Sample records for early precambrian weathering

  1. Fossil Microorganisms and Formation of Early Precambrian Weathering Profiles (United States)

    Rozanov, A. Yu; Astafieva, M. M.; Vrevsky, A. B.; Alfimova, N. A.; Matrenichev, V. A.; Hoover, R. B.


    Weathering crusts are the only reliable evidences of the existence of continental conditions. Often they are the only source of information about exogenous processes and subsequently about conditions under which the development of the biosphere occurred. A complex of diverse fossil microorganisms was discovered as a result of Scanning Electron Microscope investigations. The chemical composition of the discovered fossils is identical to that of the host rocks and is represented by Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg. Probably, the microorganisms fixed in rocks played the role of catalyst. The decomposition of minerals comprising the rocks and their transformation into clayey (argillaceous) minerals, most likely occurred under the influence of microorganisms. And may be unique weathering crusts of Early Precambrian were formed due to interaction between specific composition of microorganism assemblage and conditions of hypergene transformations. So it is possible to speak about colonization of land by microbes already at that time and about existence of single raw from weathering crusts (Primitive soils) to real soils.

  2. Bimodal tholeiitic-dacitic magmatism and the Early Precambrian crust (United States)

    Barker, F.; Peterman, Z.E.


    Interlayered plagioclase-quartz gneisses and amphibolites from 2.7 to more than 3.6 b.y. old form much of the basement underlying Precambrian greenstone belts of the world; they are especially well-developed and preserved in the Transvaal and Rhodesian cratons. We postulate that these basement rocks are largely a metamorphosed, volcanic, bimodal suite of tholeiite and high-silica low-potash dacite-compositionally similar to the 1.8-b.y.-old Twilight Gneiss - and partly intrusive equivalents injected into the lower parts of such volcanic piles. We speculate that magmatism in the Early Precambrian involved higher heat flow and more hydrous conditions than in the Phanerozoic. Specifically, we suggest that the early degassing of the Earth produced a basaltic crust and pyrolitic upper mantle that contained much amphibole, serpentine, and other hydrous minerals. Dehydration of the lower parts of a downgoing slab of such hydrous crust and upper mantle would release sufficient water to prohibit formation of andesitic liquid in the upper part of the slab. Instead, a dacitic liquid and a residuum of amphibole and other silica-poor phases would form, according to Green and Ringwood's experimental results. Higher temperatures farther down the slab would cause total melting of basalt and generation of the tholeiitic member of the suite. This type of magma generation and volcanism persisted until the early hydrous lithosphere was consumed. An implication of this hypothesis is that about half the present volume of the oceans formed before about 2.6 b.y. ago. ?? 1974.

  3. The Quest to Understand the Secrets of Early Earth - Clues from Precambrian Paleointensity Data (United States)

    Piispa, E. J.; Smirnov, A. V.


    Experimental data on the strength of Earth's magnetic field during the Precambrian have the potential to provide critical insights into the early evolution of our planet. However, paleointensity determination, especially on such ancient material, represents one of the most challenging aspects of paleomagnetic research. Consequently, although the Precambrian covers more than 85 percent of the entire geological record, the Precambrian paleointensities comprise only five percent of the available data and are characterized by an uneven temporal distribution. Despite these limitations, Precambrian paleointensity data have been used to explore many important questions of Earth's evolution including the inter-relatedness between the geodynamo and Earth's thermal evolution, the age of the inner core and core thermal conductivity, the magnetospheric shielding and atmospheric chemistry, and others. We will review the current state of the Precambrian paleointensity record and discuss its implications for understanding the geodynamo and Earth system evolution.

  4. Baltica from the Late Precambrian to the Early Ordovician (United States)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Cocks, L. R.


    Current thinking supports the existence of the Rodinia supercontinent which consolidated at perhaps 1100 to 1000 million years ago and most probably disintegrated somewhere before 800 Ma. Within the Rodinian collage, Baltica was adjacent to, and probably welded to, Laurentia, with the modern eastern (Uralian) part of Baltica conjugate with the north of Laurentia. Laurentia was in turn attached to the South American terranes of Rio Plata and Amazonia, and possibly also West Africa. Baltica became an independent terrane when it split off from Laurentia, leaving a widening Iapetus Ocean between the two. When this rifting actually commenced is a matter of dispute due to very conflicting palaeomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica; however, we favor that the southern part of the Iapetus, between Laurentia and South America, opened first at about 570 Ma and that this rifting spread gradually northwards until Baltica separated from Laurentia at approximately 550 Ma, near the end of Precambrian time at 543 Ma. New palaeomagnetic and geochronological data from the 616-610 Ma Egersund Dykes (SW Baltica) place Baltica at the south pole whereas subsequent Late Precambrian to Early Cambrian poles places Baltica at lower latitudes. During the late and middle Vendian, the NW margin of Baltica changed from an extensional tectonic regime to an active margin (Timanian Orogeny) in which microcontinental blocks in the Timan-Pechora, northern Ural and Novaya Zemlya areas were united with Baltica at 550-560 Ma. Largely between Middle Cambrian and Middle Ordovician times, the whole large terrane of Baltica underwent a very substantial rotation of about 120°, the maximum rate of this rotation occurred in late Cambrian and early Ordovician times. Much of the craton of Baltica appears to have been submerged under shelf seas for long parts of this time, which lasted from 544 to 490 Ma. As a consequence the olenid trilobite fauna represent a fauna living largely in niches which were

  5. 40Ar/39Ar dating of exceptional concentration of metals by weathering of Precambrian rocks at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnell, John; Mark, Darren F.; Frei, Robert


    The sub-Cambrian surface, including diverse metalliferous deposits, shows evidence of intense weathering of Precambrian rocks to form supergene-enriched ores and metalliferous placers, followed by widespread peneplanation. Much of the metal would have been flushed to the Cambrian ocean during pen...... with mobilization on land of redox sensitive metals by oxidative terrestrial weathering. This unprecedented flushing of metals from the weathered Precambrian surface would have contributed to the chemistry of the earliest Cambrian ocean at a time of marked faunal evolution.......The sub-Cambrian surface, including diverse metalliferous deposits, shows evidence of intense weathering of Precambrian rocks to form supergene-enriched ores and metalliferous placers, followed by widespread peneplanation. Much of the metal would have been flushed to the Cambrian ocean during...


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    A. I. Slabunov


    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the crustal evolution of the Early Precambrian Belomorian and Trans-North China orogens (Fig. 1 has shown [Slabunov et al., 2015] that: Both belts were formed by the superposition of two Precambrian orogenies. The earth crust of the Belomorian belt was produced during the Mesoarchaean to Neoarchaean Belomorian collisional orogeny [Slabunov, 2008; Slabunov et al., 2006] and then was reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional orogeny [Daly at al., 2006; Balagansky et al., 2014]. The earth crust of the Trans-North China orogen was formed during a Neoarchean accretionary orogeny and then was reworked during a Paleoproterozoic collisional orogeny [Zhao et al., 2012; Guo et al., 2012, 2005]. The Lapland granulite belt is the core of the Lapland-Kola Palaeoproterozoic collisional orogen in the Fennoscandian shield and the Khondolite belt occupies the same tectonic position in a Palaeoproterozoic collisional orogen in the North China craton.

  7. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian


    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA=66–71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline iswell preserved,whereas plagioclase...... the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transportmodel (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results...... to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71–72, PIA=94–96), the GadebyMember in the Borggård borehole (CIA=52–69, PIA=56–99) and an outcrop in Nexø, eastern Bornholm (CIA = 52–66, PIA = 61–96), have endured similar degrees of weak to moderate weathering...

  8. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj


    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  9. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.


    . Tintinnids first appear in the mid-Mesozoic, like other modern planktic groups, including planktic foraminifera, new types of radiolarians, and a host of skeletal micro-algae. Microbial eukaryotes track algal eukaryote and metazoan evolution—none or very few in the Precambrian, some in the early Paleozoic with radiations in the later Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, with extinctions ( 30) reducing their biodiversity at particular times in the fossil record—thus indicating strong environmental selection on all marine groups.

  10. The Early Years: The Wonders of Weather (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    This article reports on the wonders of winter weather, as it often inspires teachers' and students' interest in collecting weather data, especially if snow falls. Beginning weather data collection in preschool will introduce children to the concepts of making regular observations of natural phenomena, recording the observations (data),…

  11. Precambrian glaciations and the evolution of the atmosphere

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    J. H. Carver

    Full Text Available Precambrian glaciations appear to be confined to two periods, one in the early Proterozoic between 2.5 and 2 Gyears BP (Before Present and the other in the late Proterozoic between 1 and 0.57 Gyear BP. Possible reasons for these broad features of the Precambrian climate have been investigated using a simple model for the mean surface temperature of the Earth that partially compensates for the evolution of the Sun by variations in the atmospheric CO2 content caused by outgassing, the formation of continents and the weathering of the Earth's land surface. It is shown that the model can explain the main changes in the Precambrian climate if the early Proterozoic glaciations were caused by a major episode of continental land building commencing about 3 Gyears BP while the late Proterozoic glaciations resulted from biologicallyenhanced weathering of the land surface due to the proliferation of life forms in the transition from the Proterozoic to the Phanerozoic that began about 1 Gyear BP.

  12. Precambrian glaciations and the evolution of the atmosphere

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    J. H. Carver


    Full Text Available Precambrian glaciations appear to be confined to two periods, one in the early Proterozoic between 2.5 and 2 Gyears BP (Before Present and the other in the late Proterozoic between 1 and 0.57 Gyear BP. Possible reasons for these broad features of the Precambrian climate have been investigated using a simple model for the mean surface temperature of the Earth that partially compensates for the evolution of the Sun by variations in the atmospheric CO2 content caused by outgassing, the formation of continents and the weathering of the Earth's land surface. It is shown that the model can explain the main changes in the Precambrian climate if the early Proterozoic glaciations were caused by a major episode of continental land building commencing about 3 Gyears BP while the late Proterozoic glaciations resulted from biologicallyenhanced weathering of the land surface due to the proliferation of life forms in the transition from the Proterozoic to the Phanerozoic that began about 1 Gyear BP.

  13. The Early Years: About the Weather (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    Observing and documenting elements of weather teach children about using tools and their senses to learn about the environment. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue describes an activity where students indirectly document local weather by counting outdoor clothing types worn…

  14. Cuatro Ciénegas Basin an analog of precambrian Earth and possible early mars scenario. (Invited) (United States)

    Souza, V.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Sierfert, J.


    In the present, the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) is in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. However, in the early Triasic, the sea penetrated the region of CCB with the opening of Pangea and became a continental wetland with the closing the western interior seaway only 35 million years ago. Its particular tectonics made of CCB a valley surrounded by high sierras that rose above the sea level 700 mt. All available molecular data lead us to suggest that these ancient marine microbial mats have persisted for a very long time and during all that time, the living microbial community evolved and diversified locally due to the rarity of migration and sex. The struggle for life in these structured communities generated uncountable new species that had to deal with the environment, the neighbors and most of all with the extreme lack of P. What for a long time represented the most successful community assemblage in the history of planet Earth, became mostly extinct in modern earth. The herbivores and the competition with algae left few relict communities in extreme environments such as CCB, Shark Bay and Guerrero Negro. Lets remember that stromatolite reefs have fossils as old as 3.6 billion years and that they became so successful that they changed the planet atmosphere producing the great oxygenation event. We also have data that at CCB these extensive microbialites are very patchy and differentiated both taxonomically and genetically, implying that, even though they may look as a continuum in the wetlands, each patch has been geographically isolated for a long time allowing each community to diverge in its composition. All these particularities of CCB arise because, due to its unusual geology, the valley floor was never buried, hence its marine sediment, with extensive microbial mats, always had sun and water, maintaining both the ancient lineages and the oligotrophic conditions that characterized early earth. The lack of P (less than 0.05 n

  15. Basalt Weathering and the Volatile Budget of Early Mars (United States)

    Baker, L. L.


    Basalt weathering on Earth consumes CO2 and water and may have affected terrestrial climate. I apply a mass balance derived from terrestrial data to examine the effect surficial basalt weathering may have had on the CO2 budget of early Mars.

  16. An introduction to Precambrian basins: their characteristics and genesis (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Martins-Neto, M. A.; Nelson, D. R.; Aspler, L. B.; Chiarenzelli, J. R.; Catuneanu, O.; Sarkar, S.; Altermann, W.; Rautenbach, C. J. de W.


    Precambrian and younger basins reflect the interaction of sediment supply and subsidence; the latter is generally ascribed to tectonic, magmatic and related thermal processes. The interplay of supply and subsidence is further modified by eustasy and palaeoclimate. Problems and enigmas inherent in analysis of Precambrian basin-fills include: a spectrum of ideas on the maximum age of Phanerozoic-style plate tectonics in the rock record; Archaean heat flow up to two to three times present values; changes in magmatism over time (including global magmatic events); the evolution of atmospheric composition and of life and their influence on weathering, erosion and sediment supply rates; degree of preservation, deformation and metamorphism, and preservational bias (especially of intracratonic basins which would lack evidence for early plate tectonics); a limited rock record; poor age constraints, inherent errors in geochronological techniques and difficulty in dating the time of deposition of sedimentary rocks. Major influences on Precambrian basin formation are assumed to include magmatism, plate tectonics, eustasy and palaeoclimate, all of which interacted. Models for greenstone belt evolution include plate tectonic intra-oceanic generation, plume-generated oceanic plateau, and global catastrophic magmatic events that may have been transitional to a plate tectonic regime over several hundred million years. The latter transition may have included the onset of the supercontinent cycle. Insignificant preservation of Precambrian ocean floor makes evaluation of these models problematic. Eustasy was intrinsically related to continental crustal growth rates, continental freeboard and the hypsometric curves of emerging cratons. Possible maximum crustal growth rates near the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary led to globally elevated sea levels, and the formation of enormous carbonate-banded iron formation platforms where cyanobacterial mats, which produced oxygen, flourished. The

  17. Africa and Precambrian biological evolution

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    A. H. Knoll


    Full Text Available African sedimentary rocks and their contained fossils have played a fundamental role in the unravelling of Precambrian biological history. Various lines of evidence including stromatolites, filamentous and coccoidal microfossils, stable isotope ratios, organic carbon distribution, and oxide facies iron formation suggest that a complex prokaryotic ecosystem fueled by photosynthesis, and perhaps including aerobic photoautotrophs, existed as early as 3 500 m.y. ago. The primary sources of data on early Archean life are rock sequences in southern Africa and Australia. The diversity of later Archean (ca. 2 700 m.y. communities is attested to by abundant and varied stromatolites found in Zimbabwe. The extensive growth and consolidation of continents that heralded the Proterozoic Eon had profound effects on the earth’s biota. Primary productivity must have increased substantially, resulting in the establishment of an 02-rich atmosphere, and, subsequently, the radiation of aerobic respirers. Southern African sequences provide critical evidence bearing on this crust/atmosphere/biota interaction; however, the best known microfossils of this age come from North America. Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks abound in Africa. Stromatolites from northwestern Africa have been well studied; however, microfossil occurrences remain but sketchily described. Contemporaneous sequences from Scandinavia and Australia document the initial radiation of eukaryotes in the planktonic realm, as well as a terminal Precambrian episode of extinction among plankters. Early heterotrophic protists are known from several continents. The Nama Group of South West Africa/Namibia contains important evidence of early invertebrates. In general, Precambrian evolution can be viewed as a series of increasingly elevated biological plateaus connected by steps marking relatively short periods of evolutionary innovation and radiation. With each step, communities have increased in complexity

  18. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David


    Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

  19. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

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    Yusheng Wan


    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  20. Consensus in a Precambrian garden (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    At the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, the course of life on Earth underwent a dramatic change that culminated in the rise of predators and other complex animals, a group of paleontologists agreed at a conferece last week.Just prior to 590 million years ago, the ecology of life in the oceans was very simple; soft-shelled multicellular animals called Ediacara lived in apparent harmony with vast mats o f bacteria and algae that covered the seafloor, dependent on the photosynthesis or chemosynthesis of their one-celled hosts for their existence. According to the consensus reached by the scientists, this symbiotic and apparently global “Garden of Ediacara” fell early in the Cambrian Period, as the mats declined and food chains multiplied with new animals that, for the first time in Earth's history, preyed on other living things.

  1. The Role of Kenya Meteorological Service in Weather Early Warning in Kenya

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    Zablon W. Shilenje


    Full Text Available Early warning in weather forecasting entails provision of timely and effective weather information that allows individuals, organisations, or communities exposed to likely weather hazards to take action that avoids or reduces their exposure to risks. Various sectors have developed different ways to mitigate the effects of climate anomalies. The study reviews the existing monitoring and response structures, and communications flow channels of weather data at different levels, focusing on the role of Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS. The methodology employed was literature review of various documents. The study argues that early warning and weather information communication are essential elements for effective governance of weather risks through a well-developed warning system. At the end, the study recommends strengthening the existing structures with respect to weather monitoring, processing, and dissemination of weather products to end users.

  2. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

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    Jack Green


    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  3. Training Early Career Space Weather Researchers and other Space Weather Professionals at the CISM Space Weather Summer School (United States)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W.


    This talk will outline the organization of a summer school designed to introduce young professions to a sub-discipline of geophysics. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models of the space environment. Graduate students attend from both inside and outside CISM, from all the sub-disciplines involved in space weather (solar, heliosphere, geomagnetic, and aeronomy), and from across the nation and around the world. In addition, between 1/4 and 1/3 of the participants each year are professionals involved in space weather in some way, such as: forecasters from NOAA and the Air Force, Air Force satellite program directors, NASA specialists involved in astronaut radiation safety, and representatives from industries affected by space weather. The summer school has adopted modern pedagogy that has been used successfully at the undergraduate level. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the morning lectures, student interaction is encouraged using "Timeout to Think" questions and peer instruction, along with question cards for students to ask follow up questions. During the afternoon labs students, working in groups of four, answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. Through the interactions with each other and the instructors, as well as social interactions during the two weeks, students network and form bonds that will last them through out their careers. We believe that this summer school can be used as a model for summer schools in a wide variety of disciplines.

  4. Paleosols and their relevance to Precambrian atmospheric composition (United States)

    Palmer, J A; Phillips, G N; McCarthy, T S


    Various paleosols have been reported from within the Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups, South Africa. They were studied in an attempt to constrain the amount of oxygen available in the atmosphere during deposition of the gold- and uranium-bearing Witwatersrand conglomerates. The majority of these horizons do not have any physical characteristics of paleosols, and none of them have a chemistry consistent with weathering, suggesting they have been subjected to modification by later alteration processes. A similar chemistry, indicating overprinting of any original soil chemistry, has been reported from paleosols elsewhere (Elliot Lake region, Canada; Hekpoort basalt, South Africa), but it does not appear that significant cognizance has been taken of this fact when using these paleosols to determine the composition of the Precambrian atmosphere. It is concluded here that characteristics previously attributed to Precambrian weathering in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere are better explained by post-burial, hydrothermal alteration along lithological contacts.

  5. Morphotype disparity in the Precambrian (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Reitner, Joachim; Braiser, Martin; Donoghue, Phil; Schirrmeister, Bettina


    Prokaryotes have dominated life on Earth for over 2 billion years. Throughout the Precambrian, prokaryotes acted as the major biological impetus for both large and small scale environmental changes. Yet, very little is known about the composition, diversity and evolution of ancient microbial communities due to poor preservation during the Precambrian period. Previous studies of fossils that date to this period relied mainly on light microscopy to identify microfossil morphology and abundance, with limited success. Here we present novel analyses of the microbial remains found in Precambrian stromatolites using Synchrotron Radiation x-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Microfossils found in samples of three Precambrian deposits, 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool, Australia, 2.1 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, and 650 Ma Rasthof Cap Carbonate, Namibia, have been reconstructed in 3D. Based on four scans from each sample, we estimated size and abundance of spheroidal microfossils within those deposits. Our findings show that while cell abundance decreased towards the end of the Precambrian, the biovolume of microfossils within the host rock remained relatively constant. Additionally, both size and disparity increase through time. Constant biovolumes and yet different sizes for these three deposits, point towards a negative correlation of large cell size and cell abundance. This negative correlation indicates that the systems in which these prokaryotes lived may have been biolimited. Both, gas exchange and nutrient uptake in prokaryotes function via diffusion. Therefore, one would expect bacteria to evolve towards an increasing surface to volume ratio. Increased cell sizes, and hence decreased overall surface to volume ratio observed in our data, suggest the influence of other selective factors. Decreased abundance and increased cell size could potentially be associated to changes in nutrient availability and the occurrence of predation. As cells increased in size, more nutrients would

  6. Patterns of sedimentation in the Precambrian (United States)

    Eriksson, Patrick G.; Catuneanu, Octavian; Sarkar, Subir; Tirsgaard, Henrik


    The principle of uniformitarianism may be applied to Precambrian basin evolution and to the sedimentary record as a whole. The major difference in the Precambrian Eon lay in variability of rates and intensities of processes controlling weathering, erosion, transport, deposition, lithification, and diagenesis. This paper examines Precambrian sedimentation patterns within the larger framework of Earth evolution. Pre-rock record sedimentation probably comprised deep water oceanic realms within which meteoritic and cometary impact events generated very large tsunamis, resulting in very coarse volcaniclastic detritus combined with fine dust settling out of suspension, all reworked by marine current systems and localised turbidites. From c. 4 to 3.2 Ga, greenstone belts provided the predominant settings for the thin passive margin carbonates, BIF, stromatolitic evaporites, pelites and quartzites, and lesser synorogenic turbidites, conglomerates, and sandstones that accompanied the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks typical of these settings. Common palaeoenvironments were high gradient alluvial fans, low sinuosity braided rivers, and relatively shallow marine settings, subject to wave and tidal action, and turbidity currents. Although continental crustal growth continued largely through greenstone belts until c. 2.7 Ga, the Witwatersrand basin (c. 3.0-2.7 Ga; Kaapvaal craton, South Africa) reflects initial stabilisation of the oldest craton, with an epeiric sea accumulating largely fluvial detritus subject to tidal (inland) and storm-wave (craton-marginal) reworking within a retroarc foreland basin setting. Neoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic sedimentation is discussed within a framework of two global "superevents", at c. 2.7 Ga and 2.2-1.8 Ga, each encompassing major changes in Earth's evolution related to the supercontinent cycle, mantle superplumes, peaks in crustal growth rates, and significant biochemical changes within the atmosphere-hydrosphere system. Concomitant

  7. Early Japanese contributions to space weather research (1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishida


    Full Text Available Major contributions by Japanese scientists in the period of 1945 to 1960 are reviewed. This was the period when the foundation of the space weather research was laid by ground-based observations and theoretical research. Important contributions were made on such subjects as equatorial ionosphere in quiet times, tidal wind system in the ionosphere, formation of the F2 layer, VLF propagation above the ionosphere, and precursory phenomena (type IV radio outburst and polar cap absorption to storms. At the IGY (1957, 1958, research efforts were intensified and new programs in space and Antarctica were initiated. Japanese scientists in this discipline held a tight network for communication and collaboration that has been kept to this day.

  8. Convective Scale Ensemble Prediction System in KMA for Early Warning of High Impact Weather (United States)

    Lee, S.


    Economic and societal damages due to severe weather events have been increasing in association with the concentration of human and economic resources such as in metropolitan areas. Severe weather events are often associated with rapidly developing convective scale systems, which are strongly influenced by topography, land use, and urbanization, etc. In the forecast those kinds of severe weather events, the high resolution numerical model is crucial to predict these convective scale severe weather events. However, the NWP models have an inherent limitation in the predictability of atmospheric phenomena, especially in predicting the severe weather. It is partly due to the poor resolution and model physics and partly due to the uncertainty of meteorological events. Nowadays most operational centers are being asked to develop more effective early detection systems that can be used to reduce the risk associated with severe weather events. Furthermore, forecasters need to assess and quantify the risk of occurrence of rare but destructive events. Thus, a policy in KMA to provide the probabilistic information of the severe events in limited area using ensemble method was adapted to meets these needs of the effective early warning systems. Ensemble forecasting using finite members is one of the feasible methods to quantify possibilities of extreme severe weather events. The ensemble forecasting has proved to be a successful way of dealing with that kind of inherent uncertainty of weather and climate forecasts. In this study, the limited area ensemble prediction system (LENS) using the Unified Model (UM) in KMA was developed and evaluated for the warm season of 2015. The model domain covers the limited area over the Korean Peninsula. The high resolution(3-km) limited area ensemble prediction system showed beneficial probabilistic forecast skill in predicting the heavy precipitation events. The sensitive experiment to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in model physics on the

  9. Uncertainty assessment of early flood warning driven by the TIGGE ensemble weather predictions (United States)

    Huang, Yingchun; Li, Zhijia; He, Yi; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Manful, Desmond; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian


    The Xinanjiang hydrological model is used in flood forecasting driven by the TIGGE ensemble weather predictions. Uncertainties are inherent in both the ensemble weather predictions and the hydrological models. The study aims to study uncertainties originated from (1) the ensemble weather predictions and (2) the hydrological model. The study area is the Xixian catchment, upstream of the Huai River located in central east China. The catchment has a number of reservoirs which account for approximately 10% of the total catchment area. Reservoir water release plan is the key to a successful and reliable flood early warning and mitigation scheme. Different scenarios of reservoir releases are taken into account in this study. A benefit-cost analysis is carried out to estimate the overall value for money when an early warning is issued under various scenarios and probabilistic forecasts.

  10. New dimensions in early flood warning across the globe using grand-ensemble weather predictions


    Pappenberger, Florian; Bartholmes, Jens; Thielen, Jutta; Cloke, Hannah L.; Buizza, Roberto; de Roo, Ad


    Early and effective flood warning is essential to initiate timely measures to reduce loss of life and economic damage. The availability of several global ensemble weather prediction systems through the “THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble” (TIGGE) archive provides an opportunity to explore new dimensions in early flood forecasting and warning. TIGGE data has been used as meteorological input to the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) for a case study of a flood event in Romania in Octobe...

  11. A palaeomagnetic perspective of Precambrian tectonic styles (United States)

    Schmidt, P. W.; Embleton, B. J. J.


    The considerable success derived from palaeomagnetic studies of Phanerozoic rocks with respect to the tectonic styles of continental drift and plate tectonics, etc., have not been repeated by the many palaeomagnetic studies of Precambrian rocks. There are 30 years of research with results covering the major continents for Precambrian times that overlap considerably yet there is no concensus. There is good evidence that the usual assumptions employed by palaeomagnetism are valid for the Precambrian. The exisence of magnetic reversals during the Precambrian, for instance, is difficult to explain except in terms of a geomagnetic field that was predominantly dipolar in nature. It is a small concession to extend this notion of the Precambrian geomagnetic field to include its alignment with the Earth's spin axis and the other virtues of an axial geocentric dipole that characterize the recent geomagnetic field. In terms of greenstone terranes it is obvious that tectonic models postulated to explain these observations are paramount in understanding Precambrian geology. What relevance the current geographical relationships of continents have with their Precambrian relationships remains a paradox, but it would seem that the ensialic model for the development of greenstone terranes is favored by the Precambrian palaeomagnetic data.

  12. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire


    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  13. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi


    Introduction : It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives :  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods : An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results : Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions : A SWEW service is feasible

  14. Genuine modern analogues of Precambrian stromatolites from caldera lakes of Niuafo'ou Island, Tonga. (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Kempe, Stephan


    Calcareous or dolomitic, often secondarily silicified, laminated microbial structures known as stromatolites are important keys to reconstruct the chemical and biotic evolution of the early ocean. Most authors assume that cyanobacteria-associated microbialitic structures described from Shark Bay, Western Australia, and Exuma Sound, Bahamas, represent modern marine analogues for Precambrian stromatolites. Although they resemble the Precambrian forms macroscopically, their microstructure and mineralogical composition differ from those characterizing their purported ancient counterparts. Most Precambrian stromatolites are composed of presumably in situ precipitated carbonates, while their assumed modern marine analogues are predominantly products of accretion of grains trapped and bound by microbial, predominantly cyanobacterial, benthic mats and biofilms and only occasionally by their physicochemical activity. It has therefore been suggested that the carbonate chemistry of early Precambrian seawater differed significantly from modern seawater, and that some present-day quasi-marine or non-marine environments supporting growth of calcareous microbialites reflect the hydrochemical conditions controlling the calcification potential of Precambrian microbes better than modern seawater. Here we report the discovery of a non-marine environment sustaining growth of calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites showing macroscopic and microscopic features resembling closely those described from many Precambrian stromatolites.

  15. Simulating Precambrian banded iron formation diagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; K??hler, Inga; D. Swanner, Elizabeth


    Post-depositional diagenetic alteration makes the accurate interpretation of key precipitation processes in ancient sediments, such as Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs), difficult. While microorganisms are proposed as key contributors to BIF deposition, the diagenetic transformation...

  16. A global survey of Precambrian evaporites: Implications for Proterozoic paleoenvironments (United States)

    Evans, D. A.


    Evaporites are sedimentary rocks comprising minerals that crystallized from supersaturation of surface waters due to solar-driven desiccation. They, or their metamorphic relics and pseudomorphs, are abundant in the geologic record and document changes in paleoclimate, sealevel, and marine chemistry. Phanerozoic evaporites have been well described and summarized, in no small part due to their role as hydrocarbon seals, as well as sources of salinity in hydrothermal fluids that concentrate metal deposits. Precambrian evaporites are abundant in discrete number of instances but are generally less voluminous; their long-term preservation is limited by subsurface mineral dissolution as well as tectonic crustal recycling. Unlike Precambrian glacial deposits, which have been globally catalogued several times during the past fifty years, Precambrian evaporites have been compiled only partially in a few rare studies. A new, global survey of Precambrian evaporites (mainly pseudomorphs after gypsum, anhydrite, and halite) documents over 100 examples, including ten of Archean age. About 20 deposits have total preserved or estimated salt volumes exceeding 1000 cubic km, and these are restricted to the Proterozoic Era. One of the most impressive episodes of evaporite deposition in the entire geologic record occurred at about 800 Ma, coincident with the onset of Rodinia supercontinental fragmentation. These evaporites are preserved primarily as calcium-sulfates, totalling about 350,000 cubic km in volume. The next major global peak in evaporite deposition occurred in late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian time, totalling more than 1.5 million cubic km of mixed sulfates and halites. These peaks rival the great salt records of the Late Devonian, Late Permian, and Late Jurassic, and the molar volumes of deposited salt are comparable to the current inventory of oceanic salinity. Questions for future consideration include: what does the removal of this much salinity from the oceans, in these

  17. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.


    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  18. The impact of the early Sun and space weather events on the Martian atmosphere (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Thiemann, Edward; Dong, Chuanfei; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Brain, David; DiBraccio, Gina; Jakosky, Bruce; Ma, Yingjuan; Espley, Jared; Lee, Christina; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack; McFadden, James; Hara, Takuya


    Observations of Sun-like stars have indicated that the early Sun can be characterized by extreme EUV and X-ray fluxes, as well as a more intense solar wind and higher occurrences of powerful solar transient events. The nature of the early Sun is a critical aspect for understanding atmospheric evolution among the terrestrial planets. In particular, the interaction of the solar wind with Mars has been a topic of recent interest with the arrival of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the upper atmosphere and magnetic topology of Mars during solar transient events such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) spanning from November 2014 to the present. Observations include dramatic changes in heavy ion acceleration along open, closed and draped magnetic field lines, and significant enhancements of escaping and precipitating planetary ions. We will present MAVEN observations of ICMEs and SIRs within the context of the current declining phase of solar cycle 24. With the use of global MHD and test particle simulations, we will also discuss the influence of the observed space weather events on the global loss rates of the Martian atmosphere. Finally, using observations of the magnitude and frequency of M and X class flares at younger, Sun-like stars, we have extrapolated the frequency of ICMEs at earlier stages of the Sun and will present simulations of the Mars-early solar wind interaction. The extreme conditions in the Sun's early history may have had a significant influence on the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and may also have implications for exoplanets interacting with the stellar winds of younger, more active stars.

  19. Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). (United States)

    McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V


    Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (fish spawning habitats. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  20. Alternating Si and Fe deposition caused by temperature fluctuations in Precambrian oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; Hegler, Florian; Konhauser, Kurt O.


    Precambrian banded iron formations provide an extensive archive of pivotal environmental changes and the evolution of biological processes on early Earth. The formations are characterized by bands ranging from micrometre- to metre-scale layers of alternating iron- and silica-rich minerals. Howeve...

  1. Stratigraphic scale the Lower Precambrian of Russia (United States)

    Anisimova, Svetlana; Bogdanov, Yuri


    The quality of state geological maps depends on the quality of the combined serial legends, which are based on the adopted stratigraphic scheme of the General stratigraphic scale, regional and local stratigraphic schemes. The main task of the General stratigraphic scale is the temporal correlation of stratigraphic units of regional schemes and the age of their boundaries. For the Precambrian age determination is based on paleontological and geochronological methods. Currently, work is being carried out to update the stratigraphic framework of the formations of the upper Proterozoic (Riphean and Vendian). Relatively less studied is the stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian. To the bottom are Precambrian structurally-material complexes of Archean and lower Proterozoic rocks, crystalline basement of ancient platforms and also included in the fold belts. The solution to the problems of stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian is possible only by creating and improving regional stratigraphic schemes. Such work should be based on the study of stratotype sections and references of boundaries in the model regions of the lower Precambrian. The current General stratigraphic scale of the lower Precambrian of Russia (RGSS) consists of the Lower Archean (Sami) and the Upper Archean (Lopi) and lower Proterozoic (Karelian) Eonotam. Archaea is divided into two Eonotam in Russian General stratigraphic scale, in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC) - three units, designated as Eon. The age of the boundary between Eonotam and Eon the same (3200 million years). The same and the age of the boundary between the Archean and the Proterozoic. The RGSS of the Precambrian, based on the comprehensive study of typical sections and analysis of isotopic Dating of different methods. Stratotype reference sections of the districts of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula represent different types of sections, the time (geochronological) correlation which was the basis for the regional scheme

  2. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit


    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  3. Does Weather Play an Important Role in the Early Nesting Activity of Colonial Waterbirds? A Case Study in Putrajaya Wetlands, Malaysia


    Ismail, Ahmad; Rahman, Faid


    Environmental factors can play important roles in influencing waterbird communities. In particular, weather may have various biological and ecological impacts on the breeding activities of waterbirds, though most studies have investigated the effect of weather on the late stages of waterbird breeding (e.g., hatching rate, chick mortality). Conversely, the present study attempts to highlight the influence of weather on the early nesting activities of waterbirds by evaluating a recently establi...

  4. A seamless flash-flood early warning tool based on IDF-curves and coupling of weather-radar with numerical weather predictions (United States)

    Liechti, Kaethi; Knechtl, Valentin; Andres, Norina; Sideris, Ioannis; Zappa, Massimiliano


    A flash-flood is a flood that develops rapidly after a heavy precipitation event. Flash-flood forecasting is an important field of research because flash floods cause a lot of fatalities and damage. A flash-flood early warning tool is developed based on precipitation statistics. Our target areas are small ungauged areas of southern-Switzerland. A total of 759 sub-cathcments was considered. In a first intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for each catchment have been calculated basin on: A) Gridded precipitation products for the period 1961 to 2012 and B) gridded reforecast of the COSMO-LEPS NWP for the period 1971-2000. These different IDF-curves at the catchment level in combination with precipitation forecasts are the basis for the flash-flood early warning tool. The forecast models used are COSMO-2 (deterministic, updated every three hours and with a lead time of 24 hours) and COSMO-LEPS (probabilistic, 16 member and with a lead time of five days). In operational mode COSMO-2 is nudged to real-time data of a weather-radar precipitation obtained by blending the radar qpe with information from a national network of precipitation data. This product is called COMBIPRECIP. The flash-flood early warning tool has been evaluated against observed events. These events are either discharge peaks in gauged sub-areas or reports of damages caused by flash-flood events. The hypothesis that it is possible to detect hydrological events with the flash-flood early warning tool can be partly confirmed. The highest skill is obtained if the return-period of weather radar QPE is assessed at hourly time scale. With this it was possible to confirm most of the damage events occurred in 2010 and 2011. The prototype tool is affected by several false alarms. This is because initial conditions of the soils are not considered. Further steps will be therefore focussed on the addition of real-time hydrological information as obtained from the application of high resolution distributed

  5. Does weather play an important role in the early nesting activity of colonial waterbirds? A case study in putrajaya wetlands, malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismail, Ahmad; Rahman, Faid


    ...., hatching rate, chick mortality). Conversely, the present study attempts to highlight the influence of weather on the early nesting activities of waterbirds by evaluating a recently established mixed-species colony in Putrajaya Wetlands, Malaysia...

  6. Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three Sisters, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.


