pregnancies in two women. This revealed a loss of some escape mutations in HLA class I epitopes during pregnancy that was associated with emergence of more fit viruses. CTL selective pressure was reimposed after childbirth, at which point escape mutations in these epitopes again predominated in the quasispecies and viral load dropped sharply. Importantly, the viruses transmitted perinatally were those with enhanced fitness due to reversion of escape mutations. Our findings indicate that the immunoregulatory changes of pregnancy reduce CTL selective pressure on HCV class I epitopes, thereby facilitating vertical transmission of viruses with optimized replicative fitness.

  4. Hospitalization for early bonding of the genetic mother after a surrogate pregnancy: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, H; Yahav, J; Peleg, D; Ben-Rafael, Z; Merlob, P

    2001-12-01

    In surrogate pregnancies the genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding to their infant, either prenatally (in utero) or in the immediate postnatal period. The purpose of this article is to describe a new method for encouraging early parent-infant bonding after surrogate pregnancy by hospitalizing the genetic mother in the maternity ward immediately after the delivery. Two genetic mothers were hospitalized in the maternity ward (rooming-in system) at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel immediately after delivery of their infants by surrogate arrangement. The first birth was a singleton pregnancy with vaginal delivery and the second, a twin pregnancy with delivery by cesarean section. The genetic parents were counseled by a social worker from the adoption agency, starting 3 months before the estimated date of delivery. The parents were referred to the hospital social worker before the delivery. To assess attachment, we observed the parents' behavior toward their children during two daily 15-minute periods of free, unstructured interaction. The parents showed good primary caregiving functions and established affective verbal and physical contact with the infants. They began to recognize the infants' needs and temperament, and exhibited an aura of self-confidence during their interactions. All expressed satisfaction with the method at discharge and reported on reduction of their fears about returning home with the infants. We believe that early hospitalization of the genetic mother in a surrogate delivery may be desirable to establish good and safe early mother-infant bonding, and that it should be considered for adoption as regular hospital policy. Further randomized studies with larger samples over the long term are warranted.

  5. Metabolic profiling uncovers a phenotypic signature of small for gestational age in early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Richard P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  6. Effect of Low Dose of Mifeprostone in Capsules combined with Misoprostol on Termination of Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄紫蓉; 王巧风; 杜明昆; 王卫芳; 顾林金

    2001-01-01

    Objective In this double-blind randomized trial, we compare the effect of 75 mg mifeprostone in capsules on termination of early pregnancy was compared with that of 150 mg in tablets combined with misoprostol. Methods A total of 160 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 80 for each group. The capsule group was administered with mifeprostone 75 mg in capsules,placebo tablets and misoprostol 0. 6 mg. The tablet group was administered with mifeprostone 150 mg in tablets, placebo capsules and misoprostol 0. 6 mg.Results The complete abortion rate in the capsule group and in the tablet group was 98. 8% and 97. 5% respectively, with no significant difference (P> 0. 05). There were no significant differences in bleeding time after abortion, side effects, recovery of menstruation or length of menstrual period between the two groups.Conclusion The clinical effect of mifeprostone capsule is the same with that of tablet in combination with misoprostol in terminating early pregnancy, while dose and cost is lower and the side effect is smaller. Mi feprostone capsule is recommended to be widely used for terminating early pregnancy.

  7. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Bilski, Jerzy J.; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from natural mating (NAT-ET), or in vitro fertilization (IVF) or activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared to NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM), and for NAT-ET, IVF and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT-1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin (NP) 1 and 2, angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for VEGF, FLT-1, PGF, ANGPT1 and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development. PMID:24472816

  8. Interferon-γ Expression in Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Cells Is Suppressed in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyun Shi; Bin Ling; Ying Zhou; Ting Gao; Dingqing Feng; Min Xiao; Lin Feng

    2007-01-01

    Recent study has suggested that innate immune system might play an important role in pregnancy progression. In this study, to investigate whether NK cells and NKT cells, instead of T cells, are the dominant populations of peripheral blood in early pregnancy, flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage and intracellular cytokine expressions of T cells, NK cells, NKT cells in peripheral blood of non-pregnant women and early pregnant women.In our result, the percentages of NK cells and NKT cells were significantly increased in pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. However, the percentage of T cells was not changed. We did not detect the Th2-dominance of total lymphocytes or T cells in peripheral blood of early pregnant women and there were also no significant changes of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in T cells, but IFN-γ production in both NK and NKT cells was decreased in early pregnancy. These results suggest that the innate immune system including NK cells and NKT cells should play a pivotal role in pregnancy progression. Type 1/type 2 shift mechanisms in innate immune system during the human early pregnancy should be paid more attention.

  9. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF THE ENDOMETRIUM RECEPTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION IN REFRACTORY PREGNANCY LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Marinkin; D. L. Nepomnyashikh; V. M. Kuleshov; N. A. Ilizarova; T. O. Semchenko; S. V. Aidagulova

    2014-01-01

    Background. Refractory pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactoral pathology in women of reproductive age which treatment represents great difficulties. Great role in RPL pathogenesis is stipulated by chronic endometritis resulting from disturbances of implantation followed by gestational sac malfunction, which is not less significant than progesterone deficiency. Objective. The aim of research was to study the dynamics of ultrastructural changes of endometric epithelial cells in the condition...

  10. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  11. The Effect of Early Excessive Weight Gain on the Development of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Bastek, Jamie A; Thomas, Ann; Mcelrath, Thomas F; Parry, Samuel I; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-10-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between total excessive gestational weight gain and hypertension in pregnancy. However, this may be a reflection of excessive water retention associated with the pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early excessive weight gain, prior to the third trimester, results in greater maternal fat deposition and inflammation, which has also been associated with the development of hypertension. By focusing on early excessive weight gain, the association between maternal weight gain and the future development of hypertension can be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between early excessive maternal weight gain and the development of hypertension during pregnancy. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of 1,441 women without chronic hypertension who were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating maternal angiogenic factors and the prediction of preeclampsia. Initial body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height at the first study visit. Early excessive maternal weight gain was defined as weight gain by 28 weeks that exceeded the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and was calculated utilizing the maximum amount of weight gain per week recommended by the IOM based on the patient's starting BMI (normal: 0.45 kg; overweight: 0.32 kg; obese: 0.27 kg). Hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between early excessive weight gain, initial BMI, and the development of hypertension, including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, during pregnancy. Results Of 1,441 women, 767 (53.2%) had weight gain that exceeded the IOM guidelines in the first 28 weeks and 154 (10.8%) developed hypertension during pregnancy. Women whose weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines were more likely to develop

  12. Religiosity is an important part of coping with grief in pregnancy after a traumatic second trimester loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowchock, F S; Ellestad, S E; Meador, K G; Koenig, H G; Hooten, E G; Swamy, G K

    2011-12-01

    Women (n = 15) who were pregnant after a traumatic late pregnancy loss (termination because of fetal death or serious anomalies) completed psychometric screening tests and scales, including the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Duke Depression Inventory (DDI), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD), and the Hoge Scale for Intrinsic Religiosity (IR). Despite a mean elapsed time since the prior loss of 27 (range, 7-47) months, half (7/15, 47%) of the combined groups had high levels of grief on the PGS. Multiple positive scores on psychometric tests were frequent: Sixty percent (9/15) had high scores on the PGS Active Grief subscale or on the IES. Forty percent (6/15) had a high score on the DDI, and 17% (3/15) on the GAD. IR scores significantly and negatively correlated with scores on the Despair subscale of the PGS. The results from this pilot study suggest that high levels of grief and PTS symptoms are significant problems for pregnant women who have suffered late loss of a wanted pregnancy. Religiosity may play an important part in maternal coping during these stressful pregnancies.

  13. The Role of Metformin in Metabolic Disturbances during Pregnancy: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of gestation implicates complex function of multiple endocrine mechanisms, and disruptions of the global metabolic environment prompt profound consequences on fetomaternal well-being during pregnancy and postpartum. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are very frequent conditions which increase risk for pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, and preterm labor, among many others. Insuli...

  14. Altered autonomic nervous system activity in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kumie; Tomiya, Yumi; Sakamoto, Ai; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2015-06-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity was studied to evaluate the physical and mental state of women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of beat-to-beat temporal changes in heart rate and provides indirect insight into autonomic nervous system tone and can be used to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. We studied autonomic nervous system activity by measuring HRV in 100 women with unexplained RPL and 61 healthy female volunteers as controls. The degree of mental distress was assessed using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale. The K6 score in women with unexplained RPL was significantly higher than in control women. HRV evaluated on standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN) and total power was significantly lower in women with unexplained RPL compared with control women. These indices were further lower in women with unexplained RPL ≥4. On spectral analysis, high-frequency (HF) power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly lower in women with unexplained RPL compared with control women, but there was no significant difference in the ratio of low-frequency (LF) power to HF power (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nervous system activity, between the groups. The physical and mental state of women with unexplained RPL should be evaluated using HRV to offer mental support. Furthermore, study of HRV may elucidate the risk of cardiovascular diseases and the mechanisms underlying unexplained RPL. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Meta-analyses of associations between interleukin-10 polymorphisms and susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We conducted a literature search using the PubMed and EMBASE databases and performed meta-analyses on the associations between IL-10 -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A polymorphisms and RPL, using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of 15 papers involving 1858 RPL patients and 1949 controls were considered in this study. Meta-analysis of IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism revealed no association between RPL and the IL-10 -1082 G allele (OR=0.999, 95% CI=0.815-1.223, p=0.989). However, meta-analysis of IL-10 -819 C/T polymorphism in all study subjects revealed an association between RPL and the IL-10 -819 C allele (OR=0.680, 95% CI=0.498-0.927, p=0.015). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IL-10 -819 C allele and RPL in the Asian group (OR=0.421, 95% CI=0.226-0.783, p=0.006), but not in the Caucasian and Arab groups (OR=1.053, 95% CI=0.218-5.077, p=0.949, and OR=0.800, 95% CI=0.606-1.081, p=0.152, respectively). Furthermore, a relationship between the IL-10 -592 C allele and RPL was identified in the Asian group (OR=0.763, 95% CI=0.633-0.919, p=0.004), but not in the Caucasian and Arab groups. The meta-analyses demonstrate that IL-10 -819 C/T and -592 C/A polymorphisms are associated with RPL susceptibility in Asian women, but not in the Caucasian and Arab populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Foulon

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers.Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood. Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence.A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years.This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

  17. Effect of progesterone on adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyn, K; Smolinska, N; Szeszko, K; Kiezun, M; Maleszka, A; Rytelewska, E; Kaminski, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of progesterone (P4) on adiponectin system genes and protein expression in the endometrium and myometrium during early gestation. Twenty-five gilts were assigned to 1 of 5 groups ( = 5): d 10 to 11 (embryo migration), 12 to 13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy), 15 to 16 (implantation), and 27 to 28 (end of implantation) of pregnancy and d 10 to 11 of the cycle (fully active corpora lutea, corresponding to the corpora lutea activity during gestation). The endometrial and myometrial tissues were cut into 100 mg slices, treated with P4 (10, 100, 1000 nM) and incubated for 24 h. Gene expression was analyzed by the real-time PCR method. Adiponectin secretion was determined by ELISA. Receptor protein content was defined using Western Blot analysis. In the endometrium, on d 10 to 11 of pregnancy, P4 stimulated adiponectin protein secretion. On those days, P4 enhanced adiponectin receptor type 1 () and type 2 () gene expression but inhibited both receptors' protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. During those period, P4 enhanced gene expression but suppressed both receptors' protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 increased adiponectin gene expression but inhibited the protein secretion. During those days, P4 suppressed gene expression and enhanced AdipoR2 protein content. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 enhanced gene and AdipoR1 protein expression ( adiponectin and genes and AdipoR1 protein expression but decreased AdipoR2 protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 enhanced gene and protein expression. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 decreased adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 increased the myometrial AdipoR2 protein concentration and decreased gene protein expression ( adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy, which may suggest the involvement of this adipokine in

  18. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  19. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium int...