    There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three Sisters volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. TEM-EDS analyses of the cold and icy environment.

  7. Early Benchmarks of Product Generation Capabilities of the GOES-R Ground System for Operational Weather Prediction (United States)

    Kalluri, S. N.; Haman, B.; Vititoe, D.


    The ground system under development for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) series of weather satellite has completed a key milestone in implementing the science algorithms that process raw sensor data to higher level products in preparation for launch. Real time observations from GOES-R are expected to make significant contributions to Earth and space weather prediction, and there are stringent requirements to product weather products at very low latency to meet NOAA's operational needs. Simulated test data from all the six GOES-R sensors are being processed by the system to test and verify performance of the fielded system. Early results show that the system development is on track to meet functional and performance requirements to process science data. Comparison of science products generated by the ground system from simulated data with those generated by the algorithm developers show close agreement among data sets which demonstrates that the algorithms are implemented correctly. Successful delivery of products to AWIPS and the Product Distribution and Access (PDA) system from the core system demonstrate that the external interfaces are working.

  8. Diversity of Microfossils and Preservation of Thermally Altered Stromatolites from Anomalous Precambrian Paleoenvironments (United States)

    Osterhout, Jeffrey Thomas

    Studies of Precambrian life on Earth have been dominated by those of shallow marine deposits, and in order to gain a more complete picture of life's early evolution it is important to consider a wider range of inhabited environments, including deep marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence for early microbial life comes primarily from fossil microorganisms (microfossils), microbial sedimentary structures (e.g., stromatolites), and sedimentary organic matter (e.g., kerogen). The diversity and preservation of these different forms of fossil evidence introduces several challenges to their interpretation, requiring thorough analysis for accurately determining their biological origins. Investigating the paleobiology, organic geochemistry, and thermal maturity of such deposits provides a holistic approach to exploring the Precambrian biosphere in unfamiliar paleoenvironments. This thesis presents two studies of unique Precambrian ecosystems: a diverse microfossil assemblage from a 2.52-billion-year-old (Ga) deep marine deposit, and thermally altered stromatolites from a 1.4-billion-year-old evaporitic lacustrine deposit. Black cherts from the upper Gamohaan Formation (2.52 Ga) contain a consortium of organic-walled large and small coccoids, tubular filaments, and mat-like biofilm structures. Geochemical analyses of stromatolitic chert-carbonate from the Middlebrun Bay Member (1.4 Ga) in contact with a mafic sill show a trend in organic carbon isotopes relative to thermal maturity that is contrary to theoretical predictions. Findings from these studies reveal, for the first time, microfossil evidence of a diverse microbial community in the open Archean ocean prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.4 billion years ago, and provide insight on the relationship between thermal maturity and organic carbon isotopes within a set of terrestrial stromatolites. Together, these studies help capture the enigmatic nature of the Precambrian fossil record and expand our full

  9. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y


    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  10. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores (United States)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.


    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  11. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.


    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  12. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos


    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  13. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.


    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  14. International Severe Weather and Flash Flood Hazard Early Warning Systems—Leveraging Coordination, Cooperation, and Partnerships through a Hydrometeorological Project in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jubach


    Full Text Available Climate, weather and water hazards do not recognize national boundaries. Transboundary/regional programs and cooperation are essential to reduce the loss of lives and damage to livelihoods when facing these hazards. The development and implementation of systems to provide early warnings for severe weather events such as cyclones and flash floods requires data and information sharing in real time, and coordination among the government agencies at all levels. Within a country, this includes local, municipal, provincial-to-national levels as well as regional and international entities involved in hydrometeorological services and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR. Of key importance are the National Meteorological and Hydrologic Services (NMHSs. The NMHS is generally the authority solely responsible for issuing warnings for these hazards. However, in many regions of the world, the linkages and interfaces between the NMHS and other agencies are weak or non-existent. Therefore, there is a critical need to assess, strengthen, and formalize collaborations when addressing the concept of reducing risk and impacts from severe weather and floods. The U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance; the United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO; the WMO Southern Africa Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, hosted by the South African Weather Service; the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service and the Hydrologic Research Center (a non-profit corporation are currently implementing a project working with Southern Africa NMHSs on addressing this gap. The project aims to strengthen coordination and collaboration mechanisms from national to local levels. The project partners are working with the NMHSs to apply and implement appropriate tools and infrastructure to enhance currently operational severe weather and flash flood early warning systems in each country in support of

  15. NCAR activities related to translating climate and weather information into infectious-disease and other public-health early warnings (United States)

    Warner, T.; Monaghan, A.; Hopson, T.


    The atmosphere can influence the spread of human and agricultural infectious diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including the effect of the atmosphere on the health of the pathogen itself, the health and number of disease vectors, human behavior, wind transport, and flooding. Through knowledge of the statistical or physical relationships between disease incidence, for example outbreaks, and weather or climate conditions, it is possible to translate predictions of the atmosphere into predictions of disease spread or incidence. Medium range forecasts of weeks can allow redistribution of vaccines and medical personnel to locations that will be in greatest need. Inter-seasonal forecasts, e.g. based on the ENSO cycle, can provide long-lead-time information for disease early-warning systems, which can guide the manufacture of vaccines and inform aid agencies about future requirements. And knowledge of longer-term trends in climate conditions, associated, for example, with increases in green-house gases, can be used for development of infectious-disease mitigation and prevention policies. Because of the existence of complex physical, biological, and societal aspects to the links between atmospheric conditions and disease, prediction systems must be constructed based on knowledge of multiple disciplines. To be described in the presentation are activities at the National Center for Atmospheric Research that involve the coupling of atmospheric models with infectious-disease models and decision-support systems. These include 1) the use of operational multi-week weather forecasts to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the threat of bacterial meningitis in West Africa, 2) climate and spatial risk modeling of human plague in Uganda, 3) a study of how climate variability and human landscape modification interact to influence key aspects of both mosquito vector ecology and human behavior, and how they influence the increased incidence of dengue fever

  16. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.


    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  17. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  18. Precambrian columnar stromatolites in australia: morphological and stratigraphic analysis. (United States)

    Glaessner, M F; Preiss, W V; Walter, M R


    The stratigraphic distribution in Australian Precambrian rocks of columnar stromatolites, organosedimentary structures formed by blue-green algae, has been investigated. Their morphology is being studied according to methods developed in Russia. The discovery of successive different assemblages supports not only regional but also intercontinental stratigraphic correlations which are in agreement with available isotopic datings.

  19. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological ...

  20. Absolute geomagnetic paleointensity in the Precambrian: Where do we stand? (United States)

    Kulakov, E.; Smirnov, A. V.


    Data on the long-term behavior of absolute geomagnetic intensity are crucial for understanding the origin and nature of geodynamo. The data may also provide the insight necessary for constraining the timing of important transitions within the Earth's interior, and for investigating potential causative links between the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field and the evolution of atmosphere and biosphere. In the absence of strict theoretical constraints, paleomagnetic data represent a principal source of information about the Precambrian field. However, paleointensity determination represents one of the most challenging aspects of paleomagnetic research so that the paleointensity database remains rather limited especially for older epochs. Detailed analysis of the Precambrian paleointensity database indicates that some accepted paleointensity values might be biased by a variety of factors including the presence of non-ideal magnetic carriers, geological and laboratory alteration, and others. In addition, the abundance of low field values in the database may reflect the effect of thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM). We will discuss non-conventional experimental approaches that may circumvent or mitigate some of these problems and hence result in a significant increase in the number of reliable paleointensity determinations for the Precambrian. We also will discuss the Precambrian paleointensity database in the context of current models of the long-term geomagnetic and thermal evolution of our planet.

  1. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian meta- morphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  2. Uinta Arch Project: investigations of uranium potential in Precambrian X and older metasedimentary rocks in the Unita and Wasatch ranges, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, P.J.; Sears, J.W.; Holden, G.S.


    This study is part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to understand the geologic setting, amount, and availability of uranium resources within the boundaries of the United States. The systematic study of Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates and areas that may contain such conglomerates is an integral part of DOE's resource evaluation program, because deposits of world-wide importance occur in such terrains in Canada and South Africa, and because terrains similar to those producing uranium from quartz-pebble conglomerates exist elsewhere in the United States. Because of the ready availability of Tertiary sandstone and Colorado Plateau-type uranium deposits, large areas of Precambrian rocks in the US have not been fully assessed for uranium potential. Thus, the Uinta Arch Project was undertaken to assess the favorability of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks in northern Utah for deposits of uranium in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates. Rocks of interest to this study are the thick, clastic sequences within the Uinta Arch that are considered to be of Early Proterozoic age. The Uinta Arch area is known to contain rocks which generally fit the lithologic characteristics that are understood to limit the occurrence of Precambrian fossil placers. However, detailed geology of these rocks and their exact fit to the model described for uraniferous conglomerates was not known. The primary goal of the Uinta Arch Project was to determine how well these Precambrian rocks resemble known deposits and to describe the favorability of placer uranium deposits.

  3. Analysis of a Precambrian resonance-stabilized day length

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Benjamin C


    Stromatolite data suggest the day length throughout much of the Precambrian to be relatively constant near 21 hours; this period would have been resonant with the semidiurnal atmospheric tide. At this point, the atmospheric torque would have been nearly maximized, being comparable in magnitude but opposite in direction to the lunar torque, halting Earth's angular deceleration, as suggested by Zahnle and Walker [1987]. Computational simulations of this scenario indicate that, depending on the atmospheric $Q$-factor, a persistent increase in temperature larger than ~10K over a period of time less than $10^7$ years will break resonance, such as the deglaciation following a snowball event near the end of the Precambrian. The resonance was found to be relatively unaffected by other forms of climate fluctuation (thermal noise). Our model provides a simulated day length over time that matches existing records of day length, though further data is needed.

  4. Paleobiologic Studies of the Antiquity and Precambrian Evolution of Life (United States)

    Schopf, J. William


    This paper presents a final technical report on Paleobiologic Studies of the Antiquity and Precambrian Evolution of Life from 1 January 1990 - 30 September 1997. The topics include: 1) Major Research Accomplishments Supported By NAGW-2147 (Research Results Communicated in Edited Books, Research Results Communicated in Journal Articles and Book Chapters, and References Cited); and 2) Published Contributions Supported by NAGW-2147 (Edited Books, Journal Articles and Book Chapters, Book-Related Items, Miscellaneous Publications, Abstracts, and In Press).

  5. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... decreasing δ13C with decreasing N content trend would suggest they formed during closed system fractional crystallization from an oxidized growth medium enriched in 13C relative to the bulk mantle. However, different populations, defined by nitrogen thermometry, do not follow a single trend, but rather...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased...

  6. Does weather play an important role in the early nesting activity of colonial waterbirds? A case study in putrajaya wetlands, malaysia. (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad; Rahman, Faid


    Environmental factors can play important roles in influencing waterbird communities. In particular, weather may have various biological and ecological impacts on the breeding activities of waterbirds, though most studies have investigated the effect of weather on the late stages of waterbird breeding (e.g., hatching rate, chick mortality). Conversely, the present study attempts to highlight the influence of weather on the early nesting activities of waterbirds by evaluating a recently established mixed-species colony in Putrajaya Wetlands, Malaysia. The results show that only rainfall and temperature have a significant influence on the species' nesting activities. Rainfall activity is significantly correlated with the Grey Heron's rate of establishment (rainfall: rs = 0.558, p = 0.03, n = 72) whereas both temperature and rainfall are associated with Painted Stork's nesting density (temperature: rs = 0.573, p = 0.013; rainfall: rs = -0.662, p = 0.03, n = 48). There is a possibility that variations in the rainfall and temperature provide a cue for the birds to initiate their nesting. Regardless, this paper addresses concerns on the limitations faced in the study and suggests long-term studies for confirmation.

  7. Using modern ferruginous habitats to interpret Precambrian banded iron formation deposition (United States)

    Koeksoy, Elif; Halama, Maximilian; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Kappler, Andreas


    Early Earth processes are typically identified through the study of mineralogical, elemental and isotopic features in the rock record, including Precambrian banded iron formations (BIF). However, post-depositional processes often obscure the primary geochemical signals, making the use of BIF as proxies for paleo-seawater and the paleo-biosphere potentially imprecise. Thus, alternative approaches are required to complement the information gained from the rock record in order to fully understand the distinctive biogeochemical processes on ancient Earth. Simulating these conditions in the laboratory is one approach, but this approach can never fully replicate the complexity of a natural environment. Therefore, finding modern environments with a unique set of geochemical and microbiological characteristics to use as analogues for BIF depositional environments can provide invaluable information. In this review, we provide an overview of the chemical, physical and biological parameters of modern, ferruginous lakes that have been used as analogue BIF environments.

  8. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens. (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M


    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  9. Global database of paleocurrent trends through the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. (United States)

    Brand, Leonard; Wang, Mingmin; Chadwick, Arthur


    Paleocurrents are sedimentological features contained in all sedimentary deposits, enabling the direction of movement of the sediment and the containing fluid at the time of deposition to be determined. This database contains paleocurrent directions and other relevant associated data from published sources and theses and dissertations for the entire Phanerozoic and Precambrian for all continents. Such information may be of general interest to sedimentologists and will be of specific interest in sedimentary basin analysis, and to petroleum geologists and mineralogists seeking source areas. Paleocurrents may also be useful in plate reconstructions and in testing the timing of global tectonic events.

  10. Ted Irving and the Precambrian continental drift of (within?) the Canadian Shield (United States)

    Hoffman, P. F.


    Ted Irving was no stranger to the Precambrian when he began paleomagnetic studies in the Canadian Shield (CS) that would dominate his research in the early and mid-1970's. Twenty years before, his graduate work on billion-year-old strata in Scotland established paleomagnetic methodologies applicable to sedimentary rocks generally. In 1958, he and Ronald Green presented an 'Upper Proterozoic' APW path from Australia as evidence for pre-Carboniferous drift relative to Europe and North America (the poles actually range in age from 1.2 to 2.7 Ga). His first published CS poles were obtained from the Franklin LIP of the Arctic platform and demonstrate igneous emplacement across the paleoequator. Characteristically, his 1971 poles are statistically indistinguishable from the most recent grand mean paleopole of 2009. His main focus, however, was on the question of Precambrian continental drift. He compared APW paths with respect to Laurentia with those obtained from other Precambrian shields, and he compared APW paths from different tectonic provinces within the CS. He was consistently antagonistic to the concept of a single long-lived Proterozoic supercontinent, but he was on less certain ground regarding motions within the CS due to inadequate geochronology. With Ron Emslie, he boldly proposed rapid convergence between parts of the Grenville Province and Interior Laurentia (IL) ~1.0 Ga. This was controversial given the uncertain ages of multiple magnetic components in high-grade metamorphic rocks. With John McGlynn and John Park, he developed a Paleoproterozoic APW path for the Slave Province from mafic dikes and red clastics, encompassing the time of consolidation of IL during 2.0-1.8 Ga orogenesis. Before 1980, he constructed Paleoproterozoic APW paths for IL as a whole, finding little evidence for significant internal displacement. He recognized that the Laurentian APW path describes a series of straight tracks linked by hairpins, the latter corresponding in age to

  11. Wacky Weather (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline


    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  12. The "dirty weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for northern New Zealand, 1839-1851 (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Chappell, Petra R.


    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the Sir George Grey Special Collections in the Auckland Central Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 time span that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 a.m. and noon temperatures and midday pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree-ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as "station data". The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data

  13. Climate-Weather Modeling Studies Using a Prototype Global Cloud-System Resolving Model: ALCF-2 Early Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Christopher J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lin, Shian-Jiann [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)


    Clouds remain the largest source of uncertainty in our understanding of global climate change. Different aspects of the planetary cloud field can provide positive and negative feedback to the Earth’s energy balance, and clouds of course are directly implicated in changes to the planetary distribution of precipitation. A fundamental problem in our current understanding of the role of clouds in the dynamics of climate are that current resolutions do not resolve the fundamental length scales associated with clouds. We expect our understanding of the role of clouds in climate to undergo a qualitative change as the resolutions of global models begin to encompass clouds. At these resolutions (which roughly scale with the tropopause height of 10km) non-hydrostatic dynamics become significant and deep convective processes are resolved. We are poised at the threshold of being able to run global scale simulations that include direct, nonparameterized, simulations of deep convective clouds. The goal of this research is to use the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility to explore the frontier of weather prediction and climate modeling with the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFDL) global cloud-resolving model. A single unified atmospheric modeling system with a cubed-sphere dynamical core and bulk cloud micro-physics running at 3.5km resolutions was run with the goal of capturing the climatology of clouds and severe storms in a warming world. The ability to reproduce historical tropical storm statistics will be used as a test of this ground-breaking model.

  14. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  15. Precambrian Processes, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and Cratonic Keels: Insights From Teleseismic Tomography in Northern Hudson Bay, Canada (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Bastow, I. D.; Gilligan, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Darbyshire, F. A.


    Earth conditions in the Precambrian, and their effect upon the formation of cratons and orogenies from that era, are not fully understood. For example, the precise onset of modern plate tectonics remains ambiguous; it has been hypothesised to have begun anywhere from ~4.1Ga (Hopkins, 2008) to ~1Ga (Stern, 2005). Also, the exceptional depth to which fast wave-speed and geoid anomalies extend beneath some cratons points to the existence of thick "cratonic keels", the origin of which remains unexplained. To improve our understanding of the early Earth processes, geological evidence preserved within ancient plates that have remained largely unchanged since the Precambrian can be used. The rocks of northern Hudson Bay include Archean domains, the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), and lie atop one of the largest cratonic keels on Earth (Bastow et al., 2013), making this region an ideal laboratory for study of Precambrian processes. Here, we use seismological data recorded at Canadian POLARIS and Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) stations to perform a relative arrival-time study of northern Hudson Bay region and the THO. Waveforms are aligned using the adaptive stacking routine of Rawlinson et al. (2004), and inversions are produced using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) inversion code of Rawlinson et al. (2006). Our inversions provide an improved velocity model of the lithosphere and upper mantle of northern Canada, suggesting updated boundaries between lithospheric blocks at mantle depths and constituting new body-wave constraints on their structure. The results are used to address a number of outstanding questions regarding the processes that formed the THO and the Laurentian Keel of North America.

  16. Constraints on lunar origin: Evidence preserved in Precambrian stromatolites (United States)

    Vanyo, J. P.


    The existence of subaqueous unicellular algae and bacteria from the Precambrian period is evidenced by strongly abundant fossilized structures consisting of many layers of usually darker algae-bacterial growth alternating with layers of usually lighter sediment-precipitate. The earliest of these are dated to 3.5 billion years ago. A form of these stromatolites, Anabaria juvensis was analyzed and a sinusoidal columnar growth pattern was interpreted to be a response of stromatolite forming microbes to the changing inclination of the Sun over the seasons, with microbe growth rate positively related to solar intensity. Additional specimens are being used to develop a systematic methodology for extracting data evidencing Earth-Moon-Sun dynamics at the time of stromatolite formation. In particular, stromatolites span the time from 1 to 2 billion years ago, critical for several theories of lunar formation and/or Earth/Moon near encounter. Such cataclysmic events would influence stromatolite formation.

  17. De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes (United States)

    Risso, Valeria A.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Candel, Adela M.; Krüger, Dennis M.; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Ortega-Muñoz, Mariano; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco; Gaucher, Eric A.; Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Bruix, Marta; Gavira, Jose A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.


    Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated through a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid replacement that generates a partially buried group with perturbed physico-chemical properties. We provide experimental and computational evidence that conformational flexibility can assist the emergence and subsequent evolution of new active sites by improving substrate and transition-state binding, through the sampling of many potentially productive conformations. Our results suggest a mechanism for the emergence of primordial enzymes and highlight the potential of ancestral reconstruction as a tool for protein engineering.

  18. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.


    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology.

  19. Adapting the EDuMaP method to test the performance of the Norwegian early warning system for weather-induced landslides (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Dahl, Mads-Peter; Devoli, Graziella; Colleuille, Hervé; Calvello, Michele


    The Norwegian national landslide early warning system (LEWS), operational since 2013, is managed by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate and was designed for monitoring and forecasting the hydrometeorological conditions potentially triggering slope failures. Decision-making in the LEWS is based upon rainfall thresholds, hydrometeorological and real-time landslide observations as well as on landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. Daily alerts are issued throughout the country considering variable size warning zones. Warnings are issued once per day for the following 3 days and can be updated according to weather forecasts and information gathered by the monitoring network. The performance of the LEWS operational in Norway has been evaluated applying the EDuMaP method, which is based on the computation of a duration matrix relating number of landslides and warning levels issued in a warning zone. In the past, this method has been exclusively employed to analyse the performance of regional early warning models considering fixed warning zones. Herein, an original approach is proposed for the computation of the elements of the duration matrix in the case of early warning models issuing alerts on variable size areas. The approach has been used to evaluate the warnings issued in Western Norway, in the period 2013-2014, considering two datasets of landslides. The results indicate that the landslide datasets do not significantly influence the performance evaluation, although a slightly better performance is registered for the smallest dataset. Different performance results are observed as a function of the values adopted for one of the most important input parameters of EDuMaP, the landslide density criterion (i.e. setting the thresholds to differentiate among classes of landslide events). To investigate this issue, a parametric analysis has been conducted; the results of the analysis show significant differences among computed performances when

  20. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P


    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  1. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited) (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.


    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  2. Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks? (United States)

    Grotzinger, J P; Knoll, A H


    Stromatolites are attached, lithified sedimentary growth structures, accretionary away from a point or limited surface of initiation. Though the accretion process is commonly regarded to result from the sediment trapping or precipitation-inducing activities of microbial mats, little evidence of this process is preserved in most Precambrian stromatolites. The successful study and interpretation of stromatolites requires a process-based approach, oriented toward deconvolving the replacement textures of ancient stromatolites. The effects of diagenetic recrystallization first must be accounted for, followed by analysis of lamination textures and deduction of possible accretion mechanisms. Accretion hypotheses can be tested using numerical simulations based on modem stromatolite growth processes. Application of this approach has shown that stromatolites were originally formed largely through in situ precipitation of laminae during Archean and older Proterozoic times, but that younger Proterozoic stromatolites grew largely through the accretion of carbonate sediments, most likely through the physical process of microbial trapping and binding. This trend most likely reflects long-term evolution of the earth's environment rather than microbial communities.

  3. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.


    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  4. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.


    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >

  5. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron


    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Chemical weathering of flat continents (United States)

    Maffre, Pierre; Goddéris, Yves; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Carretier, Sébastien; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Donnadieu, Yannick; Labat, David; Vigier, Nathalie


    Mountain uplift is often cited as the main trigger of the end Cenozoic glacial state. Conversely, the absence of major uplift is invoked to explain the early Eocene warmth. This hypothesis relies on the fact that mountain uplift increases the supply of "fresh" silicate rocks through enhanced physical erosion, and boosts CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Atmospheric CO2 —and therefore climate— then adjust to compensate for the changes in weatherability and keep the geological carbon cycle balanced (Walker's feedback). Yet, orography also strongly influences the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Consequently, building mountains does not only change the weathering regime in the restricted area of the orogen, but also modifies the worldwide distribution of the weathering flux. We conduct a numerical experiment in which we simulate the climate of the present day world, with all mountain ranges being removed. Up-to-date weathering and erosion laws (West, 2012; Carretier et al., 2014) are then used to quantify the global weathering for a "flat world". Specifically, the parameters of the weathering law are first carefully calculated such that the present day distribution of the weathering fluxes matches the riverine geochemical data. When removing mountains, we predict a warmer and wetter climate, especially in geographic spots located in the equatorial band. The calculated response of the global weathering flux ranges from an increase by 50% to a decrease by 70% (relative to the present day with mountains). These contrasted responses are pending on the parameterisation of the weathering model, that makes it more sensitive to reaction rate (kinetically-limited mode) or to rock supply by erosion (supply-limited mode). The most likely parameterisation —based on data-model comparison— predicts a decrease of CO2 consumption by weathering by 40% when mountains are removed. These results show that (1) the behaviour of the weathering engine depends on the

  7. Disclosing Precambrian Secrets of the East Antarctic Shield: An Aeromagnetic Perspective from the International Polar Year (United States)

    Finn, C.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Studinger, M.; Jordan, T. A.; Rose, K.; Block, A. E.; Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Golynsky, A.


    Until this International Polar Year, the geology of the central East Antarctic Precambrian shield has remained largely undisclosed. New aeromagnetic data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, combined with previous surveys, reveal fundamental geologic features beneath the East Antarctic Ice sheet, critical to understanding Precambrian continental growth processes. Linear magnetic anomalies in the Prince Charles Mountains region relate to ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite and extend to the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains over a distance >1000 km, suggesting that these two areas were adjacent to each other by ~1 Ga. However, the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains anomalies differ from those over Lake Vostok, the central Transantarctic Mountains and the South Pole, implying the presence of multiple distinct Precambrian crustal blocks. Most of the anomalies are similar to those caused by Precambrian granite-greenstone and Proterozoic igneous belts worldwide, suggesting that many of the crustal blocks in East Antarctica have not been significantly deformed since the Precambrian except in broad regions along the perimeter of the shield. In contrast with previous ideas of a single craton, the East Antarctic shield consists of several small blocks defined by the variability in the magnetic anomalies.

  8. Li-Isotope Fractionation into the Octahedral Framework of Clays: A Way to Understand the Weathering of Basalt in Early Mars Conditions (United States)

    Losa-Adams, E.; Gil-Lozano, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Hoser, A.; Davila, A. F.; Fairen, A. G.; Chevrier, V. F.; Gago-Duport, L.


    We track the use of lithium isotopes as a proxy to understand the degree and extent of basalt weathering in aqueous mediums, providing important information about the prevailing conditions during the formation of water bodies in the past of Mars.

  9. The Role of Noble Gases in Defining the Mean Residence Times of Fluids within Precambrian Crustal Systems (United States)

    Warr, O.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Fellowes, J.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; McDermott, J. M.; Holland, G.; Mabry, J.; Ballentine, C. J.


    Brines rich in N2, H2, CH4 and He hosted within Precambrian crustal rocks are known to sustain microbial life [1]. The geological systems containing these brines have the potential to isolate organisms over planetary timescales and so can provide unique insight into the diversity and evolution of terrestrial life [1-3]. Long considered geological outliers, the prevalence of systems containing these ancient, deep fracture waters is only now being revealed. Recent studies demonstrate the Precambrian crust which accounts for ~70% of total crustal surface area has a global hydrogen production comparable to marine systems [2]. In addition to H2-producing reactions (e.g. radiolysis and serpentinization), a diversity of CH4-producing reactions also occur in these systems through both microbial and water-rock interactions [1, 2]. However, the role these Precambrian systems have in global hydrogen and carbon cycles is poorly understood. For this we need good constraints on the origins, residence times and degree of microbial activity of the fluids within these systems as well as the degree of interaction with external systems. Fortunately, noble gases are ideal for this role [1,3]. Previous noble gas analysis of N2, H2, CH4 and He-rich fluid samples collected at 2.4 km depth from a Cu-Zn mine in Timmins, Ontario, identified isolated fracture fluids with the oldest residence times ever observed (>1.1 Ga) [3]. This study has been significantly expanded now to fluids from an even greater depth (3 km) at Timmins, and from two new mines in the Sudbury Basin. Preliminary data from the deeper Timmins level indicate a new closed system with 136Xe/130Xe ratios 93% above modern air values (20% at 2.4 km) and an early atmosphere 124Xe/130Xe signal approaching the age of the host rock (~2.7 Ga) [4]. In comparison, the Sudbury system indicates exchange with an external source, being highly enriched in helium (30% gas volume) but with a low fissiogenic 136Xe/130Xe excess (10-38% above

  10. Flow of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and the making of crustal layering in Phanerozoic orogenic plateaux (United States)

    Chardon, Dominique; Gapais, Denis; Cagnard, Florence; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Peucat, Jean-Jacques


    Reassessment of structural / metamorphic properties of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and shortening of model weak lithospheres support a syn-convergence flow mode on an orogen scale, with a large component of horizontal finite elongation parallel to the orogen. This orogen-scale flow mode combines distributed shortening, gravity-driven flow, lateral escape, and three-dimensional mass redistribution of buried supracrustal rocks, magmas and migmatites in a thick fluid lower crust. This combination preserves a nearly flat surface and Moho. The upper crust maintains a nearly constant thickness by real-time erosion and near-field clastic sedimentation and by ablation at its base by burial of pop-downs into the lower crust. Steady state regime of these orogens is allowed by activation of an attachment layer that maintains kinematic compatibility between the thin and dominantly plastic upper crust and a thick "water bed" of lower crust. Because very thin lithospheres of orogenic plateaux and Precambrian hot orogens have similar thermomechanical structures, bulk orogenic flow comparable to that governing Precambrian hot orogens should actually operate through today's orogenic plateaux as well. Thus, syn-convergence flow fabrics documented on exposed crustal sections of ancient hot orogens that have not undergone collapse may be used to infer the nature of flow fabrics that are imaged by geophysical techniques beneath orogenic plateaux. We provide a detailed geological perspective on syn-convergence crustal flow in relation to magma emplacement and partial melting on a wide oblique crustal transition of the Neoarchean ultra-hot orogen of Southern India. We document sub-horizontal bulk longitudinal flow of the partially molten lower crust over a protracted period of 60 Ma. Bulk flow results from the interplay of (1) pervasive longitudinal transtensional flow of the partially molten crust, (2) longitudinal coaxial flow on flat fabrics in early plutons, (3) distributed, orogen

  11. A geological synthesis of the Precambrian shield in Madagascar (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Roig, J.Y.; Moine, B.; Delor, C.; Peters, S.G.


    Available U–Pb geochronology of the Precambrian shield of Madagascar is summarized and integrated into a synthesis of the region’s geological history. The shield is described in terms of six geodynamic domains, from northeast to southwest, the Bemarivo, Antongil–Masora, Antananarivo, Ikalamavony, Androyan–Anosyan, and Vohibory domains. Each domain is defined by distinctive suites of metaigneous rocks and metasedimentary groups, and a unique history of Archean (∼2.5 Ga) and Proterozoic (∼1.0 Ga, ∼0.80 Ga, and ∼0.55 Ga) reworking. Superimposed within and across these domains are scores of Neoproterozoic granitic stocks and batholiths as well as kilometer long zones of steeply dipping, highly strained rocks that record the effects of Gondwana’s amalgamation and shortening in latest Neoproterozoic time (0.560–0.520 Ga). The present-day shield of Madagascar is best viewed as part of the Greater Dharwar Craton, of Archean age, to which three exotic terranes were added in Proterozoic time. The domains in Madagascar representing the Greater Dharwar Craton include the Antongil–Masora domain, a fragment of the Western Dharwar of India, and the Neoarchean Antananarivo domain (with its Tsaratanana Complex) which is broadly analogous to the Eastern Dharwar of India. In its reconstructed position, the Greater Dharwar Craton consists of a central nucleus of Paleo-Mesoarchean age (>3.1 Ga), the combined Western Dharwar and Antongil–Masora domain, flanked by mostly juvenile “granite–greenstone belts” of Neoarchean age (2.70–2.56 Ga). The age of the accretionary event that formed this craton is approximately 2.5–2.45 Ga. The three domains in Madagascar exotic to the Greater Dharwar Craton are the Androyan–Anosyan, Vohibory, and Bemarivo. The basement to the Androyan–Anosyan domain is a continental terrane of Paleoproterozoic age (2.0–1.78 Ga) that was accreted to the southern margin (present-day direction) of the Greater Dharwar Craton in pre

  12. Foul weather (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to cut costs and meet its operations budget for fiscal year 1997 and into the future, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be cutting staff and services throughout the rest of the budget year, which ends in October. After reviewing current programs and identifying ways to reduce operating costs, NWS management announced on March 21 that the Service will accelerate planned cuts in staff and operations at headquarters, regional offices, and central operations and field offices, while “re-engineering certain programs.”

  13. The Late Precambrian fossil Kimberella is a mollusc-like bilaterian organism (United States)

    Fedonkin, Mikhail A.; Waggoner, Benjamin M.


    The fossil Kimberella quadrata was originally described from late Precambrian rocks of southern Australia. Reconstructed as a jellyfish, it was later assigned to the cubozoans (`box jellies'), and has been cited as a clear instance of an extant animal lineage present before the Cambrian. Until recently, Kimberella was known only from Australia, with the exception of some questionable north Indian specimens. We now have over thirty-five specimens of this fossil from the Winter Coast of the White Sea in northern Russia. Our study of the new material does not support a cnidarian affinity. We reconstruct Kimberella as a bilaterally symmetrical, benthic animal with a non-mineralized, univalved shell, resembling a mollusc in many respects. This is important evidence for the existence of large triploblastic metazoans in the Precambrian and indicates that the origin of the higher groups of protostomes lies well back in the Precambrian.

  14. Continental velocity through Precambrian times: The link to magmatism, crustal accretion and episodes of global cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper


    Full Text Available Quasi-integrity of continental crust between Mid-Archaean and Ediacaran times is demonstrated by conformity of palaeomagnetic poles to near-static positions between ∼2.7–2.2 Ga, ∼1.5–1.2 Ga and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga. Intervening data accord to coherent APW loops turning at “hairpins” focused near a continental-centric location. Although peripheral adjustments occurred during Early Proterozoic (∼2.2 Ga and Grenville (∼1.1 Ga times, the crust retained a low order symmetrical crescent-shaped form constrained to a single global hemisphere until break-up in Ediacaran times. Conformity of palaeomagnetic data to specific Eulerian parameters enables definition of a master Precambrian APW path used to estimate the root mean square velocity (vRMS of continental crust between 2.8 and 0.6 Ga. A long interval of little polar movement between ∼2.7 and 2.2 Ga correlates with global magmatic shutdown between ∼2.45 and 2.2 Ga, whilst this interval and later slowdown at ∼0.75–0.6 Ga to velocities of <2 cm/year correlate with episodes of widespread glaciation implying that these prolonged climatic anomalies had an internal origin; the reduced input of volcanically-derived atmospheric greenhouse gases is inferred to have permitted freeze-over conditions with active ice sheets extending into equatorial latitudes as established by low magnetic inclinations in glaciogenic deposits. vRMS variations through Precambrian times correspond to the distribution of U-Pb ages in orogenic granitoids and detrital zircons and demonstrate that mobility of continental crust has been closely related to crustal tectonism and incrementation. Both periods of near-stillstand were followed by rapid vRMS recording massive heat release from beneath the continental lid at ∼2.2 and 0.6 Ga. The first coincided with the Lomagundi-Jatuli isotopic event and led to prolonged orogenesis accompanied by continental flooding and reconfiguration of the crust on the Earth

  15. The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon-Global ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 2, 2009 ... The life forms as categorised today in the three principal domains viz. the Bacteria, the Archaea and the Eucarya evolved during this period. In this paper, we review the advancements made in the Precambrian palaeontology and its contribution in understanding the evolution of life forms on earth.

  16. Precambrian crustal structure in Africa and Arabia : Evidence lacking for secular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tugume, Fred; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; van der Meijde, M.


    We review the thickness and shear wave velocity structure of Precambrian crust in Africa and Arabia, where over 90% of the landmass is comprised of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, and examine the data for evidence of secular variation. The data come from many published 1D shear wave velocity

  17. Monthly Weather Review (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  18. UTM Weather Presentation (United States)

    Chan, William N.; Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Carmichael, Bruce; Cornman, Larry


    Presentation highlighting how weather affected UAS operations during the UTM field tests. Research to develop UAS weather translation models with a description of current and future work for UTM weather.

  19. Intensity of geomagnetic field in the Precambrian and evolution of the Earth's deep interior (United States)

    Smirnov, A. V.


    Reliable data on the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field can become an important source of information both about the mechanisms of generation of the field at present and in the past, and about the internal structure of the Earth, especially the structure and evolution of its core. Unfortunately, the reliability of these data remains a serious problem of paleomagnetic research because of the limitations of experimental methods, and the complexity and diversity of rocks and their magnetic carriers. This is true even for relatively "young" Phanerozoic rocks, but investigation of Precambrian rocks is associated with many additional difficulties. As a consequence, our current knowledge of paleointensity, especially in the Precambrian period, is still very limited. The data limitations do not preclude attempts to use the currently available paleointensity results to analyze the evolution and characteristics of the Earth's internal structure, such as the age of the Earth's solid inner core or thermal conductivity in the liquid core. However, such attempts require considerable caution in handling data. In particular, it has now been reliably established that some results on the Precambrian paleointensity overestimate the true paleofield strength. When the paleointensity overestimates are excluded from consideration, the range of the field strength changes in the Precambrian does not exceed the range of its variation in the Phanerozoic. This result calls into question recent assertions that the Earth's inner core formed in the Mesoproterozoic, about 1.3 billion years ago, triggering a statistically significant increase in the long-term average field strength. Instead, our analysis has shown that the quantity and quality of the currently available data on the Precambrian paleointensity are insufficient to estimate the age of the solid inner core and, therefore, cannot be useful for solving the problem of the thermal conductivity of the Earth's core. The data are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kovach


    Full Text Available The Dzabkhan microcontinent was defined by [Mossakovsky et al., 1994] as a cratonic terrane with an early Precambrian basement that combines highgrade metamorphic complexes of the Songino, Dzabkhan, Otgon, Baidarik, Ider and Jargalant Blocks. However, early Precambrian ages have so far only been recognized in the Baidarik and Ider blocks [Kozakov et al., 2007, 2011; Kröner et al., 2015].