  20. Expression of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, N; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Szeszko, K; Maleszka, A; Kaminski, T

    2015-11-01

    Orexin A and B are hypothalamic peptides derived from the prepro-orexin (PPO) precursor. Orexins stimulate food intake and arousal. Those peptides bind and activate two G protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Numerous authors have suggested that orexins play an important role in the regulation of the reproductive functions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast (chorioallantois) during early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the highest PPO and OX1R gene expression was detected on days 15 to 16 of gestation. The OX2R mRNA content in the endometrium was higher on days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 than on days 12 to 13 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, PPO gene expression was higher on days 30 to 32 than on days 27 to 28. The highest PPO protein content in the endometrium was noted on days 12 to 13. The highest OX1R protein content in the endometrium was detected on days 10 to 11, whereas OX2R protein on days 15 to 16. In the trophoblasts, PPO and OX1R protein levels were more pronounced on days 27 to 28 than on days 30 to 32, but OX2R expression was higher on days 30 to 32. The expression of PPO, OX1R and OX2R was different in the conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. Local orexin production and the presence of the specific orexin receptors suggest that the orexin system may participate in the control of porcine reproductive functions by exerting endocrine and auto/paracrine effects on the uterus, conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of orexins and their receptors in the uteri, conceptuses and trophoblasts in pigs during early pregnancy. The local orexin system is dependent on the stage of pregnancy.

  1. The role of magnesium and thyroid function in early pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization (IVF: New aspects in endocrine physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibilla Stuefer

    2015-06-01

    General significance: We propose that magnesium plays a role in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy success independently from anti-Müllerian hormone. Neither thyroid hormones nor thyroid antibodies were related to outcome.

  2. Safety of lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yi; Min Liu; Hao-Dong Cai

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety of lamivudine (LAM) treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy.METHODS:A total of 92 pregnant women who received LAM treatment either before pregnancy or in early pregnancy were enrolled in this study.All of the pregnant women volunteered to take lamivudine during pregnancy and were not co-infected with hepatitis C virus,human immunodeficiency virus,cytomegalovirus,or other viruses.All infants received passiveactive immunoprophylaxis with 200 IU hepatitis B immunoglobulin and three doses of 10 μg hepatitis B vaccines (0-1-6 mo) according to the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B.Adverse events were observed throughout the entire pregnancy and perinatal period,and the effectiveness of lamivudine treatment for blocking mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was evaluated.All adverse events in mothers and infants during pregnancy and the perinatal period and the HBV motherto-infant transmission blocking rate were compared with the literature.RESULTS:Among the 92 pregnant women,spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 cases,while 3 mothers had a second pregnancy after the initial abortion; 72 mothers delivered 73 live infants,of whom 68 infants were followed up for no less than 6 mo,and 12 mothers were still pregnant.During pregnancy,the main maternal adverse events were vaginitis (12/72,16.7%),spontaneous abortion (11/95,11.6%),and gestational diabetes (6/72,8.3%); only one case had 1-2 degree elevation of the creatine kinase level (195 U/L).During the perinatal period,the main matemal adverse events were premature rupture of the membranes (8/72,11.1%),preterm delivery (5/72,6.9%),and meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (4/72,5.6%).In addition,2 infants were found to have congenital abnormalities; 1 had a scalp hemangioma that did not change in size until 7 mo,and the other had early cerebral palsy,but with rehabilitation training,the infant's motor functions became

  3. TH17 cells in human recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Binqing; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2014-11-01

    T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been identified as a new lineage of helper T cells and have been shown to be important in host defense against extracellular infectious agents, autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, TH17 cells have also been shown to participate in successful pregnancy, as well as in the pathogenesis of diseases of pregnancy, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and pre-eclampsia (PE). Here, we review our current knowledge of TH17 cells in human RSA and PE. We also discuss how the local uterine microenvironment affects the differentiation of TH17 cells and the mechanisms that regulate TH17 cells during pregnancy. Research into TH17 cells will not only advance our understanding of TH17-related pregnancy complications, but will also facilitate the design of novel therapies for reproductive diseases.

  4. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  7. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  8. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.

  10. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, U S; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, M; Kilburn, T R; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Mortensen, E L

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1617 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. WPPSI-R. There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes, except that binge drinking in gestational weeks 1-2 significantly reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.96) when adjusted for core confounding factors. The results were otherwise not statistically significantly related to the number of binge episodes (with a maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. We found no systematic association between binge drinking during early pregnancy and child intelligence. However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  11. Predictive value of serum β-hCG for early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinglin; Liu, Yukun; Li, Xuejiao; Jiao, Xuedan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    To examine peak serum levels of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) for prediction of early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In a retrospective study, the medical records of pregnant women with a history of RSA treated at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, China, between January 2011 and July 2013 were reviewed. Serum β-hCG had been measured twice weekly from 5 to 13weeks of pregnancy, and pregnancy was monitored by transvaginal ultrasonography to 13(+6)weeks. Optimal cutoff for peak β-hCG level was determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Youden index. Women were divided into four groups on the basis of optimal peak β-hCG cutoff and pregnancy outcome (pregnancy at 13weeks or spontaneous abortion). Peak β-hCG levels and length of pregnancy at this peak were examined. Overall, 1240 patients were included. The optimal cutoff value of peak β-hCG was 88 468IU/L, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for successful pregnancy of 95.6%, 88.0%, 95.6%, and 89.0%, respectively. A faster rise in β-hCG, higher peak β-hCG, and longer pregnancy length at peak β-hCG were associated with successful early pregnancy. A cutoff value of serum β-hCG of 88 000IU/L could be used to predict early pregnancy outcomes for women with a history of RSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  13. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-08-14

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy.

  14. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  15. Increasing length of an estradiol and progesterone timed artificial insemination protocol decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; De Carvalho, R J; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-03-01

    Our hypothesis was that increasing the length of an estradiol and progesterone (P4) timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol would improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=759) yielding 31 ± 0.30 kg of milk/d with a detectable corpus luteum (CL) at d -11 were randomly assigned to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 2 treatments: (8d) d -10 = controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and 2.0mg of estradiol benzoate, d -3 = PGF2α(25mg of dinoprost tromethamine), d -2 = CIDR removal and 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate, d 0 = TAI; or (9 d) d -11 = CIDR and estradiol benzoate, d -4 = PGF2α, d -2 CIDR removal and estradiol cypionate, d 0 TAI. Cows were considered to have their estrous cycle synchronized in response to the protocol by the absence of a CL at artificial insemination (d 0) and presence of a CL on d 7. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60. The ovulatory follicle diameter at TAI (d 0) did not differ between treatments (14.7 ± 0.39 vs. 15.0 ± 0.40 mm for 8 and 9 d, respectively). The 9 d cows tended to have greater P4 concentrations on d 7 in synchronized cows (3.14 ± 0.18 ng/mL) than the 8d cows (3.05 ± 0.18 ng/mL). Although the P/AI at d 32 [45 (175/385) vs. 43.9% (166/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] and 60 [38.1 (150/385) vs. 40.4% (154/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] was not different, the 9 d cows had lower pregnancy losses [7.6% (12/166)] than 8d cows [14.7% (25/175)]. The cows in the 9 d program were more likely to be detected in estrus [72.0% (269/374)] compared with 8d cows [62% (240/385)]. Expression of estrus improved synchronization [97.4 (489/501) vs. 81% (202/248)], P4 concentrations at d 7 (3.22 ± 0.16 vs. 2.77 ± 0.17 ng/mL), P/AI at d 32 [51.2 (252/489) vs. 39.4% (81/202)], P/AI at d 60 [46.3 (230/489) vs. 31.1% (66/202)], and decreased pregnancy loss [9.3 (22/252) vs. 19.8% (15/81)] compared with cows that did not show estrus, respectively. Cows not detected in estrus with small

  16. Maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the ewe. IV. Changes in luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha throughout early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Niswender, G D

    1986-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the temporal aspects of luteal resistance to the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha during early pregnancy. In Exp. 1, 14 pregnant and 12 nonpregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha either on d 10 or 13 post-estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -30 min, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection for quantification of progesterone. The difference (delta P) between pre-treatment and post-treatment concentrations of progesterone was calculated for each ewe. There was a significant interaction between pregnancy status and day of treatment on delta P (P less than .05). Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes treated on d 10 showed a large delta P. A large delta P also was observed in nonpregnant ewes treated on d 13 post-estrus. However, delta P in pregnant ewes treated on d 13 was smaller than in the other three groups (P less than .05). The temporal patterns of concentrations of progesterone in serum were different among treatment groups (P less than .05). A suppression in the concentration of progesterone was observed by 24 h post-injection in all four treatment groups. Progesterone returned to pre-treatment levels only in pregnant ewes treated on d 13. In Exp. 2, 47 pregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha on d 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26 or 30 postestrus. Blood samples were collected and data were analyzed as described for Exp. 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnant. PMID:27916904

  18. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  19. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  20. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  1. EFFECTS OF MIFEPRISTONE ON THE MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF RABBIT UTERUS IN VIVO DURING EARLY-PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGChang-Song; ZHOUYou-You; XIONGCheng-Liang; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of mifepristone on the mechanical and elec trical activitles of uterus and the sensitivity of myometrium to 15-methyl-PGF2a in early-pregnant rabbits. The effect of termination of early-pregnancy was also observed.

  2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  3. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  4. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines\\/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  5. Prediction of pregnancy outcomes with combined ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and serum CA125 determinations in early threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y J; Chen, M; Chen, S J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of the combination of ultrasound scanning, yolk sacs and CA125 levels for pregnancy outcomes in early threatened abortion. A total 196 pregnant women at less than 12 weeks gestation were enrolled. They were assigned into: (A) normal pregnancy (n = 61); (B) early threatened abortion but with favorable outcomes after active treatment (n = 56); (C) pregnancy with spontaneous miscarriage and threatened abortions (n = 79). The yolk sacs were examined and serum CA125 levels were measured. The visualization rate in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C. For the mean yolk sac diameter, there was a statistically significant difference between groups A and C (p 0.05). The mean serum CA125 levels were significantly different (p ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and measurement of serum CA125 levels is of great value for predicting pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Effect of progesterone, mifepristone, and estrogen treatment during early pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Christenson, R K

    2004-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the influence of progesterone at Days 2 and 3 of pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity. In experiment 1, unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO) white crossbred gilts were given no treatment, estradiol valerate (5 mg given on Days 11 and 12), or progesterone (200 mg/day on Days 2 and 3 after mating). On Day 105 of pregnancy, each fetus and its associated placenta were weighed, and the number of live and dead fetuses was recorded for each litter. Early progesterone treatment reduced (P gestation length was decreased (P swine influence the rate of conceptus development during early pregnancy and uterine capacity during later pregnancy.

  7. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...

  8. Allopregnanolone and social stress: regulation of the stress response in early pregnancy in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Plush, Kate; Yawno, Tamara; Langendijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid metabolite from progesterone, modulates the stress response during early pregnancy. Twenty-five nulliparous sows (Sus scrofa) were allocated to one of three treatments: pregnant, ovariectomized or ovariectomized administered daily intravenously with alfaxalone as a synthetic allopregnanolone analog. On days 5, 12 and 19 of pregnancy, all sows were subjected to social stress by submitting them individually to a resident-intruder test, acting as the intruder. Blood samples were collected to analyze plasma progesterone, allopregnanolone, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations. On day 26, 10 sows across the three treatments were subjected to a dexamethasone suppression test followed by a corticotrophin-releasing hormone administration to test the functionality of their hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through cortisol release. Pregnant sows returned more rapidly to baseline cortisol concentrations following the resident-intruder test (p = 0.006). However, there were no other differences in cortisol or ACTH concentrations according to treatment or day, or to the HPA responsivity test on day 26. Allopregnanolone concentration in pregnant sows was higher than in ovariectomized sows (p pregnancy. Allopregnanolone concentration was correlated with longer resident-intruder test duration (pregnant: r = 0.66, p = 0.0003; ovariectomized: r = 0.47, p = 0.03), reflecting lower aggressiveness, and with progesterone concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.03). Alfaxalone administration raised plasma allopregnanolone concentration in alfaxalone-administered sows but resulted in little behavioral and physiological effects. These findings did not support the hypothesis that the stress response of the female pig changes in the first third of pregnancy. Allopregnanolone was associated with lower aggression in social encounters.

  9. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca(2+) free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca(2+)-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy.

  10. Engaging pregnant and parenting teens: early challenges and lessons learned from the Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheer, Subuhi; Berger, Amanda; Meckstroth, Alicia; Kisker, Ellen; Keating, Betsy

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on data from the ongoing federal Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches to discuss the early implementation experiences of two new and innovative programs intended to delay rapid repeat pregnancy among teen mothers: (1) AIM 4 Teen Moms, in Los Angeles County, California; and (2) Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy (T.O.P.P.), in Columbus, Ohio. Program staff report common challenges in working with teen mothers, particularly concerning recruitment and retention, staff capacity and training, barriers to participation, and participants' overarching service needs. Lessons learned in addressing these challenges provide useful guidance to program developers, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders working with similar populations.

  11. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-11-30

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  12. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  13. Urinary iodine in early pregnancy is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in Tianjin, China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengao; Zhang, Wanqi; Wang, Hao; Ding, Li; Liu, Yaxin; Lin, Laixiang; Zhang, Shuang; Zhu, Mei

    2017-02-17

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and neurodevelopment disorders. Both iodine deficiency and excess are associated with SH; however, few data regarding iodine nutrition status of pregnant women with SH are available. This study aimed to clarify whether iodine deficiency or excess is associated with SH, especially, when test results for anti-thyroid autoantibodies are negative. A total of 115 women with SH and 104 women with euthyroidism (EH) in early pregnancy in Tianjin, China were investigated, and their serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), anti-thyroid globulin antibody (TGAb), urinary iodine (UIC), and urinary creatinine (UCr) concentrations were measured. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed to determine thyroid echogenicity and volume. The UIC, UIC/UCr ratio, prevalence of TPOAb and TGAb positivity, and thyroid gland volume were compared between the EH and SH groups. UIC and ultrasonographic features were analysed in subjects in the SH group who were negative for TPOAb and TGAb. Median UIC of SH (154.0 μg/L) and EH (150.1 μg/L) met the World Health Organization criterion for iodine sufficiency in pregnant women. Neither UIC nor the UIC/UCr ratio differed significantly between groups. The prevalence of TPOAb and TGAb positivity in the SH group was significantly higher than that in the EH group (P Women in early pregnancy with SH in Tianjin were iodine sufficient, but still at risk of iodine deficiency as pregnancy progressed. UIC ≥ 250 μg/L was associated with increased risk of SH. Serological negative autoimmune thyroiditis and UIC ≥ 250 μg/L may play a role in pathogenesis of SH cases with negative results for autoantibodies.

  14. Mexican adolescents’ goals as determinants in the prevention of early pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E Atienzo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to explore adolescents’ intentions related to the early formation of a family. Materials and methods. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974. Results. Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents’ expectations for their child’s education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13. Conclusions. In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.

  15. Social and emotional adjustment following early pregnancy in young Australian women: a comparison of those who terminate, miscarry, or complete pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Craig A; Horwill, Emily; Moore, Elya; Eisenberg, Marla E; Venn, Alison; O'Loughlin, Christina; Patton, George C

    2014-06-01

    To compare social and emotional adjustment including educational attainment and substance use in women who had a child, pregnancy termination, or miscarriage by young adulthood. Data were from a population-based longitudinal study of the health and well-being of 1,943 young Australians (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study) followed from 15 to 24 years of age. The sample was restricted to female participants and based on pregnancies reported by age 24 years. Analyses were adjusted for early teenage depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and parent socioeconomic context. A total of 208 pregnancies (in 170 women) were reported from a sample of 824 young women by 24 years of age. Compared with those who had never been pregnant, those who had a child had lower tertiary education completion and a higher risk of nicotine dependence; those who terminated a pregnancy were more commonly single and had a higher risk of smoking and alcohol use as well as nicotine and alcohol dependence; and those who had a miscarriage had a higher risk of depressive symptomatology and binge drinking as well as nicotine and cannabis dependence. Young women who have been pregnant by their mid-twenties report a range of difficulties in social and emotional adjustment that vary across the different pregnancy outcomes. Broad-based psychosocial health care is essential not only for young women whose pregnancies proceed to live birth, but also for those whose pregnancies end with miscarriage or induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus development or pregnancy outcomes in Korean pregnant women in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyun-Koo; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Han, You Jung; Lee, Si Won; Park, Bo Kyung; Park, So-Young; Yim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The association between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and GDM development remains controversial in various ethnicities. We prospectively assessed whether pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy had an increased likelihood of GDM development or poor fetal growth or pregnancy outcomes compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels. Serum 25-OH-D measurements and fetal ultrasonograms were carried out at 12-14, 20-22, and 32-34 wk in 523 pregnant women. Each woman was screened for GDM at 24-28 wk. There were no differences in serum 25-OH-D levels at 12-14 wk or 22-24 wk of pregnancy between GDM and non-GDM women after adjusting for maternal age, BMI at prepregnancy, BMI at first visit, BMI at GDM screening, gestational age at sampling, previous history of GDM, vitamin D intake, and seasonal variation in sampling. The risk of GDM, insulin resistance, and impaired β-cell function had no association with serum 25-OH-D levels in crude or adjusted logistic regression analysis. GDM was not associated with maternal serum 25-OH-D deficiency during the first trimester or fetal growth during the first and second trimesters. Pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, Apgar 1, Apgar 5 and birth weight were independent of maternal serum 25-OH-D levels during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, neither GDM prevalence nor fetal growth during pregnancy is associated with vitamin D deficiency at the first trimester in Korean women. Pregnancy outcomes are also independent of maternal vitamin D status.

  17. Effects of professional support on nausea, vomiting, and quality of life during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chao-Po; Yang, Yung-Mei; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a professional support (PS) intervention (including individualized health education and supportive phone calls) in reducing the severity of nausea and vomiting (NV) and improving the quality of life (QOL) of women in early pregnancy. An experimental pretest/posttest design with a control group was used. Participants were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The women in the experimental group (n = 40) received the PS intervention, while those in the control group (n = 39) only received routine nursing care. Analysis of covariance and mixed models were used to compare the experimental and control groups while adjusting for covariates. The severity of NV and the perceived level of symptom distress were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group during weeks 2 and 4, and the women in the experimental group showed a significant improvement in their QOL in week 4 (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in body weight at week 4 (p = .501). These findings provide empirical evidence in support of the effectiveness of PS in reducing the severity of NV and improving QOL for women during early pregnancy. This intervention could be routinely applied in prenatal nursing health education. Future studies could apply the concept of PS to different populations and health issues.

  18. Influence of mefloquine administration during early pregnancy on rat embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakdoky, Mai Helmy

    2015-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) is a potent effective antimalarial drug against multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It has been proved that MQ can be given safely during the second and third trimesters. However, there is very limited information on the drug safety during the first trimester. The aim of the present work was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MQ during critical periods of early development. Wistar rats were orally administered with a single dose of MQ (45 mg/kg bwt or 187 mg/kg bwt) on the 1st, 6th or 13th days of pregnancy. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) was chosen as a positive control. On the 21st day of gestation, standard parameters of reproductive performance and fetal examination were estimated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione reductase activity and glutathione (GSH) content were evaluated in placenta and liver homogenates of mothers and fetuses. The results indicated that MQ did not adversely affect the number of implantation, resorption, litter size and fetal body weight and length. Only groups treated with MQ on the 1st day of gestation exhibited significant decrease in fetal body weight. Examination of fetuses for external, visceral and skeletal changes showed minimal variations involving extension of lateral brain ventricles and renal pelvis and signs of delayed ossification. These variations were accompanied with significant elevation of MDA level and reduction of GSH content of fetal liver. Prenatal exposure to MQ at early pregnancy did not cause any embryolethal or teratogenic effect. It could slightly exacerbate minor variations.

  19. Genetic counseling for men with recurrent pregnancy loss or recurrent implantation failure due to abnormal sperm chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Taylor P; Kohn, Jaden R; Darilek, Sandra; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to review recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) due to sperm chromosomal abnormalities and discuss the genetic counseling that is required for men with sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The literature was reviewed, and a genetic counselor lends her expertise as to how couples with RPL and sperm chromosomal abnormalities ought to be counseled. The review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE. Sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to determine if disomy or unbalanced chromosomal translocations are present. In men with aneuploidy in sperm or who carry a chromosomal translocation, pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) combined with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can increase chances of live birth. In men with abnormal sperm FISH results, the degree of increased risk of abnormal pregnancy remains unclear. Genetic counselors can provide information to couples about the risk for potential trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies and discuss their reproductive and testing options such as PGS, use of donor sperm, and adoption. The provision of genetic counseling also allows a couple to be educated about recommended prenatal testing since pregnancies conceived with a partner who has had abnormal sperm FISH are considered to be at increased risk for aneuploidy. We review the literature and discuss genetic counseling for couples with RPL or recurrent implantation failure due to increased sperm aneuploidy.