  1. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.


    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  2. Weather in Your Life. (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  3. Precambrian supercontinents, glaciations, atmospheric oxygenation, metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second half of Earth history

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant M. Young


    ... homePage:www.eflsevie ■Review Precambrian superc0ntinents,glaciations,atmospheric oxygenation,metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second...

  4. Diamond drilling for geologic information in the middle Precambrian basins in the western portion of northern Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trow, J.


    Between September 26, 1977, and May 11, 1978, six initially vertical holes probed a total of 9896 feet (1109 feet or 11.2% in overburden, 155 feet or 1.6% in Precambrian Y mafic dikes, 8386 feet or 84.7% in Precambrian X Goodrich Quartzite and Michigamme Formation, and 246 feet or 2.5% in Precambrian W basement lithologies). In addition to normal examination of core, logging, and storing of core, the holes were extensively logged geophysically, acidized core was tested for phosphate content by ammonium molybdate, splits from five out of every thirty feet of core were subjected to chemical scrutiny, thin sections of all lithologies were examined, and radiometric determinations of geologic age were made for confirmation of Precambrian W basement which was encountered in each of the three basins in Marquette County.

  5. Geochemistry of Precambrian mafic dikes, central Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming, U.S.A. (United States)

    Armbrustmacher, T.J.


    Precambrian quartz dolerites and metadolerites of the central Bighorn Mountains form dikes that intrude a Precambrian metamorphic and igneous terrane typical of the Laramide uplifts of the middle Rocky Mountains. They have a restricted range of major- and trace-element compositions and are typical of basalts in the middle stages of tholeiitic fractionation. Fractionation in the direction of iron enrichment occurred by removal of plagioclase. Average element concentrations of the two groups are nearly identical to one another, are comparable to those in Archean metabasalts from numerous shield areas, and are intermediate between those of modern oceanic tholeiites and continental tholeiites. These average concentrations suggest a depth of magma generation and thickness of crust intermediate between those for the oceanic and continental environments. ?? 1977.

  6. Analysis of Anthraxolite and Precambrian Carbonates of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Rutter, A. M.


    Anthraxolite is a solid mass of black organic material, often composed of bitumen, that is used as a biomarker formed by oxidation processes. Anthraxolite occurs in veins and fractures that contain cross cutting properties in the carbonate bedding located at Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada. While the hydrocarbons are primarly distributed in the stromatolite bearing units of the Gunflint Formation in the Animikie Group, little information is currently available concerning the highly altered Precambrian metamorphosed oil. This research summarizes the hydrocarbon and microfossiliferous cherty stromatolite horizon in the Gunflint Formation that has been dated at 1.9 Ga. By utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to retrieve a chemical analysis of the organic molecule samples found at outcrops and in cores, the preserved anthraxolite and carbonate facies were discovered to contain similar compositions. These new results will help provide i) a further understanding Precambrian paleontology by identifying microfossils; ii) the ecology of the region, and iii) the origin of the hydrocarbons.

  7. High-resolution heavy mineral stratigraphy of selected Precambrian successions underlying the Nama Group in Namibia


    Myhre, Alexandra Elisabeth


    This project research the provenance of Precambrian formations: Kuibis Formation, Holgat Formation, Numees Formation, Blaubeker Formation, Matchless Amphibolite, Aubures Formation, and Klein Aub Formation from Namibia. The aim is to enhance provenance understanding, as detrital zircons from previously studies on the Ediacaran rocks show zircon ages older than 1.0 Ga; with a basis in high-resolution heavy mineral studies using different techniques; Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffracti...

  8. The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages. (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Brown, Tanya L; French, Barbara L; Linbo, Tiffany L; Lay, Claire; Forth, Heather; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin


    To better understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident on commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species, a mahi-mahi spawning program was developed to assess the effect of embryonic exposure to DWH crude oil with particular emphasis on the effects of weathering and dispersant on the magnitude of toxicity. Acute lethality (96 h LC50) ranged from 45.8 (28.4-63.1) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for wellhead (source) oil to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for samples collected from the surface slick, reinforcing previous work that weathered oil is more toxic on a ΣPAH basis. Differences in toxicity appear related to the amount of dissolved 3 ringed PAHs. The dispersant Corexit 9500 did not influence acute lethality of oil preparations. Embryonic oil exposure resulted in cardiotoxicity after 48 h, as evident from pericardial edema and reduced atrial contractility. Whereas pericardial edema appeared to correlate well with acute lethality at 96 h, atrial contractility did not. However, sub-lethal cardiotoxicity may impact long-term performance and survival. Dispersant did not affect the occurrence of pericardial edema; however, there was an apparent reduction in atrial contractility at 48 h of exposure. Pericardial edema at 48 h and lethality at 96 h were equally sensitive endpoints in mahi-mahi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Location of oil fields in Forest City basin as related to Precambrian tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.P. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))


    Accumulation of petroleum in the Forest City basin is strongly influenced by the tectonic framework established during the Precambrian. A series of Late Proterozoic orogenies created a fracture pattern in the northern Mid-Continent, which was emphasized by the late Keweenawan, Mid-Continent Rift System (MRS). Reactivated basement structures have created both a structural and depositional imprint on younger rocks. The Southeast Nebraska arch is defined by Middle Ordovician (Simpson) overlap of Arbuckle equivalents. Continuing differential movement along segments of the MRS within the North Kansas basin influenced the regional facies distribution of both the Late Ordovician (Viola) and the Late Devonian (Hunton). Middle Pennsylvanian compression from the Ouachita orogeny produced the Nemaha uplift and reactivated transform faulting on the MRS. Extensions of these southeast-trending fractures created offsets on the Nemaha uplift/Humboldt fault system and enhanced structures that host oil production. Fields that lie upon these wrench-fault trends within the Forest City basin have produced from the Simpson (St. Peter), Viola, and Hunton formations. The Precambrian structures and rock types produce strong geophysical signatures in contrast to the subdued anomalies of the Paleozoic sediments. Analyses of magnetic and gravity data provide an interpretation of the basement rocks and, by extrapolation, an additional exploration tool for locating Paleozoic trends related to reactivation of Precambrian tectonics.

  10. Are all reversals symmetric? The search for latent components of magnetisation in late Precambrian (Torridonian) sediments of Northwest Scotland. (United States)

    Potts, G. J.; Holme, R.


    The symmetry of the dynamo equations, and the experience and assumption of the palaeomagnetic community, is that when averaged over time, normal and reversed palaeomagnetic pole directions should be antiparallel. Nevertheless, a number of studies over many years have produced results where the poles are not so positioned. For many workers, this failure of the reversal test results in the automatic rejection of the data. However, some recent numerical simulations have produced results where the symmetry of the normal to reversed state is broken. This physically counterintuitive result probably results because of insufficient computational averaging time, but this only raises the question as to how long a palaeomagnetic record is necessary for symmetry to be established - does the dynamo retain a memory of its previous state after reversal? Several palaeomagnetic studies have presented and refined a magneto-stratigraphic framework for the Torridon Group which forms part of the late Precambrian Torridonian Supergroup of Northwest Scotland. The zones of alternating polarity do not record a series of anti-parallel reversals. The two directions lie at or about 140° apart. This pattern of magnetisation was identified in the earliest palaeomagnetic studies of these rocks and it has been, in general, confirmed by later work. In the absence of reliable demagnetisation equipment the early workers, quite reasonably, suggested that the lack of anti-parallel directions may be due to the presence of an additional component of magnetisation and this explanation has been adopted in several later studies. Demagnetisation of these "Torridonian" directions has revealed behaviours that may be interpreted as single component magnetisations (directions that are stationary whilst the intensity of the remanence decreases). Thus, if an additional component is present it is to some degree hidden or latent. Using the results of previous studies and an understanding of demagnetisation

  11. Eukaryotic stromatolite builders in acid mine drainage: Implications for Precambrian iron formations and oxygenation of the atmosphere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography, Geology & Anthropology


    Biological activity of Euglena mutabilis, an acidophilic, photosynthetic protozoan, contributes to the formation of Fe-rich stromatolites in acid mine drainage systems. E. mutabilis is the dominant microbe in bright green benthic mats (biofilm), coating drainage channels at abandoned coal mine sites in Indiana. It builds biolaminates through phototactic and aerotactic behavior, similar to prokaryotes, by moving through precipitates that periodically cover the mats. E. mutabilis also contributes to formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by (1) intracellularly storing Fe compounds released after death, contributing to the solid material of stromatolites and acting as nucleation sites for precipitation of authigenic Fe minerals, and (2) generating 02 via photosynthesis that further facilitates precipitation of reduced Fe, any excess 02 not consumed by Fe precipitation being released to the atmosphere. Recognition of E. mutabilis-dominated biofilm in acidic systems raises a provocative hypothesis relating processes involved in formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by E. mutabilis to those responsible for development of Precambrian stromatolitic Fe formations and oxygenation of the early atmosphere.

  12. Quantifying precambrian crustal extraction: The root is the answer (United States)

    Abbott, D.; Sparks, D.; Herzberg, C.; Mooney, W.; Nikishin, A.; Zhang, Y.-S.


    We use two different methods to estimate the total amount of continental crust that was extracted by the end of the Archean and the Proterozoic. The first method uses the sum of the seismic thickness of the crust, the eroded thickness of the crust, and the trapped melt within the lithospheric root to estimate the total crustal volume. This summation method yields an average equivalent thickness of Archean crust of 49 ?? 6 km and an average equivalent thickness of Proterozoic crust of 48 ?? 9 km. Between 7 and 9% of this crust never reached the surface, but remained within the continental root as congealed, iron-rich komatiitic melt. The second method uses experimental models of melting, mantle xenolith compositions, and corrected lithospheric thickness to estimate the amount of crust extracted through time. This melt column method reveals that the average equivalent thickness of Archean crust was 65 ?? 6 km. and the average equivalent thickness of Early Proterozoic crust was 60 ?? 7 km. It is likely that some of this crust remained trapped within the lithospheric root. The discrepancy between the two estimates is attributed to uncertainties in estimates of the amount of trapped, congealed melt, overall crustal erosion, and crustal recycling. Overall, we find that between 29 and 45% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Archean, most likely by 2.7 Ga. Between 51 and 79% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Early Proterozoic, most likely by 1.8-2.0 Ga. Our results are most consistent with geochemical models that call upon moderate amounts of recycling of early extracted continental crust coupled with continuing crustal growth (e.g. McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1982. Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental crust. Journal of Geology, 90, 347-361; Veizer, J., Jansen, S.L., 1985. Basement and sedimentary recycling - 2: time dimension to global tectonics. Journal of Geology 93(6), 625-643). Trapped, congealed, iron

  13. Trinity Complex plagiogranites, Klamath Mtns. , California: Late Precambrian to Early Paleozoic tectonism and magmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozer, M.K.; Lindsley-Griffin, N. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    Three ages of plagiogranites (PG) are reported from the Trinity Complex: late Proterozoic to earliest Cambrian (570 Ma), Ordovician (469--475 Ma), and Silurian (412 Ma). Minor Ordovician PG intrudes 570 Ma cumulate gabbros and is only moderately deformed. Silurian PG is related to voluminous gabbroic magmatism (Waling et al. 1981) and is relatively undeformed. However, 570 Ma PG in the Gregg Ranch area from Gazelle Mtn. to Lovers Leap is intensely deformed and is either part of the Trinity ophiolite sequence or blocks of Trinity ophiolite within melange of the Gregg Ranch Complex. The 570 Ma PG of Gregg Ranch consists of light gray, medium-grained fresh PG, interleaved with darker finer-grained PG that contains abundant sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite). Both types are cataclastic: after ductile stretching, quartz (Q) and plagioclase (PL) grains were broken and rotated. Though surrounded by fine fragmental Q and PL matrix, some larger pieces fit back together. Thus, the PG experienced deformation under P-T conditions across the ductile to brittle transition. A change in fabric and joint orientations from NW to NE across the area suggests the rocks were subsequently folded at least once. The 570 Ma Trinity ophiolite was intensely deformed prior to intrusion of minor PG in the Ordovician. Silurian magmatism postdates all major deformation and records no later orogenic events in the Trinity Complex other than warping and uplift.

  14. Early cretaceous Obernirchen and Bentheim sandstones from Germany used as dimension stone in the Netherlands: geology physical properties, architectural use and comparative weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.


    The Netherlands, with only scarce occurrences of outcropping or shallow buried natural stone, has over centuries imported huge quantities of Early Cretaceous Bentheim Sandstone and Obernkirchen Sandstone from Germany. The present paper provides an overview of their distribution and properties

  15. Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins. (United States)

    Gaucher, Eric A; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Ganesh, Omjoy K


    Biosignatures and structures in the geological record indicate that microbial life has inhabited Earth for the past 3.5 billion years or so. Research in the physical sciences has been able to generate statements about the ancient environment that hosted this life. These include the chemical compositions and temperatures of the early ocean and atmosphere. Only recently have the natural sciences been able to provide experimental results describing the environments of ancient life. Our previous work with resurrected proteins indicated that ancient life lived in a hot environment. Here we expand the timescale of resurrected proteins to provide a palaeotemperature trend of the environments that hosted life from 3.5 to 0.5 billion years ago. The thermostability of more than 25 phylogenetically dispersed ancestral elongation factors suggest that the environment supporting ancient life cooled progressively by 30 degrees C during that period. Here we show that our results are robust to potential statistical bias associated with the posterior distribution of inferred character states, phylogenetic ambiguity, and uncertainties in the amino-acid equilibrium frequencies used by evolutionary models. Our results are further supported by a nearly identical cooling trend for the ancient ocean as inferred from the deposition of oxygen isotopes. The convergence of results from natural and physical sciences suggest that ancient life has continually adapted to changes in environmental temperatures throughout its evolutionary history.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea


    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  17. Daily Weather Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  18. Mariners Weather Log (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  19. Land Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  20. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  2. Natural Weathering Exposure Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  3. Surface Weather Observations Hourly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  4. Pilot Weather Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  5. Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  6. Internet Weather Source (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  7. Mineralogy of the Precambrian southern Kostomuksha gold prospect in Karelia (United States)

    Kuleshevich, L. V.; Gor'kovets, V. Ya.


    The southern Kostomuksha gold-sulfide prospect with a grade of 0.2-30 g/t Au belongs to the gold-pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite mineral type and is localized in the metasomatically altered shear zone at the southern flank of the Kostomuksha iron deposit. The Au-bearing pyrite ore is commonly characterized by a low grade (0.02-1.0 g/t Au). The grade of Au-bearing mineralization composed of arsenopyrite, loellingite, and electrum (4.28-15.31 wt % Ag and up to 0.99-2.16 wt % Hg) is higher; pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, maldonite, aurostibite, and native bismuth are additional components of this mineral assemblage. The ore mineralization is hosted in the near-latitudinal shear zone close to the contact between the folded and metamorphosed banded iron formation (BIF) and hälleflinta. The early stage of collision-related HP-HT metamorphism resulted in the formation of a garnet-amphibole-biotite assemblage ( T = 680-750°C) and microcline. After an abrupt drop m pressure, metasomatic alteration and ore mineralization took place. The ore-forming process started at 510-440°C with deposition of arsenopyrite. Galena and electrum were formed at a lower temperature. The temperature continued to decline down to the stage of ore oxidation and deposition of colloform marcasite. Ore minerals precipitated from acid chloride aqueous solutions admixed with methane at the initial stage and from diluted aqueous solutions at the final stage. The character of wall-rock alteration and the gain of K, Rb, and B show that the ore-forming process postdated the emplacement of potassium granite. The occurrence of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Ni and other heterogeneous elements indicates a complex metamorphic-metasomatic source and an additional supply of Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te under conditions of sulfur deficiency. The gold mineralization at the southern Kostomuksha prospect is classified as gold-sulfide (arsenopyrite) ore type related to shear zones in the BIF.

  8. American Weather Stories. (United States)

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  9. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.


    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  10. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels


    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  11. Uranium potential in Precambrian conglomerates of the Central Arizona Arch. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.; Wirth, K.R.


    The Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates in a 9500 km/sup 2/ area of central Arizona between the Mazatzal and Sierra Ancha Mountains were investigated for the presence of significant uranium concentrations or environments favorable for uranium concentration. Abundant conglomerates are found in either the 1740 to 1720 m.y.-old Alder Group, the 1700 m.y.-old Mazatzal Group, or the 1300 to 1250 m.y.-old Apache Group. Supplementing detailed geologic study of the conglomerates is a systematic analysis of major-element, trace-element, and uranium-geochemical data for over 300 rock samples. This analysis provides a relationship between scintillometer data and uranium content for different rock types and gives correlation coefficients between uranium and related metals in the heavy-mineral assemblage. A radiometric variance plot of averages for the various conglomerate types shows that Apache Group conglomerates are Th-rich and too evolved, marine Mazatzal and Alder conglomerates are U-poor, whereas only high-energy fluvial environments in basal Deadman and Mazatzal conglomerates strongly concentrated uranium values. Reevaluation of accepted criteria for uranium concentration in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates in light of new data on uranium-mineral stability under nonreducing conditions and new observations on major world deposits leads to the conclusion that the presence of a U-rich source terrain is singularly the most important factor in finding a conglomeratic uranium deposit. Most Precambrian conglomerates of the world contain depositional environments and heavy mineral concentrates conducive to uranium concentration, but insufficient uranium is present in the source. The reason pyritic, carbonaceous siltstones in the Apache Group of central Arizona contain stratabound uranium deposits is that a nearby U-rich source of high K/sub 2/O rhyolitic volcanism was available during deposition of the siltstones.

  12. Variation of stable silicon isotopes. Analytical developments and applications in Precambrian geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kathrin


    The work presented in this thesis predominantly deals with bulk-rock measurements of silicon stable isotopes on a Multi Collector-ICP-MS. Analyses were performed in cooperation with the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium. The first section describes how the first analysis of δ{sup 30}Si on a conventional Nu PlasmaTM Multi-Collector ICP-MS instrument can be enabled by the elimination of 14N16O interference overlying the 30Si peak. The determination of δ{sup 30}Si was rendered possible owing to new instrumental upgrades that facilitate the application of a higher mass resolution. The careful characterisation of appropriate reference materials is indispensable for the assessment of the accuracy of a measurement. The determination of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials represents the second objective of this section. The analysis of two Hawaiian standards (BHVO-1 and BHVO-2) demonstrates precise and accurate δ{sup 30}Si determinations and provides cross-calibration data as a quality control for other laboratories. The second section focuses on coupled silicon-oxygen isotopic evidences for the origin of silicification in mafic volcanic rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In contrast to the modern Earth, silicification of near-surface layers, including chert formation, were widespread processes on the Precambrian ocean floor, and demonstrate the ubiquity of extreme silica mobilization in the early Earth. This section outlines the investigation of silicon and oxygen isotopes on three different stratigraphic sections of variably silicified basalts and overlying bedded cherts from the 3.54 Ga, 3.45 Ga and 3.33 Ga Theespruit, Kromberg and Hooggenoeg Formations, respectively. Silicon isotopes, oxygen isotopes and the variable SiO{sub 2}-contents demonstrate a positive correlation with silicification intensity in all three sections, with varying gradients of δ{sup 30}Si vs. δ{sup 18}O arrays for different sections. Seawater has been

  13. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  14. Advancing Precambrian palaeomagnetism with the PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases (United States)

    Veikkolainen, Toni H.; Biggin, Andrew J.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Evans, David A.; Jarboe, Nicholas A.


    State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth's ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the present Phanerozoic Eon. Here, we provide an overview of the technical structure and applications of both databases, paying particular attention to recent improvements and discoveries.

  15. Three ways to test the validity of the Geocentric Axial Dipole (GAD) hypothesis in the Precambrian (United States)

    Veikkolainen, T.; Pesonen, L. J.; Korhonen, K.


    One of the most fundamental aspects of paleomagnetism is the assumption that the temporal mean of the geomagnetic field is indistinguishable from a field generated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD hypothesis). When the theory became mainstream, various ways to test its functionality were presented, based on e.g. deep-sea sediment cores, paleoclimatic indicators and paleointensity. Most suspicion of the dipolar nature of the geomagnetic field has dealt with the Precambrian. To analyze this bias, we have used the data from the novel paleomagnetic database, collected by University of Helsinki, and Yale University for over a decade's time. Altogether 3016 observations from all major Precambrian continents were gathered, and a thorough compilation of reversals of the Archean and Proterozoic geomagnetic field was done. Observations were filtered using different criteria, e.g. geologic age, rock type (igneous vs. metamorphic vs. sedimentary) and reliability according to the modified Voo-grading. Testing the GAD has rested on a) inclination frequency analysis, b) asymmetries in reversal data, and c) paleosecular variation (PSV) using CALS7K, CALS3K, GUFM and IGRF models as references. The results suggest that the geomagnetic field of the Precambrian is not far from the field predicted by the GAD model. The inclination frequency analysis supports the existence of a small octupolar (ca. 6 % of GAD) component and a quadrupole of 0-8 % of GAD as evaluated using chi-square testing. Conclusions drawn from the asymmetry analysis and PSV are statistically indifferent from this. The deviation from the GAD is smallest for the highest-quality observations, especially so called key poles. They have well-defined isotopic ages, small error parameters in their Fisher data and their primary remanent magnetization has been properly isolated. This also means that the observed functionality of GAD cannot be a misconception caused by secondary magnetizations acquired in the Phanerozoic

  16. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada) (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.


    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  17. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada) (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.


    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  18. Using Music to Communicate Weather and Climate (United States)

    Williams, P.; Aplin, K. L.; Brown, S.; Jenkins, K.; Mander, S.; Walsh, C.


    Depictions of weather and other atmospheric phenomena are common throughout the arts. Unlike in the visual arts, however, there has been little study of meteorological inspiration in music. This presentation will discuss the frequencies with which different weather types have been depicted in music over time, covering the period from the seventeenth century to the present day. Beginning with classical orchestral music, we find that composers were generally influenced by their own country's climate in the type of weather they chose to represent. Depictions of weather vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. Pieces depicting stormy weather tend to be in minor keys, whereas pieces depicting fair weather tend to be in major keys. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Moving onto modern popular music, we have identified and analyzed over 750 songs referring to different weather types. We find that lyrical references to bad weather peaked in songs written during the stormy 1950s and 60s, when there were many hurricanes, before declining in the relatively calm 1970s and 80s. This finding again suggests a causal link between song-writers' meteorological environments and compositional outputs. Composers and song-writers have a unique ability to emotionally connect their listeners to the environment. This ability could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broader audience. Our work provides a catalogue of cultural responses to weather before (and during the early stages of) climate change. The effects of global warming may influence musical expression in future, in which case our work will provide a baseline for comparison.

  19. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: an astrobiological Precambrian Park. (United States)

    Souza, Valeria; Siefert, Janet L; Escalante, Ana E; Elser, James J; Eguiarte, Luis E


    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a "Precambrian Park" for astrobiology.

  20. The role of pre-existing Precambrian structures in rift evolution: The Albertine and Rhino grabens, Uganda (United States)

    Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.


    We integrated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Models (DEM), airborne magnetic, radiometric and three-dimensional Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry (3D-FTG) data to investigate the role of Precambrian structures in the evolution of the largely amagmatic Miocene-Recent aged Albertine and Rhino grabens in Uganda. These grabens represent the northern segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). The two NE-trending grabens are connected by a right-stepping transfer zone and they extend within the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Northeast Congo block which represents the northeastern extension of the Congo craton. Our results show the following and highlight the importance of pre-existing structures in the evolution of continental rift systems: (1) The NE-extent of the Albertine full-graben is controlled by NE-trending Precambrian fabric and the graben terminates at its northeastern end when it encounters a multiply folded Precambrian basement terrain with poorly-developed NW-trending structural grain. Additionally, the northeastern termination of the Albertine graben coincides with the presence of NW-trending right-stepping high-density bodies within the Precambrian terrain. (2) The transfer zone between the Albertine and Rhino grabens is controlled by NE-trending Precambrian structures which might have facilitated the development of relay ramp faults. (3) Strain localization within the better-developed southeastern border fault of the Rhino half-graben is facilitated by the presence of Precambrian structures better aligned in a NE-direction in the southeastern part of the basin compared to its northwestern part. (4) Further to the northeast, the Rhino graben is segmented and transitions into a narrower ENE-trending half-graben with a better-developed border fault on its northwestern side. This segmentation coincides with the presence of N-trending Precambrian structures. (5) The Rhino graben terminates farther northeast against

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.


    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

  2. Weather and road capacity


    Jensen, Thomas Christian


    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces s...

  3. Space Weather Analysis (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  4. Space Weather Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  5. NASA Weather Support 2017 (United States)

    Carroll, Matt


    In the mid to late 1980's, as NASA was studying ways to improve weather forecasting capabilities to reduce excessive weather launch delays and to reduce excessive weather Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) waivers, the Challenger Accident occurred and the AC-67 Mishap occurred.[1] NASA and USAF weather personnel had advance knowledge of extremely high levels of weather hazards that ultimately caused or contributed to both of these accidents. In both cases, key knowledge of the risks posed by violations of weather LCC was not in the possession of final decision makers on the launch teams. In addition to convening the mishap boards for these two lost missions, NASA convened expert meteorological boards focusing on weather support. These meteorological boards recommended the development of a dedicated organization with the highest levels of weather expertise and influence to support all of American spaceflight. NASA immediately established the Weather Support Office (WSO) in the Office of Space Flight (OSF), and in coordination with the United Stated Air Force (USAF), initiated an overhaul of the organization and an improvement in technology used for weather support as recommended. Soon after, the USAF established a senior civilian Launch Weather Officer (LWO) position to provide meteorological support and continuity of weather expertise and knowledge over time. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was established by NASA, USAF, and the National Weather Service to support initiatives to place new tools and methods into an operational status. At the end of the Shuttle Program, after several weather office reorganizations, the WSO function had been assigned to a weather branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This branch was dismantled in steps due to further reorganization, loss of key personnel, and loss of budget line authority. NASA is facing the loss of sufficient expertise and leadership required to provide current levels of weather support. The recommendation proposed

  6. Weather and emotional state (United States)

    Spasova, Z.


    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  7. Four magnetite generations in the Precambrian Varena Iron Ore deposit, SE Lithuania, as a result of rock-fluid interactions (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Prusinskiene, Sabina; Siliauskas, Laurynas


    Iron ores in Precambrian crystalline basement of the Varena area, SE Lithuania, were discovered during the detail geological-geophysical exploration in 1982-1992. They are covered with 210-500 m thick sediments. The Varena Iron Ore deposit (VIOD) may yield from 71 to 219.6 million tons of iron ore according to different economic evaluations (Marfin, 1996). They were assumed to be of metasomatic and hydrothermal origin, however several other hypotheses explaining the VIOZ origin, e.g. as a layered mafic or carbonatite intrusions were also suggested. Magnetites of the VIOD were thoroughly investigated by the Cameca SX100 microprobe at the Warsaw University and by the Quanta 250 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) at the Nature Research Centre in Vilnius, Lithuania. Four generations of magnetite were distinguished in the studied serpentine-magnetite ores (D8 drilling) and were compared with the earlier studied and reference magnetites. The earliest, spinel inclusion-rich magnetite cores (Mag-1) have the highest trace element contents (in wt%): Si (0.032), Al (0.167-0.248), Mg (0.340-0.405), Ti (0.215-0.254), V (0.090-0.138) etc. They might have formed during an early metamorphism and/or related skarn formation. Voluminous second magnetite (Mag-2) replacing olivine, pyroxenes, spinel and other skarn minerals at c. 540o C (Magnetite-Ilmenite geothermometer) has much lower trace element abundances, probably washed out by hydrothermal fluids. The latest magnetites (Mag-3 and Mag-4) overgrow the earlier ones and occur near or within the sulfide veins (Mag-4). As was observed from microtextures, the Mag-3 and Mag-4 have originated from the late thermal reworking by dissolution-reprecipitation processes. To imply an origin of the studied magnetites, they were compared to the earlier studied magmatic-metamorphic (1058 drilling), presumably skarn (982 drilling) magnetites from the studied area and plotted in the major magnetite ore type fields according to Dupuis and Beaudoin

  8. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian


    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  9. Weathering drought in Africa


    Cornforth, Rosalind


    Close to 19 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are threatened by severe food \\ud shortages, partly due to variations in the weather. Our understanding of \\ud meteorology is improving all the time, but can science really help the people at \\ud the sharp end of Africa’s weather?

  10. KSC Weather and Research (United States)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin


    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  11. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Hurk, Van Den B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; Oldenborgh, Van G.J.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.


    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes.

  12. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Wang, X.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.


    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The

  13. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape]. (United States)


    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  14. Designing a Weather Station (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  15. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) (United States)


    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  16. The Dr H.M.E. Schürmann collection : Precambrian and other crystalline rocks and minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, J.C.


    The Dr H.M.E. Schürmann collection is stored at the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden, The Netherlands. It mainly consists of Precambrian rocks, but also includes other crystalline rocks and minerals, which were collected from all over the world. In order to provide a quick reference to

  17. Seismic anisotropy of Precambrian lithosphere: Insights from Rayleigh wave tomography of the eastern Superior Craton (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Darbyshire, Fiona; Bastow, Ian; Totten, Eoghan; Gilligan, Amy


    The thick, seismically fast lithospheric keels underlying continental cores (cratons) are thought to have formed in the Precambrian and resisted subsequent tectonic destruction. A consensus is emerging from a variety of disciplines that keels are vertically stratified, but the processes that led to their development remain uncertain. Eastern Canada is a natural laboratory to study Precambrian lithospheric formation and evolution. It comprises the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Craton, surrounded by multiple Proterozoic orogenic belts. To investigate its lithospheric structure, we construct a frequency-dependent anisotropic seismic model of the region using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations across eastern Canada. The joint interpretation of phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy patterns reveals a seismically fast and anisotropically complex Superior Craton. The upper lithosphere records fossilized Archean tectonic deformation: anisotropic patterns align with the orientation of the main tectonic boundaries at periods ≤110 s. This implies that cratonic blocks were strong enough to sustain plate-scale deformation during collision at 2.5 Ga. Cratonic lithosphere with fossil anisotropy partially extends beneath adjacent Proterozoic belts. At periods sensitive to the lower lithosphere, we detect fast, more homogenous, and weakly anisotropic material, documenting postassembly lithospheric growth, possibly in a slow or stagnant convection regime. A heterogeneous, anisotropic transitional zone may also be present at the base of the keel. The detection of multiple lithospheric fabrics at different periods with distinct tectonic origins supports growing evidence that cratonization processes may be episodic and are not exclusively an Archean phenomenon.

  18. Petrological-thermomechanical modeling of Precambrian continental collision: geodynamical effects of subcontinental lithospheric mantle thickness (United States)

    Zakharov, Vladimir; Perchuk, Alexei; Zavyalov, Sergei; Sineva, Tamara; Gerya, Taras


    The Precambrian collision and orogeny remains enigmatic and contentious. Different tectonic styles of orogeny in the Precambrian compared to modern Earth are suggested by interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts. Here, we present results of 2D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modeling of continental collision at crustal thickness of 35 km and convergence rate of 5 cm/year with variable thickness of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The numerical experiments cover the range of SCLM thickness from 65 km to 165 km, the upper mantle temperature exceeded the modern temperature by 150 oC, and the radiogenic heat production of continental crust is 1.5 times higher than that at present. The numerical modeling has shown that in the case of SCLM thickness of 65 to 125 km the subduction terminates with slab break-off followed by the formation of a large igneous province in between the two continents instead of an orogenic belt. The time and the place of the slab break-off depend on SCLM thickness. The thinner it is, the earlier and the closer to the surface the slab breaks-off. For instance, the slab is detached in 10.3 m.y. at the depth 150 km when the model with SCLM of 115 km, whereas in the case of SCLM of 65 km the slab detaches in 5.1 m.y. almost near the very surface. In the latter case, the magmatic province is very large due to development at the both sides of the oceanic slab (instead of one side provinces in the other experiments). Continental collision with a very thick SCLM (of 165 km and more) proceeds without slab break-off and rather limited volcanism. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant 13-05-01033 and by the Supercomputing Centre of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  19. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801. (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Kington, J.


    In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to

  20. Daily Weather Maps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  1. Surface Weather Observations Monthly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  2. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  3. Space Weather Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  4. Oil Rig Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  5. Cape Kennedy Weather Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  6. Geology of Precambrian rocks and isotope geochemistry of shear zones in the Big Narrows area, northern Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey T.


    Rocks within the Big Narrows and Poudre Park quadrangles located in the northern Front Range of Colorado are Precambrian metasedimentary and metaigneous schists and gneisses and plutonic igneous rocks. These are locally mantled by extensive late Tertiary and Quaternary fluvial gravels. The southern boundary of the Log Cabin batholith lies within the area studied. A detailed chronology of polyphase deformation, metamorphism and plutonism has been established. Early isoclinal folding (F1) was followed by a major period of plastic deformation (F2), sillimanite-microcline grade regional metamorphism, migmatization and synkinematic Boulder Creek granodiorite plutonism (1.7 b.y.). Macroscopic doubly plunging antiformal and synformal structures were developed. P-T conditions at the peak of metamorphism were probably about 670?C and 4.5 Kb. Water pressures may locally have differed from load pressures. The 1.4 b.y. Silver Plume granite plutonism was post kinematic and on the basis of petrographic and field criteria can be divided into three facies. Emplacement was by forcible injection and assimilation. Microscopic and mesoscopic folds which postdate the formation of the characteristic mineral phases during the 1.7 b.y. metamorphism are correlated with the emplacement of the Silver Plume Log Cabin batholith. Extensive retrograde metamorphism was associated with this event. A major period of mylonitization postdates Silver Plume plutonism and produced large E-W and NE trending shear zones. A detailed study of the Rb/Sr isotope geochemistry of the layered mylonites demonstrated that the mylonitization and associated re- crystallization homogenized the Rb87/Sr 86 ratios. Whole-rock dating techniques applied to the layered mylonites indicate a probable age of 1.2 b.y. Petrographic studies suggest that the mylonitization-recrystallization process produced hornfels facies assemblages in the adjacent metasediments. Minor Laramide faulting, mineralization and igneous activity

  7. Shoshonitic liquid line of descent from diorite to granite: the Late Precambrian post-collisional Tismana pluton (South Carpathians, Romania) (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Berza, Tudor; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline


    The post-collision late-kinematic Tismana pluton belongs to the shoshonitic series. It is part of a Late Precambrian basement within the Alpine Danubian nappes of the South Carpathians (Romania). This pluton displays an exceptionally complete range of compositions from ultramafic to felsic rocks (granites). Widespread mingling/mixing relationships at all scales give rise to a variety of facies. A liquid line of descent from the diorites to the granites is reconstructed by considering the variation in major and trace elements (REE, Sr, Rb, Ba, Nb, Zr, Hf, Zn, V, Co, Cr, U, Th, Ga, Pb) from 33 selected samples as well as mineral/melt equilibrium relationships. The first step of fractional crystallization is the separation from a monzodioritic parent magma of a peridotitic cumulate similar to the ultramafic rock found in the massif. A possible contamination by lower crustal mafic component takes place at this stage. The second step marks the appearance of apatite and Fe-Ti oxide minerals as liquidus phases, and the third step, saturation of zircon. Mixing by hybridisation of magmas produced at different stages of the evolution along the liquid line of descent is also operating (endo-hybridisation). As depicted by Nd and Sr isotopes, fractional crystallization was combined to an important early contamination by a mafic lower crust in a deep-seated magma chamber and to a later and mild contamination by a felsic medium crust in an intermediate chamber. The mingling essentially occurred during the final emplacement in the high-level magma chamber. The monzodioritic parent magma, identified by major and trace element modelling, is shown by Sr and Nd isotopes to have its source in the lithospheric mantle or in a juvenile mafic lower crust derived from it. The necessarily recent enrichment in K 2O and associated elements of the lithospheric mantle is likely to be related to the preceding Pan-African subduction period. The partial melting of this newly formed deep source has

  8. Cognitive Factors that Impact Learning in the Field: Observations from an REU Project on Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Goodwin, C.


    Field work requires cognitive processing on many different levels, and constitutes a powerful and important learning environment. To be effective and meaningful, the context of field work must be fully understood in terms of key research questions, earlier published work, regional geology, geologic history, and geologic processes. Scale(s) of observation and sample selection methods and strategies must be defined. Logistical decisions must be made about equipment needed, points of access, and navigation in the field. Professional skills such as field note-taking, measuring structural data, and rock descriptions must be employed, including appropriate use of field tools. Interpretations of geologic features in the field must be interpreted through recall of concepts from the geologic knowledge base (e.g. crystallization history of igneous rocks interpreted through phase diagrams). Field workers need to be able to self-monitor and self-regulate their actions (metacognitively), and make adjustments to daily plans as needed. The results of field work must be accurately and effectively communicated to other geoscientists. Personal and professional ethics and values are brought to bear as decisions are made about whether or not the work has been satisfactorily completed at a field site. And, all of this must be done against a back drop of environmental factors that affect the ability to do this work (e.g. inclement weather, bears, impassable landscapes). The simultaneous relevance of all these factors creates a challenging, but rewarding environment for learning on many different scales. During our REU project to study the Precambrian rocks in the back country of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we considered these cognitive factors in designing our project curriculum. To reduce the "novelty space" of the project a website was developed that described the project goals and expected outcomes, introduced primary literature, and alerted students about the physical demands

  9. EBSD characterization of pre-Cambrian deformations in conglomerate pebbles (Sierra de la Demanda, Northern Spain) (United States)

    Puelles, Pablo; Ábalos, Benito; Fernández-Armas, Sergio


    Pre-Cambrian and unconformable earliest Cambrian rocks from the Sierra de la Demanda (N Spain) exhibit field and microstructural relationships that attest to orogenic events recorded by concealed basement rocks. Neoproterozoic foliated slates ("Anguiano Schists") crop out under up to 300 m thick, unfoliated quartz-rich conglomerates ("Anguiano Conglomerates") and quartzites which are stratigraphically ca. 600 m below the oldest, paleontologically dated, pre-trilobitic Cambrian layers (likely older than 520 Ma). The Anguiano Conglomerates contain mm to cm grainsized well-rounded pebbles of various types including monocrystalline quartz, detrital zircon and tourmaline-bearing sandstones, black cherts and metamorphic poly-crystalline quartz aggregates. The undeformed matrix is made of much smaller (diagenetically overgrown) monocrystaline quartz grains and minor amounts of accesory zircon, tourmaline and mica. Black chert pebbles exhibit microstructural evidence of brittle deformation (microfaults and thin veins of syntaxial fibrous quartz). These and the fine-grained sandstone pebbles can also exhibit ductile deformations (microfolds with thickened hinges and axial planar continuous foliations), too. Polycrystalline quartz pebbles exhibit a variety of microstructures that resulted from syn-metamorphic ductile deformations. These are recognisable under the petrographic microscope and include continuous foliations, quartz shape fabrics, various types of subgrain or recrystallized new grain microtextures, and lattice preferred orientations (LPOs). Conventional characterization of quartz fabrics (after oriented structural sections) is challenged in conglomerate pebble thin sections by the difficulty of unraveling in them the complete structural reference framework provided by foliation (whose trace can be unraveled) and lineation orientation (which cannot be directly identified). Quartz in various metamorphic polycrystalline pebbles was studied with the Electron Back

  10. An REU Project on the Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park: Some lessons learned (United States)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.


    An NSF-funded REU project (2011-2013), based in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), was designed to characterize the geology, geochemistry and geochronology of Precambrian rocks in northern YNP. Over two field seasons two cadres of 12 students (12 women and 12 men) were chosen from small-to-large state universities and private colleges. REU students participated in three major activities constituting a complete research experience: Field studies involved geologic mapping and sampling of Precambrian basement; formulation of testable research questions by smaller working groups; and mapping and sampling projects to address research questions; Analytical studies, sample preparation immediately followed field work with petrographic analysis at students' home institutions and a week-long visit to analytical laboratories to conduct follow-up studies by small research groups during the academic year (Univ. Florida - geochemistry and geochronology; Univ. Minnesota - EMPA analysis); Communicating results, each working group submitted an abstract and collectively presented 13 posters at the 2011 and 2012 GSA Rocky Mountain sectional meetings. We used directed discovery to engage students in a community of practice in the field and found that a long apprenticeship (2-3 weeks) is optimal for novice-master interactions in exploring natural setting. Initial group hikes were used to normalize methods and language of the discipline. Students developed a sense of ownership of the overall project and assumed personal responsibility for directed research projects. Training was provided to: guide students in selection and appropriate use of tools; develop sampling strategies; discuss communal ethics, values, and expectations; develop efficient work habits; stimulate independent thinking; and engage decision-making. It was important to scaffold the field experience to students' level of development to lead to mastery. Analytical activities were designed from rock to analysis so that each

  11. Aeromagnetic signatures of Precambrian shield and suture zones of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Rajaram


    Full Text Available In many Precambrian provinces the understanding of the tectonic history is constrained by limited exposure and aeromagnetic data provide information below the surface cover of sediments, water, etc. and help build a tectonic model of the region. The advantage of using the aeromagnetic data is that the data set has uniform coverage and is independent of the accessibility of the region. In the present study, available reconnaissance scale aeromagnetic data over Peninsular India are analyzed to understand the magnetic signatures of the Precambrian shield and suture zones thereby throwing light on the tectonics of the region. Utilizing a combination of differential reduction to pole map, analytic signal, vertical and tilt derivative and upward continuation maps we are able to identify magnetic source distribution, tectonic elements, terrane boundaries, suture zones and metamorphic history of the region. The magnetic sources in the region are mainly related to charnockites, iron ore and alkaline intrusives. Our analysis suggests that the Chitradurga boundary shear and Sileru shear are terrane boundaries while we interpret the signatures of Palghat Cauvery and Achankovil shears to represent suture zones. Processes like metamorphism leave their signatures on the magnetic data: prograde granulites (charnockites and retrograde eclogites are known to have high susceptibility. We find that charnockites intruded by alkali plutons have higher magnetization compared to the retrogressed charnockites. We interpret that the Dharwar craton to the north of isograd representing greenschist to amphibolite facies transition, has been subjected to metamorphism under low geothermal conditions. Some recent studies suggest a plate tectonic model of subduction–collision–accretion tectonics around the Palghat Cauvery shear zone (PCSZ. Our analysis is able to identify several west to east trending high amplitude magnetic anomalies with deep sources in the region from

  12. Exploring the deep, ancient hydrogeosphere within Precambrian crystalline rocks using noble gases (United States)

    Warr, O.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Fellowes, J.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; McDermott, J. M.; Holland, G.; Mabry, J.; Ballentine, C. J.


    Serpentinization is a key long-term water-rock interaction occurring within isolated fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks and is a significant source of global H2 production. Highly saline fracture fluids, containing in-situ produced dissolved gases (e.g. percent level He, abiogenic CH4 and mM H2), have revealed microbial ecosystems isolated from the surface photosphere for millions of years. Noble gases can provide crucial physical and temporal constraints on these serpentinizing and life-supporting environments via radiogenic-derived fluid residence times, while also providing evidence of isolation. New noble gas data is presented here from four locations on the Canadian Shield. Kidd Creek Mine in Ontario, where fluids with a mean residence time ≥ 1.1 Ga were identified in 2013, was revisited with resampling of the waters from 2.4 km bls (below land surface), and new samples collected from 2.9 km bls. The study was also expanded to include two mines from Sudbury, Ontario at 1.7 (Mine 1) and 1.4 (Mine 2) km bls. The radiogenic excesses within the fluids were greatest for the 2.9 km Kidd Creek samples and provided an average residence time of 1.6 Ga. Consistent with our hypothesis, the resampling of the 2.4 km fluids (80 months after the original study) reveal significantly reduced residence times (1.1 Ga to 390 Ma) due to stress-induced opening of younger, though nonetheless old, fractures. This is supported by recent sulphur isotope, and 2H & 18O data. Additional hydrogeological constraints are provided by the 129Xe & 136Xe data, which suggest distinct fracture networks feed the 2.4 km, and the 2.9 km systems. Fracture fluids in the Sudbury Basin were targeted to investigate the influence of a later 1.8 Ga bolide impact which formed major fractures in the underlying basement. As hypothesised the fluids in the Sudbury Archean basement are younger than those at Kidd Creek, with mean residence times of 313 and 544 Ma for Mine 1 and 2 respectively. Our

  13. Geology of the Precambrian rocks of the Jabal Habashi Quadrangle, sheet 26F, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Johnson, P.R.; Williams, P.L.; Fuller, F. J.


    The Jabal Habashi quadrangle contains formations of Lower Paleozoic and Cenozoic age, unconformably overlying part of the Precambrian Arabian Shield. The Precambrian formations include metamorphosed and strongly deformed volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and plutons of calc-alkalic, mafic to intermediate composition, dated at about 645 Ma. These are unconformably overlain by the Maraghan formation of the Murdama group, composed of sandstone and siltstone deposited in a vast sedimentary basin present in the region between about 640 to 620 Ma. On the northwestern margin of this large basin, a smaller, fault-controlled basin was filled by the Hibshi formation, a sequence of conglomerate, sandstones, tuffs and minor lava flows, which dates from 632 Ma. Other volcanic rocks from this period probably accumulated around caldera-like volcanoes.

  14. Healthy Housing Opportunities During Weatherization Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Tohn, E.


    In the summer and early fall of 2010, the National Center for Healthy Housing interviewed people from a selection of state and local agencies that perform weatherizations on low-income housing in order to gauge their approach to improving the health and safety of the homes. The interviews provided a strong cross section of what work agencies can do, and how they go about funding this work when funds from the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) do not cover the full extent of the repairs. The report also makes recommendations for WAP in how to assist agencies to streamline and maximize the health and safety repairs they are able to make in the course of a standard weatherization.

  15. Estimation of Precambrian basement topography in Central and Southeastern Wisconsin from 3D modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data (United States)

    Skalbeck, John D.; Koski, Adrian J.; Peterson, Matthew T.


    Increased concerns about groundwater resources in Wisconsin have brought about the need for better understanding of the subsurface geologic structure that leads to developing conceptual hydrogeologic models for numerical simulation of groundwater flow. Models are often based on sparse data from well logs usually located large distances apart and limited in depth. Model assumptions based on limited spatial data typically require simplification that may add uncertainty to the simulation results and the accuracy of a groundwater model. Three dimensional (3D) modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data provides another tool for the groundwater modeler to better constrain the conceptual model of a hydrogeologic system. The area near the Waukesha Fault in southeastern Wisconsin provides an excellent research opportunity for our proposed approach because of the strong gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies associated with the fault, the apparent complexity in fault geometry, and uncertainty in Precambrian basement depth and structure. Fond du Lac County provides another opportunity to apply this approach because the Precambrian basement topography throughout the area is known to be very undulated and this uneven basement surface controls water well yields and creates zones of stagnant water. The results of the 3D modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data provide a detailed estimation of the Precambrian basement topography in Fond Du Lac County and southeastern Wisconsin that may be useful in determining ground water flow and quality in this region.

  16. Space Weather: Terrestrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Tuija


    Full Text Available Space weather effects arise from the dynamic conditions in the Earth’s space environment driven by processes on the Sun. While some effects are influenced neither by the properties of nor the processes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, others are critically dependent on the interaction of the impinging solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field and plasma environment. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to space weather influences, understanding and predicting hazards posed by the active solar events has grown in importance. This review introduces key dynamic processes within the magnetosphere and discusses their relationship to space weather hazards.

  17. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy of Precambrian carbonate stromatolites with post-depositional organic inclusions. (United States)

    Tanaka, Zuki; Perry, Meredith; Cooper, George; Tang, Suning; McKay, Christopher P; Chen, Bin


    Raman spectroscopy has promising potential for future Mars missions as a non-contact detection technique for characterizing organic material and mineralogy. Such a capability will be useful for selecting samples for detailed analysis on a rover and for selecting samples for return to Earth. Stromatolites are important evidence for the earliest life on Earth and are promising targets for Mars investigations. Although constructed by microorganisms, stromatolites are organo-sedimentary structures that can be large enough to be discovered and investigated by a Mars rover. In this paper, we report the Raman spectroscopic investigations of the carbonate mineralogy and organic layering in a Precambrian (~1.5 Gyr old) stromatolite from the Crystal Spring Formation of Southern California. Ultraviolet (UV: 266 nm), visible (514 nm, 633 nm), and near-infrared (NIR: 785 nm, 1064 nm) Raman spectra are presented. We conclude that 1064 nm excitation is the optimal excitation wavelength for avoiding intrinsic fluorescence and detecting organic carbon within the carbonate matrix. Our results confirm that NIR Raman spectroscopy has important applications for future Mars missions.

  18. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic) (United States)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph


    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  19. Phenotypic comparisons of consensus variants versus laboratory resurrections of Precambrian proteins. (United States)

    Risso, Valeria A; Gavira, Jose A; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M


    Consensus-sequence engineering has generated protein variants with enhanced stability, and sometimes, with modulated biological function. Consensus mutations are often interpreted as the introduction of ancestral amino acid residues. However, the precise relationship between consensus engineering and ancestral protein resurrection is not fully understood. Here, we report the properties of proteins encoded by consensus sequences derived from a multiple sequence alignment of extant, class A β-lactamases, as compared with the properties of ancient Precambrian β-lactamases resurrected in the laboratory. These comparisons considered primary sequence, secondary, and tertiary structure, as well as stability and catalysis against different antibiotics. Out of the three consensus variants generated, one could not be expressed and purified (likely due to misfolding and/or low stability) and only one displayed substantial stability having substrate promiscuity, although to a lower extent than ancient β-lactamases. These results: (i) highlight the phenotypic differences between consensus variants and laboratory resurrections of ancestral proteins; (ii) question interpretations of consensus proteins as phenotypic proxies of ancestral proteins; and (iii) support the notion that ancient proteins provide a robust approach toward the preparation of protein variants having large numbers of mutational changes while possessing unique biomolecular properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reactivation of Precambrian faults on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence from gravity anomalies (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramana, M. V.; Rao, D. Gopala


    Gravimetric and bathymetric studies on the southwestern continental margin of India confirm the extension of onshore NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, N-S-, NE-SW-, ENE-WSW- and E-W-trending lineaments of Precambrian age over a considerable distance into the offshore region. The bight in the bathymetry off Coondapoor the offsets of Bessas de Pedro bank and the Cora Divh Island of the Laccadive group, the Prathap Ridge, and the inferred mid-shelf basement ridge suggest block movements on the southwestern continental margin. The physiographic expression on the Prathap Ridge (around 14° 20' N and 72° 50' E) is unaffected by some of the ENE-WSW lineaments, which probably indicates that these lineaments predate, the evolution of the topographic expression. As seafloor spreading advanced with respect to the Carlsberg Ridge, some of the ENE-WSW and NE-SW lineaments on the western continental margin appear to have been reactivated, and block movements took place. The presence of a basement ridge in the mid-shelf and the shelf margin basement high (Prathap Ridge) west of the slope resembles the structural style of a passive continental margin.

  1. Solution to Darwin's dilemma: discovery of the missing Precambrian record of life (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.


    In 1859, in On the Origin of Species, Darwin broached what he regarded to be the most vexing problem facing his theory of evolution-the lack of a rich fossil record predating the rise of shelly invertebrates that marks the beginning of the Cambrian Period of geologic time ( approximately 550 million years ago), an "inexplicable" absence that could be "truly urged as a valid argument" against his all embracing synthesis. For more than 100 years, the "missing Precambrian history of life" stood out as one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in natural science. But in recent decades, understanding of life's history has changed markedly as the documented fossil record has been extended seven-fold to some 3,500 million years ago, an age more than three-quarters that of the planet itself. This long-sought solution to Darwin's dilemma was set in motion by a small vanguard of workers who blazed the trail in the 1950s and 1960s, just as their course was charted by a few pioneering pathfinders of the previous century, a history of bold pronouncements, dashed dreams, search, and final discovery.

  2. Olympian weather forecasting (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.

  3. 'Is it the weather?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobsen (Ben); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)


    textabstractWe show that results in the recent strand of the literature that tries to explain stock returns by weather induced mood shifts of investors might be data-driven inference. More specifically, we consider two recent studies (Kamstra, Kramer and Levi, 2003a and Cao and Wei, 2004) that claim

  4. Weather, Climate, and You. (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  5. Weathering the storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.


    Although growth of 50% over 10 years is forecast for the coal industry in Canada, operators face a skills shortage and have to overcome harsh weather conditions to move their coal. The papers reviews the industry and reports on recent developments. 6 figs.

  6. Rainy Weather Science. (United States)

    Reynolds, Karen


    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  7. Crustal uplift of the Precambrian cratons due to metamorphism in crustal rocks under infiltration of mantle fluids (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergey; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total area of the continents. During the last several million years cratonic areas underwent rapid uplift, from 100-200 m in East Europe to 1000-1500 m Southern Africa. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier and this popular mechanism cannot be applied to its recent uplift. Large thickness of cratonic mantle lithosphere, 100-200 km in most regions, together with its low density precludes delamination of this layer and magmatic underplating as possible causes of recent uplift. It cannot be precluded that in some cratonic regions recent uplift occurred due to delamination of the lower part of mantle lithosphere with the density increased by metasomatism. Even a small uplift of ≥ 100-200 m would require delamination of a thick layer of mantle lithosphere. As a result a temperature drop of > 200 C would arise at the base of the lithosphere producing a shear wave velocities drop of > 2%. According to the seismic tomography data such a drop in VS is observed only in some regions with the Precambrian lithosphere, e.g., in Northeastern Africa. Spatial distribution of the Precambrian cratons is quite different from that predicted by the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle. Moreover, many uplifted blocks are bounded by steep slopes hundreds of meters to one kilometer high and only tens of kilometers wide. Such slopes could not have been formed by bending of thick cratonic lithosphere under the forces acting from below. Their recent formation indicates rock expansion within the crust at shallow depth comparable with the slope width. Rocks formed at the pressure P ˜ 0.5-1.0 GPa are widespread on the Precambrian cratons. This indicates that during their lifetime a layer of rocks ˜ 15-30 km thick has been removed from the crustal surface by denudation. As a result rocks which were initially located in the lower crust emerged to the middle or upper crust. Due to metamorphic

  8. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)


    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 31, 2016 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 9(6): 680 ... The frequency of delay, diversion and outright cancellation occasioned by poor weather ... weather condition has significant influence on aviation safety.

  10. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  11. North America Synoptic Weather Maps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  12. Building resilience to weather-related hazards through better preparedness (United States)

    Keller, Julia; Golding, Brian; Johnston, David; Ruti, Paolo


    Recent developments in weather forecasting have transformed our ability to predict weather-related hazards, while mobile communication is radically changing the way that people receive information. At the same time, vulnerability to weather-related hazards is growing through urban expansion, population growth and climate change. This talk will address issues facing the science community in responding to the Sendai Framework objective to "substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems" in the context of weather-related hazards. It will also provide an overview of activities and approaches developed in the World Meteorological Organisation's High Impact Weather (HIWeather) project. HIWeather has identified and is promoting research in key multi-disciplinary gaps in our knowledge, including in basic meteorology, risk prediction, communication and decision making, that affect our ability to provide effective warnings. The results will be pulled together in demonstration projects that will both showcase leading edge capability and build developing country capacity.

  13. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation (United States)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  14. Whether weather affects music (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.


    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  15. Oil sheen weathering post Deepwater Horizon (United States)

    Kellermann, M. Y.; Redmond, M. C.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.


    A recently published study identified the source of the reoccurred oil sheens close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site as a finite contamination most likely derived from tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage itself. Here we use geochemical fingerprinting and microbial community analysis to better understand the fate and weathering processes affecting these surface oils. Both, alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are shown to reflect a linear decrease of hydrocarbon compounds with increasing distance to the DWH wreckage site (equivalent to exposure time on the sea surface). These results indicate that in the early stage of weathering the combined effects of dissolution and evaporation dominate the degradation of these surface oils. Sheen microbial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, with low relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria likely to be hydrocarbon degraders (no more than 15% of sequences in each sample). However, some of these Gammaproteobacteria were closely related to putative hydrocarbon degraders observed in abundance in deep water plumes during the primary Deepwater Horizon spill, suggesting that very low levels of biodegradation may be also occurring. This in situ weathering experiment provides new insights in hydrocarbon weathering dynamics and shows how chemical and biological changes can potentially be masked by large evaporative losses of compounds smaller than C18 n-alkanes.

  16. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaddour Mehiriz

    Full Text Available The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  17. Abiogenic and Microbial Controls on Volatile Fatty Acids in Precambrian Crustal Fracture Waters (United States)

    McDermott, J. M.; Heuer, V.; Tille, S.; Moran, J.; Slater, G.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Glein, C. R.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Sherwood Lollar, B.


    Saline fracture waters within the Precambrian Shield rocks of Canada and South Africa have been sequestered underground over geologic timescales up to 1.1-1.8 Ga [1, 2]. These fluids are rich in H2 derived from radiolysis and hydration of mafic and ultramafic rocks [1, 2, 3] and host a low-biomass, low-diversity microbial ecosystem at some sites [2]. The abiogenic or biogenic nature of geochemical processes has important implications for bioavailable carbon sources and the role played by abiotic organic synthesis in sustaining a chemosynthetic deep biosphere. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are simple carboxylic acids that may support microbial communities in such environments, such as those found in terrestrial [4] and deep-sea [5] hot springs. We present abundance and δ13C analysis for VFAs in a spectrum of Canadian Shield fluids characterized by varying dissolved H2, CH4, and C2+ n-alkane compositions. Isotope mass balance indicates that microbially mediated fermentation of carbon-rich graphitic sulfides may produce the elevated levels of acetate (39-273 μM) found in Birchtree and Thompson mine. In contrast, thermodynamic considerations and isotopic signatures of the notably higher acetate (1.2-1.9 mM), as well as formate and propionate abundances (371-816 μM and 20-38 μM, respectively) found at Kidd Creek mine suggest a role for abiogenic production via reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon with H2 for formate, and oxidation of C2+ n-alkanes for acetate and propionate, along with possible microbial cycling. VFAs comprise the bulk of dissolved and total organic carbon in the mines surveyed, and as such represent a potential key substrate for life. [1] Holland et al. (2013) Nature 497: 367-360. [2] Lin et al. (2006) Science 314: 479-482. [3] Sherwood Lollar et al. (2014) Nature 516: 379-382. [4] Windman et al. (2007) Astrobiology 7(6): 873-890. [5] Lang et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 92: 82-99.

  18. Raman Imagery: A New Approach to Assess the Geochemical Maturity and Biogenicity of Permineralized Precambrian Fossils (United States)

    Schopf, J. William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Agresti, David G.; Czaja, Andrew D.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.


    Laser-Raman imagery is a non-intrusive, non-destructive analytical technique, recently introduced to Precambrian paleobiology, that can be used to demonstrate a one-to-one spatial correlation between the optically discernible morphology and kerogenous composition of permineralized fossil microorganisms. Made possible by the submicron-scale resolution of the technique and its high sensitivity to the Raman signal of carbonaceous matter, such analyses can be used to determine the chemical-structural characteristics of organic-walled microfossils and associated sapropelic carbonaceous matter in acid-resistant residues and petrographic thin sections. Here we use this technique to analyze kerogenous microscopic fossils and associated carbonaceous sapropel permineralized in 22 unmetamorphosed or little-metamorphosed fine-grained chert units ranging from ~400 to ~2,100 Ma old. The lineshapes of the Raman spectra acquired vary systematically with five indices of organic geochemical maturation: (1) the mineral-based metamorphic grade of the fossil-bearing units; (2) the fidelity of preservation of the fossils studied; (3) the color of the organic matter analyzed; and both the (4) H/C and (5) N/C ratios measured in particulate kerogens isolated from bulk samples of the fossil-bearing cherts. Deconvolution of relevant spectra shows that those of relatively well-preserved permineralized kerogens analyzed in situ exhibit a distinctive set of Raman bands that are identifiable also in hydrated organic-walled microfossils and particulate carbonaceous matter freed from the cherts by acid maceration. These distinctive Raman bands, however, become indeterminate upon dehydration of such specimens. To compare quantitatively the variations observed among the spectra measured, we introduce the Raman Index of Preservation, an approximate measure of the geochemical maturity of the kerogens studied that is consistent both with the five indices of organic geochemical alteration and with

  19. Petrochemical Characteristics and Age of Rare Metal (Ta-Nb Mineralization in Precambrian Pegmatites, Komu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Precambrian pegmatites of Komu area intrude semi discordantly older rock types, such as biotite gneiss, amphibolites and pelitic schists. The pegmatites occur as near flat lying bodies. This study aims at elucidating the geological setting, petrography, geochemical features and age of mineralization of these pegmatite bodies, with a view to classifying them and knowing their economic potential. The petrographic analysis shows that the pegmatite samples contain mainly quartz (35%, plagioclase (15%, microcline (10% and muscovite (12% with accessories like tourmaline, tantalum, niobium and illmeno-rutiles. Geochemical analysis of the muscovites extracted from pegmatites show that these rocks are enriched in silica (>60% and Al2O3 (>12% and depleted in Fe2O3, MgO and TiO2. Trace element analysis shows that the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high Ta, Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs values and depleted in Ti, Ba and Zr. Elemental ratios indicate low ratios of K/Cs, Th/U and K/Rb. Variation plots of Ta/(Ta+Nb versus Mn/ (Mn+Fe show that the pegmatites plot in the complex (beryl subtype field. The Na/K versus Sn, Nb, Rb variation plots show that the pegmatites of Komu area are mineralized and compare favourably with those of other mineralized pegma-tite areas like Egbe and Ijero in southwestern Nigeria. The variation plots of Ta versus K/Cs, and Ta/W versus Cs, also confirm rare metal mineralization of Komu pegmatites, which plot over the mineralized line of Beus and Gordiyenko. The K/Rb versus Rb, Cs and Sn plots indicate low K/Rb ratios indicating moderate differentiation. The Rare Earth Elements (REE show high heavy REE values and lower light REE values with prominent positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly from normalized chondrite plots. K/Ar dating of the age of mineralization of muscovites extracted from the pegmatite yielded late Pan-African ages between 502.8±13Ma and 514.5±13.2Ma. This period represents the cooling ages of the

  20. Unraveling the redox evolution of the Yangtze Block across the Precambrian/Cambrian transition (United States)

    Diamond, C. W.; Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Lyons, T. W.


    Rocks preserved on the South China Craton have played a critical role in refining our understanding of the co-evolution of life and Earth's surface environments in the Late Neoproterozoic and earliest Paleozoic. From the earliest metazoan embryos to the many examples of exceptional preservation throughout the Cambrian Explosion, South China has preserved an outstanding record of animal evolution across this critical transition. Similarly, rocks preserved in South China hold key insights into the changing ocean chemistry that accompanied this extraordinary time. Recent work form Sahoo and others (2016, Geobiology) used redox sensitive metal enrichments in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation to demonstrate that the redox state of the Latest Neoproterozoic oceans was highly dynamic, rather than stably oxygenated or anoxic as had both been suggested previously. In an attempt to follow on from this and other studies, we have examined samples from a drill core taken in eastern Guizhou capturing deep-water facies of the Liuchapo and Jiumenchong formations, which contain the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. In addition to containing the boundary, the sampled interval contains an enigmatic, widespread horizon that is strongly enriched in Ni and Mo. We have taken a multi-proxy approach in our investigation of this layer, the possible implications it has for the strata above and below (i.e., how its presence affects their utility as archives of paleo-redox conditions), and what those strata can tell us about local and global redox conditions during this pivotal time in Earth's history. Our Fe speciation data indicate that conditions were sulfidic at this location throughout the majority of the sampled interval. While redox sensitive metal concentrations are dramatically enriched in the Ni/Mo interval, their concentrations return to modest enrichments above it and continue to decrease upward. This trend suggests that while the conditions that favored extreme enrichment during the

  1. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.


    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  2. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta


    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  3. Brazilian Space Weather Program (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  4. Weather Radar Studies. (United States)


    Cartesian grid . Specifi software odles ane shown in, Table 151-3 ail ’ecIbe briefly in this section below. TAi S- _ _ _ UT LUWL ps mw Lqw Tomn am DWq..G. Se 2...beman the weather radar project software devalopmet personnel and the Limoa Control Syms Egiesering Oroup personnel who rde’-d and implementd the moun...We a~ad hove smard our dom collecton wish the FL-2 ainanmd whh the musmmot umm. Data amum ope ea lymA Mmnhb mod carnatly a sshdukd so coomm -kbro

  5. The Weather in Richmond


    Harless, William Edwin


    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  6. Potential Role of Fe(II)-Oxidizing Photoautotrophic Bacteria in the Deposition of Precambrian Banded Iron Formations (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Posth, N.; Newman, D. K.


    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are Precambrian sedimentary deposits that consist of alternating layers of silica and Fe(II) or Fe(III) minerals. How these deposits formed at different periods in Earth history, in particular how the Fe(III) minerals in the BIFs were formed from the Fe(II) that was present in ancient oceans, has not been resolved, despite intensive investigation over the last century. Central to this enigma is the controversy over the following questions: When did O2 evolve on our planet? Was O2 present in sufficient concentrations to be responsible for the deposition of the earliest BIFs (ca. 3.8-2.2 Ga)? The discovery of anoxygenic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria provides an alternative explanation for BIF deposition in the absence of O2. Here we present calculations based on Fe(II)-oxidation rates determined experimentally with different modern Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms under light regimes representative of water depths of a few hundred meters. Additionally we provide a new hypothesis based on geochemical and microbiological data to explain the alternating layering of silica and iron in BIFs. Our experimental results and theoretical considerations suggest that, in a stratified Precambrian ocean, a layer of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria living beneath the wind-mixed surface layer was the most likely catalyst for BIF deposition, even in the presence of O2-producing cyanobacteria.

  7. Atmospheric oxygen regulation at low Proterozoic levels by incomplete oxidative weathering of sedimentary organic carbon. (United States)

    Daines, Stuart J; Mills, Benjamin J W; Lenton, Timothy M


    It is unclear why atmospheric oxygen remained trapped at low levels for more than 1.5 billion years following the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event. Here, we use models for erosion, weathering and biogeochemical cycling to show that this can be explained by the tectonic recycling of previously accumulated sedimentary organic carbon, combined with the oxygen sensitivity of oxidative weathering. Our results indicate a strong negative feedback regime when atmospheric oxygen concentration is of order pO 2 ∼0.1 PAL (present atmospheric level), but that stability is lost at pO 2 <0.01 PAL. Within these limits, the carbonate carbon isotope (δ 13 C) record becomes insensitive to changes in organic carbon burial rate, due to counterbalancing changes in the weathering of isotopically light organic carbon. This can explain the lack of secular trend in the Precambrian δ 13 C record, and reopens the possibility that increased biological productivity and resultant organic carbon burial drove the Great Oxidation Event.

  8. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J


    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  9. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez


    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  10. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker


    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  11. GOES-R - Preparing for an Extreme Space Weather Event (United States)

    Denig, W. F.; Goodman, S. J.; Redmon, R. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Seaton, D. B.; Rowland, W. F.; Darnel, J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Kress, B. T.; Machol, J. L.; Boudouridis, A.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Tilton, M.


    NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have provided continuous measurements of the Sun and the near-Earth space environment for over 40 years which has established an initial baseline against which extreme space weather events can be assessed. This year NOAA will launch the first of the GOES-R series of spacecraft which will continue these observations through the early 2030's. The GOES-R space weather sensors will have new and improved capabilities over previous GOES. The planned launch of GOES-R is no sooner than 4 Nov 2016 followed by sensor checkout/calibration and environmental product validation. In this talk I will provide both a description of the GOES-R space weather sensors and an overview of the anticipated performance against the possibility of extreme space weather.

  12. Precambrian-Cambrian provenance of Matinde Formation, Karoo Supergroup, northwestern Mozambique, constrained from detrital zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotope data (United States)

    Bicca, Marcos Müller; Jelinek, Andrea Ritter; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; de Carvalho Lana, Cristiano; Alkmim, Ana Ramalho


    The Permian-Triassic time interval was a period of high sedimentation rates in the intracontinental Karoo rift basin of northwestern Mozambique, reflecting high exhumation rates in the surrounding high ground Precambrian-Cambrian basement and juxtaposed nappes. U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons from the Late Permian-Early Triassic Matinde Formation of the Karoo Supergroup is used as a reliable proxy to map denudation patterns of source regions. Data allow discrimination of U-Pb age populations of ca. 1250-900 Ma, a secondary population between ca. 900-700 and a major contribution of ages around ca. 700-490 Ma. Zircon grains of the Mesoproterozoic age population present Mesoproterozoic (1000-1500 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) Hf TDM ages, with positive (0 to +11) and negative εHf values (-3 to -15), respectively. The younger U-Pb age population also presents two different groups of zircon grains according to Lu-Hf isotopes. The first group comprise Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) ages, with highly negative εHf values, between -10 and -22, and the second group exhibits Mesoproterozoic ages (1200-1500 Ma), with increased juvenile εHf values (ca. 0 to -5). These Hf isotopes reinforce the presence of unexposed ancient crust in this region. The oldest U-Pb age population resembles the late stages of Grenville Orogeny and the Rodinia Supercontinent geotectonic activity mostly represented by magmatic rocks, which are widely present in the basement of northern Mozambique. The juvenile Hf-isotope signature with an older age component is associated to rocks generated from subduction processes with crust assimilation by continental arcs, which we correlate to rocks of the Nampula Complex, south and east of the Moatize-Minjova Basin. The U-Pb ages between 900 and 700 Ma were correlated to the calc-alkaline magmatism registered in the Guro Suite, related to the breakup phase of Rodinia, and mark the western limit of the Moatize

  13. An Early Proterozoic U-Pb zircon age from an Eskolabreen Formation gneiss in southern Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Y.A.; Larionov, A.N.; Gannibal, L.F.; Sirotkin, A.N.; Tebenkov, A.M.; Ryungenen, G.I.; Ohta, Y. (Kola Science Centre, Russian Acadamy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation))


    A preliminary U/Pb zircon age determination has been carried out on a grey gneiss of the Eskolabreen Formation, the lowest observable lithostratigraphic unit of Precambrian metamorphic rocks in southern Ny Friesland, NE Spitsbergen. The obtained age, appr. 2,400 Ma, is considered to be a metamorphic age and suggests and Early Proterozoic tectonothermal event. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Now, Here's the Weather Forecast... (United States)

    Richardson, Mathew


    The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…

  15. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Difficulties in Predicting the Weather. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 1 January 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape]. (United States)


    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  18. Japanese space weather research activities (United States)

    Ishii, M.


    In this paper, we present existing and planned Japanese space weather research activities. The program consists of several core elements, including a space weather prediction system using numerical forecasts, a large-scale ground-based observation network, and the cooperative framework "Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP)" based on a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas.

  19. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.


    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  20. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas


    . Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  1. Seawater Mg/Ca controls polymorph mineralogy of microbial CaCO3: a potential proxy for calcite-aragonite seas in Precambrian time. (United States)

    Ries, J B; Anderson, M A; Hill, R T


    A previously published hydrothermal brine-river water mixing model driven by ocean crust production suggests that the molar Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca(sw)) has varied significantly (approximately 1.0-5.2) over Precambrian time, resulting in six intervals of aragonite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) > 2) and five intervals of calcite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) mineralogical proxy for Precambrian calcite-aragonite seas, calcifying microbial marine biofilms were cultured in experimental seawaters formulated over the range of Mg/Ca ratios believed to have characterized Precambrian seawater. Biofilms cultured in experimental aragonite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 5.2) precipitated primarily aragonite with lesser amounts of high-Mg calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.16), while biofilms cultured in experimental calcite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 1.5) precipitated exclusively lower magnesian calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.06). Furthermore, Mg/Ca(calcite )varied proportionally with Mg/Ca(sw). This nearly abiotic mineralogical response of the biofilm CaCO3 to altered Mg/Ca(sw) is consistent with the assertion that biofilm calcification proceeds more through the elevation of , via metabolic removal of CO2 and/or H+, than through the elevation of Ca2+, which would alter the Mg/Ca ratio of the biofilm's calcifying fluid causing its pattern of CaCO3 polymorph precipitation (aragonite vs. calcite; Mg-incorporation in calcite) to deviate from that of abiotic calcification. If previous assertions are correct that the physicochemical properties of Precambrian seawater were such that Mg/Ca(sw) was the primary variable influencing CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy, then the observed response of the biofilms' CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy to variations in Mg/Ca(sw), combined with the ubiquity of such microbial carbonates in Precambrian strata, suggests that the original polymorph mineralogy and Mg/Ca(calcite )of well-preserved microbial carbonates may be an archive of calcite-aragonite seas throughout Precambrian

  2. Precambrian accretionary history and phanerozoic structures-A unified explanation for the tectonic architecture of the nebraska region, USA (United States)

    Carlson, M.P.