  20. Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15-16 and 27-28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30-32 of gestation and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15-16 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10-11 and days 12-13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10-16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27-32 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10-11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10-11 and 30-32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12-28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10-13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15-16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin

  1. Natural selection of human embryos: impaired decidualization of endometrium disables embryo-maternal interactions and causes recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Salker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL, defined as 3 or more consecutive miscarriages, is widely attributed either to repeated chromosomal instability in the conceptus or to uterine factors that are poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal cyclic differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs into specialized decidual cells predisposes to RPL, based on the observation that this process may not only be indispensable for placenta formation in pregnancy but also for embryo recognition and selection at time of implantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of mid-secretory endometrial biopsies demonstrated that RPL is associated with decreased expression of the decidual marker prolactin (PRL but increased levels of prokineticin-1 (PROK1, a cytokine that promotes implantation. These in vivo findings were entirely recapitulated when ESCs were purified from patients with and without a history of RPL and decidualized in culture. In addition to attenuated PRL production and prolonged and enhanced PROK1 expression, RPL was further associated with a complete dysregulation of both markers upon treatment of ESC cultures with human chorionic gonadotropin, a glycoprotein hormone abundantly expressed by the implanting embryo. We postulated that impaired embryo recognition and selection would clinically be associated with increased fecundity, defined by short time-to-pregnancy (TTP intervals. Woman-based analysis of the mean and mode TTP in a cohort of 560 RPL patients showed that 40% can be considered "superfertile", defined by a mean TTP of 3 months or less. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cyclic decidualization of the endometrium facilitates implantation yet predisposes to subsequent pregnancy failure by disabling natural embryo selection and by disrupting the maternal responses to embryonic signals. These findings suggest a novel pathological pathway that unifies maternal and embryonic causes of RPL.

  2. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H Mehrparvar; Seyyed J Mirmohammadi; Abbas Ghoreyshi; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Ziba Loukzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence...

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length in pregnancies scheduled for a cesarean delivery: prediction of early spontaneous onset of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Aiello, Elisa; Pietrolucci, Maria Elena; Arduini, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether the cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation is predictive of spontaneous early onset of labor in pregnancies scheduled for elective cesarean section (CS). This was a prospective observational study on 167 women scheduled for elective CS at 39 weeks of gestation. The cervical length was measured ultrasonographycally at 35 to 36 weeks of gestation and the pregnancies characteristics were recorded. The presence or absence of spontaneous onset of labor before the time scheduled for elective CS was related to cervical length and pregnancies characteristics. Of the 167 pregnancies enrolled, 25 (14.97%) underwent early spontaneous onset of labor before the time scheduled for the elective CS. The cervical length was significantly shorter in these women when compared with those delivering with an elective CS (21 vs. 30 mm z=5.49 Ponset of labor in univariate analysis (P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cervical length (adjusted odds ratio 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.61; P≤0.0001) was the only predictor for the early onset of labor. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for the prediction of early onset of labor was 0.844 (95% CI 0.738-0.950) for cervical length as test variable. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that a cervical length onset of labor in pregnancies scheduled for CS and may be useful in individualizing the gestational age for elective CS.

  5. Loss of serotonin 2A receptors exceeds loss of serotonergic projections in early Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Frøkjær, Vibe; Kalbitzer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), postmortem and imaging studies have revealed early and prominent reductions in cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. To establish if this was due to a selective disease process of the serotonin system, we investigated the cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  6. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RI). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition

  7. The Role of Educators of the Deaf in the Early Identification of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that, as identification of hearing loss in infancy becomes increasingly common due to universal newborn screening, early interventionists will need to forge links to health-care providers, to have specialized training in deafness and hearing loss, and to have expertise in providing services to very young children and to children with mild…

  8. Identification of Hearing Loss after Age 18 Months Is Not Early Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the development (at 40 months) of 40 deaf and hard-of-hearing infants whose hearing loss was identified either before 6 months or after 18 months. Infants whose hearing loss was identified earlier scored significantly on tests of expressive language and comprehension/concepts. Results support early hearing screening for…

  9. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake.

  10. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, T S; Okokhere, P O; Asogun, D; Blackie, F F; Nwegbu, M M; Wahab, K W; Omilabu, S A; Akpede, G O

    2011-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently, cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features of SNHL in acute phase of LF. It is a prospective case-control study of LF patients seen with acute SNHL conducted between July 2007 and April 2009 at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Nigeria. The diagnosis of acute LF was based on the clinical features and detection of IgM antibodies and/or positive Lassa virus-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers S36+ and LVS 339 while SNHL was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with PTA and speech discrimination tests. Patients with other acute febrile illnesses were used as control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 11 and Fisher's exact test while level of significance was set at p 0.05). The incidence of SNHL in LF infection is about 13.5% and could be a reflection of a worse disease process. There is possibility of direct viral invasion aside immunological reaction as a causative mechanism.

  11. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many

  12. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early pregnancy: utility for prediction of postpartum thyroid dysfunction and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Parkes, A B; John, R; Harris, B; Lazarus, J H

    2004-08-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in pregnancy are a marker for postpartum (PPTD) and long-term thyroid dysfunction, with variable sensitivity and specificity in PPTD prediction. To test its utility in prediction, we recruited 308 TPOAb-positive (147 developed PPTD (PPTD group) and 161 remained euthyroid [PPTE group]) and 102 TPOAb-negative women (none developed PPTD), in early pregnancy (median, 18; range, 9-19 weeks' gestation). TPOAb levels were higher in the PPTD group (median) (125.2 kIU/L; p < 0.001), and in its hypothyroid (162.4 kIU.; p < 0.0001), hyperthyroid (114.2 kIU/L; p < 0.007), and biphasic (105.1 kIU/L; p < 0.02) variants, compared to the PPTE group (66.7 kIU/L) The incidence of PPTD was significantly higher with TPOAb levels above 58.2 kIU/L (early pregnancy versus postpartum; relative risk, 1.37 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.61] versus 0.78 [95% CI 0.5-1.2]) compared to levels below. The integrated postpartum TPOAb response was higher in the PPTD group (median) (159 kIU/L per week) and its variants (hypothyroid; 199 kIU/L per week; biphasic, 180 kIU/L per week; hyperthyroid, 120 kIU/L per week), compared to the PPTE group (86 kIU/L per week p < 0.004). Median early pregnancy TPOAb levels in the PPTD and PPTE groups correlated well with the postpartum antibody response (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TPOAb in PPTD prediction was 100% (early pregnancy and postpartum), specificity 62% (early pregnancy) versus 41% (postpartum) and positive predictive value 48% (early pregnancy and postpartum). The timing of TPOAb testing, the sensitive assay used and the absence of PPTD in TPOAb-negative subjects contributed to this high sensitivity. We recommend TPOAb in early pregnancy as a useful predictor of PPTD, particularly in populations where PPTD does not occur in TPOAb-negative women.

  13. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24 kg/m(2). High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24 kg/m(2) and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially.

  14. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  15. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  16. Increased oxidative stress from early pregnancy in women who develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Vandita; Rani, Alka; Patil, Vidya; Pisal, Hemlata; Randhir, Karuna; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder, defined as new onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Our earlier study has shown increased maternal oxidative stress at delivery to be associated with poor birth outcome in PE. However, these results were observed when the pathology had progressed and may have been secondary to the effects of the disorder. To understand the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in PE right from early pregnancy, in this prospective study, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in maternal blood at 3 time-points of gestation [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2), at delivery (T3)] and in cord blood. Gene expression of SOD and GPx and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme were also analyzed in the placenta. MDA levels were higher at T1 (p stress right from 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. This may alter placental development and lead to fetal programming of adult non-communicable disease in the offspring.

  17. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  18. Early pregnancy maternal vitamin D concentrations and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dodie L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Qiu, Chungfang; Huang, Jonathan; Grote, Nancy; VanderStoep, Ann; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-05-01

    While associations of vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetes have been well demonstrated, investigations of vitamin D and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reported inconsistent findings. We examined associations of vitamin D status with GDM. In a nested case-cohort study (135 GDM cases and 517 non-GDM controls), we measured maternal serum vitamin D status (total 25[OH]D and 25[OH]D3 ) in early pregnancy (16 weeks on average) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. We calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression models. GDM cases had lower mean total 25[OH]D (27.3 vs. 29.3 ng/mL) and 25[OH]D3 (23.9 vs. 26.7 ng/mL) concentrations compared with women who did not develop GDM (both P-values pregnancy vitamin D status, particularly 25[OH]D3 , is inversely associated with GDM risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A random protein-creatinine ratio accurately predicts baseline proteinuria in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Adi; Draper, Jennifer; Curley, Cara; Sammel, Mary D; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-12-01

    Data surrounding the use of a random urine protein:creatinine ratio (PCR) in the diagnosis of preeclampsia is conflicting. We sought to determine whether PCR in early pregnancy can replace the 24-hour urine collection as the primary screening test in patients at risk for baseline proteinuria. Women requiring a baseline evaluation for proteinuria supplied a urine sample the morning after their 24-hour collection. The PCR was analyzed as a predictor of significant proteinuria (≥150 mg). A regression equation to estimate the 24-hour protein value from the PCR was then developed. Sixty of 135 subjects enrolled completed the study. The median 24-hour urine protein and PCR were 90 mg (IQR: 50-145) and 0.063 (IQR: 0.039-0.083), respectively. Fifteen patients (25%) had significant proteinuria. PCR was strongly correlated with the 24-hour protein value (r = 0.99, p proteinuria (AUC = 0.86). A PCR cut-point of 0.079 yielded a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 57.8%. The resulting regression equation [total protein = 46.5 + 904.2*PCR] accurately estimates the actual 24-hour protein (95% CI: ±88 mg). A random urine PCR accurately estimates the 24-hour protein excretion in the first half of pregnancy and can be used as the primary screening test for baseline proteinuria in at-risk patients.

  20. Molecular Analysis of G1691A Mutation in Factor 5 Leiden and its relation with mtDNA common deletion in Human Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

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    Negin Garoosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In general, miscarriage is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and it is the pregnancy loss before 20 weeks of gestation or birth weight below500 grams. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss is defined as two or more spontaneous miscarriages. Genetic disorders such as mutations can be involved in miscarriage. Considering the importance of this issue, in this study, G1691A mutation of coagulation factor 5 and common deletion mutation in the mitochondrial genome(4977-bp deletion in mtDNA were investigated as factors which can influence miscarriage, especially recurrent miscarriage. Materials and Methods: For this study 41 patients with the history of miscarriage and 48 healthy women with successful delivery were selected and completed the questionnaires which included questions such as miscarriage history, age, blood type and then Blood samples were taken. After extraction of DNA from each sample, the studied mutations were determined using PCR method. At the end, analysis of the results and assessment of other important and effective factors in them was done using Epi Info software and using chi square (X2 test. Results: Among the patients ,there were 29.25% patients with one miscarriage, 65.85% patients with two miscarriages and 4.9% patients with three miscarriages. There was no homozygous genotype in the study of G1691A mutations in both groups, and prevalence of heterozygotes was 17% among patients and 4.17% among controls. On the other hand, frequency of 4977-bp deletion in mtDNA in patients group and control group was 68.29% and 14.58%, respectively. Analysis showed that frequency of G1691A mutations and common deletion mutation in mtDNA in patients group were higher than controls and were statistically significant . Although the opportunity to have miscarriage in GA genotype and carriers of common deletion is more than control, but there is not any correlation between these two mutations and their inheritability and also they

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  2. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  3. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Mendes, Roberta Hack; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-02-13

    Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2) was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (parto imediato segundo o índice de massa corporal (IMC) no início da gravidez. Métodos: A PAS e a PAD foram medidas no 1º, 2º e 3º trimestres gestacionais e aos 30-45 dias pós-parto em uma coorte prospectiva de 189 mulheres com idade entre 20 e 40 anos. O IMC (kg/m2) foi aferido até a 13a semana e classificado como normal (parto (βPAS=0,010; IC95%:0,006-0,014 e βPAD=0,015; IC95%:0,012-0,018). As mulheres com IMC excessivo apresentaram média de PAS maior em todos os trimestres, e de PAD maior no primeiro e no terceiro trimestres. O IMC excessivo no início da gestação esteve positivamente associado com mudanças na PAS (βPAS=7,055; IC95%:4,499-9,610) e na PAD (βPAD=3,201; IC95%:1,136-5,266). Conclusão: A PAS e a PAD diminuíram do primeiro para o segundo trimestre e aumentaram do segundo trimestre até o pósparto. Mulheres com IMC excessivo no início da gestação apresentaram valores mais elevados de PAS e PAD ao longo da gravidez, mas não no pós-parto, quando comparadas às de IMC normal.

  4. Effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, R.; Sharma, S.; Mathur, S.; Prakash, A.O.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium is widely used in fatigue-resistant alloys, nuclear reactors, space device, missiles parts, electronics and other specialized purposes. Workers both in industries and mines are constantly exposed through inhalation or direct skin contact. A number of investigations have been made in different laboratories in relation to its toxicological effects in laboratory animals and humans. The lethal dose (LD/sub 50/) of beryllium nitrate through intravenous route in rats has been reported from our laboratory to be 3.16 mg/kg body weight. But not much is known about its effects on reproductive physiology. The present communication deals with the effect of beryllium nitrate on early and late pregnancy in the albino rats.

  5. Distributions of PCNA and Cas-3 in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Oner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the distributions of proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA and Cas-pase-3 (Cas-3 and their possible roles in implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy at immunohistochemical level. The tissue samples from pregnant animals between gestational days 1-5 were incubated by PCNA and Cas-3 antibodies and the obtained results were evaluated quantitatively. It was observed that PCNA immunoreactivity in uterine luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium reduced as from day 2 of gestation and disappeared as from day 4 of gestation. PCNA staining intensity in stromal cells and myometrium increased gradually with progressing gestation. While Cas-3 immunoreactivity was strongly detected in luminal and glandular epithelium throughout the whole gestational period, its reactivity markedly increased as from day 3 of gestation. In conclusion, it may suggest that the blastocyst implantation induces the uterine luminal epithelial cell death and stromal cell proliferation around the embryo in the uterus.

  6. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  7. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  10. The role of cytokines in first trimester pregnancy losses with fetal chromosomal anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Esin; Karaarslan, Serap; Gene, Mine; Gur, Esra B; Sahin, Nur; Guclu, Serkan

    2015-11-01

    The contribution of local inflammation to the pathophysiology of abnormal choromosomally miscarriages remains unclear The objective of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response at the maternofetal interface of women presenting with first trimester miscarriage with abnormal choromosomally Level of TNF-α , IL-6 ve IL-17 were asseyed using immunohistochemistry technique at decidual and placental bed biopsy samples from 23 women with elective termination of pregnancy 21 euploid and 18 aneuploid missed miscarriages. Immunostainig for TNF-α, IL-6 ve IL-17 has been evaluated semi-quantitatively by 'quickscore' method. We found that the intensity of TNF-α staining was high in the miscarriage group, and this has been found in previous studies. Unlike some previous studies, the intensity of IL-6 staining was higher in the miscarriage groups only in decidual glandular epithelium. The intensity of IL-6 staining was found to be higher in the miscarriage group with chromosome anomaly than in the miscarriage group without chromosome anomaly. There was no significant difference in IL-17 levels between any of the groups. Cytokines are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy but the exact mechanism between them and the mutual regulation relationship were not been fully understood, which need our further study.

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Barrios, Yasmin V; Redline, Susan; Drake, Christopher L; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test questionnaire (FIRST-S) when used in early pregnancy. A cohort of 647 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation to collect information regarding lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. The factorial structure of the FIRST-S was tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed by evaluating the association between the FIRST-S with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted to complement classical test theory (CTT) analytic approaches. The mean score of the FIRST-S was 13.8 (range: 9-33). The results of the EFA showed that the FIRST-S contained a one-factor solution that accounted for 69.8% of the variance. The FIRST-S items showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.81). CFA results corroborated the one-factor structure finding from the EFA; and yielded measures indicating goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.902) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.057). The FIRST-S had good construct validity as demonstrated by statistically significant associations of FIRST-S scores with sleep quality, antepartum depression and anxiety symptoms. Finally, results from IRT analyses suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. The FIRST-S was found to have good construct validity and internal consistency for assessing vulnerability to insomnia during early pregnancy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  12. Assesment of The Efficacy of Thyroid Function Screening in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Temur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To asses the efficacy of screening thyroid function during early pregnancy. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty five pregnant women who attended a secondary center for their first antenatal visits (6-12 weeks of gestation between May 2012 and August 2012 were divided into two groups comprising 94 women regarded as high-risk and 91 low-risk. Maternal serum concentrations of TSH, fT4 and fT3 were measured. The thyroid function of the study group was evaluated for euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism according to TSH, fT3 and fT4 results. Analysis of data were performed, using the SPSS software version 11.5. In all tests, p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: We screened thyroid function in 185 pregnant women, of whom 151 (81.62% were euthyroid and 34 (18.38%  had thyroid dysfunction, with 24 (12.98% in the high-risk group and 10 (5.4% in the low-risk group. When the results of thyroid function tests were evaluated as normal and abnormal, the most statistically significant characteristics for abnormal results were found to be history of antithyroid therapy and thyroid surgery (p=0.005, p=0.015. We would fail to spot about one third of thyroid dysfunctions if only high-risk women were screened. Discussion: Risk-stratified screening for maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy may led to neglected diagnoses of thyroid disorders. Results here indicated universal screening, but the debate regarding the targeting of high-risk cases seems set to continue into the future.

  13. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  14. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  15. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shakarami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%, and 5 controls (5% (p=0.006 so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84. In addition, 7 patients (7 %, and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034, suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL. Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.

  16. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered

  17. Seeking safety and empathy: adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-08-01

    To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions (FGDs) among adolescent girls (10-19 years) and key informant (KI) interviews with health workers. Age for FGD participants ranged from 16 to 19 years. The FGD participants were recruited while seeking antenatal care for their first pregnancy or immunization service for their first child, not being older than 6 months. Six health facilities were selected. Key informants were purposefully selected on the basis of being in-charge of maternity units. Thirteen FGDs comprising of a total of 92 adolescent girls were conducted. The FGDs were held with homogeneously constituted categories; married pregnant adolescents (5), unmarried pregnant adolescents (3) and married or not married adolescents with children (5). Semi structured interviews were held with six KIs who were in-charge of maternity units of health facilities. Latent content analysis technique was used for data analysis. Two main themes emerged; 'feeling exposed and powerless', and 'seeking safety and empathy'. The categories identified in the first theme were "the dilemma of becoming an adolescent mother" and "lack of decision power". In the second theme the following categories were identified: "cultural practices and beliefs about birth", "expectations and experiences", "transport, a key determinant to health seeking", and "dealing with constraints". Adolescents felt exposed and powerless due to the dilemma of early motherhood and lack of decision making power. The adolescent mothers seemed to be in continuous quest for safety and empathy. In so doing they are part of cultural practices and beliefs about birth. They had expectations about the health

  18. Subclinical iron deficiency is a strong predictor of bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claeys Geert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the single most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age and associated with a sizeable infectious disease burden among both non-pregnant and pregnant women, including a significantly elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Overall, little progress has been made in identifying causal factors involved in BV acquisition and persistence. We sought to evaluate maternal iron status in early pregnancy as a putative risk factor for BV, considering that micronutrients, and iron deficiency in particular, affect the host response against bacterial colonization, even in the setting of mild micronutrient deficiencies. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared maternal iron status at entry to prenatal care (mean gestational age 9.2 ± 2.6 weeks between eighty women with healthy vaginal microflora and eighteen women with vaginosis-like microflora. Vaginal microflora status was assessed by assigning a modified Nugent score to a Gram-stained vaginal smear. Maternal iron status was assayed by an array of conventional erythrocyte and serum indicators for iron status assessment, but also by more sensitive and more specific indicators of iron deficiency, including soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR as an accurate measure of cellular and tissue iron deficiency and the iron deficiency log10[sTfR/ferritin] index as the presently most accurate measure of body storage iron available. Results We found no statistically significant correlation between vaginal microflora status and routinely assessed iron parameters. In contrast, a highly significant difference between the healthy and vaginosis-like microflora groups of women was shown in mean values of sTfR concentrations (1.15 ± 0.30 mg/L versus 1.37 ± 0.38 mg/L, p = 0.008 and in mean iron deficiency log10[sTfR/ferritin] index values (1.57 ± 0.30 versus 1.08 ± 0.56, p = 0.003, indicating a strong association between iron deficiency and

  19. Economic evaluation of misoprostol in the treatment of early pregnancy failure compared to curettage after an expectant management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; van der Steeg, JW; Reuwer, PHW; Drogtrop, AP; Bruinse, HW; Mol, BWJ

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased pressure on health care expenses implies that physicians should consider economic aspects as part of the clinical decision-making process. Direct and indirect costs of a strategy starting with misoprostol in treatment of early pregnancy failure as compared to curettage is t

  20. Physiology: Capacity for Hormone Production of Cultured Trophoblast Cells Obtained from Placentae at Term and in Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Problem: There is an increased doubt about the identity of isolated cytotrophoblast cells at term. Therefore, we compared pregnancy serum levels of three hormones [human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and leptin] with the capacity for hormone production of early placentae [EP; 8–13 weeks of gestation (WG)] and term placentae (TP; 38–42 WG).

  1. Deviant early pregnancy maternal triglyceride levels and increased risk of congenital anomalies : a prospective community-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, M.; de Walle, H. E. K.; van Poppel, M. N. M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gademan, M. G. J.