    The Phanerozoic history in Nebraska and adjacent regions contains many patterns of structure and stratigraphy that can be directly related to the history of the Precambrian basement rocks of the area. A process is proposed that explains the southward growth of North America during the period 1.8-1.6 Ga. A series of families of accretionary events during the Proterozoic emplaced sutures that remained as fundamental basement weak zones. These zones were rejuvenated in response to a variety of continental stress events that occurred during the Phanerozoic. By combining the knowledge of basement history with the history of rejuvenation during the Phanerozoic, both the details of Proterozoic accretionary growth and an explanation for the patterns of Phanerozoic structure and stratigraphy is provided. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of nanophase aluminosilicate weathering products: Interpreting Martian weathering (United States)

    Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Rampe, E. B.


    Nanocrystalline alteration products form in a range of soil and regolith weathering environments on Earth. In some weathering systems, poorly crystalline aluminosilicates such as allophane are distributed heterogeneously, as a function of depth in a vertical weathering profile or as a function of micro-environmental factors. Both of these factors can be important for understanding weathering processes on Earth and are particularly important to consider when interpreting allophane on Mars. Chemical and mineralogical measurements of Mars could be confounded by a vertical heterogeneity common to many weathering systems, because what is observed at the surface by spacecraft may not be representative of the complete weathering system. Appropriate caution should be taken to compare surface measurements of Mars to terrestrial weathering environments that examine soil columns. Also, nanocrystalline aluminosilicates are known to form coatings on regolith particles and rock fragments and can be compositionally distinct from weathering products formed in the greater regolith matrix. These types of coatings are particularly important to consider for interpreting remotely sensed spectral measurements because fragmented rocks, from sand to boulders, comprise much of the relatively dust-free surfaces of Mars. Due to their strong influence on spectral observations, coatings could be strongly detectable by thermal infrared spectroscopy relative to coexisting, weakly aggregated fine-grained weathering products, resulting in the oversampling of coatings. Consequently, detected nanocrystalline aluminosilicates phases may not represent the overall weathering system. As an example of these influences, we will consider the high-silica material(s) detected in Mars northern plains. Although there are several models for how this material formed, if it formed by in situ regolith weathering then the high-silica material was precipitated from dissolved regolith materials. Evidence for

  4. Biogeochemistry of Fe(II) oxidation in a photosynthetic microbial mat: Implications for Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation (United States)

    Trouwborst, Robert E.; Johnston, Anne; Koch, Gretchen; Luther, George W.; Pierson, Beverly K.


    We studied the role of microbial photosynthesis in the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in a high Fe(II) and high Mn(II) hot spring devoid of sulfide and atmospheric oxygen in the source waters. In situ light and dark microelectrode measurements of Fe(II), Mn(II) and O 2 were made in the microbial mat consisting of cyanobacteria and anoxygenic photosynthetic Chloroflexus sp. We show that Fe(II) oxidation occurred when the mat was exposed to varying intensities of sunlight but not near infrared light. We did not observe any Mn(II) oxidation under any light or dark condition over the pH range 5-7. We observed the impact of oxygenic photosynthesis on Fe(II) oxidation, distinct from the influence of atmospheric O 2 and anoxygenic photosynthesis. In situ Fe(II) oxidation rates in the mats and cell suspensions exposed to light are consistent with abiotic oxidation by O 2. The oxidation of Fe(II) to form primary Fe(III) phases contributed to banded iron-formations (BIFs) during the Precambrian. Both oxygenic photosynthesis, which produces O 2 as an oxidizing waste product, and anoxygenic photosynthesis in which Fe(II) is used to fix CO 2 have been proposed as Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms. Although we do not know the specific mechanisms responsible for all Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation, we assessed the relative importance of both mechanisms in this modern hot spring environment. In this environment, cyanobacterial oxygen production accounted for all the observed Fe(II) oxidation. The rate data indicate that a modest population of cyanobacteria could have mediated sufficient Fe(II) oxidation for some BIFs.

  5. The Rae craton of Laurentia/Nuna: a tectonically unique entity providing critical insights into the concept of Precambrian supercontinental cyclicity (United States)

    Bethune, K. M.


    Forming the nucleus of Laurentia/Nuna, the Rae craton contains rocks and structures ranging from Paleo/Mesoarchean to Mesoproterozoic in age and has long been known for a high degree of tectonic complexity. Recent work strongly supports the notion that the Rae developed independently from the Hearne; however, while the Hearne appears to have been affiliated with the Superior craton and related blocks of 'Superia', the genealogy of Rae is far less clear. A diagnostic feature of the Rae, setting it apart from both Hearne and Slave, is the high degree of late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic reworking. Indeed, following a widespread 2.62-2.58 Ga granite bloom, the margins of Rae were subjected to seemingly continuous tectonism, with 2.55-2.50 Ga MacQuoid orogenesis in the east superseded by 2.50 to 2.28 Ga Arrowsmith orogenesis in the west. A recent wide-ranging survey of Hf isotopic ratios in detrital and magmatic zircons across Rae has demonstrated significant juvenile, subduction-related crustal production in this period. Following break-up at ca. 2.1 Ga, the Rae later became a tectonic aggregation point as the western and eastern margins transitioned back to convergent plate boundaries (Thelon-Taltson and Snowbird orogens) marking onset of the 2.0-1.8 Ga assembly of Nuna. The distinctive features of Rae, including orogenic imprints of MacQuoid and Arrowsmith vintage have now been identified in about two dozen cratonic blocks world-wide, substantiating the idea that the Rae cratonic family spawned from an independent earliest Paleoproterozoic landmass before its incorportation in Nuna. While critical tests remain to be made, including more reliable ground-truthing of proposed global correlations, these relationships strongly support the notion of supercontinental cyclicity in the Precambrian, including the Archean. They also challenge the idea of a globally quiescent period in the early Paleoproterozoic (2.45-2.2 Ga) in which plate tectonics slowed or shut down.

  6. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For ... Affect My Child's Asthma? Print A A A Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather ...

  7. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.


    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  8. Fish Springs weather CY 2010 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  9. KZTL Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  11. Space weather and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lappalainen


    Full Text Available The term space weather is used for the solar driven variability in particle and electromagnetic conditions of the near-Earth space that may harm the performance of ground-based and space-borne technology. The European Union (EU and the European Space Agency (ESA have started a common programme called the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES. Many of the GMES operational services will rely on technology prone to space weather phenomena. For long-term environmental monitoring this is not a problem, but for applications of risk management in emergency situations the impact of space weather should be considered and evaluated. In this paper, we discuss how ESA's previous activity together with European national initiatives in the space weather area can be used to support GMES and how EU could participate in this work in its Framework Programmes and within the European Research Area (ERA.

  12. Road weather management performance metrics. (United States)


    This report presents the results of a study to identify appropriate measures of performance that can be attributed to the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) products and activities. Specifically, the stud...

  13. KZAU Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  14. KZHU Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  15. KZFW Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  16. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  17. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  18. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  19. KZME Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  20. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  1. KZMP Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  2. KZID Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  3. paza Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  4. Weather change and Mood Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun Sato; Hiroyuki Mizoguchi; Kanoko Fukaya


      Mood disorder such as depression is serious problem in today's society. Weather change has been known to influence the condition of patients with mood disorder, and the seasonality in the evolvement of depressive symptoms...

  5. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  6. Weather, knowledge base and life-style (United States)

    Bohle, Martin


    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  7. Cold Weather Aerostat Study (United States)


    rain andlor heavy frost on the aerostat during the temperature transition period in the late spring or early fall when the average temperature is in...3.6? ft Fa.d alt - 700.00 f t Alrc tal z 7.17 ft S.’ d I t = 27e.2 .00 it Palcoad wt - 70.00 1t, He puno ’ r, = 96S.00 ". Pa,.,Ioad - - 74.69 ft...procedures that might cause Ice, snow, and frost to fall free from the aerostat surface. Several commercially available release agents were tried, but none of

  8. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.


    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.


    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  10. Detection of near-surface horizontal anisotropy in a weathered metamorphic schist at Llano Uplift (Texas) by transient electromagnetic induction (United States)

    Collins, Jamie L.; Everett, Mark E.; Johnson, Brann


    The use of transient controlled-source electromagnetic prospecting to detect buried, steeply dipping foliation in metamorphic rocks is illustrated with data acquired over the Precambrian Packsaddle schist in the Llano Uplift of central Texas. The azimuthal variation of the transient voltage at a given transmitter-receiver separation about a fixed central point is consistent with the forward model response of a homogeneous halfspace exhibiting horizontal electrical anisotropy. The loop-loop exploration configuration is ideally suited to probe horizontal anisotropy. A quantitative match of the forward response to the observed data produces reasonable electrical conductivity values and coefficient of anisotropy for resistive, crystalline geological materials. The most conductive direction consistently lies within a few degrees of the geologically mapped foliation strike direction. The electrical anisotropy is strongest below the near-surface weathered layer, within the more competent bedrock. The agent responsible for generating the anistropy cannot be definitively determined, because it is likely to be a combination of geological factors, such as weathering, compositional banding and microcracking, all of which enhance electrical conductivity parallel to the plane of foliation. The transient electromagnetics is supplemented by DC resistivity and seismic surveys. The elastic anisotropy is evident in the near-surface weathered layer, but it may not persist very deep into the underlying competent schist. The exposure of foliated schist at the surface is not sufficient to rule out a possible role for systematically aligned macrofracture sets as a secondary cause of the observed anisotropy.

  11. The Future of Planetary Climate Modeling and Weather Prediction (United States)

    Del Genio, A. D.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Kiang, N. Y.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sohl, L. E.


    Modeling of planetary climate and weather has followed the development of tools for studying Earth, with lags of a few years. Early Earth climate studies were performed with 1-dimensionalradiative-convective models, which were soon fol-lowed by similar models for the climates of Mars and Venus and eventually by similar models for exoplan-ets. 3-dimensional general circulation models (GCMs) became common in Earth science soon after and within several years were applied to the meteorology of Mars, but it was several decades before a GCM was used to simulate extrasolar planets. Recent trends in Earth weather and and climate modeling serve as a useful guide to how modeling of Solar System and exoplanet weather and climate will evolve in the coming decade.

  12. Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bobriková


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on valuation of a weather derivative with payoffs depending on temperature. We use historical data from the weather station in the Slovak town Košice to obtain unique prices of option contracts in an incomplete market. Numerical examples of prices of some contracts are presented, using the Burn analysis. We provide an example of how a weather contract can be designed to hedge the financial risk of a suboptimal temperature condition. The comparative comparison of the selected option hedging strategies has shown the best results for the producers in agricultural industries who hedges against an unfavourable weather conditions. The results of analysis proved that by buying put option or call option, the farmer establishes the highest payoff in the case of temperature decrease or increase. The Long Straddle Strategy is the most expensive but is available to the farmer who hedges against a high volatility in temperature movement. We conclude with the findings that weather derivatives could be useful tools to diminish the financial losses for agricultural industries highly dependent for temperature.

  13. Two-Class Weather Classification. (United States)

    Lu, Cewu; Lin, Di; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung


    Given a single outdoor image, we propose a collaborative learning approach using novel weather features to label the image as either sunny or cloudy. Though limited, this two-class classification problem is by no means trivial given the great variety of outdoor images captured by different cameras where the images may have been edited after capture. Our overall weather feature combines the data-driven convolutional neural network (CNN) feature and well-chosen weather-specific features. They work collaboratively within a unified optimization framework that is aware of the presence (or absence) of a given weather cue during learning and classification. In this paper we propose a new data augmentation scheme to substantially enrich the training data, which is used to train a latent SVM framework to make our solution insensitive to global intensity transfer. Extensive experiments are performed to verify our method. Compared with our previous work and the sole use of a CNN classifier, this paper improves the accuracy up to 7-8 percent. Our weather image dataset is available together with the executable of our classifier.

  14. Where's the glass? Biomarkers, molecular clocks, and microRNAs suggest a 200-Myr missing Precambrian fossil record of siliceous sponge spicules (United States)

    Sperling, E. A.; Robinson, J.; Pisani, D.; Peterson, K.


    The earliest evidence for animal life comes from the fossil record of 24-isopropylcholestane, a sterane found in Cryogenian deposits, and whose precursors are found in modern demosponges, but not choanoflagellates, calcareans, hexactinellids, or eumetazoans. However, many modern demosponges are also characterized by the presence of siliceous spicules, and there are no convincing demosponge spicules in strata older than the Cambrian. This temporal disparity highlights a problem with our understanding of the Precambrian fossil record - either these supposed demosponge-specific biomarkers were derived from the sterols of some other organism and are simply retained in modern demosponges, or spicules do not primitively characterize crown-group demosponges. Resolving this issue requires resolving the phylogenetic placement of another group of sponges, the hexactinellids, which not only make a spicule thought to be homologous to the spicules of demosponges, but also make their first appearance near the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. Using two independent analytical approaches and data sets - traditional molecular phylogenetic analyses and the presence or absence of specific microRNA genes - we show that demosponges are monophyletic, and that hexactinellids are their sister group (together forming the Silicea). Thus, spicules must have evolved before the last common ancestor of all living siliceans, suggesting the presence of a significant gap in the silicean spicule fossil record. Molecular divergence estimates date the origin of this last common ancestor well within the Cryogenian, consistent with the biomarker record, and strongly suggests that siliceous spicules were present during the Precambrian but were not preserved.

  15. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean


    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  16. Weather data gap problem resolved (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    It looks as though the United States will avoid the crisis situation of a gap in weather data resulting from the aging GOES-7 satellite and technical problems with the next generation of weather satellites (GOESNEXT). Officials at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which oversees the National Weather Service, recently announced their decision to borrow at least one and possibly several European satellites until the GOES-NEXT program gets off the ground.The GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) series is currently 3 years behind schedule and $500 million over budget. Problems with its complex design, program management by both NOAA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and poor performance by the contractor led Department of Commerce Secretary Robert Mosbacher to slow down the GOES-NEXT series to ensure that it is built right.

  17. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters (United States)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory


    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  18. Natural evidence for chemical and early biological evolution (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.


    Oparin (1924) and Haldane (1929) have independently hypothesized that life arose under reducing conditions through an evolutionary sequence of events involving increasingly complex organic substances. The natural evidence for this hypothesis of chemical evolution is considered, giving particular attention to tangible samples which have been chemically analyzed in earth-bound laboratories. It is found that meteorites provide naturally occurring evidence in support of chemical evolution, but not of biological evolution. Studies on the early Precambrian Swaziland Sequence and the Bulawayan System of southern Africa provide evidence for very early biological evolution.

  19. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.


    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  20. Stable Chromium Isotopes as tracer of changes in weathering processes and redox state of the ocean during Neoproterozoic glaciation (United States)

    Dossing, L. N.; Gaucher, C.; Boggiani, P. C.; Frei, R.


    The chemistry of surface environments on Earth has essentially evolved from early anoxic conditions to a present day oxic state. How in detail this transition occurred is still a matter of debate but the last 200 million years (My) of the Neoproterozoic Era [(1000 to 542 million years ago (Ma)] show an emerging picture of large scale fluctuations in the redox state of the oceans [1-2]. The reasons for these fluctuations are to be sought in Earth’s atmospheric oxygenation which led to the rapid radiation of oxygen-utilizing macroscopic metazoans, but details regarding the nature of these fluctuations remain unclear. The Late Neoproterozoic is known for a number of widespread glaciations causing the return of ferruginous oceans which were absent for more than a billion years of Earth history. This study elaborates on the idea that Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes in Fe-rich chemical sediments deposited during glacial events are suitable for tracing oxygenation of surface environments through Earth's history [3]. The focus of this study is to apply the Cr isotope system to one of the Marinoan (650-630 Ma) glacio-marine sequences (Jacadigo Group, Brazil) in order to get a detailed spatial and relative temporal resolution of changes in weathering processes and redox states of the respective ocean basin during the depositional period of the sediments. The Jacadigo Group is a glacio-marine succession which is composed of the Urucum Fm. (sandstones) at the base, the Santa Cruz Fm. (BIFs) and the Puga Fm. (Fe-rich glacial diamictites) at the top. Cr stable isotope measurements on various BIF horizons of the Santa Cruz Fm. yielded positive δ53/52Cr values range from +0.4 to+ 0.9‰, while the overlying Fe-rich glaciogenic diamictites of the Puga Fm. show δ53/52Cr values range from to +0.1 to+ 0.4‰. These positively fractionated values correspond to positive δ53/52Cr values measured in other Late Neoproterozoic BIFs and speak for the occurrence of potential oxygenation

  1. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials (United States)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher


    Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.

  2. Principal stages in evolution of precambrian organic world: Communication 2. The late proterozoic (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Fedonkin, M. A.; Vorob'eva, N. G.


    A new suggested model outlining the evolution of the organic world from the mid-Early Proterozoic (˜2.0 Ga) to the Early Cambrian is based on data characterizing the relevant chert-embedded and compression-preserved organic-walled microbiotas, impressions of soft-bodied multicellular organisms, and biomarkers. Critical analysis of overall paleontological data resulted in the distinguishing of seven successive assemblages of Proterozoic micro- and macrofossils. Being of global geographic range, the assemblages correspond to the major stages in evolution of the organic world and typify global units which are termed the Labradorian (˜2.0-1.65 Ga), Anabarian (1.65-1.2 Ga), Turukhanian (1.2-1.03 Ga), Uchuromayan (1.03-0.85 Ga), Yuzhnouralian (0.85-0.635 Ga), Amadeusian (0.635-0.56 Ga), and Belomorian (0.56-0.535 Ga). Characteristic of the Labradorian unit are microfossil assemblages of the Gunflint type including remains of morphologically bizarre prokaryotic microorganisms: star-like Eoastrion, umbrella-shaped Kakabekia, dumbbell-shaped Xenothrix, and some others. Fine-grained siliciclastic deposits of the same age yield the oldest remains of millimeter-sized eukaryotes: spherical to ribbon-like Chuaria and Tawuia. Microfossils prevailing in shallow-water carbonate facies of the Anabarian unit are akinetes of nostocalean cyanophyceae Archaeoellipsoides and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria Eoentophysalis, whereas acanthomorphic acritarchs Tappania and Shuiyousphaeridium dominate the assemblages of open-shelf facies, where they are associated with the first-found rare macroscopic multicellular fossils Horodyskia. The distinguishing feature of the next Turukhanian unit is the first occurrence of filamentous red alga Bangiomorpha and the stalked cyanobacterium Polybessurus. The Uchuromayan unit is characterized by the appearance and worldwide radiation of structurally complicated eukaryotic microorganisms, primarily of acanthomorphic acritarchs Trachyhystrichosphaera and

  3. Road weather forecast quality analysis (United States)


    It is just as important to keep the highways functioning in a safe and efficient manner as it is to construct them in : the first place. Our economy is built around an efficient transportation system. Winter weather plays an important role : in highw...

  4. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather. (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan


    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1)…

  5. Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    RSMC), New Delhi analy- sis and forecast charts at various levels and daily analysis of National Centre for Medium Range. Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) for 925, 850,. 500 and 200hPa level. Weekly mean flow pat- terns at 850hPa are included ...

  6. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle


    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  7. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    actually make very good forecasts based on this technique. But beyond that this type of ... numerical techniques. The modern concept of ..... predictable beyond two weeks, the climate may be predictable beyond a season! This will be the subject of a future article. Suggested Reading. • Nigel Calder. The Weather Machine.

  8. Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School: Institutional Computing 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    During the summer school, students carry out independent research projects on a range of topics related to space weather. In 2016, one student used the LANL Institutional Computing resources. Results of this project were the first to demonstrate that the magnitude of radial diffusion is found to agree well with the early observations of the Earth's radiation belts, indicating this effect should be included in community models of the radiation belts.

  9. Advanced Architectures for Modern Weather/Multifunction Radars (United States)


    simulations for such a large conformal array, but that the system has successfully operated as a functioning radar . An early example of the latter...per polarization. 86 For normal radar operation , digital beamforming will be accomplished over a RapidIO network feeding the back of the up a new paradigm in weather radar capabilities and operational modalities, for both operational and research-oriented systems. The University

  10. Enhanced road weather forecasting : Clarus regional demonstrations. (United States)


    The quality of road weather forecasts : has major impacts on users of surface : transportation systems and managers : of those systems. Improving the quality : involves the ability to provide accurate, : route-specific road weather information : (e.g...

  11. Road weather forecast quality analysis : project summary (United States)


    The purpose of this research is to enhance the use of KDOTs Roadway Weather : Information System by improving the weather forecasts themselves and raising the level of : confidence in these forecasts.

  12. NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...

  13. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity. (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R


    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies (United States)


    This study presents a compilation of 24 cases involving general aviation (GA) pilots weather encounters over the : continental U.S. The project team interviewed pilots who had experienced a weather encounter, and we : examined their backgrounds, f...

  15. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  16. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  17. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  18. World War II Weather Record Transmittances (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  19. Utah DOT weather responsive traveler information system. (United States)


    Over the past decade, the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) : has championed the cause of improving traffic operations and safety during weather events. The programs current : emphasis is to encourage...

  20. Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...

  1. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  2. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski


    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  3. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  4. Contemporary Rigidity of Precambrian and Paleosoic Platform on the Area of Poland on the Base of GPS Data (United States)

    Kontny, B.; Grzempowski, P.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.


    Now it became obvious in the world literature that Cenozoic intraplate deformations of the Northwestern Eurasia were connected with the Alpine plate collision. However, relations of the Cenozoic intraplate deformations with the contemporary spreading in the north and transcontinental shears along the Tornquist line and Urals must be taken into account as well. On the contrary, in East Europe, periods of the activity being coincident with those in the Caucasus and the phases of the Red Sea opening. It is also evidence that the southern East European craton belongs to the Periarabian collision area. A compression axis orientation was sub latitudinal there, this allows suggestion that the deformations were originated under pressure of the adjacent Urals. According to some authors the present view of unity and rigidity of the Cenozoic Eurasian plate is correct only at the first approximation. In reality, the Eurasian plate represented a time varying kaleidoscope of sub plates that moved at different velocities from the Atlantic-Arctic spreading axis. Contemporary image of the intraplate deformation can be verified on the basis of observations of permanent stations GPS at present. Density the IGS and EPN station on the North-East Eurasian area isn't sufficient to the credible estimation of geokinematics parameters of every sub plates (platforms). But national networks of the GBAS stations, as for example a Polish network ASG-EUPOS, are ensuring the much higher density of measuring stations (average distance between stations of the c 70 km). Stations are located on both sides of the Teisseyre - Tornquist zone, both on East-European Precambrian platform (East European Craton) as well as on West-European Paleozoic platform. Three-year period of permanent GPS observation on ASG-EUPOS stations enabled the estimation of the velocities of the stations with the sufficing accuracy for the geodynamic purposes. It gave the possibility of the evaluation of contemporary rigidity of

  5. Abiotic and biotic controls on methane formation down to 2.5 km depth within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield (United States)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Niinikoski, Paula; Nykänen, Hannu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.


    Despite a geological history characterised by high temperature and pressure processes and organic carbon deprived crystalline bedrock, large amounts of hydrocarbons are found in deep groundwaters within Precambrian continental shields. In many sites, methane comprises more that 80% of the dissolved gas phase reaching concentrations of tens of mmol l-1. In this study, we used isotopic methods to study the carbon isotope systematics and sources of crustal methane within the Fennoscandian Shield. The main study sites were the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole and the Pyhäsalmi mine in Finland, both of which allow groundwater sampling down to 2.5 km depth and have been previously studied for their groundwater chemistry and microbiology. We show that the differences in the amount and isotopic composition of methane are related to the availability of carbon sources as well as processes behind the incorporation of hydrogen and carbon via abiotic and biotic pathways into hydrocarbon molecules. Supported by previously reported occurrences and isotopic data of deep groundwater methane in lithologically different locations in Finland and Sweden, we show that methane formation is controlled by microbial methanogenesis and abiotic reactions, as well as lithology with the metasedimentary environments being the most favourable for methane occurrence. Rather than a thermogenic relic, crustal methane within the Fennoscandian Shield is more likely the result of low temperature formation from ancient organic compounds or their inorganic intermediates such as graphite. Such crustal gases are characterised by the lack of major amounts of C2+ hydrocarbons and 13C-rich methane. Further, microbiological and isotopic geochemical evidence suggest that microbial methane is more common at depths shallower than 1.5 km.

  6. Weather dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Stock Return


    Bukit, Inka Natasya Hagaina; Riorini, Sri Vandayuli


    Research on psychology shows that sunny weather has effect toward mood. Some researchers found that mood has significant effect toward Stock return. This paper examines relationship between Weather in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta with Stock return of LQ 45 Index. This research examine relationship between Weather and Stock return directly and indirect (using Mood as intervening variable). This research analyze that relationship during 2009 to 2010. However, because Weather in Jakarta is r...

  7. Space weather activities in Australia (United States)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a

  8. Large-Scale Extratropical Weather Systems in Mars' Atmosphere (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.


    During late autumn through early spring, extratropical regions on Mars exhibit profound mean zonal equator-to-pole thermal contrasts. The imposition of this strong meridional temperature variation supports intense eastward-traveling, synoptic weather systems (i.e., transient baroclinic/barotropic waves) within Mars' extratropical atmosphere. Such disturbances grow, mature and decay within the east-west varying seasonal-mean midlatitude jet stream (i.e., the polar vortex) on the planet. Near the surface, the weather disturbances indicated large-scale spiraling "comma"-shaped dust cloud structures and scimitar-shaped dust fronts, indicative of processes associated with cyclo-/fronto-genesis. The weather systems occur during specific seasons on Mars, and in both hemispheres. The northern hemisphere (NH) disturbances are significantly more intense than their counterparts in the southern hemisphere (SH). Further, the NH weather systems and accompanying frontal waves appear to have significant impacts on the transport of tracer fields (e.g., particularly dust and to some extent water species (vapor/ice) as well). And regarding dust, frontal waves appear to be key agents in the lifting, lofting, organization and transport of this particular atmospheric aerosol. In this paper, a brief background and supporting observations of Mars' extratropical weather systems is presented. This is followed by a short review of the theory and various modeling studies (i.e., ranging from highly simplified, mechanistic and full global circulation modeling investigations) which have been pursued. Finally, a discussion of outstanding issues and questions regarding the character and nature of Mars' extratropical traveling weather systems is offered.

  9. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

  10. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.


    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are

  11. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu


    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  12. An Analysis of Preflight Weather Briefings (United States)


    AOPA 2005). The conclusions drawn from the analysis of fatal weather accidents and events related to weather encounters indicates that timely...reduced GA accidents by 12% over the last 5 years ( AOPA 2005), the study into causal and contributing factors related to weather accidents offers

  13. The role of fungi in weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Wallander, H.; Plassard, C.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Haselwandter, K.; Holmstrom, S.; Landeweert, R.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Rosling, A.; Sen, R.; Smits, M.M.; Hees, van P.A.W.; Breemen, van N.


    No rock at the Earth's surface escapes weathering. This process is the primary source of all the essential elements for organisms, except nitrogen and carbon. Since the onset of terrestrial life, weathering has been accelerated under the influence of biota. The study of biological weathering started

  14. Space weather and power grids: findings and outlook (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Andersson, Emmelie; Murtagh, William; Mitchison, Neil


    The impact of space weather on the power grid is a tangible and recurring threat with potentially serious consequences on society. Of particular concern is the long-distance high-voltage power grid, which is vulnerable to the effects of geomagnetic storms that can damage or destroy equipment or lead to grid collapse. In order to launch a dialogue on the topic and encourage authorities, regulators and operators in European countries and North America to learn from each other, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Centre, with the contribution of the UK Civil Contingencies Secretariat, jointly organised a workshop on the impact of extreme space weather on the power grid on 29-30 October 2013. Being structured into 6 sessions, the topics addressed were space-weather phenomena and the dynamics of their impact on the grid, experiences with prediction and now-casting in the USA and in Europe, risk assessment and preparedness, as well as policy implications arising from increased awareness of the space-weather hazard. The main workshop conclusions are: • There is increasing awareness of the risk of space-weather impact among power-grid operators and regulators and some countries consider it a priority risk to be addressed. • The predictability of space-weather phenomena is still limited and relies, in part, on data from ageing satellites. NOAA is working with NASA to launch the DSCOVR solar wind spacecraft, the replacement for the ACE satellite, in early 2015. • In some countries, models and tools for GIC prediction and grid impact assessment have been developed in collaboration with national power grids but equipment vulnerability models are scarce. • Some countries have successfully hardened their transmission grids to space-weather impact and sustained relatively little or no damage due to currents induced by past moderate space-weather events. • While there is preparedness


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kuz’min


    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of early stages of development the Solar System and the geological history of Earth with reference to the latest data on the origin of the Solar System and the formation of the first continental rocks and results of studies of zircon, the oldest mineral so far dated on Earth. The formation of the Solar System from a gas-and-dust nebula is estimated to have begun 4.568 billion years ago. Ice was formed 1.5 million years later; it concentrated at the periphery of the system and served as the material for the largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn. In the central areas of the system, asteroids with diameters of about 10 km were formed. Their small bodies were composed of the basic material of the solar nebula, as evidenced by carbonaceous chondrite, CI, which composition is similar to the composition of the Sun, with the exception of hydrogen, helium, and volatile components that served as the main material for peripheral planets of the Solar System. Due to collision and partial merger of such small bodies, the formation of embryos of the terrestrial planets was initiated. Gravity made such embryos to cluster into larger bodies. After 7 million years, large asteroids and planet Mars were formed. It took 11 million years to form Planet Earth with a mass of 63 %, and 30 million years to form 93 % of its mass. Almost from the beginning of the formation of the Earth, short-lived radionuclides, 26Al and 60Fe, caused warming up of the small planetary bodies which led to the formation of their cores. During the initial stages, small magma reservoirs were formed, and molten iron particles gathered in the centres of the planetary bodies. As suggested by the ratio of 182W/184W, the major part of the core was formed within 20 million years, while its full mass accumulated completely within the next 50 million years. In 30–40 million years after the creation of the Solar System, the Earth collided with a cosmic body which mass was


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kuz’min


    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of early stages of development the Solar System and the geological history of Earth with reference to the latest data on the origin of the Solar System and the formation of the first continental rocks and results of studies of zircon, the oldest mineral so far dated on Earth. The formation of the Solar System from a gas-and-dust nebula is estimated to have begun 4.568 billion years ago. Ice was formed 1.5 million years later; it concentrated at the periphery of the system and served as the material for the largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn. In the central areas of the system, asteroids with diameters of about 10 km were formed. Their small bodies were composed of the basic material of the solar nebula, as evidenced by carbonaceous chondrite, CI, which composition is similar to the composition of the Sun, with the exception of hydrogen, helium, and volatile components that served as the main material for peripheral planets of the Solar System. Due to collision and partial merger of such small bodies, the formation of embryos of the terrestrial planets was initiated. Gravity made such embryos to cluster into larger bodies. After 7 million years, large asteroids and planet Mars were formed. It took 11 million years to form Planet Earth with a mass of 63 %, and 30 million years to form 93 % of its mass. Almost from the beginning of the formation of the Earth, short-lived radionuclides, 26Al and 60Fe, caused warming up of the small planetary bodies which led to the formation of their cores. During the initial stages, small magma reservoirs were formed, and molten iron particles gathered in the centres of the planetary bodies. As suggested by the ratio of 182W/184W, the major part of the core was formed within 20 million years, while its full mass accumulated completely within the next 50 million years. In 30–40 million years after the creation of the Solar System, the Earth collided with a cosmic body which mass was

  17. Potential Effects of Climate Changes on Aquatic Systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield Region (United States)

    Magnuson, J. J.; Webster, K. E.; Assel, R. A.; Bowser, C. J.; Dillon, P. J.; Eaton, J. G.; Evans, H. E.; Fee, E. J.; Hall, R. I.; Mortsch, L. R.; Schindler, D. W.; Quinn, F. H.


    increase but many complex reactions of the phytoplankton community to altered temperatures, thermocline depths, light penetrations and nutrient inputs would be expected. Zooplankton biomass would increase, but, again, many complex interactions are expected.Generally, the thermal habitat for warm-, cool- and even cold-water fishes would increase in size in deep stratified lakes, but would decrease in shallow unstratified lakes and in streams. Less dissolved oxygen below the thermocline of lakes would further degrade stratified lakes for cold water fishes. Growth and production would increase for fishes that are now in thermal environments cooler than their optimum but decrease for those that are at or above their optimum, provided they cannot move to a deeper or headwater thermal refuge. The zoogeographical boundary for fish species could move north by 500-600 km; invasions of warmer water fishes and extirpations of colder water fishes should increase. Aquatic ecosystems across the region do not necessarily exhibit coherent responses to climate changes and variability, even if they are in close proximity. Lakes, wetlands and streams respond differently, as do lakes of different depth or productivity. Differences in hydrology and the position in the hydrological flow system, in terrestrial vegetation and land use, in base climates and in the aquatic biota can all cause different responses. Climate change effects interact strongly with effects of other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic organisms. Aquatic ecological systems in the region are sensitive to climate change and variation. Assessments of these potential effects are in an early stage and contain many uncertainties in the models and properties of aquatic ecological systems and of the climate system.

  18. Health Issues and Space Weather (United States)

    Crosby, N.


    The possibility that solar activity and variations in the Earth's magnetic field may affect human health has been debated for many decades but is still a "scientific topic" in its infancy. By learning whether and, if so, how much the Earth's space weather can influence the daily health of people will be of practical importance. Knowing whether human genetics, include regulating factors that take into account fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field and solar disturbances, indeed exist will also benefit future interplanetary space travelers. Because the atmospheres on other planets are different from ours, as well as their interaction with the space environment, one may ask whether we are equipped with the genetics necessary to take this variability into account. The goal of this presentation is to define what is meant by space weather as a health risk and identify the long-term socio-economic effects on society that such health risks would have. Identifying the physical links between space weather sources and different effects on human health, as well as the parameters (direct and indirect) to be monitored, the potential for such a cross-disciplinary study will be invaluable, for scientists and medical doctors, as well as for engineers.

  19. Hydrologic applications of weather radar (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat


    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  20. The Weather and Climate Toolkit (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.; Hankins, B.


    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and capable of supporting many new datasets in the future. Gridded NetCDF files (regular and irregularly spaced, using Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions) are supported, along with many other formats including GRIB. The WCT provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service (WMS) background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Export Wizard allows for data export in both vector polygon/point (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, Gridded NetCDF) formats. These data export features promote the interoperability of weather and climate information with various scientific communities and common software packages such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, MatLAB, GrADS and R. The WCT also supports an embedded, integrated Google Earth instance. The Google Earth Browser Plugin allows seamless visualization of data on a native 3-D Google Earth instance linked to the standard 2-D map. Level-II NEXRAD data for Hurricane Katrina GPCP (Global Precipitation Product), visualized in 2-D and internal Google Earth view.

  1. Sunspots, Space Weather and Climate (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.


    Four hundred years ago this year the telescope was first used for astronomical observations. Within a year, Galileo in Italy and Harriot in England reported seeing spots on the surface of the Sun. Yet, it took over 230 years of observations before a Swiss amateur astronomer noticed that the sunspots increased and decreased in number over a period of about 11 years. Within 15 years of this discovery of the sunspot cycle astronomers made the first observations of a flare on the surface of the Sun. In the 150 years since that discovery we have learned much about sunspots, the sunspot cycle, and the Sun s explosive events - solar flares, prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections that usually accompany the sunspots. These events produce what is called Space Weather. The conditions in space are dramatically affected by these events. Space Weather can damage our satellites, harm our astronauts, and affect our lives here on the surface of planet Earth. Long term changes in the sunspot cycle have been linked to changes in our climate as well. In this public lecture I will give an introduction to sunspots, the sunspot cycle, space weather, and the possible impact of solar variability on our climate.

  2. Weather, Climate and Food Security (United States)

    Beer, T.


    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  3. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond. (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C


    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  4. How are Space Weather and Space Climate Connected to Solar Phenomena? (United States)

    Hesse, Michael


    Many aspects of modern society are susceptible to space weather effects. Pertinent space weather effects include high-energy electromagnetic and particle radiation, changes of atmospheric drag, reduction of GPS accuracy or complete loss of GPS signals, communication outages, and the generation of potentially harmful DC currents in our electric power grid. Beginning in the early 1990s, researchers and government have been increasingly aware of the need to understand the causes of space weather, and to find ways to mitigate deleterious effects associated with it. New research and development programs have been created to address space weather primarily at NASA but also at other agencies. This investment has been very fruitful by generating a new class of entirely new space weather specification and forecast capabilities. This presentation provides an overview of space weather causes and effects, as well as of research and development to forecast and mitigate space weather effects. It will include a discussion of modern space weather analysis and forecasting, and conclude by pointing out paths into the future.