    ObjectiveThe maternal lipid profile could be of importance in congenital anomaly development. This study therefore investigates whether the maternal lipid profile during early pregnancy is associated with major nonsyndromic congenital anomalies (MNCA). DesignProspective community-based cohort study.

  2. Effect of Repeated Stress Treatments During the Follicular Phase and Early Pregnancy on Reproductive Performance of Gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Roelofs, J.B.; Verheijen, R.J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    In pig husbandry, stress is being considered an important cause of impaired reproductive performance. Therefore, an experiment was performed to quantify effects of repeated stressors during the follicular phase and/or during early pregnancy on reproductive performance of gilts. Eighty-one cyclic

  3. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  4. Thyroid hormone availability during pregnancy and early life: determinants, interpretation and consequences : Translating thyroid physiology into clinical epidemiology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis contains studies that investigates determinants of thyroid function during pregnancy and early life. We identified novel determinants such as angiogenic factors, known factors such as hCG and also clinical factors that were incorporated into a prediction model. We also

  5. Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 in rhesus monkey endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Haiyan; WANG Hongmei; LI Qinglei; WANG Juan; ZHANG Xuan; LIU Donglin; LIU Huitu; ZHU Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in the endometrium of rhesus monkey on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the normal menstrual cycle and on Days 12, 18 and 26 of early pregnancy was detected using in situ hybridization. The results showed that Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs were mainly localized in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. The expression of Smad2 mRNA in glandular epithelium was sustained at moderate level on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the menstrual cycle, while the expression of Smad4 gradually increased with the menstrual cycle. Both Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in functionalis glandular epithelium were expressed at the highest levels on Day 12 of early pregnancy, while in basalis glandular epithelium the most abundant expression of both Smads occurred on Days 12 and 18 of pregnancy. On Day 26, both Smads mRNAs were expressed at the lowest levels either in functionalis or in basalis. The data suggest that the epithelium is the major compartment where TGF-βs/activins exert their biological effects via Smads, and that Smad4 may play a role in the maintenance of endometrial gland function during secreting period of the menstrual cycle. During lacunar stage of early pregnancy, Smad2 and Smad4 are implicated in the tissue remodeling of endometrial functionalis and basalis, and during early villous stage both Smads are functional primarily in basalis.

  6. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G and -844G/A variants in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoud, Kalthoum; Herbepin, Viviana G; Touraine, Renaud; Almawi, Wassim Y; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2013-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis, and the common promoter region variants -675G/A (4G/5G) and -844G/A are associated with increased thrombotic risk. Despite evidence linking altered fibrinolysis with adverse pregnancy events, including idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the contribution of PAI-1 variants to RPL risk remains controversial. We investigated the association between the PAI-1 -844G/A and 4G/5G (-675G/A) variants with altered risk of RPL. This was a case-control study involving 304 women with confirmed RPL and 371 age- and ethnically matched control women. PAI-1 genotyping was performed by PCR single-specific primer -675 (G/A) and real-time PCR (-844G/A) analysis. Minor allele frequency (MAF) of 4G/5G (P 5G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly associated with RPL under additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models; no association of -844G/A with RPL was seen irrespective of the genetic model tested. Taking common -844G/5G haplotype as reference (OR = 1.00), multivariate analysis confirmed the association of 4G-containing -844A/4G (P 5G, but not -844G/A, PAI-1 variant is associated with an increased risk of RPL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Significant correlation of angiotensin converting enzyme and glycoprotein IIIa genes polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Fazelnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is considered as the most complex problem during pregnancy. Thrombophilia is resumed as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa gene is involved in thrombosis and abortion. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and is involved in thrombosis. The most common polymorphism in this gene is the insertion/deletion (I/D. Objective: In this study, we analyzed the association between ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C >T polymorphisms in women with unexplained RPL from the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of 100 women with unexplained RPL and 100 controls. The ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphisms were genotyped by TETRA-ARMS PCR. The association between genotypes frequency and RPL were analyzed using χP2P and exact fisher tests. Associated risk with double genotype combinations was also investigated by binary logistic regression. Results: There was significant association between ACE DD genotype and RPL (OR=2.04; 95% CI=0.94-4.44; p=0.036. ACE D Allele was also significantly associated with the RPL (OR=1.59; 95% CI=1.05-2.41; p=0.013. No significant association was observed between GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphism and RPL. Conclusion: ACE I/D polymorphism may probably be a prognostic factor in female family members of women with the history of recurrent abortion

  9. Parity and tanned white skin as novel predictors of vitamin D status in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lb; Abrahamsen, B; Dalgård, Christine

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)......CONTEXT: In pregnancy, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)...

  10. Humoral and cellular autoimmunity in women with recurrent pregnancy losses and repeated implantation failures: A possible role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Skariah, Annie; Wu, Li; Salazar, Dinorah; Sung, Nayoung; Ota, Kuniaki

    2016-10-01

    Women with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and repeated implantation failures (RIF) have auto- and cellular immune abnormalities. Approximately, 20% of women with RPL have autoimmune abnormalities, particularly antiphospholipid antibodies (APA). In addition, these women have a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibody, anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, and other non-organ-specific autoantibodies. In women with RPL, the presence of autoimmunity is often associated with cellular immune abnormalities, such as increased NK cell levels and Th1/Th2 cell ratios. Vitamin D (VD) plays a major role in regulation of auto- and cellular immune abnormalities. VD deficiency is prevalent in women with RPL, and women with VD deficiency have increased auto- and cellular immune abnormalities as compared with women with normal VD levels. VD has immune regulatory effects on various immune effectors including T, B and NK cells. Potential therapeutic application of VD for RPL and RIF with auto- and cellular immune abnormalities should be explored.

  11. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per; Ringholm, Lene; Watt, Torquil; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks. From early to late pregnancy, the SF-36 scales Physical Function, Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Component Summary worsened (p anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P;

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  13. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  14. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Simpson

    Full Text Available Objective: Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1 to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2 to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3 to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Methods: Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women’s Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph’s Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Results: Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001, IL-6 (p = 0.025, and IL-10 (p = 0.006 were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS score. Conclusions: Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  15. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....

  16. Case control study of the factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation frequency in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teremmahi Ardestani, Majid; Nodushan, Hossein Hadi; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies. This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls. These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.

  17. Marginal motherhood: the ambiguous experience of pregnancy-loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much international and scholarly attention for, on the one hand, ‘overpopulation’ or ‘high fertility rates’; and, on the other hand, experiences of infertility. Little light has been shed, however, on the marginal ‘in-between’ situation of women experiencing reproductive loss, that is

  18. Marginal motherhood: the ambiguous experience of pregnancy-loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much international and scholarly attention for, on the one hand, ‘overpopulation’ or ‘high fertility rates’; and, on the other hand, experiences of infertility. Little light has been shed, however, on the marginal ‘in-between’ situation of women experiencing reproductive loss, that

  19. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  20. Gene expression in the mouse brain following early pregnancy exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3,4]. Improvement of neurobehavioural outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure requires greater understanding of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the brain. Here we use a mouse model of relatively moderate ethanol exposure early in pregnancy and profile gene expression in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of adult male offspring. The effects of offspring sex and age on ethanol-sensitive hippocampal gene expression were also examined. All array data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accession number GSE87736.

  1. Effects of Mifepristone Compound on the Receptors of Estrogen and Progesterone in Early Pregnancy Deciduas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金力; 沈维雄; 孙志达; 范光升; 乌毓明; 王寒正

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of mifepristone compound (mifepristone + anordrin) on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in early pregnancy decidua.Materials & Methods A Controlled study was carried out among 60 normal early pregnant volunteers ( ≤ 49 d) in the department of obstetric and gynecology of Peking Union Medical Hospital. The concentrations of ER and PR were measured by radioligand and were compared with the control subjects after oral administration of mifepristone or mifepristone compound in different doses.Results The concentration of PR decreased while that of ER increased significantly in the decidua from all subjects administrated with mifepristone compound. We also found the concentration of EcR in Group 5 (mifepristone 30 mg + AF- 53 5 mg) was the highest among 6 groups. The compound may be in favor of estrogen's action on endometrium.Conclusion The results indicate that mi f epristone compound with AF-53 has a coordinated function and can change the proportion of PR and ER. Hence, it can facilitate abortion. The compound dose of mifepristone 30 mg q- AF- 53 5 mg is in favor of the endometrium recovering.

  2. A preliminary report on the toxicity of arecoline on early pregnancy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Tung; Young, Gau-Chyi; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Areca nut (Areca catechu) is chewed by roughly 10% of the world population, including India, Taiwan and parts of China. Lower mean birth-weight and higher neonatal jaundice were reported in the babies of betel chewing pregnant women in 1982. Although areca nut chewing during pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight and premature delivery, the mechanism of such complications is not entirely understood. A possible contributor, arecoline, a major alkaloid in the areca nut, has been reported to be cytotoxic and genotoxic. To determine the influence of arecoline on reproduction, we study the effects of arecoline on embryos during peri-implantation stages in mice. Mice consuming varying dosages of arecoline were checked for their ability to successfully produce viable embryos. In addition, trophoblast outgrowth from mice blastocysts was evaluated the survival status of the embryos. Our investigation revealed that arecoline decreased the number of implanted embryos in early pregnant mice. In addition, trophoblast outgrowth expansion of blastocysts was also inhibited by arecoline. These observations suggest that arecoline is toxic to mouse embryos as early as peri-implantation. Improved understanding of the effects of arecoline during embryogenesis may help to establish public health policies and to develop potential treatments for such patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics related to early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy among women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis using the GOAL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jessica H; Howards, Penelope P; Spencer, Jessica B; Tsagaris, Katina C; Lim, Sam S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans. Methods Female patients with SLE, ages 20–40 at time of diagnosis, who were 40 years or older at the time of the survey were included in this analysis (N=147). Participants in the Georgians Organized Against Lupus (GOAL) study were asked about their reproductive histories including early secondary amenorrhoea, defined as loss of menstruation before age 40. Results Women who were cyclophosphamide naïve had an increased prevalence of early secondary amenorrhoea compared with population estimates, 13–17% compared with 1–5%. Factors associated with early secondary amenorrhoea in women not treated with cyclophosphamide were marital status and receipt of a kidney transplant. Treatment with cyclophosphamide doubled the prevalence after adjustment for patient characteristics. Over 88% of women reported being pregnant at least once, and about 83% of these had a child, but the majority of pregnancies occurred before diagnosis. Conclusions SLE diagnosed in early adulthood may affect women's reproductive health even if they are not treated with cyclophosphamide. Better understanding of other factors related to reproductive health in this population will improve clinicians' and patients' abilities to make treatment and family planning decisions. PMID:27752335

  4. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  5. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  6. Early disruption of pregnancy as a manifestation of seasonal infertility in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tast, A; Peltoniemi, O A T; Virolainen, J V; Love, R J