  5. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Powell


    Full Text Available Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to continue occurring at historically high levels for farming locations throughout the Netherlands, the effects of those events on wheat yields are estimated while controlling for the other major input factors affecting yields. Econometric techniques are applied to an unbalanced panel data set of 334 farms for a period of up to 12 years. Analyzes show that the number of days with extreme high temperatures in Dutch wheat growing regions has significantly increased since the early 1900s, while the number of extreme low temperature events has fallen over that same period. The effects of weather events on wheat yields were found to be time specific in that the week in which an event occurred determined its effect on yields. High temperature events and precipitation events were found to significantly decrease yields.

  6. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars’ Southern Extratropics (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.


    Between late fall and early spring, Mars’ middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  7. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars Southern Extratropics (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.


    Between late fall and early spring, Mars' middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  8. Weather science for everybody. Cloud images and other weather phenomena, large area weather situations, weather forecasting; 7. rev. ed.; Wetterkunde fuer alle. Wolkenbilder und andere Wetterphaenomene, Grosswetterlagen, Wettervorhersage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, G.D.


    The book provides complete knowledge on the forces that determine weather, on weather maps, typical large-area weather situations in Europe, weather forecasts, types of clouds, wind forces, and so on. Detailed descriptions and many colour photographs and graphs illustrate weather processes. The volume deals with 32 phenomena like fog, warm southerly wind (``foehn``), or thunderstorm by means of the following criteria: observation, physics, weather process and forecasting. Moreover it contains topical information on weather satellites, the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Aus dem Buch ist alles ueber Kraefte, die das Wetter machen, ueber Wetterkarten, typische Grosswetterlagen in Europa, Wettervorhersagen, Wolkenarten, Windstaerken und vieles mehr zu erfahren. Praezise Beschreibungen und viele Abbildungen verdeutlichen die Zusammenhaenge bei der Wetterentstehung. Jedes der 32 erklaerten Phaenomene wie Nebel, Foehn oder Gewitter wird nach folgenden Kriterien beschrieben: Beobachtung, Physik, Wettergeschehen und Prognose. Zudem vermittelt der Band aktuelle Informationen ueber Wettersatelliten, Ozonloch und Treibhauseffekt. (orig./KW)

  9. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beschen, D.A. Jr. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs


    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  10. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego


    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  11. The Sarmatian crustal segment: Precambrian correlation between the Voronezh Massif and the Ukrainian Shield across the Dniepr-Donets Aulacogen (United States)

    Shchipansky, Andrey A.; Bogdanova, Svetlana V.


    Sarmatia is the southernmost crustal segment of the East European Precambrian Craton. The Phanerozoic Dniepr-Donets Aulacogen (DDA) subdivides it into unequal halves, the Ukrainian Shield in the south and the Voronezh Massif in the north. Correlation between the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Massif is reviewed, the overall structure and age-province subdivision of Sarmatia are assessed, and constraints are imposed on displacement along the DDA. It is shown that differences in the trends of the principal basement structures, highlighted by magnetic anomalies outlining Palaeoproterozoic banded iron formations, are a consequence of the heterogeneous structure of the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic basement rather than the kinematics of the opening of the DDA. Only minor right-lateral displacement along the DDA has occurred. The main crustal units of the Ukrainian Shield, i.e. the Azov, Middle Dniepr and Ingul-Ingulets Blocks, correlate excellently with the Oskol, Sumy and Sevsk Blocks of the Voronezh Massif, which allows the definition of three coherent Oskol-Azov, Sumy-Dniepr and Sevsk-Ingulets crustal domains. Presently available radiometric datings show that these three domains all have Archaean crustal ages of 3.65-3.0, 3.2-3.1 and 3.1-2.8 Ga, respectively. The inter-domain boundaries appear largely to have existed already in the Archaean, but were subsequently masked by Palaeoproterozoic deformation and overlain by Proterozoic cover and nappe piles. Amongst the three crustal domains of central and eastern Sarmatia, the Oskol-Azov and Sevsk-Ingulets ones have been reworked substantially in the Palaeoproterozoic, while the Sumy-Dniepr Domain acted as a stable cratonic unit, although apparently rotating anti-clockwise between 2.3 and 2.1 Ga ago. The Palaeoproterozoic banded iron belts of Sarmatia can be subdivided into the cratonic-margin Krivoy Rog type and the interior, intra-domain Oskol type. The former outline the cratonic Sumy-Dniepr Domain, while the latter


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Motova


    Full Text Available We present results from petrographic and lithogeochemical studies of the Late Precambrian terrigenous rocks (sandstones, gravelites, and aleuritic sandstones from the Oselkovaya series of Prisayanie. The studies were conducted to reconstruct the primary composition of the rocks in the source area. It has been found that the rocks in the lower part of the cross-section of this series (Marninskaya suite, and the lower part of the Udinskaya suites are represented by more coarse-grained terrigenous rocks (gravelites, and sandstones as compared to the upper part of the cross-section (the upper part of the Udinskaya suite, and the Aisinskaya suite with sandstones and aleuritic sandstones. Gravelites and sandstones from the lower part of the Oselkovaya series show indicators of epigenetic changes that are less intensively expressed in the rocks from the upper part of the cross-section. The upper and lower parts of the Oselkovaya series are significantly different in terms of lithogeochemistry. The lower rocks show quite low contents of Na2O and ratios K2O/Na2O ranging between 10 and 75. In the terrigenous sediments of the upper part, values of K2O/Na2O do not exceed 1–2. Sandstones and gravelites in the lower part of the Oselkovaya series are characterized by reduced concentrations of radioactive, rare-earth, and highly charged elements, as well as lower concentrations of Ni and Co relative to concentrations of these elements in sandstones and aleuritic sandstones of the Oselkovaya series. The petrographic and lithogeochemical characteristics of the terrigenous sediments of the lower and upper parts of the Oselkovaya series suggest different sources of the denudation of these rocks into the sedimentation basin. It is suggested that acid rocks were the denudation source of the terrigenous rocks in the lower part of the series, and the sandstones and aleuritic sandstones in the upper part of the series were sourced from rocks of a mixed (acid

  13. What lies beneath: geophysical mapping of a concealed Precambrian intrusive complex along the Iowa–Minnesota border (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Raymond R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Chandler, Val W.; Cannon, William F.


    Large-amplitude gravity and magnetic highs over northeast Iowa are interpreted to reflect a buried intrusive complex composed of mafic–ultramafic rocks, the northeast Iowa intrusive complex (NEIIC), intruding Yavapai province (1.8–1.72 Ga) rocks. The age of the complex is unproven, although it has been considered to be Keweenawan (∼1.1 Ga). Because only four boreholes reach the complex, which is covered by 200–700 m of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, geophysical methods are critical to developing a better understanding of the nature and mineral resource potential of the NEIIC. Lithologic and cross-cutting relations interpreted from high-resolution aeromagnetic and airborne gravity gradient data are presented in the form of a preliminary geologic map of the basement Precambrian rocks. Numerous magnetic anomalies are coincident with airborne gravity gradient (AGG) highs, indicating widespread strongly magnetized and dense rocks of likely mafic–ultramafic composition. A Yavapai-age metagabbro unit is interpreted to be part of a layered intrusion with subvertical dip. Another presumed Yavapai unit has low density and weak magnetization, observations consistent with felsic plutons. Northeast-trending, linear magnetic lows are interpreted to reflect reversely magnetized diabase dikes and have properties consistent with Keweenawan rocks. The interpreted dikes are cut in places by normally magnetized mafic–ultramafic rocks, suggesting that the latter represent younger Keweenawan rocks. Distinctive horseshoe-shaped magnetic and AGG highs correspond with a known gabbro, and surround rocks with weaker magnetization and lower density. Here, informally called the Decorah complex, the source body has notable geophysical similarities to Keweenawan alkaline ring complexes, such as the Coldwell and Killala Lake complexes, and Mesoproterozoic anorogenic complexes, such as the Kiglapait, Hettasch, and Voisey’s Bay intrusions in Labrador. Results presented here suggest that

  14. P-T evolution of the Precambrian mafic rocks hosting the Varena iron ore deposit in SE Lithuania (United States)

    Šiliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaitė, Gražina; Prusinskiene, Sabina


    The Precambrian Varena iron ore deposit in the western East European Craton, near the Latvian-East Lithuanian and Middle Lithuanian domain boundary, is buried beneath 210-500 m thick sediments. It consists of variable metasomatic rocks, mostly Mg-Fe skarns, associated with dolomitic marbles, magnetite and other ores. Metasomatites are hosted by metamorphosed igneous (mostly mafic) and sedimentary rocks and crosscut by later granites and diabase dikes. Three samples of altered mafic rocks (D8-3, D8-4 and D8-6) were chosen for PT estimations. D8-3 sample (582.5 m) is a coarse-grained metagabbro near a metasomatic K-Mg hastingsite rock. It consists of diopsidic pyroxene, edenitic and actinolitic hornblende, plagioclase (An22-15) and scapolite with minor titanite, chlorite, apatite and talc. Diopside compositions range from iron richer (Mg# 0.64, jadeite component of 0.027) to magnesium richer (Mg# 0.89, jadeite less than 0.01). Amphiboles vary from primary Mg-hastingsitic (AlVI 0.38 apfu, Mg# 0.70) to secondary edenitic (AlVI 0.25, Mg# 0.72) hornblende. Plagioclase is slightly zoned, cores more calcium-rich (An22-20) than rims (An18-15). Sample D8-4 (588 m) has similar mineral and chemical compositions, but is somewhat more altered than the D8-3 sample. Plagioclase in diopside is more anorthitic (An32-30), while matrix plagioclase is more albitic (An27-20). Sample D8-6 (710 m) is composed of diopside, plagioclase, scapolite, Mg-hornblende and actinolite. Diopside has Mg# of 0.77-0.84 and jadeite component of 0.01-0.02. Amphibole compositions range from Mg-hornblende (Mg# 0.64-0.7, Al VI 0.2-0.17 apfu) to actinolite (Mg# 0.76-0.83, Al VI 0.12-0.10 apfu). Plagioclases are An18 in cores and An10 at rims. Diopsides with the lowest Mg# and highest jadeite components, together with plagioclase cores were used for PT calculations by the winTWQ software (Berman, 1991). Temperatures of 530° C and 550° C and pressures of 6.3 and 6.1 kbar were estimated for the D8-3 and D8

  15. Climate and weather impact timing of emergence of bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winifred F Frick

    Full Text Available Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June-15 July to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate.

  16. Climate and weather impact timing of emergence of bats. (United States)

    Frick, Winifred F; Stepanian, Phillip M; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Howard, Kenneth W; Kuster, Charles M; Kunz, Thomas H; Chilson, Phillip B


    Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June-15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate.

  17. Space Weather Affected Habitable Zones Around Active Stars (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.


    Our Sun, a magnetically mild star, exhibits space weather in the form of magnetically driven solar explosive events (SEEs) including solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CME) and solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Extreme SEEs from magnetically active stars can significantly perturb magnetosphere, cause strong geomagnetic storms, initiate escape and introduced chemical changes in exoplanetary atmospheres. We use Kepler data and reconstruction of X-ray and UV emission from young solar-like stars to recover the frequency and energy fluxes from extreme events from active stars including the young Sun. I present our recent simulation results based on multi-dimensional multi-fluid hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic models of interactions of extreme CME and SEP events with magnetospheres and lower atmospheres of early Earth and exoplanets around active stars. We also discuss observational bio-signatures of life “highlighted” by space weather events, the beacons of life.

  18. Weather and Climate Modifications Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Slinn, W. G.N.; Laulainen, N. S.; Kleckner, E. W.; Thorp, J. M.; Wolf, M. A.


    This section is comprised of seven papers. Human activity can change the average atmospheric temperature and humidity values, as well as the chemical composition of the air. These changes affect local and regional weather and climate, and may have a significant influence on global climate. Examples of human activity that produce these changes are the increase of CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuel; the production of aerosols by industry, automobiles, home heating units and agricultural practices; the releases of large quantities of heat and water vapor from the cooling facilities of large fossil and nuclear power plants; and t modification of the earth's albedo due to urbanization, agricullture, deforestation reservoirs and soil spills. Research activities have resulted in an overview of the important natural and anthropogenic perturbations of weather and climate, and the resulting need for further climatic research; a theoretical study that may contribute to a better understanding of atmospheric electricity; atmospheric turbidity data at the Hanford site and their relationships to changes in the aerosol size distribution; initial efforts in determining the optical properties of aerosols such that we can better understand the radiative properties of the atmosphere; and the characterization of large power plant cooling tower plumes through the use of long exposure photography and instrumented aircraft. (auth)

  19. The Effects of Virtual Weather on Presence (United States)

    Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Weibel, David; Mast, Fred W.

    In modern societies people tend to spend more time in front of computer screens than outdoors. Along with an increasing degree of realism displayed in digital environments, simulated weather appears more and more realistic and more often implemented in digital environments. Research has found that the actual weather influences behavior and mood. In this paper we experimentally examine the effects of virtual weather on the sense of presence. Thereby we found individuals (N=30) to immerse deeper in digital environments displaying fair weather conditions than in environments displaying bad weather. We also investigate whether virtual weather can influence behavior. The possible implications of theses findings for presence theory as well as digital environment designers will be discussed.

  20. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  1. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.


    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  2. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  3. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao


    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  4. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks


    McMichael, Anthony J


    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  5. Frosty Conditions Catalyze Weatherization Solutions: Maine Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Maine demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  6. Weatherization Plays a Starring Role in Mississippi: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Mississippi demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  7. Weatherization is a Natural Choice for Montana: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Montana demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  8. Weatherization Makes Headlines in Connecticut: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Connecticut demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  9. Weatherization Makes a Big Impact in Texas: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Texas demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  10. Weatherization Savings Takes Root in New Mexico: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    New Mexico demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  11. The Spirit of North Dakota: Alive in Weatherization; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    North Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  12. Guidelines for disseminating road weather messages : improved road weather information for travelers. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Road Weather Management : Program (RWMP) recently published a : document titled Guidelines for Disseminating : Road Weather Advisory and : Control Information (FHWA-JPO-12- : 046). The guidelines are intend...

  13. Massachusetts Fosters the Weatherization Spirit: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Massachusetts demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  14. Weatherization Builds on Delaware's Innovative Past: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Delaware demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  15. Weatherization Radiates Energy Savings in Florida: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International


    Florida demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  16. Lightning Applications in Weather and Climate Research (United States)

    Price, Colin G.


    Thunderstorms, and lightning in particular, are a major natural hazard to the public, aviation, power companies, and wildfire managers. Lightning causes great damage and death every year but also tells us about the inner working of storms. Since lightning can be monitored from great distances from the storms themselves, lightning may allow us to provide early warnings for severe weather phenomena such as hail storms, flash floods, tornadoes, and even hurricanes. Lightning itself may impact the climate of the Earth by producing nitrogen oxides (NOx), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Thunderstorms themselves influence the climate system by the redistribution of heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmosphere. What about future changes in lightning and thunderstorm activity? Many studies show that higher surface temperatures produce more lightning, but future changes will depend on what happens to the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere, as well as changes in water balance, and even aerosol loading of the atmosphere. Finally, lightning itself may provide a useful tool for tracking climate change in the future, due to the nonlinear link between lightning, temperature, upper tropospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mints


    Full Text Available Paradoxically, the lists of “proxies” of both plate- and plume-related settings are devoid of even a mention of the high-grade metamorphic rocks (granulite, amphibolite and high-temperature eclogite facies. However, the granulite-gneiss belts and areas which contain these rocks, have a regional distribution in both the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic records. The origin and evolution of the granulite-gneiss belts correspond to the activity of plumes expressed in vigorous heating of the continental crust; intraplate magmatism; formation of rift depressions filled with sediments, juvenile lavas, and pyroclastic flow deposits; and metamorphism of lower and middle crustal complexes under conditions of granulite and high-temperature amphibolite facies that spreads over the fill of rift depressions also. Granulite-gneiss complexes of the East European Craton form one of the main components of the large oval intracontinental tectonic terranes of regional or continental rank. Inclusion of the granulite-gneiss complexes from Eastern Europe, North and South America, Africa, India, China and Australia in discussion of the problem indicated in the title to this paper, suggests consideration of a significant change in existing views on the relations between the plate- and plume-tectonic processes in geological history, as well as in supercontinent assembly and decay. The East European and North American cratons are fragments of the long-lived supercontinent Lauroscandia. After its appearance at ~2.8 Ga, the crust of this supercontinent evolved under the influence of the sequence of powerful mantle plumes (superplumes up to ~0.85 Ga. During this time Lauroscandia was subjected to rifting, partial breakup and the following reconstruction of the continent. The processes of plate-tectonic type (rifting with the transition to spreading and closing of the short-lived ocean with subduction within Lauroscandia were controlled by the superplumes. Revision of the

  18. Value of global weather sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

  19. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States. (United States)

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  20. Hedging Weather Risk for Corn Production in Northeastern China: The Efficiency of Weather-indexed Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Baojing; Guo, Changhao; Kooten, van G.C.


    Purpose – The paper analyzes the hedging efficiency of weather-indexed insurance for corn production in Northeast of China. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential weather variables that impact corn yields and to analyze the efficiency of weather-indexed insurance under varying

  1. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  2. Laboratory Simulation of Biogeochemical Interactions Between Cyanobacterium-Growth and CaCO3 Deposition: Implications for Carbon Accumulation Under Extreme Atmospheric Conditions of Precambrian Earth (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Chen, G.; Yang, H.


    The atmosphere of Precambrian Earth was characterized by high PCO2, low PO2, and high violent UV radiation. To better understand the interaction between cyanobacterium-growth and CaCO3 deposition in such extreme environments, we grew Oscillatoria tenuis, a prokaryotic alga that is morphologically similar to micro-fossils found in Precambrian chert, in the laboratory under controlled temperature and patial presure of CO2. During algal cell growth, oxygen was absorbed continously by chromous chloride oxygen-absorbent and the levels of PCO2 were controlled by adding different amounts of HCO3- (NaHCO3) in culture medium with initial pH 7.4. Our observation indicates that PCO2 excerises the first order of control on the accumulation of cyanobaterium biomass. Under 100,000 Pa of PCO2, the growth rate of cyanobaterium increases along with the elevation of CO2 partial pressure; however, when PCO2 is higher than 100,000 Pa, the increase of PCO2 results in the decrease of cyanobacterium biomass. On the other hand, photosynthesis of cyanobacteria controls CaCO3 deposition via the function of adjusting pH in the solution. In a 5 day cell growth experiment with PCO2 controlled at about 50,000 Pa and additional 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 M Ca2+ input separately at speed of 2.5 ml/h, the largest total biomass of cyanobacterium (896 mg/L) including living suspension cells and deposited cells was obtained when Ca2+ input was maintained at 0.01 M with 2.5 ml/h. Otherwise, less Ca2+ input resulted in more living suspension cells and less deposited cells. More Ca2+ input resulted in less living suspension cells and more deposited cells. At last both conditions were not good for cell growth and accumulation of organic matter in carbonate deposition in long term. Our laboratory simulation illustrates that the Ca2+ input is critical to CaCO3 deposition and such controls are indirectly enforced through the accumulation of cyanobacteria biomass under a warm, anoxic and high pCO2

  3. Modeling rock weathering in small watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; van der Weijden, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06836816X


    Many mountainous watersheds are conceived as aquifer media where multiple groundwater flow systems have developed (Tóth, 1963), and as bimodal landscapes where differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock has occurred (Wahrhaftig, 1965). The results of a weathering algorithm (Pacheco and

  4. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcano sedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, ...

  5. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.


    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  6. Medium-range fire weather forecasts (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka


    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  7. Economic Impact of Fire Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Don Gunasekera; Graham Mills; Mark Williams


    Southeastern Australia, where the State of Victoria is located is regarded as one of the most fire prone areas in the world. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology provides fire weather services in Victoria as part of a national framework for the provision of such services. These services range from fire weather warnings to special forecasts for hazard reduction burns....

  8. Future weather dataset for fourteen UK sites. (United States)

    Liu, Chunde


    This Future weather dataset is used for assessing the risk of overheating and thermal discomfort or heat stress in the free running buildings. The weather files are in the format of .epw which can be used in the building simulation packages such as EnergyPlus, DesignBuilder, IES, etc.

  9. The Varying Income Effects of Weather Variation


    Narloch, Ulf


    To estimate the impact of weather on rural income changes over time, this study combines data from the panel subsample of the latest Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2010, 2012, and 2014 and gridded weather data from the Climate Research Unit. The analyses show: (i) crop cultivation, livestock management, forestry and fishing activities, and agricultural wages remain important inc...

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks. (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J


    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  11. Financial Weather Options for Crop Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Baojing; Kooten, van G.C.


    Weather derivatives based on heating degree days or cooling degree days have been traded in financial markets for more than 10 years. Although used by the energy sector, agricultural producers have been slow to adopt this technology even though agriculture is particularly vulnerable to weather

  12. Black Weathering of Bentheim and Obernkirchen Sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Linden, T.J.M.


    Black weathering of sandstone in monuments is widespread. Some objects owe their name to it, like the Porta Nigra in Trier (Germany). Other than the black gypsum crusts common on limestone, the black weathering layer on sandstone is rather thin and well adherent. Formation of such layers on Bentheim

  13. Using weather forecasts for predicting forest-fire danger (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne


    Three kinds of weather control the fluctuations of forest-fire danger-wet weather, dry weather, and windy weather. Two other conditions also contribute to the fluctuation of fire danger. These are the occurrence of lightning and the activities of man. But neither of these fire-starting agencies is fully effective unless the weather has dried out the forest materials so...

  14. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.


    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  15. Health Burden of Extreme Weather in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraphan Plongmak


    Full Text Available This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Thailand has a DALYs lost of over 16,274 from extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include floods, flash floods, and severe storms, and most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872 DALYs. The second most impactful weather event was severe storms, with losses of approximately 2,019 DALYs, followed by flash floods, which caused losses of about 1,383 DALYs. Climate change is a cause of extreme weather events, and a relationship betweenclimate and health has been found worldwide. Improved long-term, high-quality data sets are needed to better analyze and improve accuracy of the health burden.

  16. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  17. Can the weather influence arthritis symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Chin Li


    Full Text Available By reviewing twelve previous studies on the relationship between the weather and arthritis symptoms, this article summarized the major findings on this controversial topic. It has been supported by most of the studies that arthritis symptoms are associated with weather conditions. Factors such as barometric pressure and temperature were generally believed to be related to arthritis symptoms. However, controversies arose at minor levels. Whether the weather-symptom relationship depends on the specific type of arthritis, weather variables, demographic and pathological heterogeneity of the patients is still a matter of debate. This article calls for standardization in future research design, and hope the mechanism underlying the weather-symptom association will be found.

  18. Assessing weather effects on dengue disease in Malaysia. (United States)

    Cheong, Yoon Ling; Burkart, Katrin; Leitão, Pedro J; Lakes, Tobia


    The number of dengue cases has been increasing on a global level in recent years, and particularly so in Malaysia, yet little is known about the effects of weather for identifying the short-term risk of dengue for the population. The aim of this paper is to estimate the weather effects on dengue disease accounting for non-linear temporal effects in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2010. We selected the weather parameters with a Poisson generalized additive model, and then assessed the effects of minimum temperature, bi-weekly accumulated rainfall and wind speed on dengue cases using a distributed non-linear lag model while adjusting for trend, day-of-week and week of the year. We found that the relative risk of dengue cases is positively associated with increased minimum temperature at a cumulative percentage change of 11.92% (95% CI: 4.41-32.19), from 25.4 °C to 26.5 °C, with the highest effect delayed by 51 days. Increasing bi-weekly accumulated rainfall had a positively strong effect on dengue cases at a cumulative percentage change of 21.45% (95% CI: 8.96, 51.37), from 215 mm to 302 mm, with the highest effect delayed by 26-28 days. The wind speed is negatively associated with dengue cases. The estimated lagged effects can be adapted in the dengue early warning system to assist in vector control and prevention plan.

  19. GOES-R Space Weather Data: Products and Data Access (United States)

    Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S.; Denig, W. F.; Seaton, D. B.


    In November 2016 NOAA launched the first in the "R" series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). GOES-R continues a tradition of almost 40 years of continuous space and solar observations at geostationary orbit. Compared to its predecessors, the GOES-R satellite provides improved in situ measurements of charged particle and magnetic field environments. The satellite also offers enhanced remote sensing of the sun through ultraviolet (UV) imagery and X-ray/UV irradiance. After the spacecraft completes early-orbit checkout and calibration, GOES-R space weather data and derived products will be used for operations within NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and publicly released through the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). This presentation will provide an overview of GOES-R space weather data ranging from direct measurements (L0 data) to higher level science (L2+) products developed by NCEI scientists. We will also present planned data access and distribution features. We emphasize our strategy to ensure data discoverability and accessibility, including our participation in NOAA's OneStop project and potential partnerships with NASA's Virtual Solar Observatory and projects like Helioviewer.

  20. Weatherization works: Final report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kinney, L.F.


    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year (supplemented by data from 1991-92). The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it (1) saves energy, (2) lowers fuel bills, and (3) improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years.

  1. Geochemistry of Precambrian sedimentary rocks used to solve stratigraphical problems: An example from the Neoproterozoic Volta basin, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, F.; Frei, Robert


    units, in upward succession the Bombouaka, Oti and Obosum Groups, but poor exposure has resulted in major disagreements on stratigraphical correlations and on the areal extents of these units. Geochemical data (major and trace element concentrations as well as Rb–Sr, Pb and Sm–Nd isotope data......) on siltstones and mudstones, intercalated with the sandstones from the different units, were used in an attempt to solve some of these problems. Siltstones and mudstones from the Bombouaka Group can be unequivocally distinguished from similar rocks from the Oti and Obosum Groups by higher K2O and Rb, larger Eu...... of correlation between the concentrations of K and Rb, and Ca and Sr, indicate that mobility of these elements did not significantly change their concentrations during surface weathering. The clear geochemical distinction between mudstones and siltstones from the Bombouaka Group and similar rocks from the Oti...

  2. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiita, Joanne


    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  3. Dominant Lid Tectonics behaviour of continental lithosphere in Precambrian times: Palaeomagnetism confirms prolonged quasi-integrity and absence of supercontinent cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper


    Full Text Available Although Plate Tectonics cannot be effectively tested by palaeomagnetism in the Precambrian aeon due to the paucity of high precision poles spanning such a long time period, the possibility of Lid Tectonics is eminently testable because it seeks accordance of the wider dataset over prolonged intervals of time; deficiencies and complexities in the data merely contribute to dispersion. Accordance of palaeomagnetic poles across a quasi-integral continental crust for time periods of up to thousands of millions of years, together with recognition of very long intervals characterised by minimal polar motions (∼2.6–2.0, ∼1.5–1.25 and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga has been used to demonstrate that Lid Tectonics dominated this aeon. The new PALEOMAGIA database is used to refine a model for the Precambrian lid incorporating a large quasi-integral crescentric core running from South-Central Africa through Laurentia to Siberia with peripheral cratons subject to reorganisation at ∼2.1, ∼1.6 and ∼1.1 Ga. The model explains low levels of tidal friction, reduced heat balance, unique petrologic and isotopic signatures, and the prolonged crustal stability of Earth's “Middle Age”, whilst density concentrations of the palaeomagnetic poles show that the centre of the continental lid was persistently focussed near Earth's rotation axis from ∼2.8 to 0.6 Ga. The exception was the ∼2.7–2.2 Ga interval defined by ∼90° polar movements which translated the periphery of the lid to the rotation pole for this quasi-static period, a time characterised by glaciation and low levels of magmatic activity; the ∼2.7 Ga shift correlates with key interval of mid-Archaean crustal growth to some 60–70% of the present volume and REE signatures whilst the ∼2.2 Ga shift correlates with the Lomagundi δ13 C and Great Oxygenation events. The palaeomagnetic signature of breakup of the lid at ∼0.6 Ga is recorded by the world-wide Ediacaran development of passive

  4. Fluvial channel-belts, floodbasins, and aeolian ergs in the Precambrian Meall Dearg Formation (Torridonian of Scotland): Inferring climate regimes from pre-vegetation clastic rock records (United States)

    Lebeau, Lorraine E.; Ielpi, Alessandro


    The interpretation of climate regimes from facies analysis of Precambrian clastic rocks has been challenging thus far, hindering full reconstructions of landscape dynamics in pre-vegetation environments. Yet, comparisons between different and co-active sedimentary realms, including fluvial-channelised, floodplain, and aeolian hold the potential to shed further light on this thematic. This research discusses a fluvial-aeolian record from the 1.2 Ga Meall Dearg Formation, part of the classic Torridonian succession of Scotland. Tentatively considered to date as a braided-fluvial deposit, this unit is here reappraised as the record of fluvial channel-belts, floodbasins, and aeolian ergs. Fluvial deposits with abundant transitional- to upper-flow regime structures (mostly cross-beds with tangential sets and plane/antidunal beds) and simple, low-relief sediment bars indicate a low-sinuosity, ephemeral style. Floodbasin deposits consist of plane and cross-beds ubiquitously bounded by symmetrical ripples, and rare sediment bars related to the progradation of splay complexes in temporary flooded depressions. Aeolian deposits occur nearby basement topography, and are dominated by large-scale, pin-stripe laminated cross-beds, indicative of intermountain ergs. Neither ephemeral-fluvial nor intermountain aeolian systems can be considered as reliable indicators of local climate, since their sedimentary style is respectively controlled by catchment size and shape, and basin topography relative to groundwater tables. Contrarily, the occurrence of purely clastic - rather than carbonate or evaporitic - floodplain strata can be more confidently related to humid regimes. In brief, this study provides new insight into an overlooked portion of the Torridonian succession of Scotland, and discusses climate inferences for Precambrian clastic terrestrial rocks.

  5. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems. (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.


    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  6. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease (United States)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.


    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  7. Roadway weather information system and automatic vehicle location (AVL) coordination. (United States)


    Roadway Weather Information System and Automatic Vehicle Location Coordination involves the : development of an Inclement Weather Console that provides a new capability for the state of Oklahoma : to monitor weather-related roadway conditions. The go...

  8. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Rainer


    Full Text Available The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  9. What is the weather like today (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana


    Meteorology is the study of all changes in the atmosphere that surround the Earth. In this project, students will design and build some of the instruments that meteorologists use and make two school Weather Stations and placed them in different school yards so that results of weather parameters date can be follow during three months and be compared. Poster will present a procedure and a preparation how to work with weather stations that contain 1. Barometer (Air pressure) 2. Rain Gauge (Precipitation) 3. Thermometer (Temperature ) 4. Wind Vane (Wind Direction) By collecting their own data, the students found out more about weather through a process similar to the one that professional meteorologists used. Finally students compared differences between two school weather station and used these results to presented how different places had different climate and how climate changed during the months in a year. This was opportunity for cooperation between students from different schools and different grades when older students from secondary school helped younger student to make their weather station and shared knowledge and experience while they followed weather condition during the project .

  10. Weatherization Works: Final Report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.


    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation's largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year. The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it saves energy, lowers fuel bills, and improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years. The Program's mission is to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families--particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Substantial progress has been made, but the job is far from over. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that the average low-income family spends 12 percent of its income on residential energy, compared to only 3% for the average-income family. Homes where low-income families live also have a greater need for energy efficiency improvements, but less money to pay for them.

  11. Weather Derivatives: A Contemporary Review and Its Application in China


    Liu, Xin


    The weather has impact on both human activity and all forms of businesses. A variety of businesses including energy and power, agriculture, retail, insurance, and entertainment are either favorably or adversely by weather. Then a new class of financial derivatives--weather derivatives are evolved to manage the economic impact of weather events on the performance of business activities. To this day, the weather derivative market has developed throughout the world. Various of weather derivative...

  12. Weather track optimization through graphics theory


    Martínez de Osés, Francesc Xavier


    Safe seafaring is closely related to the weather observation. The improvement of the system that covers the integration on board of weather information available on the ship’s bridge, should keep in mind the ship’s type and track but also the human factor or the task to be carried out by the officer on watch. This paper tries to provide a set of criteria to be used for designing an ergonomic concept of a weather receiving information station within a Ship Control Centre, to optimise the ship...

  13. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim


    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  14. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide


    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center ( is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA, two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  15. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.


    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (<35yrs) landsliding, suggesting that landslides are the dominant locus of weathering in this rapidly eroding landscape. A tight link between landsliding and weathering implies that localized weathering migrates through the landscape with physical erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute

  16. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.


    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  17. Computer assisted screening, correction, and analysis of historical weather measurements (United States)

    Burnette, Dorian J.; Stahle, David W.


    A computer program, Historical Observation Tools (HOB Tools), has been developed to facilitate many of the calculations used by historical climatologists to develop instrumental and documentary temperature and precipitation datasets and makes them readily accessible to other researchers. The primitive methodology used by the early weather observers makes the application of standard techniques difficult. HOB Tools provides a step-by-step framework to visually and statistically assess, adjust, and reconstruct historical temperature and precipitation datasets. These routines include the ability to check for undocumented discontinuities, adjust temperature data for poor thermometer exposures and diurnal averaging, and assess and adjust daily precipitation data for undercount. This paper provides an overview of the Visual Basic.NET program and a demonstration of how it can assist in the development of extended temperature and precipitation datasets using modern and early instrumental measurements from the United States.

  18. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals (United States)

    White, A. F.


    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  19. A Change in the Weather (United States)


    These two Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) images were acquired over the northern plains of Mars near one of the possible landing sites for NASA's Phoenix mission, set to launch in August 2007. The lower right image was acquired first, on Nov. 29, 2006, at 0720 UTC (2:20 a.m. EST), while the upper left image was acquired about one month later on Dec. 26, 2006, at 0030 UTC (or Dec. 25, 2006, at 7:30 p.m. EST). The CRISM data were taken in 544 colors covering the wavelength range from 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and show features as small as about 20 meters (66 feet) across. The images shown above are red-green-blue color composites using wavelengths 0.71, 0.6, and 0.53 micrometers, respectively (or infrared, red, and green light), and are overlain on a mosaic of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible data. Each image covers a region about 11 kilometers (6.6 miles) wide at its narrowest, and they overlap near 71.0 degrees north latitude, 252.8 degrees east longitude The Earth equivalent to the season and latitude of this site is late summer in northern Canada, above the Arctic Circle. At that season and latitude, Martian weather conditions are transitioning from summer with generally clear skies, occasional weather fronts, and infrequent dust storms, to an autumn with pervasive, thick water-ice clouds. The striking difference in the appearance of the images is caused by the seasonal development of water-ice clouds. The earlier (lower right) image is cloud-free, and surface features can clearly be seen - like the small crater in the upper left. However, the clouds and haze in the later (upper left) image make it hard to see the surface. There are variations in the thickness and spacing of the clouds, just like clouds on Earth. On other days when nearby sites were imaged, the cloud cover varied day-to-day, but as the seasons change the trend is more and thicker clouds. With the onset of autumn the clouds will gradually

  20. WWOSC 2014: research needs for better health resilience to weather hazards. (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Anderson, Vidya; Gosselin, Pierre; Mee, Carol; Chong, Nicholas J


    The first World Weather Open Science Conference (WWOSC, held from 17-21 August 2014 in Montreal, Québec), provided an open forum where the experience and perspective of a variety of weather information providers and users was combined with the latest application advances in social sciences. A special session devoted to health focused on how best the most recent weather information and communication technologies (ICT) could improve the health emergency responses to disasters resulting from natural hazards. Speakers from a plenary presentation and its corresponding panel shared lessons learnt from different international multidisciplinary initiatives against weather-related epidemics, such as malaria, leptospirosis and meningitis and from public health responses to floods and heat waves such as in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Participants could bear witness to recent progress made in the use of forecasting tools and in the application of increased spatiotemporal resolutions in the management of weather related health risks through anticipative interventions, early alert and warning and early responses especially by vulnerable groups. There was an agreement that resilience to weather hazards is best developed based on evidence of their health impact and when, at local level, there is a close interaction between health care providers, epidemiologists, climate services, public health authorities and communities. Using near real time health data (such as hospital admission, disease incidence monitoring…) combined with weather information has been recommended to appraise the relevance of decisions and the effectiveness of interventions and to make adjustments when needed. It also helps appraising how people may be more or less vulnerable to a particular hazard depending on the resilience infrastructures and services. This session was mainly attended by climate, environment and social scientists from North American and European countries. Producing a commentary appears

  1. Space Weather Research in Armenia (United States)

    Chilingarian, A. A.