    2002-11-15

    All gilts and sows in production from which the detailed production information was available in a 160-sow unit were included to the study. In winter-spring, there were complete data available from 47 animals and in summer-autumn from 64 animals. The farm had a consistent history of the seasonally reduced farrowing rate in summer-autumn. Success of inseminations was monitored during a 4-month breeding period in winter-spring and in summer-autumn. Each animal was bled twice a week for 6 weeks starting a day before insemination and the blood samples were assayed to determine serum progesterone concentration. The blood samples were also assayed for cortisol to detect any acute infectious response. Starting on day 18, animals were pregnancy tested by transcutaneous real time ultrasound twice a week. In winter-spring, the farrowing rate was 72% (58 inseminations, 1.2 inseminations/sow) and in summer-autumn 63% (81 inseminations, 1.3 inseminations/sow). In winter-spring, there was only one detected case of early disruption of pregnancy (EDP), whereas nine such cases were recognised in summer-autumn. Five out of those nine animals returned to oestrus with a mean insemination to oestrus interval of 25.8+/-1.6 days. One sow returned to oestrus 35 days after insemination and three sows did not return to oestrus within 45 days. However, two of these sows had progesterone profiles that indicated an undetected oestrus around day 25. In those nine animals, no acute phase infectious response as indicated by a rise in serum cortisol was evident. Serum progesterone concentrations in the animals eventually loosing the pregnancy tended to be lower on day 13 (no significant difference) and were significantly lower on day 20 when compared with animals remaining pregnant. There was no difference in serum progesterone levels of pregnant animals between winter-spring and summer-autumn. Litter size was not affected by the season. The weaning to oestrus interval tended to be longer in

  7. Early Pregnancy Factor Enhances the Generation and Function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quangang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Chen, Renjin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Peng; Hu, Ankang; Wu, Lianlian; Hua, Hui; Yuan, Honghua

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of fetal semi-allograft acceptance by the mother's immune system have been the target of many immunological studies. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a molecule present in the serum of pregnant mammals soon after conception that has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether immune cells such as CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the suppressive mechanism of EPF. Accordingly, CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells were isolated from spleens of female C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, anti-CD28 antibody and IL-2 in the presence or absence of EPF. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells to CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. We thus found a remarkable rise in the Treg ratio in the EPF-treated cells. Higher mRNA and protein levels of fork head box P3 (Foxp3), a marker of the Treg lineage, were also observed in cells treated with EPF. Furthermore, the effect of EPF on Treg immunosuppressive capacity was evaluated. EPF treatment induced the expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β1 in Tregs. The suppressive capacity of Tregs was further measured by their capability to inhibit T cell receptor-mediated proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. We thus found that EPF exposure can enhance the immunosuppressive functions of Tregs. Overall, our data suggest that EPF induces the differentiation of Tregs and increases their immunosuppressive activities, which might be an important mechanism to inhibit immune responses during pregnancy.

  8. Clinical Pharmacodynamies of Mffepristone (RU486) for Terminationof Early-Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 王忠兴; 汪嵘卿; 范倩; 桂幼伦; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy female volunteers with amenorrhea for seven weeks or less,asking .for legal termination of pregnancy were recruited and divided into 4 groups (6each), The subjects were orally administered with RU486 of 50mg (Group I), 50mgQ12h×6 (Group Ⅱ ), 200mg (GroupⅢ) or 600mg (Group Ⅳ ). Vacuum aspiration( Group Ⅰ) or Methyl Carprost Suppository ( PG05 1.0mg) (Group Ⅱ-Ⅳ) was given 72h after the first dose followed by a 6-hour medical surveillance. Blood samples were collected on day 1-6, 8, 15, 43 to measure the serum levels of β-hCG, E2, P, PRL,ACTH, Cortisol. T3, T4 and TSH in eaeh subject. The results showed that no significant dose-effect relationship was observed in terms of clinical efficacy, vaginal bleeding or side effects, All four groups shared the same tendency of changes in serum levels of β-hCG, E2 and P, β-hCG levels increased by 50-100% (P 0.05). This study indicated that RU486 has no dose-effect relationship when used for interruption of early pregnancy and its main action site seems neither in ovary nor in villi. It has some effects on pituitary-adrenat axis, especially in large dosage, however, it has no obvious impact on pituitary-thyroid axis. It seems that the changes in PRL serum levels were directly due to the drug itself, its clinical significance should be further studied,

  9. HLA-G in human early pregnancy: Control of uterine immune cell activation and likely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Bouteiller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of controversies, the functional importance of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G in early human pregnancy is now sustained by a large amount of sound data. Membrane-bound and soluble HLA-G isoforms, either as β2-microglobulin-free or -associated as monomers or dimers, are expressed by different trophoblast subpopulations, the only fetal-derived cells that are directly in contact with maternal cells (maternal-fetal interfaces. Trophoblast HLA-G is the specific ligand of multiple cellular receptors present in maternal immune and non-immune cells, including CD8, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR B1, LILRB2, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 2DL4, and possibly CD160. Trophoblast HLA-G specific engagement of these cellular receptors triggers either inhibitory or activating signals in decidual CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, natural killer (NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, or endothelial cells. Such HLA-G-receptor specific interactions first contribute to limit potentially harmful maternal anti-paternal immune response by impairment of decidual NK cell cytotoxicity, inhibition of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell and B-cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis of activated CD8 + T cells. Second, these HLA-G specific interactions contribute to stimulate placental development through secretion of angiogenic factors by decidual NK cells and macrophages, and to provide a protective effect for the outcome of pregnancy by the secretion of interleukin (IL-4 by decidual trophoblast antigen-specific CD4 + T cells.

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  11. Julia Rush's diary: coping with loss in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, S B; Melges, F T

    1986-09-01

    Julia Rush (1759-1848), wife of Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), recorded her thoughts over a 33-year period in an unpublished devotional journal. Many of the entries relate to her experience of the loss of Benjamin Rush. Although the diary is inadequate as a source of understanding psychodynamic processes at work, it provides considerable information about Julia Rush's coping behavior. An analysis of this journal reveals that she used three major coping strategies to deal with the loss of her husband: ritualized language, time marking, and cognitive reframing. These devotional meditations also illuminate the way early nineteenth-century religious views shaped Julia Rush's response to loss.

  12. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  13. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  14. Association study of CTLA-4 +49A/G gene polymorphism with recurrent pregnancy loss in the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyadi, Mortaza; Parsa, Sara; Taghavi, Simin; Zeinalzadeh, Narges

    2017-06-12

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more pregnancy losses. T-regulatory cells play an important role in the feto-maternal interface. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a molecule that downregulates the activation and proliferation of T cells. The objective of the current study was to investigate the possible association of CTLA-4+49A/G gene polymorphism with RPL among patients from the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group. The study group/patients consisted of 101 women with the experience of two or more pregnancy losses and the control group consisted of 101 women with at least two live births, without any previous history of pregnancy loss and autoimmune diseases from the same ethnic group. The CTLA-4+49A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms assay. The distribution of CTLA-4+49A/G genotype was AA, 38.61%; AG, 51.48%; GG, 9.9% in patients and AA, 37.62%; AG, 47.52%; GG,14.85% in controls (P-value: 0.2). Furthermore, no association in G-allele was observed in the patient and control groups (P-value: 0.5). The results of the present study suggest that CTLA-4 does not have any association with RPL in the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group.

  15. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child.

  16. 胎盘早剥合并妊高症的诊疗分析%Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy induced hypertension in placental early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新菊; 王晓丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析胎盘早剥合并妊高症的临床诊治措施和治疗效果。方法回顾分析2012年1月至2015年1月期间我院收治的30例胎盘早剥合并妊高症产妇的临床资料,总结产妇的临床诊治措施和治疗效果。结果在本次研究的30例胎盘早剥合并妊高症的患者中,通过常规的治疗和密切监护,30例患者中11例产妇为自然分娩,19例产妇进行剖宫产。其中2例因子宫胎盘卒中而行子宫切除术,2例产妇因胎儿宫内窘迫出现死胎,其余产妇经过治疗后病情得到控制,顺利手术或生产。结论妊高症中最危险的并发症是胎盘早剥,及时有效的治疗措施在胎盘早剥合并妊高症产妇的恢复过程中有着非常重要的作用,临床医师必须做到早发现、早诊断以及早治疗,以使产妇、胎儿转危为安。%Objective to analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of placental early pregnancy complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension.Methods the clinical data of 30 cases of early pregnancy associated with pregnancy induced hypertension in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed retrospectively,and the clinical diagnosis and treatment measures were summarized.Results in this study,30 cases of patients with pregnancy induced hypertension were treated by routine treatment and close monitoring,30 cases of 1 1 cases of ma-ternal natural childbirth,19 cases of maternal cesarean section.Of which 2 cases of uteroplacental apoplexy underwent hysterectomy,2 cases of maternal fetal distress occurred after treatment of maternal fetal death,the disease under control,operation or production.Conclusion the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension in the complications of placental abruption,timely and ef ective measures in the treatment of placental abruption has a very important role in the recovery process with rengaozheng maternal,clinicians must be total =early discovery,early diagnosis and ear-ly

  17. The dysfunction of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells contributes to the abortion of mice caused by Toxoplasma gondii excreted-secreted antigens in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling Chen

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that is highly prevalent in human and warm-blooded animals throughout the world, leading to potentially severe congenital infections. Although the abortion caused by T. gondii is believed to be dependent on the timing of maternal infection during pregnancy, the mechanism remains unclear. This study was focused on the effects of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens on pregnant outcomes and CD4(+CD25(+ Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells at different stages of pregnancy. The results showed that in mice the frequency and suppressive function of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells were diminished after injection of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early and intermediate stages of pregnancy. The abortion caused by T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early pregnancy could be partly prevented by adoptively transferring of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from the mice injected with T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at late pregnancy, but not from the mice with the same treatment at early pregnancy. Furthermore, T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens induced apoptosis of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells of mice in early and intermediate stages of pregnancy by down-regulating their Bcl-2 expressions and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study provides new insights into the mechanism that T. gondii infection is the high risk factor for abortion in early pregnancy.

  18. First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is a predictive factor for early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Banu; Dane, Cem; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) or free β-hCG (fβhCG) in the first trimester can identify women at increased risk of subsequent preterm delivery in the absence of hypertensive disorders. Preterm and early preterm deliveries are defined as those deliveries before completing 37 and 34 weeks, respectively. A total of 868 women were enrolled into this study. According to the level of the markers, the patients were evaluated in three groups: 1 - maternal serum level ≤ 5 th percentile, 2 - between 5th and 95th percentiles, 3 - ≥ 95 th percentile. In the group of patients with a PAPP-A level ≤ 5 th percentile [≤ 0.35 multiples of the median (MoM)], mean gestational age (GA) at delivery, mean birth weight and the number of the cases with early preterm delivery were significantly lower than the others. Mean level of PAPP-A was significantly lower in cases with early preterm than term deliveries (0.58 ± 0.32 versus 1.09 ± 0.69; p = 0.01). Maternal serum level of fβhCG did not show significant difference between these groups (0.84 ± 0.45 versus 1.17 ± 0.77; p = 0.15). Low levels of maternal serum PAPP-A (≤ 0.35 MoM) (Odds ratio = 7; 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.7; p = 0.0048) significantly predicted early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies. Women with low levels of PAPP-A at first trimester have a higher risk of early preterm delivery even in the absence of hypertensive disorders.