    DVIN for ASEC (Data Visualization interactive Network for Aragats Space Environmental Center) is product for accessing and analysis the on-line data from Solar Monitors located at high altitude research station on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Data from ASEC monitors is used worldwide for scientific purposes and for monitoring of severe solar storms in progress. Alert service, based on the automatic analysis of variations of the different species of cosmic ray particles is available for subscribers. DVIN advantages: DVIN is strategically important as a scientific application to help develop space science and to foster global collaboration in forecasting potential hazards of solar storms. It precisely fits with the goals of the new evolving information society to provide long-term monitoring and collection of high quality scientific data, and enables adequate dialogue between scientists, decision makers, and civil society. The system is highly interactive and exceptional information is easily accessible online. Data can be monitored and analyzed for desired time spans in a fast and reliable manner. The ASEC activity is an example of a balance between the scientific independence of fundamental research and the needs of civil society. DVIN is also an example of how scientific institutions can apply the newest powerful methods of information technologies, such as multivariate data analysis, to their data and also how information technologies can provide convenient and reliable access to this data and to new knowledge for the world-wide scientific community. DVIN provides very wide possibilities for sharing data and sending warnings and alerts to scientists and other entities world-wide, which have fundamental and practical interest in knowing the space weather conditions.

  2. Road weather management performance measures : 2012 update. (United States)


    In 2007, the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) conducted a study with stakeholders from the transportation and meteorological communities to define eleven performance measures that would enable the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to determ...

  3. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.


    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  4. Good weather for Schwarz and Clore. (United States)

    Messner, Claude; Wänke, Michaela


    This article is a tribute to the "mood as information" paradigm in general and the seminal weather study (Schwarz & Clore, 1983) in particular. Schwarz and Clore used a natural variation in weather to induce different mood states and to further show that participants reported higher life satisfaction on sunny days than on rainy days, presumably because they misattributed their mood to their life satisfaction. Based on the mood-as-information heuristic the present study tested the reverse relationship between mood and weather. The results fully support the predictions of Schwarz and Clore. Participants in a good mood judged the weather more positively than did participants in a sad mood. Moreover, the effect diminished when participants were made aware of their mood, as predicted by Schwarz and Clore. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Space weather research and forecast in USA

    CERN Document Server

    Pevtsov, Alexei A


    In the United States, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For commercial purposes, space weather forecast is made by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observations come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in the framework of individual research projects. Later, the most promising models are selected for additional testing at SWPC. In order to increase the application of models in research and education, NASA in collaboration with other agencies created Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). In mid-1990, US scientific community presented compelling evidence for developing the National Program on Space Weather, and in 1995, such program has been formally created...

  6. Strategy for future space weather observational assets (United States)

    Davies, Jackie; Bogdanova, Yulia; Harrison, Richard; Bisi, Mario; Hapgood, Mike


    Observations from an ad-hoc suite of mainly aging, scientific, space-borne assets currently underpin space weather forecasting capabilities world-wide. While efforts have begun to replace / supplement these assets - in particular with the recent launch of the DSCOVR spacecraft - it is widely accepted that there is an urgent need to accelerate these endeavours in order to mitigate the risk of losing these critical observations. It is hence opportune to critically review the possible options for the provision of space weather observations, particularly in terms of identifying the optimum vantage point(s) and the instrumentation that will provide the most beneficial measurements to support space weather prediction. Here we present the results of several recent European studies that aim to identify the best solution for space-based space weather monitoring - obviously within realistic financial constraints and bearing in mind the immediacy with which such a mission needs to be realised.

  7. Weatherization program: a study of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Progress of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) and other weatherization activities toward national energy conservation goals is reported. Low-income people are among the first to feel the pinch of rising fuel prices, particularly for home heating fuel. WAP installs insulation, storm windows and doors, and other energy efficiency improvements to reduce heat loss in the homes of low-income people, especially with the elderly and the handicapped. The weatherization activities of Federal agencies are described. The study addresses the question of the adequacy and cost of the materials used in weatherization. The series of policy and regulation change questions introduced in the agency-specific section is discussed from a broader perspective. The conclusions are summarized. The appendices present a legislative history of the Program, discuss the operational level of the Program, and describe a cost-benefit analysis of the Program.

  8. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  9. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display (United States)

    ... Contact Us SPC Feedback NWS Watch, Warning, Advisory Display NWS Warnings and Advisories on this map become ... below): A new browser window will open to display these text products. Convective/Tropical Weather Flooding Winter ...

  10. Pre-Weather Bureau Observation Networks (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection consists of monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution...

  11. Quantification of loss of calcite, pyrite, and organic matter due to weathering of Toarcian black shales and effects on kerogen and bitumen characteristics (United States)

    Littke, R.; Klussmann, U.; Krooss, B.; Leythaeuser, D.


    Comparison of geochemical data on Posidonia Shale (Early Toarcian) from a shallow unweathered core and from adjacent weathered exposures of the same fades was performed. Results revealed that quantitatively the most affected petrographic constituent is pyrite and that organic matter and carbonate were also altered by weathering. Due to this process of weathering, the bulk composition of organic matter, especially the molecular composition of soluble organic matter and the fluorescence colour of organic particles, are changed. Estimates of weathering rates reveal that the annual release of sulphur and organic carbon from black shales may significantly add to anthropogenic pollution.

  12. Quantification of loss of calcite, pyrite, and organic matter due to weathering of Toarcian black shales and effects on kerogen and bitumen characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littke, R.; Klussmann, U.; Krooss, B.; Leythaeuser, D. (Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie, Juelich (West Germany))


    Comparison of geochemical data on Posidonia Shale (Early Toarcian) from a shallow unweathered core and from adjacent weathered exposures of the same facies was performed. Results revealed that quantitatively the most affected petrographic constituent is pyrite and that organic matter and carbonate were also altered by weathering. Due to this process of weathering, the bulk composition of organic matter, especially the molecular composition of soluble organic matter and the fluorescence color of organic particles, are changed. Estimates of weathering rates reveal that the annual release of sulfur and organic carbon from black shales may significantly add to anthropogenic pollution.

  13. Identification of weather variables sensitive to dysentery in disease-affected county of China. (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wu, Xiaoxu; Li, Chenlu; Xu, Bing; Hu, Luojia; Chen, Jin; Dai, Shuang


    Climate change mainly refers to long-term change in weather variables, and it has significant impact on sustainability and spread of infectious diseases. Among three leading infectious diseases in China, dysentery is exclusively sensitive to climate change. Previous researches on weather variables and dysentery mainly focus on determining correlation between dysentery incidence and weather variables. However, the contribution of each variable to dysentery incidence has been rarely clarified. Therefore, we chose a typical county in epidemic of dysentery as the study area. Based on data of dysentery incidence, weather variables (monthly mean temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, absolute humidity, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) and lagged analysis, we used principal component analysis (PCA) and classification and regression trees (CART) to examine the relationships between the incidence of dysentery and weather variables. Principal component analysis showed that temperature, precipitation, and humidity played a key role in determining transmission of dysentery. We further selected weather variables including minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity based on results of PCA, and used CART to clarify contributions of these three weather variables to dysentery incidence. We found when minimum temperature was at a high level, the high incidence of dysentery occurred if relative humidity or precipitation was at a high level. We compared our results with other studies on dysentery incidence and meteorological factors in areas both in China and abroad, and good agreement has been achieved. Yet, some differences remain for three reasons: not identifying all key weather variables, climate condition difference caused by local factors, and human factors that also affect dysentery incidence. This study hopes to shed light on potential early warnings for dysentery transmission as climate change occurs, and provide a theoretical

  14. Using Flow Charts to Visualize the Decision-Making Process in Space Weather Forecasting (United States)

    Aung, M. T. Y.; Myat, T.; Zheng, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Ngwira, C.; Damas, M. C.


    Our society today relies heavily on technological systems such as satellites, navigation systems, power grids and aviation. These systems are very sensitive to space weather disturbances. When Earth-directed space weather driven by the Sun arrives at the Earth, it causes changes to the Earth's radiation environment and the magnetosphere. Strong disturbances in the magnetosphere of the Earth are responsible for geomagnetic storms that can last from hours to days depending on strength of storms. Geomagnetic storms can severely impact critical infrastructure on Earth, such as the electric power grid, and Solar Energetic Particles that can endanger life in outer space. How can we lessen these adverse effects? They can be lessened through the early warning signals sent by space weather forecasters before CME or high-speed stream arrives. A space weather forecaster's duty is to send predicted notifications to high-tech industries and NASA missions so that they could take extra measures for protection. NASA space weather forecasters make prediction decisions by following certain steps and processes from the time an event occurs at the sun all the way to the impact locations. However, there has never been a tool that helps these forecasters visualize the decision process until now. A flow chart is created to help forecasters visualize the decision process. This flow chart provides basic knowledge of space weather and can be used to train future space weather forecasters. It also helps to cut down the training period and increase consistency in forecasting. The flow chart is also a great reference for people who are already familiar with space weather.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Tropical Weather Systems. (United States)


    Geoph. Biokl., (A)4, 73-86. Holland, G. J., 1982: Tropical cyclone motion: environmental inter- action plus a beta effect Atmospheric Science Paper 348...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of title Aspen ) 1Appnyvedi in pubbe rleave; S i~stzibutiofl Unlimited ..I. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of Mmthe d trctOnmd 10 8Als systems, numerical weather prediction, monsoon depression, tropical cyclone , easterly wave. gated include the Indian Ocean monsoon depressions

  16. Dew architectures - Dew annouces the good weather


    Beysens, Daniel; Broggini, Filippo; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Iryna; Ouazzani, Jalil; Tixier, Nicolas


    International audience; Dew is a natural phenomenon that occurs under particular weather conditions (clear nocturnal sky, humid air, low wind) and on a surface specially designed for this purpose (high radiative cooling properties, special architectural design). Depending on the weather conditions and the surface characteristics, the water yield can give up to 0.7 litres per square meter and per night. Although the collection of rain water on roof turns out to be relatively simple, dew harves...

  17. Assimilating Thor: How Airmen Integrate Weather Prediction (United States)


    and its Influence on Europe, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) occasional paper (Manchester, England: FSTC, June 2005), also...Surgeon General Doctor Joseph Lovell, building on earlier studies showing the possible influence of weather and climate on illness and disease ... diseases prevalent in the vicinity.‖ By 1853, the medical corps recorded twice-daily weather reports from 97 locations from shore to shore and

  18. Consolidation of weathered limestone using nanolime


    Pesce, Giovanni Luca; Morgan, Deborah; Odgers, David; Henry, Alison; Allen, Mollie; Ball, Richard J.


    Limestone sourced from Salisbury Cathedral and Bath Abbey (UK) was treated with commercially available nanolime of concentration 25 g/l. The response of the stones to the treatment was studied using a variety of analysis techniques including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, drilling resistance measurement and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Weathered and non-weathered surfaces of both types of stones were compared. All the specimens were characterised before and after the treatment to ...

  19. Seafloor weathering buffering climate: numerical experiments (United States)

    Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.; Abbot, D. S.


    Continental silicate weathering is widely held to consume atmospheric CO2 at a rate controlled in part by temperature, resulting in a climate-weathering feedback [Walker et al., 1981]. It has been suggested that weathering of oceanic crust of warm mid-ocean ridge flanks also has a CO2 uptake rate that is controlled by climate [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001; Brady and Gislason, 1997]. Although this effect might not be significant on present-day Earth [Caldeira, 1995], seafloor weathering may be more pronounced during snowball states [Le Hir et al., 2008], during the Archean when seafloor spreading rates were faster [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001], and on waterworld planets [Abbot et al., 2012]. Previous studies of seafloor weathering have made significant contributions using qualitative, generally one-box, models, and the logical next step is to extend this work using a spatially resolved model. For example, experiments demonstrate that seafloor weathering reactions are temperature dependent, but it is not clear whether the deep ocean temperature affects the temperature at which the reactions occur, or if instead this temperature is set only by geothermal processes. Our goal is to develop a 2-D numerical model that can simulate hydrothermal circulation and resulting alteration of oceanic basalts, and can therefore address such questions. A model of diffusive and convective heat transfer in fluid-saturated porous media simulates hydrothermal circulation through porous oceanic basalt. Unsteady natural convection is solved for using a Darcy model of porous media flow that has been extensively benchmarked. Background hydrothermal circulation is coupled to mineral reaction kinetics of basaltic alteration and hydrothermal mineral precipitation. In order to quantify seafloor weathering as a climate-weathering feedback process, this model focuses on hydrothermal reactions that influence carbon uptake as well as ocean alkalinity: silicate rock dissolution, calcium and magnesium leaching

  20. Does weather affect US bank loan efficiency?


    Mamatzakis, E


    The impact of strong emotions or mood on decision making and risk taking is well recognized in behavioral economics and finance. Yet, and in spite of the immense interest, no study, so far, has provided any comprehensive evidence on the impact of weather conditions. This paper provides the theoretical framework to study the impact of weather through its influence on bank manager’s mood on bank inefficiency. In particular, we provide empirical evidence of the dynamic interactions between weath...

  1. Report on Current Convective Weather Processes and Product Requirements at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) and Kansas City Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, Danny


    ...). In addition, user needs for convective weather forecast products are presented. ACT-32O collected information from both facilities through site visits and interviews during the early summer of 2000...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Topographic imprint on chemical weathering in deeply weathered soil-mantled landscapes (southern Brazil) (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Ameijeiras-Marino, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Minella, Jean


    The regolith mantle is defined as the thin layer of unconsolidated material overlaying bedrock that contributes to shape the Earth's surface. The development of the regolith mantle in a landscape is the result of in-situ weathering, atmospheric input and downhill transport of weathering products. Bedrock weathering - the physical and chemical transformations of rock to soil - contributes to the vertical development of the regolith layer through downward propagation of the weathering front. Lateral transport of soil particles, aggregates and solutes by diffusive and concentrated particle and solute fluxes result in lateral redistribution of weathering products over the hillslope. In this study, we aim to expand the empirical basis on long-term soil evolution at the landscape scale through a detailed study of soil weathering in subtropical soils. Spatial variability in chemical mass fluxes and weathering intensity were studied along two toposequences with similar climate, lithology and vegetation but different slope morphology. This allowed us to isolate the topographic imprint on chemical weathering and soil development. The toposequences have convexo-concave slope morphology, and eight regolith profiles were analysed involving the flat upslope, steep midslope and flat toeslope part. Our data show a clear topographic imprint on soil development. Along hillslope, the chemical weathering intensity of the regolith profiles increases with distance from the crest. In contrast to the upslope positions, the soils in the basal concavities develop on in-situ and transported regolith. While the chemical weathering extent on the slope convexities (the upslope profiles) is similar for the steep and gentle toposequence, there is a clear difference in the rate of increase of the chemical weathering extent with distance from the crest. The increase of chemical weathering extent along hillslope is highest for the steep toposequence, suggesting that topography enhances soil particle

  4. Seasonal Forecasting of Fire Weather Based on a New Global Fire Weather Database (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Field, Robert D.; Spessa, Allan C.


    Seasonal forecasting of fire weather is examined based on a recently produced global database of the Fire Weather Index (FWI) system beginning in 1980. Seasonal average values of the FWI are examined in relation to measures of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The results are used to examine seasonal forecasts of fire weather conditions throughout the world.

  5. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education (United States)

    Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.


    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

  6. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; De la Luz, V.; Corona-Romero, P.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Gonzalez, L. X.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Romero-Hernandez, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.


    Legislative modifications of the General Civil Protection Law in Mexico in 2014 included specific references to space hazards and space weather phenomena. The legislation is consistent with United Nations promotion of international engagement and cooperation on space weather awareness, studies, and monitoring. These internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a space weather service in Mexico. The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX in Spanish) ( was initiated in October 2014 and is operated by the Institute of Geophysics at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). SCiESMEX became a Regional Warning Center of the International Space Environment Services (ISES) in June 2015. We present the characteristics of the service, some products, and the initial actions for developing a space weather strategy in Mexico. The service operates a computing infrastructure including a web application, data repository, and a high-performance computing server to run numerical models. SCiESMEX uses data of the ground-based instrumental network of the National Space Weather Laboratory (LANCE), covering solar radio burst emissions, solar wind and interplanetary disturbances (by interplanetary scintillation observations), geomagnetic measurements, and analysis of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere (by employing data from local networks of GPS receiver stations).

  7. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard


    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  8. Space Weathering in the Inner Solar System (United States)

    Noble, Sarah K.


    "Space weathering" is the term given to the cumulative effects incurred by surfaces which are exposed to the harsh environment of space. Lunar sample studies over the last decade or so have produced a clear picture of space weathering processes in the lunar environment. By combining laboratory and remote spectra with microanalytical methods (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), we have begun to unravel the various processes (irradiation, micrometeorite bombardment, etc) that contribute to space weathering and the physical and optical consequences of those processes on the Moon. Using the understanding gleaned from lunar samples, it is possible to extrapolate weathering processes to other airless bodies from which we have not yet returned samples (i.e. Mercury, asteroids). Through experiments which simulate various components of weathering, the expected differences in environment (impact rate, distance from Sun, presence of a magnetic field, reduced or enhanced gravity, etc) and composition (particularly iron content) can be explored to understand how space weathering will manifest on a given body.

  9. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; hide


    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  10. Introducing the Global Fire Weather Database (GFWED) (United States)

    Field, Robert


    The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations beginning in 1980 called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded datasets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC=1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously-identified in MERRA's precipitation and reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models. These applications will be discussed.

  11. Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: Managed Aquifer Recharge for mitigation. (United States)

    Brindha, K; Jagadeshan, G; Kalpana, L; Elango, L


    Climatic condition, geology, and geochemical processes in an area play a major role on groundwater quality. Impact of these on the fluoride content of groundwater was studied in three regions-part of Nalgonda district in Telangana, Pambar River basin, and Vaniyar River basin in Tamil Nadu, southern India, which experience semi-arid climate and are predominantly made of Precambrian rocks. High concentration of fluoride in groundwater above 4 mg/l was recorded. Human exposure dose for fluoride through groundwater was higher in Nalgonda than the other areas. With evaporation and rainfall being one of the major contributors for high fluoride apart from the weathering of fluoride rich minerals from rocks, the effect of increase in groundwater level on fluoride concentration was studied. This study reveals that groundwater in shallow environment of all three regions shows dilution effect due to rainfall recharge. Suitable managed aquifer recharge (MAR) methods can be adopted to dilute the fluoride rich groundwater in such regions which is explained with two case studies. However, in deep groundwater, increase in fluoride concentration with increase in groundwater level due to leaching of fluoride rich salts from the unsaturated zone was observed. Occurrence of fluoride above 1.5 mg/l was more in areas with deeper groundwater environment. Hence, practicing MAR in these regions will increase the fluoride content in groundwater and so physical or chemical treatment has to be adopted. This study brought out the fact that MAR cannot be practiced in all regions for dilution of ions in groundwater and that it is essential to analyze the fluctuation in groundwater level and the fluoride content before suggesting it as a suitable solution. Also, this study emphasizes that long-term monitoring of these factors is an important criterion for choosing the recharge areas.

  12. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. (Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States)); Witherspoon, M.J. (National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States)); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy's national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  13. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. [Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Witherspoon, M.J. [National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States); Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy`s national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  14. Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in brazilian sedimentary basins (Updated); Estudo preliminar de integracao do Pre-Cambriano com os eventos tectonicos das bacias sedimentares brasileiras (Atualizacao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordani, Umberto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], Email:; Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], Email:; Thomaz Filho, Antonio [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia], Email:


    The article 'Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in Brazilian sedimentary basins,' by U. G. Cordani, B. B. Brito-Neves, R. A. Fuck, R. Porto, A. Thomaz-Filho and F. M. B. da Cunha, was published in PETROBRAS Petroleum Technical Science Series (Serie Ciencia Tecnica Petroleo da PETROBRAS) in 1984 and is being reissued by PETROBRAS Geosciences Bulletin. Naturally, the work requires many updates in the light of geosciences' progress in Brazil over the past 26 years. In these comments, numerous reflections have been addressed at short notice, but nevertheless considered appropriate, to occupy space conceded by the publishers for an assessment of the original work. In principle, only the latest summaries and newer published items on the topic have been consulted and commented. For this reason, it was decided to 'overlook' a number of important references on this issue, apologizing to the authors of omitted relevant works. The study, conducted in the early '80s, was based on the knowledge at the time regarding the tectonic evolution of the South American basement; an examination of PETROBRAS subsurface data in Brazilian sedimentary basins and the study of the Company's core samples obtained from perforations which reached the basement. Since then, great advances have been made in understanding the Brazilian territory tectonic evolution and important geophysical data collected regarding its sedimentary basins. On the other hand, there are virtually no recent perforations of the interior Cratonic basins. Moreover, in the marginal and offshore basins, many wells have not reached the basement. Therefore, in these comments, we sought to review the original study's interpretations and confirm the relevant geological knowledge added in recent decades, in the range of the original work. In this article, we try to follow the same structural sequence of the original text, giving the reader a better understanding

  15. Experimental Evidence for Weathering and Martian Sulfate Formation Under Extremely Cold Weather-Limited Environments (United States)

    Niles, Paul B.; Golden, D. C.; Michalski, J.


    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one of the most important discoveries being wide-spread layered sedimentary deposits associated with sulfate minerals across the low to mid latitude regions of Mars [1, 2]. The mechanism for sulfate formation on Mars has been frequently attributed to playa-like evaporative environments under prolonged warm conditions [3]. However, there are several problems with the presence of prolonged surface temperatures on Mars above 273 K during the Noachian including the faint young Sun [4] and the presence of suitable greenhouse gases [5]. The geomorphic evidence for early warm conditions may instead be explained by periodic episodes of warming rather than long term prolonged warm temperatures [6]. An alternate view of the ancient martian climate contends that prolonged warm temperatures were never present and that the atmosphere and climate has been similar to modern conditions throughout most of its history [6]. This view is more consistent with the climate models, but has had a difficult time explaining the sedimentary history of Mars and in particular the presence of sulfate minerals. We suggest here that mixtures of atmospheric aerosols, ice, and dust have the potential for creating small films of cryo-concentrated acidic solutions that may represent an important unexamined environment for understanding weathering processes on Mars [7, 8]. This study seeks to test whether sulfate formation may be possible at temperatures well below 0 C in water limited environments removing the need for prolonged warm periods to form sulfates on early Mars.

  16. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the weathering process includes physical and chemical weathering, but physical weathering often occurs only near the surface while chemical weathering can extend to the range of hundreds. Figure 1. (a) The location of the northwestern Guizhou area within the Yangtze Craton. (b) Geological sketch map of the.

  17. 14 CFR 135.213 - Weather reports and forecasts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weather reports and forecasts. 135.213... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.213 Weather reports and forecasts. (a) Whenever a person operating an aircraft under this part is required to use a weather report or forecast, that person...

  18. Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore.

  19. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook


    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) ( services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (, taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  20. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.


    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  1. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns. (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D


    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  2. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi


    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  3. Tidal control on gas flux from the Precambrian continental bedrock revealed by gas monitoring at the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland (United States)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Wiersberg, Thomas; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pullinen, Arto


    Deep groundwaters within Precambrian shields are characteristically enriched in non-atmospheric gases. High concentrations of methane are frequently observed especially in graphite bearing metasedimentary rocks and accumulation of hydrogen and noble gases due to water-rock interaction and radioactive decay within the U, Th and K containing bedrock takes place. These gases can migrate not only through fractures and faults, but also through tunnels and boreholes, thereby potentially mobilizing hazardous compounds for example from underground nuclear waste repositories. Better understanding on fluid migration may also provide tools to monitor changes in bedrock properties such as fracture density or deterioration and failure of engineered barriers. In order to study gas migration mechanisms and variations with time, we conducted a gas monitoring campaign in eastern Finland within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield. At the study site, the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (2516 m), spontaneous bubbling of gases at the well head has been on-going since the drilling was completed in 2005, i.e. over a decade. The drill hole is open below 39 m. In the experiment an inflatable packer was placed 15 cm above the water table inside the collar (Ø 32.4 cm), gas from below the packer was collected and the gas flow in the pipe line carefully assisted by pumping (130 ml/min). Composition of gas was monitored on-line for one month using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with measurement interval of one minute. Changes in the hydraulic head and in situ temperature were simultaneously recorded with two pressure sensors which were placed 1 m apart from each other below the packer such that they remained above and below the water table. In addition, data was compared with atmospheric pressure data and theoretical effect of Earth tides at the study site. Methane was the dominant gas emanating from the bedrock, however, relative gas composition fluctuated with time. Subsurface derived gases

  4. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.


    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  5. Weather as the source domain for metaphorical expressions


    Izabela Żołnowska


    The structure of everyday communication reflects metaphorical thinking. People speak about the presence or absence of problems in terms of weather. Problems appear in every¬day life and so does the weather topic. Bad weather often evokes sadness, therefore it can be to said to constitute a problem; similarly, good weather is often equated with cheerful mood. Thus, in view of the above analysis, weather can be seen as an im¬portant experiential basis for conceptual metaphors.

  6. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak


    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  7. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  8. Inferences on weather extremes and weather-related disasters: A review of statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.C.; Petersen, A.C.


    The study of weather extremes and their impacts, such as weather-related disasters, plays an important role in research of climate change. Due to the great societal consequences of extremes - historically, now and in the future - the peer-reviewed literature on this theme has been growing enormously

  9. Drifting on Alien Winds Exploring the Skies and Weather of Other Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael


    Drifting on Alien Winds explores the bizarre weather of alien worlds, from the blistering hurricane-force winds of Venus to the gentle methane rain showers of Saturn's giant moon Titan. Blinding bolts of lightning sizzle through Jupiter's skies, ammonia blizzards swirl through Saturnian clouds, and Earth-sized cyclones pinwheel across Uranus and Neptune. Late-breaking scientific discoveries from spacecraft, observatories, and laboratories reveal the mysteries of weather across the Solar System. Our knowledge of weather on other worlds has not come easily. Drifting on Alien Winds introduces the inventors, engineers, and scientists who struggled to launch the first probes that would help us to understand the atmospheres of other worlds. The untold stories of early engineering feats and failures, from small Soviet Venus balloons to advanced studies of blimps and airplanes for Mars and Titan, are showcased here, along with what we’ve learned and are still trying to learn about alien skies. Some of today’s mos...

  10. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Space Weather Research at a 2- Year College (United States)

    Damas, M. C.


    The Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a Hispanic and minority-serving institution, has been very successful at engaging undergraduate students in space weather research for the past ten years. Recently, it received two awards to support student research and education in solar and atmospheric physics under the umbrella discipline of space weather. Through these awards, students receive stipends during the academic year and summer to engage in scientific research. Students also have the opportunity to complete a summer internship at NASA and at other partner institutions. Funding also supports the development of course materials and tools in space weather. Educational materials development and the challenges of engaging students in research as early as their first year will be discussed. Once funding is over, how is the program sustained? Sustaining such a program, as well as how to implement it at other universities will also be discussed.

  11. A Model for Community Colleges: Engaging Students in Space Weather Research (United States)

    Damas, M. C.; Cheung, T. D.; Ngwira, C.; Mohamed, A.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Johnson, L. P.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Dorsinville, R.


    Through a 2-year NSF EAGER (Early Concept Grants for Exploratory Research) award, the Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a Hispanic and minority-serving institution has implemented a high-impact integrated research and education program in solar and atmospheric physics under the umbrella discipline of space weather. A year-long space weather curriculum was developed which consists of two parts: 1) during the academic year, students are enrolled in two course-based introductory research (CURE) courses where they are introduced to space weather research; and 2) summer internship program where students are placed at partner institutions for 10-weeks. Project partners include the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Community Coordinated Modeling Center, CUNY/City College of New York and the University of Colorado at Boulder. We will present the results of this 2-year NSF EAGER project, including successes and challenges.

  12. Visually Comparing Weather Features in Forecasts. (United States)

    Quinan, P Samuel; Meyer, Miriah


    Meteorologists process and analyze weather forecasts using visualization in order to examine the behaviors of and relationships among weather features. In this design study conducted with meteorologists in decision support roles, we identified and attempted to address two significant common challenges in weather visualization: the employment of inconsistent and often ineffective visual encoding practices across a wide range of visualizations, and a lack of support for directly visualizing how different weather features relate across an ensemble of possible forecast outcomes. In this work, we present a characterization of the problems and data associated with meteorological forecasting, we propose a set of informed default encoding choices that integrate existing meteorological conventions with effective visualization practice, and we extend a set of techniques as an initial step toward directly visualizing the interactions of multiple features over an ensemble forecast. We discuss the integration of these contributions into a functional prototype tool, and also reflect on the many practical challenges that arise when working with weather data.

  13. Space Weather Outreach: Connection to STEM Standards (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.


    Many scientists are studying the Sun-Earth system and attempting to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space environment observations and forecasts. Research programs and missions serve as an ideal focal point for creating educational content, making this an ideal time to inform the public about the importance and value of space weather research. In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Space Science Institute (SSI) is developing a comprehensive Space Weather Outreach program to reach students, educators, and other members of the public, and share with them the exciting discoveries from this important scientific discipline. The Space Weather Outreach program has the following five components: (1) the Space Weather Center Website that includes online educational games; (2) Small Exhibits for Libraries, Shopping Malls, and Science Centers; (3) After-School Programs; (4) Professional Development Workshops for Educators, and (5) an innovative Evaluation and Education Research project. Its overarching goal is to inspire, engage, and educate a broad spectrum of the public and make strategic and innovative connections between informal and K-12 education communities. An important factor in the success of this program will be its alignment with STEM standards especially those related to science and mathematics. This presentation will describe the Space Weather Outreach program and how standards are being used in the development of each of its components.

  14. Piecewise Tendency Diagnosis of Weather Regime Transitions. (United States)

    Evans, Katherine J.; Black, Robert X.


    Piecewise tendency diagnosis (PTD) is extended and employed to study the dynamics of weather regime transitions. Originally developed for adiabatic and inviscid quasigeostrophic flow on a beta plane, PTD partitions local geopotential tendencies into a linear combination of dynamically meaningful source terms within a potential vorticity (PV) framework. Here PTD is amended to account for spherical geometry, diabatic heating, and ageostrophic processes, and is then used to identify the primary mechanisms responsible for Northern Hemisphere weather regime transitions.Height tendency patterns obtained by summing the contributions of individual PTD forcing terms correspond very well to actual height tendencies. Composite PTD analyses reveal that linear PV advections provide the largest dynamical forcing for the weather regime development over the North Pacific. Specifically, linear baroclinic growth provides the primary forcing while barotropic deformation of PV anomalies provides a secondary contribution. North Atlantic anticyclonic anomalies develop from the combined effects of barotropic deformation, baroclinic growth, and nonlinear eddy feedback. The Atlantic cyclonic cases develop primarily from barotropic deformation and nonlinear eddy feedback. All four weather regime types decay primarily due to enhanced wave energy propagation away from the primary circulation anomaly. In some cases, regime decay is aided by decreasing positive contributions from barotropic deformation as the circulation anomaly attains a deformed horizontal shape. The current results 1) provide quantitative measures of the primary mechanisms responsible for weather regime transition and 2) demonstrate the utility of the extended PTD as a concise diagnostic paradigm for studying large-scale dynamical processes in the midlatitude troposphere.

  15. Utilization of weathered PFA in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, H.A.W.; Bloem, P.J.C.; Janssen-Jurcovicova, M. (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))


    If it cannot be used immediately pulverized fuel ash (PFA) may be stored. The question is do these stored PFAs remain usable as filler in concrete products. In this project mortar specimens were prepared with PFAs weathered (naturally) for 7 and 50 years. The results were compared to mortar specimens produced from PFAs subjected to accelerated weathering and from fresh PFAs. The compressive strength development was determined as well as porosity. Also leaching tests were performed on the various mortar specimens containing weathered PFAs. The results obtained up till now, show that mortars with 7 year old weathered PFAs meet the European strength requirements. This was not found for the 50 year old PFA. Also the pore volume was slightly higher in these cases. The effects of process waters on strength proved to be of minor importance. The effects on the environmental behaviour of the mortar specimens containing weathered PFAs and process waters is still under investigation. The preliminary results indicate that there is no difference between the reference and PFA mortars investigated. It was found that high quantities of trace elements can be fixed in the matrix. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Space weather forecasting: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.


    There have been revolutionary advances in electrical technologies over the last 160 years. The historical record demonstrates that space weather processes have often provided surprises in the implementation and operation of many of these technologies. The historical record also demonstrates that as the complexity of systems increase, including their interconnectedness and interoperability, they can become more susceptible to space weather effects. An engineering goal, beginning during the decades following the 1859 Carrington event, has been to attempt to forecast solar-produced disturbances that could affect technical systems, be they long grounded conductor-based or radio-based or required for exploration, or the increasingly complex systems immersed in the space environment itself. Forecasting of space weather events involves both frontier measurements and models to address engineering requirements, and industrial and governmental policies that encourage and permit creativity and entrepreneurship. While analogies of space weather forecasting to terrestrial weather forecasting are frequently made, and while many of the analogies are valid, there are also important differences. This presentation will provide some historical perspectives on the forecast problem, a personal assessment of current status of several areas including important policy issues, and a look into the not-too-distant future.

  17. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in MIDDS (United States)

    Wheeler, Mark M.


    The goal of this task was to upgrade the severe weather database from the previous phase by adding weather observations from the years 2004 - 2009, re-analyze the data to determine the important parameters, make adjustments to the index weights depending on the analysis results, and update the MIDDS GUI. The added data increased the period of record from 15 to 21 years. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. Four of the stability indices showed increased severe weather predication. The Total Threat Score (TTS) of the previous work was verified for the warm season of 2009 with very good skill. The TTS Probability of Detection (POD) was 88% and the False alarm rate (FAR) of 8%. Based on the results of the analyses, the MIDDS Severe Weather Worksheet GUI was updated to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters and synoptic-scale dynamics.

  18. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W.; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pilliod, David S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R.; Meredith, Gwendwr R.


    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  19. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  20. Browsing Space Weather Data and Models with the Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo M.; Mullinix, Richard E.; Berrios, David H.; Hesse, Michael; Rastaetter, Lutz; Pulkkinen, Antti; Hourcle, Joseph A.; Thompson, Barbara J.


    The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System is a comprehensive web-based platform for space weather information that combines data from solar, heliospheric and geospace observatories with forecasts based on the most advanced space weather models. The iSWA system collects, generates, and presents a wide array of space weather resources in an intuitive, user-configurable, and adaptable format - thus enabling users to respond to current and future space weather impacts as well as enabling post-impact analysis. iSWA currently provides over 200 data and modeling products, and features a variety of tools that allow the user to browse, combine, and examine data and models from various sources. This presentation will consist of a summary of the iSWA products and an overview of the customizable user interfaces, and will feature several tutorial demonstrations highlighting the interactive tools and advanced capabilities.

  1. Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering. (United States)

    Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N


    Weathering of uplifted continental rocks consumes carbon dioxide and transports cations to the oceans, thereby playing a critical role in controlling both seawater chemistry and climate. However, there are few archives of seawater chemical change that reveal shifts in global tectonic forces connecting Earth ocean-climate processes. We present a 68-million-year record of lithium isotopes in seawater (δ(7)Li(SW)) reconstructed from planktonic foraminifera. From the Paleocene (60 million years ago) to the present, δ(7)Li(SW) rose by 9 per mil (‰), requiring large changes in continental weathering and seafloor reverse weathering that are consistent with increased tectonic uplift, more rapid continental denudation, increasingly incongruent continental weathering (lower chemical weathering intensity), and more rapid CO(2) drawdown. A 5‰ drop in δ(7)Li(SW) across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary cannot be produced by an impactor or by Deccan trap volcanism, suggesting large-scale continental denudation.

  2. Assessing Weather Effects on Dengue Disease in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Ling Cheong


    Full Text Available The number of dengue cases has been increasing on a global level in recent years, and particularly so in Malaysia, yet little is known about the effects of weather for identifying the short-term risk of dengue for the population. The aim of this paper is to estimate the weather effects on dengue disease accounting for non-linear temporal effects in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2010. We selected the weather parameters with a Poisson generalized additive model, and then assessed the effects of minimum temperature, bi-weekly accumulated rainfall and wind speed on dengue cases using a distributed non-linear lag model while adjusting for trend, day-of-week and week of the year. We found that the relative risk of dengue cases is positively associated with increased minimum temperature at a cumulative percentage change of 11.92% (95% CI: 4.41–32.19, from 25.4 °C to 26.5 °C, with the highest effect delayed by 51 days. Increasing bi-weekly accumulated rainfall had a positively strong effect on dengue cases at a cumulative percentage change of 21.45% (95% CI: 8.96, 51.37, from 215 mm to 302 mm, with the highest effect delayed by 26–28 days. The wind speed is negatively associated with dengue cases. The estimated lagged effects can be adapted in the dengue early warning system to assist in vector control and prevention plan.

  3. The impact of weather on kingbird foraging behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.T. (Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045)


    Foraging data on Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus) were collected during the early breeding season in eastern Kansas to test the hypothesis that foraging rate and other aspects of foraging behavior vary with weather. Foraging characteristics of five additional kingbird species were also examined to assess Fitzpatrick's 1980 generalization that kingbirds (Tyrannus spp.) are aerial hawking specialists. In Eastern Kingbirds, total foraging rate was independent of air temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, and time of day, but the rate of aerial hawking varied directly with air temperature and inversely with cloud cover (both P < 0.05). Effects of the two variables were additive. The percentage of foraging movements that were aerial hawks also increased with temperature and declined with cloud cover, and hover-gleaning and perch-to-ground sallying were observed mainly during cloudy weather. Sally (i.e., foraging flight) distance correlated directly with perch height and air temperature, and large insects were captured almost exclusively in long upward or horizontal flights. I interpret these data to indicate that foraging behavior and the capture of large, flying insects depends on weather because of how it affects the activity of insect prey. Foraging data on kingbirds support Fitzpatrick's generalization, but the relative use of aerial hawking varies considerably among species. Resident Tropical Kingbirds (T. melancholicus) are the most specialized foragers, whereas the migrant and widely distributed Eastern Kingbird appears to be the most generalized. Certain habitats also appear to favor the use of particular foraging methods (e.g., outward striking in grasslands, and perch-to-ground sallying in drier, open habitats).

  4. Applied environmental fluid mechanics: what's the weather in your backyard? (United States)

    Chow, F. K.


    The microclimates of the San Francisco Bay Area can lead to 30-40F differences in temperature from the coast to just 30 miles inland. The reasons for this include local topography which affects development of the atmospheric boundary layer. A Bay Area resident's experience of fog, air pollution, and weather events therefore differs greatly depending on exactly where they live. Such local weather phenomena provide a natural topic for introduction to boundary layer processes and are the basis of a new course developed at the University of California, Berkeley. This course complements the PI's research focus on numerical methods applied to atmospheric boundary layer flow over complex terrain. This new outreach and research-based course was created to teach students about the boundary layer and teach them how to use a community weather prediction model, WRF, to simulate conditions in the local area, while at the same time being actively involved in public outreach. The course was offered in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department with the collaboration and support of the Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley's public science museum. The students chose topics such as air quality, wind energy, climate change, and plume dispersion, all applied to the local San Francisco Bay Area. The students conducted independent research on their team projects, involving literature reviews, numerical model setup, and analysis of model results through comparison with field observations. The outreach component of the course included website design and culminated in demonstrations at the Lawrence Hall of Science. The seven student teams presented hands-on demos to 300-400 visitors, mostly kids 4-9 years old and their parents. Involving students directly in outreach efforts is hoped to encourage continued integration of research and education in their own careers. Early exposure to numerical modeling also improves student technical skills for future career experiences . Given



    D. P. Gladkochub; T. V. Donskaya; Shihong Zhang; S. A. Pisarevsky; A. M. Stanevich; A. M. Mazukabzov; Z. L. Motova


    The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC) is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB) on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan ...

  6. Properties of weathered and moderately weathered rhyolite tuff: what cause changes in mechanical properties? (United States)

    Fityus, Stephen; Rickard, Scott; Bögöly, Gyula; Czinder, Balázs; Görög, Péter; Vásárhelyi, Balázs; Török, Ákos


    Miocene rhyolite tuff forms extended steep cliffs in NE-Hungary, at village of Sirok. The unique geomorphology and the presence of stable and unstable cliff faces are supposedly associated with the different rate of weathering of tuff. To understand the weathering characteristics, and the changes that lead to various degrees of preservation, block samples of tuff were taken for laboratory analyses. Samples were chosen to represent various grades of weathering. Density, porosity, mechanical properties, mineralogy and geochemical composition of tuffs were tested by using standardized methods. A strong correlation was found between the dry density and dry uniaxial compressive strength of the tuff. Systematic trends were also observed in porosity: an increase in pore volume and an increase in dominant pore size were both recorded as samples become weaker and less dense. To the contrary, no significant differences in mineralogy (XRD) or elemental composition (XRF) were found between apparently slightly and strongly weathered tuff, suggesting that no major clay mineralization had taken place with increasing weathering. Micro-fabric analyses (SEM) suggest that glass shards and vitreous particles are present in all samples but more corroded in samples of tuff which appeared intensively weathered. The differences in density, porosity, strength and appearance seem to correlate well with a difference in weathering intensity, but the lack of variation in chemical and mineralogical composition do not support this idea. Another and more probable explanation is that the differences in density are inherent in this type of tuff, even when it is fresh, and that more dense material is inherently stronger. The apparent correlation to weathering may simply be due to the more porous, less dense material being more susceptible to moisture infiltration, and hence, to freeze-thaw weathering and visible staining, and thus they appear to be more weathered.

  7. U-Pb systematics of pre-Cambrian carbonates: The Riphean Sukhaya Tunguska Formation in the Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, G.V.; Gorokhov, I.M.; Belyatskii, B.V. [Institute of Pre-Cambrian Geology and Geochronology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [and others


    A brief review of the geochemistry of U, Th, and Pb in oceanic water and marine carbonates is given, and the U-Th-Pb systematics in limestones and dolomites of the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation in the Turukhansk Uplift is studied. The analysis of phases with different solubilities in ammonium acetate and hydrochloric acid and the plotting of available results along the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb-{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb coordinates yield an age of 1035{plus_minus}60 Ma. This value matches the stratigraphic position of the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation rocks at the Middle-Late Riphean boundary and may be interpreted as the age of an early diagenesis of sediments. Evidence for the temporal compatibility of the processes of sedimentation, dolomitization, and early diagenesis is provided. Isotope-geochemical data, which indicate a recent uranium loss by carbonate rocks, are in good agreement with results of the study of Cenozoic evolution in the Turukhansk Uplift. The average {sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb value (8.22) calculated for the source of the Sukhaya Tunguska carbonate deposits suggests that Pb from mantle sources or a relatively young crust was abundant in the near-contact fluid phase that governed the composition of carbonate rocks 1035{plus_minus}60 Ma ago.

  8. Continental flood basalt weathering as a trigger for Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Stevenson, Ross K.; Vokaty, Michelle; Poirier, André; Kunzmann, Marcus; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Denyszyn, Steven W.; Strauss, Justin V.; Macdonald, Francis A.


    Atmospheric CO2 levels and global climate are regulated on geological timescales by the silicate weathering feedback. However, this thermostat has failed multiple times in Earth's history, most spectacularly during the Cryogenian (c. 720-635 Ma) Snowball Earth episodes. The unique middle Neoproterozoic paleogeography of a rifting, low-latitude, supercontinent likely favored a globally cool climate due to the influence of the silicate weathering feedback and planetary albedo. Under these primed conditions, the emplacement and weathering of extensive continental flood basalt provinces may have provided the final trigger for runaway global glaciation. Weathering of continental flood basalts may have also contributed to the characteristically high carbon isotope ratios (δ13 C) of Neoproterozoic seawater due to their elevated P contents. In order to test these hypotheses, we have compiled new and previously published Neoproterozoic Nd isotope data from mudstones in northern Rodinia (North America, Australia, Svalbard, and South China) and Sr isotope data from carbonate rocks. The Nd isotope data are used to model the mafic detrital input into sedimentary basins in northern Rodinia. The results reveal a dominant contribution from continental flood basalt weathering during the ca. 130 m.y. preceding the onset of Cryogenian glaciation, followed by a precipitous decline afterwards. These data are mirrored by the Sr isotope record, which reflects the importance of chemical weathering of continental flood basalts on solute fluxes to the early-middle Neoproterozoic ocean, including a pulse of unradiogenic Sr input into the oceans just prior to the onset of Cyrogenian glaciation. Hence, our new data support the hypotheses that elevated rates of flood basalt weathering contributed to both the high average δ13 C of seawater in the Neoproterozoic and to the initiation of the first (Sturtian) Snowball Earth.

  9. Land plants, weathering, and Paleozoic climatic evolution (United States)

    Goddéris, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Carretier, Sébastien


    At the end of the Paleozoic, the Earth plunged into the longest and most severe glaciation of the Phanerozoic eon (Montanez et al., 2013). The triggers for this event (called the Late Paleozoic Ice Age, LPIA) are still debated. Based on field observations and laboratory experiments showing that CO2 consumption by rock weathering is enhanced by the presence of plants, the onset of the LPIA has been related to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the latest Devonian. By releasing organic acids, concentrating respired CO2 in the soil, and by mechanically breaking rocks with their roots, land plants may have increased the weatherability of the continental surfaces. The "greening" of the continents may also have contributed to an enhanced burial of organic carbon in continental sedimentary basins, assuming that lignin decomposers have not yet evolved (Berner, 2004). As a consequence, CO2 went down, setting the conditions for the onset of the LPIA. This scenario is now widely accepted in the scientific community, and reinforces the feeling that biotic evolutionary steps are main drivers of the long-term climatic evolution. Although appealing, this scenario suffers from some weaknesses. The timing of the continent colonization by vascular plants was achieved in the late Devonian, several tens of million years before the onset of the LPIA (Davies and Gibling, 2013). Second, lignin decomposer fungi were present at the beginning of the Carboniferous, 360 million years ago while the LPIA started around 340-330 Ma (Nelsen et al., 2016). Land plants have also decreased the continental albedo, warming the Earth surface and promoting runoff. Weathering was thus facilitated and CO2 went down. Yet, temperature may have stayed constant, the albedo change compensating for the CO2 fall (Le Hir et al., 2010). From a modelling point of view, the effect of land plants on CO2 consumption by rock weathering is accounted for by forcing the weatherability of the

  10. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean


    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  11. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.


    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  12. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  13. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission. (United States)

    Damé, Luc


    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

  14. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV Microsatellite Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Damé


    Full Text Available We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1 Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging; (2 solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead; (3 simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment, an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum imaging (sources of variability; UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers, with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget. SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018.

  15. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects. (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George


    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gatherings. (United States)

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia


    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gathering events have not been fully researched. This review examines these events and aims to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering disasters due to weather or environmental hazards leading to participant death, injury or illness were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring due to crowd variables were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 20 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters relating directly to weather or environmental hazards from 1988 - 2011, with only 17 cases found within peer-review literature. Two events grey literature from 2011 are due to undergo further inquiry while one article reviews an event originally occurring in 1922. Analysis of cases were categorised in to heat and cold-related events, lightning and storms and disease outbreak. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, Prior health resource and environmental planning for heat & cold-related illness, lightning & storms, and disease outbreak can advance emergency preparedness and response to potential disasters. Soomaroo L, Murray V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 31 KEYWORDS: Mass Gatherings, Disasters, Sporting Events, Festivals, Concerts, Storm

  17. How MAG4 Improves Space Weather Forecasting (United States)

    Falconer, David; Khazanov, Igor; Barghouty, Nasser


    Dangerous space weather is driven by solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs). Forecasting flares and CMEs is the first step to forecasting either dangerous space weather or All Clear. MAG4 (Magnetogram Forecast), developed originally for NASA/SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), is an automated program that analyzes magnetograms from the HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) instrument on NASA SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory), and automatically converts the rate (or probability) of major flares (M- and X-class), Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and Solar Energetic Particle Events.

  18. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend


    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  19. Space weather impact on radio device operation (United States)

    Berngardt, Oleg


    This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  20. EBSD microfabric study of pre-Cambrian deformations recorded in quartz pebbles from the Sierra de la Demanda (N Spain) (United States)

    Ábalos, B.; Puelles, P.; Fernández-Armas, S.; Sarrionandia, F.


    We describe a new method for the reorientation of lattice preferred orientation data in the absence of a pre-constrained kinematic reference frame. The method enables us to present conventional quartz fabric diagrams after measurements taken from rock sections with a general orientation with respect to foliation and lineation. A microstructural and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) study of quartz pebbles in early Cambrian conglomerates following this method permit us to recognize a variety of fabrics that resulted from syn-metamorphic ductile deformation under variable temperatures up to 650 °C. The likely source area of the conglomerates was a Proterozoic basement. Candidates for source rock correlations include Neoproterozoic units similar to those outcropping in the northern Iberian Massif, Neoproterozoic medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks as those outcropping in SW Iberia, or a Neoarchean to Mesoproterozoic concealed basement.

  1. Gravity analysis of the Precambrian basement topography associated with the northern boundary of Ghadames Basin (southern Tunisia) (United States)

    Dhaoui, Mohamed; Gabtni, Hakim; Jallouli, Chokri; Jleilia, Ali; Mickus, Kevin Lee; Turki, Mohamed Moncef


    Gravity data were analyzed to determine the structural development of the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin in southern Tunisia. The Ghadames Basin which also occurs in eastern Algeria and northwestern Libya is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa with several of the largest oil fields occurring along its northern boundary. The Ghadames Basin was formed during a series of tectonic events ranging from the Early Paleozoic to the Early Cenozoic. These tectonic events produced a basin in southern Tunisia that has a complex basement configuration which is not completely known. A residual gravity anomaly map constructed using polynomial trend surfaces, and vertical and horizontal gravity derivative maps indicate that the northern boundary contains a series of maxima and minima anomalies that trend in two prominent directions: northeast-southwest and east-west. The horizontal and vertical derivative gravity anomaly maps indicate that the width of the basement structures range between 10 and 20 km in width. Three-dimensional (3D) Euler deconvolution and 3D forward modeling constrained by well data, one seismic reflection profile and remote sensing data confirm the width of the basement structures and indicates that the depth of basin varies between 1.5 and 5 km, with deeper sections in general more numerous in the southern sections of the boundary. The gravity analysis constrained by the seismic reflection profile and well data implies that the basement topography may have been formed during the Pan African and/or late Mesozoic rifting. However, additional seismic reflection and well data are needed to confirm this conclusion. The discovery of the numerous basement structures suggests that there may exist additional hydrocarbon traps within the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin.

  2. Weather during bloom affects pollination and yield of highbush blueberry. (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus


    Weather plays an important role in spring-blooming fruit crops due to the combined effects on bee activity, flower opening, pollen germination, and fertilization. To determine the effects of weather on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., productivity, we monitored bee activity and compared fruit set, weight, and seed number in a field stocked with honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and common eastern bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson). Flowers were subjected to one of five treatments during bloom: enclosed, open, open during poor weather only, open during good weather only, or open during poor and good weather. Fewer bees of all types were observed foraging and fewer pollen foragers returned to colonies during poor weather than during good weather. There were also changes in foraging community composition: honey bees dominated during good weather, whereas bumble bees dominated during poor weather. Berries from flowers exposed only during poor weather had higher fruit set in 1 yr and higher berry weight in the other year compared with enclosed clusters. In both years, clusters exposed only during good weather had > 5 times as many mature seeds, weighed twice as much, and had double the fruit set of those not exposed. No significant increase over flowers exposed during good weather was observed when clusters were exposed during good and poor weather. Our results are discussed in terms of the role of weather during bloom on the contribution of bees adapted to foraging during cool conditions.

  3. A new prediction model of daily weather elements in Hainan province under the typhoon weather (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixu; Gao, Wensheng; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Qinzhu; Liang, Yafeng; Yao, Dong; Han, Laijun; Liao, Xinzheng; Li, Ruihai


    This paper proposes a new prediction model for severe natural disasters, especially typhoon using daily weather analysis. Hainan province in China is selected to be a typical application region, where natural disasters, especially typhoons take place frequently. These disasters have great impacts on the life and property safety of the residents, and therefore are in specific need of accurate prediction. A new prediction model of daily weather in Hainan province under the typhoon weather is proposed in this paper based on the best track datasets of typhoons and the corresponding daily weather data. This model utilizes the statistical methods and data mining technology in combination with the dynamic migration information of tropical cyclones and can provide the dynamic prediction of daily weather elements in any designated location. Three surface meteorological observation stations of Hainan province during the years 1951-1920 are used to test the model. Test results show that the prediction equations established for the vast majority of daily weather elements have passed the significant test. Besides, Typhoon Damrey is used as a case to illustrate the whole daily weather prediction model in detail and comparisons between the model and other official forecast (such as JTWC, UKMO and CMA) are performed thoroughly. It is worth noting that the model proposed in this paper is not limited to Hainan province and can be generalized to other areas in the world.

  4. The New Space Weather Action Center; the Next Level on Space Weather Education (United States)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Lewis, E. M.; Cline, T. D.; MacDonald, E.


    The Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) provides access for students to near real-time space weather data, and a set of easy instructions and well-defined protocols that allow them to correctly interpret such data. It is a student centered approach to teaching science and technology in classrooms, as students are encouraged to act like real scientists by accessing, collecting, analyzing, recording, and communicating space weather forecasts. Integration and implementation of several programs will enhance and provide a rich education experience for students' grades 5-16. We will enhance the existing data and tutorials available using the Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) tool created by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA GSFC. iSWA is a flexible, turn-key, customer-configurable, Web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines data based on the most advanced space weather models available through the CCMC with concurrent space environment information. This tool provides an additional component by the use of videos and still imagery from different sources as a tool for educators to effectively show what happens during an eruption from the surface of the Sun. We will also update content on the net result of space weather forecasting that the public can experience by including Aurorasaurus, a well established, growing, modern, innovative, interdisciplinary citizen science project centered around the public's visibility of the northern lights with mobile applications via the use of social media connections.

  5. Paleoclimatic significance of chemical weathering in loess-derived paleosols of subarctic central Alaska (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Skipp, G.; Beann, J.; Budahn, J.; McGeehin, J.P.


    Chemical weathering in soils has not been studied extensively in high-latitude regions. Loess sequences with modern soils and paleosols are present in much of subarctic Alaska, and allow an assessment of present and past chemical weathering. Five sections were studied in detail in the Fairbanks, Alaska, area. Paleosols likely date to mid-Pleistocene interglacials, the last interglacial, and early-to-mid-Wisconsin interstadiale. Ratios of mobile (Na, Ca, Mg, Si) to immobile (Ti or Zr) elements indicate that modern soils and most interstadial and interglacial paleosols are characterized by significant chemical weathering. Na2O/TiO2 is lower in modern soils and most paleosols compared to parent loess, indicating depletion of plagioclase. In the clay fraction, smectite is present in Tanana and Yukon River source sediments, but is absent or poorly expressed in modern soils and paleosols, indicating depletion of this mineral also. Loss of both plagioclase and smectite is well expressed in soils and paleosols as lower SiO 2/TiO2. Carbonates are present in the river source sediments, but based on CaO/TiO2, they are depleted in soils and most paleosols (with one exception in the early-to-mid-Wisconsin period). Thus, most soil-forming intervals during past interglacial and interstadial periods in Alaska had climatic regimes that were at least as favorable to mineral weathering as today, and suggest boreal forest or acidic tundra vegetation. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  6. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic? (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar Z; Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; Leake, Jonathan R; Smith, Lisa M; Beerling, David J


    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N2) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N2-fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N2-fixation and nodule formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.


    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  8. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be distinguished by the physical, chemical, min- eralogical, geodynamical, and palaeomorphologi- cal features (Geirnaert et al. 1984; Wright 1992;. Freyssinet and Farah 2000; Taylor and Howard. 2000; Dewandel et al. 2006). Most of the proposed weathering profile mod- els concern granitic rocks. Few investigations, e.g.,.

  9. The Quest for the Perfect Weather Forecaster (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan; Horwitz, Kevin; Berg, Craig; Gruhl, Mary


    It is said that meteorology is the only profession where a person can be wrong half the time and still keep his or her job. The truth is not quite so bleak, but one can still ask, "Just how accurate are weather forecasters, anyway?" This article presents two projects for middle level students to investigate this issue in a hands-on,…

  10. Urban runoff forecasting with ensemble weather predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice....

  11. School Science Inspired by Improving Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Reid, Heather; Renfrew, Ian A.; Vaughan, Geraint


    High winds and heavy rain are regular features of the British weather, and forecasting these events accurately is a major priority for the Met Office and other forecast providers. This is the challenge facing DIAMET, a project involving university groups from Manchester, Leeds, Reading, and East Anglia, together with the Met Office. DIAMET is part…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), often state that weather conditions modulate their complaints. There have been a few studies concerning this issue, but the results appear to be contradictory. We tried to relate the subjective symptoms of pain,

  13. An Electronic Weather Vane for Field Science (United States)

    Burman, J.; Talbert, R.; Carlton, K.


    This paper details the construction of a weather vane for the measurement of wind direction in field situations. The purpose of its construction was to analyse how wind direction affected the attractiveness of an insect pheromone in a dynamic outdoor environment, where wind could be a significant contributor to odour movement. The apparatus…

  14. Swarm Products and Space Weather Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Martini, Daniel

    The Swarm satellite constellation mission provides high precision magnetic field data and models and other observations that enable us to explore near Earth space for example in terms of in situ electron density and electric fields. On board GPS observables can be used for sounding ionospheric an...... in aeronomy and space weather. We will emphasize results from the Swarm mission....

  15. Space Weather Effects of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... This paper describes the space weather effects of a major CME which was accompanied by extremely violent events on the Sun. The signatures of the event in the interplanetary medium (IPM) sensed by Ooty Radio Telescope, the solar observations by LASCO coronagraph onboard SOHO, GOES X-ray ...

  16. Very Portable Remote Automatic Weather Stations (United States)

    John R. Warren


    Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) were introduced to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management field units in 1978 following development, test, and evaluation activities conducted jointly by the two agencies. The original configuration was designed for semi-permanent installation. Subsequently, a need for a more portable RAWS was expressed, and one was...

  17. Elevated temperature properties of weathering steel. (United States)


    In recent decades, bridge fires have become a major concern in the U.S. Fire hazard in bridges can result in significant economic and public losses. New construction of bridges often use Weathering Steel (also known as Corten Steel), whic...

  18. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie


    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  19. Weather to travel to the beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabir, M.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Rietveld, P.


    Weather conditions have a strong effect on certain leisure destinations choices causing extreme road and parking congestion. An important question is then to what extent travelers react to these forms of congestion by switching to other travel modes. Using information from a national travel survey

  20. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  1. Weathering of a liquid solar collector (United States)


    Commercially available flate plate hot water solar collector is characterized in report that presents 10 month weathering study of system. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted from measurements of fluid temperature and flow rate, ambient temperature and solar flux. Windspeed and wind direction were also measured during tests.

  2. Landslides and the weathering of granitic rocks (United States)

    Philip B. Durgin


    Abstract - Granitic batholiths around the Pacific Ocean basin provide examples of landslide types that characterize progressive stages of weathering. The stages include (1) fresh rock, (2) corestones, (3) decomposed granitoid, and (4) saprolite. Fresh granitoid is subject to rockfalls, rockslides, and block glides. They are all controlled by factors related to...

  3. Temperature stochastic modeling and weather derivatives pricing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... over a sufficient period to apply a stochastic process that describes the evolution of the temperature. A numerical example of a swap contract pricing is presented, using an approximation formula as well as Monte Carlo simulations. Keywords: Weather derivatives, temperature stochastic model, Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Weathering approaches to carbon dioxide sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    The aim of enhanced weathering is to capture CO2 by the carbonation of silicates, or by dissolution of these silicates during which the greenhouse gas CO2 is converted to bicarbonate in solution. Research in this field is still focused on increasing the rate of reaction, but the required

  5. Weather and the W.C. (United States)

    Mogil, H. Michael


    Types of weather phenomena that can be demonstrated in a home bathroom are discussed. For example, if the bathroom is small enough, warm, moist air can be seen accumulating in the upper part of the room after taking a hot shower. (Author/JN)

  6. The fate of chromium during tropical weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Frei, Robert


    We performed a mineral, geochemical and Cr–Sr–Pb isotope study on a laterite profile developed on ca. 540 Ma old tonalitic bedrock in Madagascar with special emphasis on the behavior of chromium during tropical weathering. The observed strong depletions of Ca, Si, and P, and enrichment of Fe and Al...

  7. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  8. Measuring fire weather and forest inflammability (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne


    In the measurement of fire weather and forest inflammability, now practiced regularly at more than 90 forest stations in northern Idaho and western Montana, it is necessary to use many methods that are peculiar to this work. Some of these methods are familiar to meteorologists, but few foresters have had any appreciable training in meteorology. Others are of such,...

  9. A New Perspective on Surface Weather Maps (United States)

    Meyer, Steve


    A two-dimensional weather map is actually a physical representation of three-dimensional atmospheric conditions at a specific point in time. Abstract thinking is required to visualize this two-dimensional image in three-dimensional form. But once that visualization is accomplished, many of the meteorological concepts and processes conveyed by the…

  10. Calcium isotopes in a proglacial weathering environment: Damma glacier, Switzerland (United States)

    Hindshaw, Ruth S.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Bourdon, Bernard


    Calcium is a key element in global biogeochemical cycles. It is an essential nutrient and the dissolution of Ca from silicate minerals is intimately linked to the global carbon cycle. Yet relatively few studies have utilized the potential of stable Ca isotopes to directly investigate (as opposed to using Sr isotopes) processes affecting Ca during initial weathering and subsequent cycling within the ecosystem. The Damma glacier fieldsite (Central Swiss Alps) provides an ideal opportunity to study the early stages of silicate weathering processes and is the site of a larger multidisciplinary research project (BigLink). The catchment is underlain by Central Aar granite, which does not contain detectable carbonates. The Damma is a small, glacial catchment (10.7 km2) where the glacier has retreatred since 1850 creating a 1.5 km long chronosequence which spans approximately 150 years of soil development and exhibits a strong vegetation gradient along its length. In order to investigate the biogeochemical Ca cycle in the forefield, extensive sampling of the main reservoirs of Ca was undertaken. Soil samples from two different depths (0-5 and 5-10 cm) were collected at 23 randomly selected sites across the forefield in addition to six bulk rock samples. To further investigate potential fractionation between different soil pools, sequential extractions were performed. Stream water was collected at three different locations in the forefield on a biweekly basis throughout the sampling season, in addition to precipitation (snow and rain) and porewater samples. To investigate the effect of biological cycling on Ca, leaves from Rhododendron ferrugineum were also analysed. Analyses of all samples were performed using a Triton TIMS with a 43Ca-46Ca double spike, after a 4-step chromatographic separation procedure. During this very early stage of weathering, the young soils which have formed were isotopically identical in δ44-42Ca to the rock from which they were derived

  11. Receivers Gather Data for Climate, Weather Prediction (United States)


    Signals from global positioning system (GPS) satellites are now being used for more than just location and navigation information. By looking at the radio waves from GPS satellites, a technology developed at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) not only precisely calculates its position, but can also use a technique known as radio occultation to help scientists study the Earth s atmosphere and gravity field to improve weather forecasts, monitor climate change, and enhance space weather research. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), a nonprofit group of universities in Boulder, Colorado, compares radio occultation to the appearance of a pencil when viewed though a glass of water. The water molecules change the path of visible light waves so that the pencil appears bent, just like molecules in the air bend GPS radio signals as they pass through (or are occulted by) the atmosphere. Through measurements of the amount of bending in the signals, scientists can construct detailed images of the ionosphere (the energetic upper part of the atmosphere) and also gather information about atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and moisture. Once collected, this data can be input into weather forecasting and climate models for weather prediction and climate studies. Traditionally, such information is obtained through the use of weather balloons. In 1998, JPL started developing a new class of GPS space science receivers, called Black Jack, that could take precise measurements of how GPS signals are distorted or delayed along their way to the receiver. By 2006, the first demonstration of a GPS radio occultation constellation was launched through a collaboration among Taiwan s National Science Council and National Space Organization, the U.S. National Science Foundation, NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and other Federal entities. Called the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAZSI


    Full Text Available Living organisms are sensitive to the changes of weather. Our study is carried out on effects of weather changes on children’s behaviour in 29 kindergarten groups in Eger. The kindergarten nurces were asked to characterise the behaviour of the children group every day during three month, from March 2011 to May 2011. Marks from 1 to 5 were defined, giving 3 to average behaviour, 2 and 4 to worse and to better than average one. Marks 1 and 5 were retained for extremely good or bad behaviour of the group on the given day. The components evaluated separately were as follows: i- Playing, array or disarray: How do they play? Do they keep the array, or make chaos? ii- Sleeping: Normally, children of this age sleep for a few hours after lunch, but sometimes they do not want to do so. We looked after how it depends on the actual weather. iii- Aggression: Sometimes, some children are more aggressive than the others, but on other days these children do not show aggressive attitude. Was this the case on the given day? iv- Activity: How were children motivated for activities on the given day? In order to compare these marks, provided by the kindergarten groups, with weather and its changes, front analysis was performed every day, based on temperature data at the 925 hPa and 850 hPa levels. Besides that, surface observations of temperature, sunshine, humidity were also incorporated into the search for weather relatedness of the children’s behaviour.

  13. Extreme Weather and Climate: Workshop Report (United States)

    Sobel, Adam; Camargo, Suzana; Debucquoy, Wim; Deodatis, George; Gerrard, Michael; Hall, Timothy; Hallman, Robert; Keenan, Jesse; Lall, Upmanu; Levy, Marc; hide


    Extreme events are the aspects of climate to which human society is most sensitive. Due to both their severity and their rarity, extreme events can challenge the capacity of physical, social, economic and political infrastructures, turning natural events into human disasters. Yet, because they are low frequency events, the science of extreme events is very challenging. Among the challenges is the difficulty of connecting extreme events to longer-term, large-scale variability and trends in the climate system, including anthropogenic climate change. How can we best quantify the risks posed by extreme weather events, both in the current climate and in the warmer and different climates to come? How can we better predict them? What can we do to reduce the harm done by such events? In response to these questions, the Initiative on Extreme Weather and Climate has been created at Columbia University in New York City (extreme This Initiative is a University-wide activity focused on understanding the risks to human life, property, infrastructure, communities, institutions, ecosystems, and landscapes from extreme weather events, both in the present and future climates, and on developing solutions to mitigate those risks. In May 2015,the Initiative held its first science workshop, entitled Extreme Weather and Climate: Hazards, Impacts, Actions. The purpose of the workshop was to define the scope of the Initiative and tremendously broad intellectual footprint of the topic indicated by the titles of the presentations (see Table 1). The intent of the workshop was to stimulate thought across disciplinary lines by juxtaposing talks whose subjects differed dramatically. Each session concluded with question and answer panel sessions. Approximately, 150 people were in attendance throughout the day. Below is a brief synopsis of each presentation. The synopses collectively reflect the variety and richness of the emerging extreme event research agenda.

  14. Subarctic physicochemical weathering of serpentinized peridotite (United States)

    Ulven, O. I.; Beinlich, A.; Hövelmann, J.; Austrheim, H.; Jamtveit, B.


    Frost weathering is effective in arctic and subarctic climate zones where chemical reactions are limited by the reduced availability of liquid water and the prevailing low temperature. However, small scale mineral dissolution reactions are nevertheless important for the generation of porosity by allowing infiltration of surface water with subsequent fracturing due to growth of ice and carbonate minerals. Here we combine textural and mineralogical observations in natural samples of partly serpentinized ultramafic rocks with a discrete element model describing the fracture mechanics of a solid when subject to pressure from the growth of ice and carbonate minerals in surface-near fractures. The mechanical model is coupled with a reaction-diffusion model that describes an initial stage of brucite dissolution as observed during weathering of serpentinized harzburgites and dunites from the Feragen Ultramafic Body (FUB), SE-Norway. Olivine and serpentine are effectively inert at relevant conditions and time scales, whereas brucite dissolution produces well-defined cm to dm thick weathering rinds with elevated porosity that allows influx of water. Brucite dissolution also increases the water saturation state with respect to hydrous Mg carbonate minerals, which are commonly found as infill in fractures in the fresh rock. This suggests that fracture propagation is at least partly driven by carbonate precipitation. Dissolution of secondary carbonate minerals during favorable climatic conditions provides open space available for ice crystallization that drives fracturing during winter. Our model reproduces the observed cm-scale meandering fractures that propagate into the fresh part of the rock, as well as dm-scale fractures that initiate the breakup of larger domains. Rock disintegration increases the reactive surface area and hence the rate of chemical weathering, enhances transport of dissolved and particulate matter in the weathering fluid, and facilitates CO2 uptake by

  15. Development of a Space Weather forecast service (United States)

    Kirsch, Peter; Isles, John; Burge, Christina


    Space weather describes changes in the near-Earth space environment, it includes the monitoring of magnetic fields, plasma, radiation and other matter. Ejections of plasma from the Sun and magnetic storms at the Earth can increase the number of high energy particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic field; these events can present risks and hazards to space-borne instrumentation and personnel. Improved knowledge of space weather processes acquired through monitoring via both satellite and ground based instruments and related collaborative research projects (European Union Framework 7 - SPACECAST) has allowed the further development of forecasting models such as the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Radiation Belt model. A system is being developed which enables real-time access to a space weather forecast service. This service will provide a 3-hourly forward look, updated hourly. To enable this forecast, systems are in place to gather, in real-time, ancillary data required for input into the BAS model, in particular data from the GOES satellite instruments. Auxiliary information from other satellites (e.g. ACE) and ground based magnetometers are also gathered and presented to assist in the interpretation of current space weather activity. BAS is working in collaboration with satellite operators and other interested parties to provide an interface which will inform them, in a timely fashion, of events that may require mitigating action to prevent possible extensive (and costly) effects to, for example, communication services. Data can be obtained via a web service, or viewed directly via a browser interface. In addition, it is anticipated that a post-event analysis suite be available, enabling the more detailed view of recent and past events and the possibility of running the model to "replay" periods of space weather history.

  16. What will be the weather like tomorrow? (United States)

    Christelle, Guilloux


    Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

  17. Impact of weather variability on nitrate leaching (United States)

    Richards, Karl; Premrov, Alina; Hackett, Richard; Coxon, Catherine


    The loss of nitrate (NO3 - N) to water via leaching and overland flow contributes to eutrophication of freshwaters, transitional and near coastal waters with agriculture contributing significantly to nitrogen (N) loading to these water. Environmental regulations, such as the Nitrates and Water Framework Directives, have increased constraints on farmers to improve N management in regions at risk of NO3--N loss to water. In addition, farmers also have to manage their systems within a changing climate as the imapcts of climate change begin to impact resulting in more frequent extreme events such as floods and droughts. The objective of this study was to investigate the link between weather volatility and the concentration of leached NO3--N spring barley. Leaching was quantified under spring barley grown on a well-drained, gravelly sandy soil using ceramic cup samplers over 6 drainage years under the same farming practices and treatments. Soil solution NO3--N concentrations under spring barley grown by conventional inversion ploughing and reduced tillage were compared to weather parameters over the period. Weather was recorded at a national Met Eireann weather station on site. Soil solution NO3--N varied significantly between years. Within individual years NO3--N concentrations varied over the drainage season, with peak concentrations generally observed in the autumn time, decreasing thereafter. Under both treatments there was a three-fold difference in mean annual soil solution NO3--N concentration over the 6 years with no change in the agronomic practices (crop type, tillage type and fertiliser input). Soil solution nitrate concentrations were significantly influenced by weather parameters such as rainfall, effective drainage and soil moisture deficit. The impact of climate change in Ireland could lead to increased NO3--N loss to water further exacerbating eutrophication of sensitive estuaries. The increased impact on eutrophication of waters, related to climatic

  18. Longing for Clouds - Does Beautiful Weather have to be Fine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu


    Full Text Available Any attempt to outline a meteorological aesthetics centered on so-called beautiful weather has to overcome several difficulties: In everyday life, the appreciation of the weather is mostly related to practical interests or reduced to the ideal of stereotypical fine weather that is conceived according to blue-sky thinking irrespective of climate diversity. Also, an aesthetics of fine weather seems, strictly speaking, to be impossible given that such weather conditions usually allow humans to focus on aspects other than weather, which contradicts the autotelic character of beauty. The unreflective equation of beautiful weather with moderately sunny weather and a cloudless sky also collides with the psychological need for variation: even living in a “paradisal” climate would be condemned to end in monotony. Finally, whereas fine weather is related in modern realistic literature to cosmic harmony and a universal natural order, contemporary literary examples show that in the age of the climate change, fine weather may be deceitful and its passive contemplation, irresponsible. This implies the necessity of a reflective aesthetic attitude on weather, as influenced by art, literature, and science, which discovers the poetics of bad weather and the wonder that underlies average weather conditions.

  19. The road weather bulletin #2 : road weather management publications and training materials. (United States)


    This flyer summarizes recent documents and training materials : concerning road weather management and surface transportation published since June 2011. It includes reports, flyers, pamphlets, and training courses to show the progress made in the : m...

  20. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.


    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.