  19. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  20. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  1. Early loss of oligodendrocytes in human and experimental neuromyelitis optica lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzos, Claudia; Winkler, Anne; Metz, Imke; Kayser, Dieter M; Thal, Dietmar R; Wegner, Christiane; Brück, Wolfgang; Nessler, Stefan; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Stadelmann, Christine

    2014-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic, mostly relapsing inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS characterized by serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in the majority of patients. Anti-AQP4 antibodies derived from NMO patients target and deplete astrocytes in experimental models when co-injected with complement. However, the time course and mechanisms of oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination and the fate of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) have not been examined in detail. Also, no studies regarding astrocyte repopulation of experimental NMO lesions have been reported. We utilized two rat models using either systemic transfer or focal intracerebral injection of recombinant human anti-AQP4 antibodies to generate NMO-like lesions. Time-course experiments were performed to examine oligodendroglial and astroglial damage and repair. In addition, oligodendrocyte pathology was studied in early human NMO lesions. Apart from early complement-mediated astrocyte destruction, we observed a prominent, very early loss of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as well as a delayed loss of myelin. Astrocyte repopulation of focal NMO lesions was already substantial after 1 week. Olig2-positive OPCs reappeared before NogoA-positive, mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, using two experimental models that closely mimic the human disease, our study demonstrates that oligodendrocyte and OPC loss is an extremely early feature in the formation of human and experimental NMO lesions and leads to subsequent, delayed demyelination, highlighting an important difference in the pathogenesis of MS and NMO.

  2. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure as an early hearing loss predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a promising method to monitor early noise-induced hearing losses. When distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are obtained with a high-frequency resolution, a ripple structure across frequency can be seen, called DPOAE fine structure. In this study DPOA...

  3. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  4. Early loss of primary incisors due to parafunctional tendency--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Keith; Roy, Barnali; Yoon, Richard K

    2012-11-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth associated with a parafunctional habit in a 30-month-old child is reported. Report details, clinically and radiographically, these effects in a very young child and reviews diagnostic possibilities. Early detection and scrutiny by the pediatric dentist is important to determine origin and to rule out periodontal disease as a manifestation of underlying systemic disease.

  5. Early loss of primary incisors due to parafunctional tendency. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Keith; Roy, Barnali; Yoon, Richard K

    2012-03-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth associated with a parafunctional habit in 30-month-old child is reported. Report details, clinically and radiographically, these effects in a very young child and reviews diagnostic possibilities. Early detection and scrutiny by the pediatric dentist is important to determine origin and to rule out periodontal disease as manifestation of underlying systemic disease.

  6. Defining the Developmental Parameters of Temper Loss in Early Childhood: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods:…

  7. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  8. High-frequency audiometry: a means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir H; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed J; Ghoreyshi, Abbas; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Loukzadeh, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies.

  9. A Study of Changes in Uterine Leucocytes During Early Pregnancy in the Mouse-vole Interspesific Pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diah Tri Widayati; Tatsuya Tada; Naoko Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Mouse and vole embryos were allogeneically and xenogeneically transferred into pseudopregnant CD.1 and immunodeficient (seid)female mice,and we investigated the distribution of uterine leucocytes cells in the implantation sites on days 5,6,and 7 of pregnancy. Maerophages were evenly distributed in the endometrium on days 5-7.Neutrophils were rarely seen on days 5-7,but lymphocytes were found throughout the endometrium,often in groups associated with glands or the luminal epithelium.The number of uNK cells increased markedly at the mesometrial uriangle and the outer decidual area in the CD-1 uteri containing vole embryos;by contrast,seid uteri having vole embryos showed almost the same number as those having mouse embryos.Mast cells were present in large numbers at the myometrium,but rarely in the decidua in all types of pregnant uteri.Cells at the myometrium were more numerous in xenogeneic than in allogeneic transfer.Maay mast cells appeared in the inner decidua where xenogeneically transferred vole embryos were dead and aborted.These results suggest the possibility that uterine leucocytes mediate various immunological events in the mouse-vole interspesific pregnancies.

  10. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  11. Early unusual ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2002/2003 compared to other winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goutail

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone reduction in the Arctic is evaluated each winter since 1993/1994 by the transport method (3-D CTM passive ozone minus measurements. The cumulative loss from 1 December to the end of the season ranges from 5–10% during warm winters like 1998/1999, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 up to 30%–32% during cold winters like 1994/1995 and 1995/1996. The 23% cumulative loss observed during the winter 2002/2003 is similar in amplitude to the 20–24% measured in 1996/1997 and 1999/2000 but the timing is different. It started unusually early in December after the occurrence of very low temperature at all stratospheric levels between 550 K and 435 K allowing PSC formation and thus chlorine activation. The early ozone loss of 2002/2003 is well captured by current 3-D CTM models.

  12. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  13. Sex determination using free fetal DNA in early pregnancy: With the approach to sex linked recessive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Monfaredan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prenatal diagnosis is testing for detection of diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. Most of prenatal diagnostic (PD techniques are invasive and done in late stages of pregnancy. Using fetal DNA in maternal blood for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy might help in management of X-linked genetic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of sex determination using fetal DNA in maternal blood at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 pregnant women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The sex-determining region Y (SRY gene expression with the internal control (IC glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was investigated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers and probes. Results: Accuracy of sex determination with SRY gene expression in 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were 85%, 85%, 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that fetal sex determining using fetal DNA in maternal blood is a reliable method for early stage of pregnancy.

  14. The role of eating disorders for pregnancy, neonatal outcome and the child's early development

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of eating disorders (ED) on pregnancy, infant growth and cognitive development. Preliminary reports indicate increased complications during pregnancy and lower birth weight in children of mothers with ED. There is need of prospective long-term follow-up of growth and cognitive development of the children of these mothers. Aims: To study the impact of ED on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, maternal adjustment, and infant growth and cognitive development c...

  15. Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B

    2009-01-01

    score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe...... pregnancy with an OR > 2.0 after complications in the index pregnancy are the risk of LBW and very low birthweight (VLBW) after a threatened miscarriage, the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age and low 5-min Apgar...

  16. Impact of oxidative stress during pregnancy on fetal epigenetic patterns and early origin of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Jose Guillermo Ortega; Echeverri, Isabella; de Plata, Cecilia Aguilar; Castillo, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have led scientists to postulate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases are not well understood. In various animal models, it has been observed that oxidative stress during pregnancy is associated with the early development of endothelial dysfunction in offspring. This phenomenon suggests that endothelial dysfunction may initiate in the uterus and could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Currently, it is known that many of the fetal adaptive responses to environmental factors are mediated by epigenetic changes in the genome, especially by the degree of methylation in cytosines in the promoter regions of genes. These findings suggest that the establishment of a particular epigenetic pattern in the genome may be generated by oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Obesity prevalence in a cohort of women in early pregnancy from a neighbourhood perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alricsson Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence of an association between neighbourhood deprivation and overweight is established for different populations. However no previous studies on neighbourhood variations in obesity in pregnant women were found. In this study we aimed to determine whether obesity during early pregnancy varied by neighbourhood economic status. Methods A register based study on 94,323 primiparous pregnant women in 586 Swedish neighbourhoods during the years 1992–2001. Multilevel technique was used to regress obesity prevalence on socioeconomic individual-level variables and the neighbourhood economic status. Five hundred and eighty-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001, were included. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. Results Seven per cent of the variation in obesity prevalence was at the neighbourhood level and the odds of being obese were almost doubled in poor areas. Conclusion Our findings supports a community approach in the prevention of obesity in general and thus also in pregnant women.

  18. HYPERTENSIVE CHOROIDOPATHY AS AN UNCOMMON CAUSE S OF VISUAL LOSS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijnya Birajita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HISTORY: A 30 year old lady in her 32 weeks gestation period was referred to our ophthalmology clinic with chief complaints of diminution of vision in both eyes for 4 months duration. Her medical history was suggestive of uncontrolled hypertension. On Ophthalmic evaluation she had best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 in both eyes with normal color vision. Her pupils were bilaterally equal in size and normally reacting to light. The intraocular pressure was within normal range and anterior segment evaluation was within normal limits. Dilated fundus evaluation revealed only arterio - venous crossing changes, mottled retina and resolving hard exudates in both eyes [Fig 1a, & 1 b]. The fundus picture could not explain the severity of vision loss in the patient which prompted us for further workup.

  19. EFFECT OF EARLY PREGNANCY BODY MASS INDEX ON PREGNANCY OUTCOMES IN WOMEN DELIVERING SINGLETON BABIES- AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vishnu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Maternal overweight/obesity causes many complications during pregnancy and delivery. It can also increase neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. BMI is an important measure of under/overweight. This observational study examines the correlation between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI with maternal outcome in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, for a period of one year. A sample of 300 pregnant women with intrauterine pregnancy of gestational age <12 weeks at first visit was taken for this study with an age between 18 and 35 years with singleton pregnancy. BMI of these women were calculated and they were classified into two categories (BMI <23 kg/m2 and BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . The Chi-square test was done to find the association of BMI and various maternal outcomes. RESULTS In the sample of 300 pregnant women, 39% were having BMI <23 kg/m2 and 61% were having BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . Pregnant women with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 were found to have significantly increased risk of developing gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes and macrosomia. We found that a significantly increased need of induction and increased risk of developing intrapartum and postpartum complications in those with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . Our study also found out that an increased incidence of elective as well as emergency caesareans and increased risk of neonatal complications in women whose BMI ≥23 kg/m2 . CONCLUSION Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes are significantly related to extremes of BMI categories and least complications were seen in normal BMI group. Therefore, it is ideal to reduce the body weight to an optimal level so that the complications, which are attributed to overweight and obesity can be reduced. We recommended future research on the association of BMI and maternal outcomes involving large samples comparable to those done in developed countries.

  20. Increased glycine-amidated hyocholic acid correlates to improved early weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Krause, Crystal; Helm, Melissa C; McBride, Corrigan L; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Alamoudi, Jawaher; Kothari, Vishal; Alnouti, Yazen; Kohli, Rohit

    2017-08-04

    Bile acids (BAs) are post-prandial hormones that play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as energy expenditure. Total and glycine-amidated BAs increase after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and correlate to improved metabolic disease. No specific bile acid subtype has been shown conclusively to mediate the weight loss effect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the comprehensive changes in meal-stimulated BAs after SG and determine if a specific change in the BA profile correlates to the early weight loss response. Patients were prospectively enrolled at the University of Nebraska Medical Center who were undergoing a SG for treatment of morbid obesity. Primary and secondary plasma bile acids and their amidated (glycine, G-, or taurine, T-) subtypes were measured at fasting, 30 and 60 min after a liquid meal performed pre-op, and at 6 and 12 weeks post-op. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the hour meal test for each bile acid subtype. BAs that were significantly increased post-op were correlated to body mass index (BMI) loss. Total BA AUC was significantly increased at 6